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For a silicon diode, the value of the forward bias voltage typically
(a) must be greater than 0.3 V
(b) must be greater than 0.7 V
(c) depends on the width of the depletion region
(d) depends on the concentration of majority carriers.

2. When forward biased, a diode

(a) blocks current
(b) conducts current
(c) has a high resistance
(d) drops a large voltage

3. The term bias means

(a) the ratio of majority carriers to minority carriers
(b) the amount of current across the P-N junction
(c) a dc voltage applied across the P-N junction to control its operation
(d) none of the above

4. To forward-bias a P-N junction, diode,

(a) an external voltage is applied that is positive at the anode and negative at the
(b) an external voltage is applied that is negative at the anode and positive at the
(c) an external voltage is applied that is positive at the P-region and negative at the
(d) a and c above

5. When a P-N junction is forward-biased

(a) the only current is the hole current
(b) the only current is the electron current
(c) the only current is produced by majority carriers
(d) the current is produced by both holes and electrons.

6. A P-N junction diode's dynamic conductance is directly proportional to

(a) the applied voltage
(b) the temperature
(c) the current
(d) the thermal voltage
(Hint: Conductance is reciprocal of the resistance)

8. The diffusion capacitance of a forward biased P+ N (P+ indicates heavily doped P-

region) junction diode with a steady current I depends on
(a) width of the depletion region
(b) mean life-time of holes
(c) mean life-time of electrons
(d) junction-area
9. The width of depletion layer of a P-N junction
(a) decreases with light doping
(b) increases with heavy doping
(c) is independent of applied voltage
(d) is increased under reverse bias.

10. At room temperature of 25°C, the barrier potential for silicon is 0.7 V. Its value at
125°C is................. volt.
(a) 0.5
(b) 0.3
(c) 0.9
(d) 0.7.

11. Junction breakdown occurs

(a) under high temperature condition
(b) with forward bias
(c) under reverse bias
(d) because of manufacturing defect.

12. Avalanche breakdown is primarily dependent on the phenomenon of

(a) collision
(b) doping
(c) ionization
(d) recombination.

13. Reverse current in a silicon junction nearly doubles for every........... °C rise in
(a) 10
(b) 2
(c) 6
(d) 5.

1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (c) 7. (c)8. (c) 9. (d) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (c) 14.
(d)15. (b) 16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. (d) 20. (b) 21. (b)
1. LEDs are commonly fabricated from gallium compounds like gallium arsenide and
gallium phosphide because they
(a) are cheap
(b) are easily available
(c) emit more heat
(d) emit more light.

2. A LED is basically a ................... P-N junction.

(a) forward-biased
(b) reverse-biased
(c) lightly-doped
(d) heavily-doped.

3. As compared to a LED display, the distinct advantage of an LCD display is that it

(a) no illumination
(b) extremely low power
(c) no forward-bias
(d) a solid crystal

4. Before illuminating a P-N junction photodiode, it has to be

(a) reverse-biased
(b) forward-biased
(c) switched ON
(d) switched OFF.

5. In a photoconductive cell, the resistance of the semiconductor material varies

............. with the intensity of incident light.
(a) directly
(b) inversely
(c) exponentially
(d) logarithmically.

6. A photoconductive cell is known as .................cell.

(a) phototransistor
(b) photoresistor
(c) photovoltaic
(d) both (a) and (b).

7. A phototransistor excels a photodiode in the matter of

(a) faster switching
(b) greater sensitivity
(c) higher current capacity
8. A photodarlington comprises of
(a) a phototransistor
(b) a transistor
(c) a photodiode
(d) both (a) and (b).

9. A solar cell operates on the principle of

(a) diffusion
(b) recombination
(c) photo voltaic action
(d) carrier flow.

10. Solar cells are used as source of power in earth satellites because they have
(a) very high efficiency
(b) unlimited life
(c) higher power capacity per weight

11. The device possessing the highest sensitivity is a

(a) photo conductive cell
(b) photovoltaic cell
(c) photodiode
(d) phototransistor

12. The unique characteristics of LASER light are that it is

(a) coherent
(b) monochromatic
(c) collimated
(d) all of the above

13. The LASER operates like a

(a) latch
(b) LED
(c) photodiode
(d) phototransistor.

14. Optical couplers are designed to ............. one circuit from another.
(a) control
(b) isolate
(c) disconnect
(d) protect.

15. The main purpose of using optical isolators is to provide protection to devices
(a) high-voltage transients
(b) surge voltages
(c) low-level noise
(d) all of the above.
16. A LED emits visible light when its ..............
(a) P-N junction is reverse-biased
(b) depletion region widens
(c) holes and electrons recombine
(d) P-N junction becomes hot.

17. In LED, light is emitted because

(a) recombination of charge carriers takes place
(b) diode gets heated up
(c) light falling on the diode gets amplified
(d) light gets reflected due to lens action.

18. Gas, LEDs emit radiation in the

(a) ultraviolet region
(b) violet-blue green range of the visible region
(c) visible region
(d) infra-red region

19. Phototransistors respond much like a conventional transistor except that, in their
case, light energy is used to .........
(a) alter leakage current
(b) change base voltage
(c) switch it ON
(d) alter emitter current

1. (d) 2. (a) 3. b 4. (a) 5. (b) 6. (d) 7. (e) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (d) 11. (d) 12. (d)13. (a) 14.
(b) 15. (d) 16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (d) 19. (c)
1. The main job of a voltage regulator is to provide a nearly—output voltage.
(a) sinusoidal
(b) constant
(c) smooth
(d) fluctuating.

3. An ideal voltage regulator has a voltage regulation of

(a) 1
(b) 100
(c) 50
(d) 0.

4. In a Zener diode shunt voltage regulator, the diode regulates so long as it is kept in
............. condition.
(a) forward
(b) reverse
(c) loaded
(d) unloaded

6. A transistor series voltage regulator is called emitter- follower regulator because

the emitter of the pass transistor follows the ...................voltage.
(a) output
(b) input
(c) base
(d) collector

7. In an op-amp series voltage regulator, output voltage depends on

(a) Zener voltage
(b) voltage divider resistors
(c) output voltage

8. In a feedback series regulator circuit, the output voltage is regulated by controlling

(a) magnitude of input voltage
(b) gain of the feedback transistor
(c) reference voltage
(d) voltage drop across the series pass transistor

9. An op-amp shunt regulator differs from the series regulator in the sense that its
control element is connected in
(a) series with line resistor
(b) parallel with line resistor
(c) parallel with load resistor
(d) parallel with input voltage.
10. A switching voltage regulator can be of the following type:
(a) step-down (b) step-up
(c) inverting (d) all of the above

11. In an inverting type switching regulator, output voltage is .................. input

(a) lesser than
(b) greater than
(c) equal to
(d) opposite to.

12. The output voltage of a step-down type switching voltage regulator depends on
(a) input voltage
(b) duty cycle
(c) transistor on-time
(d) all of the above.

13. As compared to voltage regulators made up of discrete components, IC regulators

have the inherent advantage/s of
(a) self-protection against over-temperature
(b) remote control
(c) current limiting
(d) all of the above

15. A three terminal monolithic IC regulator can be used as

(a) an adjustable output voltage regulator alone
(b) an adjustable output voltage regulator and a current regulator
(c) a current regulator and a power switch
(d) a current regulator alone

1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (c) 7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (a) 10. (d) 11. (d) 12. (d)13. (d)
14. (d) 15. (d).
1. The emitter of a transistor is generally doped the heaviest because it
(a) has to dissipate maximum power
(b) has to supply the charge carriers
(c) is the first region of the transistor
(d) must possess low resistance.

2. For current working of an NPN bipolar junction transistor, the different electrodes
should have the following polarities with respect to emitter.
(a) collector +ve, base –ve
(b) collector –ve, base + ve
(c) collector – ve, base –ve
(d) collector + ve, base +ve

3. Select the CORRECT alternative. In a bipolar transistor

(a) emitter region is of low/high resistivity material which is lightly/ heavily-doped.
(b) collector region is of lower/higher conductivity than emitter region
(c) base region is of high/low resistivity material which is only lightly/ heavily

4. In a properly-biased NPN transistor, most of the electrons from the emitter

(a) recombine with holes in the base
(b) recombine in the emitter itself
(c) pass through the base to the collector
(d) are stopped by the junction barrier.

7. In a junction transistor, the collector cut off current ICBO reduces considerably by
doping the
(a) emitter with high level of impurity
(b) emitter with low level of impurity
(c) collector with high level of impurity
(d) collector with low level of impurity

8. In a transistor amplifier, the reverse saturation current ICO

(a) doubles for every 10°C rise in temperature
(b) doubles for every 1°C rise in temperature
(c) increases linearly with the temperature
(d) doubles for every 5°C rise in temperature

9. In the case of a bipolar transistor, is

(a) positive and > 1
(b) positive and < 1
(c) negative and > 1
(d) negative and < 1.
10. The EBJ of a given transistor is forward- biased and its CBJ reverse-biased. If the
base current is increased, then its
(a) IC will decrease
(b) VCE will increase
(c) IC will increase
(d) VCC will increase.

11. The collector characteristics of a CE - connected

transistor may be used to find its
(a) input resistance
(b) base current
(c) output resistance
(d) voltage gain.

13. When a transistor is fully switched ON, it is said to be

(a) shorted
(b) saturated
(c) open
(d) cut-off

14. If a change in base current does not change the collector current, the transistor
amplifier is said to be
(a) saturated (b) cut-off
(c) critical (d) complemented.

15. When an NPN transistor is saturated, its VCE

(a) is zero and IC is zero
(b) is low and IC is high
(c) equals VCC and IC is zero
(d) equals VCC and IC is high.

16. When an NPN transistor is cut-off, its VCC

(a) equals VCC and IC is high
(b) equals VCC and IC is zero
(c) is low and IC is high
(d) is high and IC is low.

17. If, in a bipolar junction transistor, IB = 100 A and IC = 10 mA, in what range
does the value of its beta lie?
(a) 0.1 to 1.0
(b) 1.01 to 10
(c) 10.1 to 100
(d) 100.1 to 1000.
18. In a BJT, largest current flow occurs
(a) in the emitter
(b) in the collector
(c) in the base
(d) through CB junction.

19. In a properly-connected BJT, an increase in base

current causes increase in
(a) IC only
(b) IE only
(c) both IC and IE
(d) leakage current.

25. A transistor is operated as a non-saturated switch to eliminate

(a) storage time
(b) turn-off time
(c) turn-on time
(d) delay time

26. Early-effect in BJT refers to

(a) avalanche break down
(b) thermal break down
(c) base narrowing
(d) Zener break-down
(Hint. Early effect also called base-width modulation) is the variation of effective
base width by the collector voltage)

27. A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is used as power control switch by biasing it in
the cut-off region (OFF state) or in the saturation region (ON state). In the ON state,
for the BJT.
(a) both the base-emitter junction and base collector junctions are reverse biased
(b) the base-emitter is reverse biased, and the base-collector junction is forward
(c) the base-emitter junction is forward biased, and the base-collector junction is
reverse biased
(d) both the base-emitter and base-collector junctions are forward biased.

1. (a) 2. (d) 3. (a) low, heavily (b) lower (c) high, lightly 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (d)
8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (b) 16. (b) 17. (b) 18. (a)
19. (c) 20. (b) 21. (c) 22. (d) 23. (d) 24. (b) 25. (a) 26. (c) 27. (d)
1. An OP-AMP can be classified as ............. amplifier.
(a) linear
(b) low-rin
(c) positive feedback
(d) RC-coupled.

2. An ideal OP-AMP has

(a) infinite Aν
(b) infinite Ri
(c) zero R0
(d) all the above.

3. OP-AMP have become very popular in industry mainly because

(a) they are dirt cheap
(b) their external characteristics can be changed to suit any application
(c) of their extremely small size
(d) they are available in different packages.

4. Since input resistance of an ideal OP-AMP is infinite

(a) its output resistance is zero
(b) its output voltage becomes independent of load resistance
(c) its input current is zero
(d) it becomes a current-controlled device.

5. The gain of an actual OP-AMP is around

(a) 1,000,000
(b) 1000
(c) 100
(d) 10,000

8. In an inverting amplifier, the two input terminals of an ideal OP-AMP are at the
same potential because
(a) the two input terminals are directly shorted internally
(b) the input impedance of the OP-AMP is infinity
(c) common-mode rejection ratio is infinity
(d) the open-loop gain of the OP-AMP is infinity.

13. The two input terminals of an OP-AMP are known as

(a) positive and negative
(b) differential and non-differential
(c) inverting and non-inverting
(d) high and low.

14. The purpose of comparator is to

(a) amplify an input voltage
(b) detect the occurrence of a changing input voltage
(c) maintain a constant output when the dc input voltage changes.
(d) produce a change in input voltage when an input voltage equals the reference

15. The OP-AMP comparator circuit uses

(a) positive feedback
(b) negative Feedback
(c) regenerative feedback
(d) no feedback

16. The feedback path in an OP-AMP integrator consists of

(a) a resistor
(b) a capacitor
(c) a resistor and a capacitor in series
(d) a resistor and a capacitor in parallel.

17. The feedback path in an OP-AMP differentiator consists of

(a) a resistor
(b) a capacitor
(c) a resistor and a capacitor in series
(d) a resistor and a capacitor in parallel.

1. (a) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (d) 13. (c)
14. (d) 15. (d) 16. (b) 17. (a)
1. Silicon is preferred for manufacturing Zener diodes because it
(a) is relatively cheap
(b) needs lower doping level
(c) has higher temperature and current capacity
(d) has lower break-down voltage.

2. When used in a circuit, a Zener diode is always

(a) forward-biased
(b) connected in series
(c) troubled by overheating
(d) reverse-biased.

3. The main reason why electrons can tunnel through a P-N junction is that
(a) they have high energy
(b) barrier potential is very low
(c) depletion layer is extremely thin
(d) impurity level is low.

4. The IP/IV ratio of a tunnel diode is of primary importance in

(a) determining tunnelling speed of electrons
(b) the design of an oscillator
(c) amplifier designing
(d) computer applications.

5. Mark the INCORRECT statement. A varactor diode

(a) has variable capacitance
(b) utilizes transition capacitance of a junction
(c) has always a uniform doping profile
(d) is often used as an automatic frequency control device.

6. The microwave device used as an oscillator within the frequency range 10-1000
GHz is............................. diode.
(a) Schottky
(c) Gunn
(d) Step Recovery.

7. A PIN diode is frequently used as a

(a) peak clipper
(b) voltage regulator
(c) harmonic generator
(d) switching diode for frequencies upto GHz range.

8. Mark the WRONG statement. A Schottky diode

(a) has no depletion layer
(b) has metal-semiconductor junction
(c) has fast recovery time
(d) is a bipolar device
(e) is also called hot-carrier diode
(f) can easily rectify high-frequency

9. A special purpose diode which uses metals like gold, silver or platinum on one side
of the junction, n-type doped silicon on another side and has almost no charge storage
in the junction, is a
(a) Schottky diode
(b) tunnel diode
(c) varactor diode
(d) Zener diode

10. A step-recovery diode

(a) has an extremely short recovery time
(b) conducts equally well in both directions
(c) is mainly used a harmonic generator
(d) is an ideal rectifier of high-frequency

11. A semiconductor device that resembles a voltage variable capacitor is called

(a) tunnel
(b) PIN
(c) Schottky
(d) varactor

12. A diode that has no depletion layers and operates with hot carriers is called ......
(a) Schottky
(b) Gunn
(c) step recovery
(d) PIN

13. In switching devices, gold doping is used to

(a) improve bonding
(b) reduce storage time
(c) increase the mobility of the carrier
(d) protect the terminals against corrosion

14. When the reverse bias voltage of a varactor diode increases, its
(a) capacitance decreases
(b) leakage current decreases
(c) negative resistance increases
(d) depletion zone decreases.
15. Which of the following are negative resistance microwave diodes oscillator
(a) Gunn
(c) step recovery
(d) both (a) and (b)
(e) both (b) and (c).

16. A negative-resistance microwave diode having a thin slice of a semiconductor

material sandwiched between two metal conductors is called ............... diode.
(a) Schottky
(b) PIN
(c) Gunn
(d) varactor.

17. Zener diodes are used primarily as

(a) rectifiers
(b) voltage regulators
(c) oscillators
(d) amplifiers.
18. The diode which is often used for voltage regulation in electronic circuits is
called ......diode
(a) Zener (b) varactor
(c) silicon (d) germanium.

19. Avalanche photodiodes are preferred over PIN diodes in optical communication
systems because of
(a) speed of operation
(b) higher sensitivity
(c) larger bandwidth
(d) larger power handling capacity

1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (a) 10. (c)
11. (d) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (d) 16. (b) 17. (b) 18. (a) 19. (a) 20. (c)