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Class Exercise 4 – Analysis of Closed System

1. A gas in a piston-cylinder assembly at an initial pressure of 150 kPa undergoes a


thermodynamic cycle consisting of the following processes:
Process 1-2: constant volume heat addition of 235 kJ/kg.
Process 2-3: adiabatic expansion back to the initial pressure with changes of
internal energy of -70 kJ/kg.
Process 3-1: constant pressure compression back to the initial volume with heat
removal of 200 kJ/kg.
a. Show the processes on a P-v diagram with appropriate labels.
b. Evaluate the energy balance during each processes.
c. Determine the total work of the cycle.
(1U2 = +235 kJ/kg, 2W3 = +70 kJ/kg, 3W1= -35 kJ/kg, Wtotal = +35 kJ/kg)

2. a. Steam at a pressure of 100 kPa and a quality of 50% initially fills a rigid
vessel having a volume of 0.5 m3. The steam is then heated, causing the
pressure in the vessel to rise to 150 kPa. Determine:
i. The mass of the steam in the vessel.
ii. The temperature and quality of the steam after the heating process.
iii. The mass of the vapour, mg and liquid, mf in the vessel after the
heating process.

b. If the steam in the vessel is now further heated, what would the pressure and
temperature in the vessel be when all steam has turned into saturated
vapour?

c. Sketch the processes in part (a) and part (b) on P-v and T-v diagrams,
indicating clearly the temperatures, pressures and the paths.
(0.59kg, 111.4oC, 73%, 0.4307kg, 0.1593kg, 2.11bar, 121.84oC)

3. 1 kg of water contained in a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes two processes in


series from an initial state where the pressure is 3.0 bar and the temperature is
150ºC.
Process 1-2: The water is compressed isothermally to a volume of 0.25 m3 with 120
kJ of work being done.
Process 2-3: The water is heated at constant volume to a final pressure of 10 bar.
a. Find the change in internal energy for the system.
b. Calculate the amount of heat transferred, in kJ.
c. Sketch both processes on a T-v diagram.
(196.33 kJ/kg, 76.33 kJ)
Class Exercise 4 – Analysis of Closed System

4. A piston cylinder device, containing 0.5 kg of gas undergoes a constant pressure


process at 4 bar, beginning at initial specific volume, v1 = 0.8 m3/kg. The work done
during the process is –100 kJ. Determine the final volume of the gas, in m3.
(0.15 m3)

5. A piston-cylinder assembly contains 0.15 kg of air at a temperature of 350C and a


pressure of 2 MPa, undergoes three reversible processes in series.
Process 1-2: The air is expanded isothermally until the pressure is 500 kPa
Process 2-3: The air is compressed polytropically with a polytropic index of 1.2 back
to 2MPa.
Process 3-1: The air is compressed at constant pressure to the initial state.
Given for air: R = 0.287 kJ/kgK.
a. Sketch the processes on a P-V diagram.
b. Determine:
i. The volume of air in the system at the initial state and at the end of
each process.
ii. The boundary work at the end of each process.
(0.0134 m3, 1W2 = 37.15 kJ, 2W3 = -35 kJ, 3W1 = -7 kJ)

6. Refrigerant-134a of mass 1 kg undergoes two processes in series in a piston-cylinder


assembly. At the initial state, the refrigerant is saturated vapour at a pressure of 25
bar.
Process 1-2: Isothermal compression until all the mixture becomes saturated liquid.
Process 2-3: The refrigerant is cooled at constant volume to a pressure of 18 bar.

a. Sketch the processes on P-v and T-v diagrams, indicating clearly the path
and direction of the processes.
b. Determine:
i. The specific volume and specific internal energy of the refrigerant at
the end of the isothermal process.
ii. The state of the refrigerant at the end of the constant volume process.
iv. The work done in each process, in kJ.
v. The heat transfer in each process, in kJ.

(0.0010566 m3/kg, 166.99 kJ/kg, 0.966 %, -14.699 kJ, 0 kJ, -111.159 kJ, -23.52 kJ)
Class Exercise 4 – Analysis of Closed System

7. A vessel contains 1 kg of steam at 8 bar and has an enthalpy of 2600 kJ/kg. The
steam is heated reversibly at constant pressure until the temperature is 250oC.

a. Determine the temperature and quality of the steam at the initial state.
b. Find the work done during the process.
c. Calculate the heat supplied to the steam using the energy balance equation.
(170.4oC, 91.74%, 58.06 kJ/kg, 350.51 kJ/kg)

8. Air in a piston-cylinder device is initially at 300 K and 100 kPa undergoes a


thermodynamic cycle consisting of three processes.

Process 1 – 2: Constant volume heat addition until the pressure is 200 kPa.
Process 2 – 3: Constant temperature expansion to a pressure of 100 kPa.
Process 3 – 1: Constant pressure compression back to the initial volume.

Use Table F20 of the Engineering Data & Formulae booklet and assume air as ideal
gas.
a. Sketch the processes on a P-V diagram.
b. Determine the temperature at state 2.
c. Find the specific volume at state 3.
d. Calculate the work during each process.
e. Calculate the heat transfer during each process.
f. Find the net heat and net work of the cycle.
(600 K, 1.722 m3/kg, 0, 119.36 kJ/kg, -86.1 kJ/kg, 215.4 kJ/kg, 119.36 kJ/kg,
-301.5 kJ/kg, 33.26 kJ/kg, 33.26 kJ/kg)

9. A well insulated piston-cylinder assembly contains 0.5 kg of air initially at a pressure


of 300 kPa and a temperature of 75oC. The air temperature is increased to a
temperature of 150oC by an electric resistance heating element inside the cylinder at
constant pressure.
a. Sketch the process on a P-v and T-v diagrams.
b. Determine the total change in internal energy of the air.
c. Calculate the work done by the system during the process.
d. Find the amount of heat supplied by the heating element.

(26.925 kJ, 10.76 kJ, 37.687 kJ)