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Department of Chemical Engineering

School of Engineering and Architecture


Saint Louis University

LABORATORY REPORT EVALUATION SHEET

Laboratory Course: Organic Chemistry (CHEM 2121L) Schedule: 01:30 - 04:30 MW


Experimental Number: 1

Experiment Title: Inorganic and Organic Compounds


Group Number: 5

Group Members: Mutia, Jerico Date Performed: Aug. 07, 2019


Pelayo, Jonh Vincent Date Submitted: Sept. 26, 2019
Resurreccion, Jose Bill
Rosendo, Rocel
Niduaza, Marife
Pardilla, Shaina
Regacho, Anjanette

TOTAL
CONTENTS REMARKS SCORE
POINTS

I. OBJECTIVE 5

II. THEORETICAL
15
BACKGROUND
III. MATERIALS:
A. DRAWING/
ILLUSTRATION OF
10
SET-UP
B. CLASSIFICATION
AND USES
IV. METHODOLOGY/
10
PROCEDURE

V. DATA AND RESULTS 15

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VI. ANALYSIS OF
15
RESULTS
VII. CONCLUSION AND
10
RECOMMENDATION
VIII. APPENDICES:
A. DEFINITION OF
TERMS
B. DOCUMENTATION 10
C. COMPUTATION
D. ANSWERS TO
QUESTIONS
IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY/
5
REFERENCES
X. FORMAT AND
5
NEATNESS

TOTAL POINTS: 100 SCORE:


Evaluated by: Engr. Vera Lee Mendoza Date: Sept. 26, 2019

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I. Problem Statement/Objective
This laboratory report seeks to:
• Expound the applications and theories of organic and inorganic
chemistry;
• Give insights by citing researches that contribute to the understanding
of the study and practice of organic and inorganic chemistry in
laboratories; and
• Examine the major differences between Organic and Inorganic
Chemistry through keen observations of their physical and chemical
properties.
II. Discussion/Theoretical Background
Chemistry, a branch of science that deals with the identification of
substances of which matter is composed; the investigation of their properties
and how they interact, combine, and change; and the use of these processes to
form new substances. It plays an integral part in the understanding of quantum
physics through its laws and postulates up to the prediction and study of
biological processes that undergo inside an organism.
Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals mainly with
compounds that contain carbon and its derivative. Though there are some
exceptions such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, the field of Organic
Chemistry studies the ways how carbon-containing compounds are formed,
how it reacts, and how is it the way it is. Organic chemistry is the scientific
study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of
organic compounds that by definition, contain carbon.
On the other hand, inorganic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals
mainly with inorganic compounds- compounds that do not contain carbon by
nature. Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic
and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds
except the myriad organic compounds (carbon-based compounds, usually
containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry.

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Extensive resources and a lot of how the world functions are mostly credited
through scientific researches that highlight the practice and the theorizing based
on the laws of organic and inorganic chemistry.
The practice and study of organic chemistry are important because it is the
study of life and all of the chemical reactions related to life. Several careers
apply an understanding of organic chemistry, such as doctors, veterinarians,
dentists, pharmacologists, chemical engineers, and chemists. Organic chemistry
plays a part in the development of common household chemicals, foods,
plastics, drugs, and fuels most of the chemicals part of daily life.
In research conducted by Pan, B.Y. & Xing, B. (2008) in the effort to
explore and understand carbon nanotubes, they stated and established the
adsorption mechanisms of organic chemicals on CNTs. In their study, it
establishes that adsorption heterogeneity and hysteresis are two widely
recognized features of organic chemical-carbon nanotube interactions. Carbon
nanotubes have drawn special research attention because of their unique
properties and potential applications. However, because different mechanisms
may act simultaneously, mainly hydrophobic interactions, pi-pi bonds,
electrostatic interactions, and hydrogen bonds, the prediction of organic
chemical adsorption on CNTs is not straightforward. The dominant adsorption
mechanism is different for different types of organic chemicals (such as polar
and nonpolar), thus different models may be needed to predict organic
chemical-CNT interaction. Adsorption mechanisms will be better understood
by investigating the effects of properties of both CNTs and organic chemicals
along with environmental conditions. Another major factor affecting adsorption
by CNTs is their suspendability, which also strongly affects their mobility,
exposure, and risk in the environment. Therefore, organic chemical-CNT
interactions as affected by CNT dispersion and suspending merit further
experimental research. Also, CNTs have potential applications in water
treatment due to their adsorption characteristics.

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On the other hand, in the field of medicine, studies conducted by Arun K.


Ghosh and Margherita Brindisi in a research entitled, “Organic Carbamates in
Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry,” it states that the carbamate group is a
key structural motif in many approved drugs and prodrugs. There is increasing
use of carbamates in medicinal chemistry, and many derivatives are specifically
designed to make drug–target interactions through their carbamate moiety. In
this perspective, they presented properties and stabilities of carbamates,
reagents and chemical methodologies for the synthesis of carbamates, and
recent applications of carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry.
Carbamate is an organic compound that is mainly used in households, gardens,
and agriculture. Carbamate-based pesticides are used extensively as an insect
killer and its efficiency can be compared to that of organophosphate pesticides.
In their study, they are trying to incorporate the uses of carbamate in innovating
the current state of medicine.
On the other hand, inorganic chemistry is as extensively applied in
researches as organic chemistry. Inorganic chemistry is used to study and
develop catalysts, coatings, fuels, surfactants, materials, superconductors, and
drugs. Important chemical reactions in inorganic chemistry include double
displacement reactions, acid-base reactions, and redox reactions.
In a study conducted by Ronconi, L., & Sadler, P.J. (2008), it explores the
applications of heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy in biological and medicinal
inorganic chemistry and how these applications can provide new insights in the
field of medicinal and biological chemistry. They provided that there is a wide
range of potential applications of inorganic compounds, and metal coordination
complexes in particular, in medicine but progress is hampered by a lack of
methods to study their speciation. The biological activity of metal complexes is
determined by the metal itself, its oxidation state, the types and number of
coordinated ligands and their strength of binding, the geometry of the complex,
redox potential and ligand exchange rates. For organic drugs a variety of readily
observed spin I = 1/2 nuclei can be used (1 H, 13 C, 15 N, 19 F, 31 P), but only

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a few metals fall into this category. Most are quadrupolar nuclei giving rise to
broad lines with low detection sensitivity (for biological systems).
On the other hand, research pioneered by Alain Walcarius entitled,
“Electrochemical Applications of Silica-Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid
Materials,” presents a comprehensive overview is on the implication of silica-
based organic-inorganic hybrid materials in electrochemical science. It involves
composite materials of both classes I (weak bonds between the organic and
inorganic components) and class II (strong chemical bonds). Starting with a
description of the common designs of electrodes modified with these hybrids,
the research then reports their applications in the various fields of
electrochemistry, illustrating the diversity of the organically modified silicates
used for this purpose. The mild chemical conditions allowed by the sol-gel
process provide very versatile access to these electrochemical devices. It found
many applications in electroanalysis, including preconcentration associated
with voltammetry detection, permselective coatings, electrochemical sensors,
electrocatalysis, and detectors for chromatography. It was also applied as redox
and conducting polymers, as solid polymer electrolytes for batteries, for the
design of Spectro-electrochemical and electro-chemiluminescence devices, and
in the field of electrochemical biosensors.
Organic and inorganic chemistry both share different characteristics in
terms of chemical and physical experiments. They both differ in composition,
solubility, boiling point, melting point, stability towards heat, ionization,
combustibility, acidity, alkalinity, rate of reaction, bonding, exhibiting
isomerism, etc. This creates boundaries that during the course of the study of
organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry, it is usually better to separate their
studies due to their differences as branches of chemistry.
Though it is acknowledged that both exhibit extensive differences in theory
and study, their applications are both integral in the deeper exploration and
understanding of the world we live in.

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III. Materials
A. Drawing/Illustration of Set-up

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B. Classification and Uses


• Beaker (Glassware Container)
Is a common container in most labs. It is used for mixing,
stirring, and heating chemicals. Most beakers have spouts on their
rims to aid in pouring. They also commonly have lips around their
rims and markings to measure the volume they contain.
• Bunsen burner (Heating equipment)
Device for combining a flammable gas with controlled
amounts of air before ignition; it produces a hotter flame than would
be possible using the ambient air and gas alone.
• Evaporating Dish (Evaporating Equipment)
An evaporating dish is a piece of laboratory glassware used
for the evaporation of solutions and supernatant liquids, and
sometimes to their melting point.
• Eyedropper/Dropper (Glassware Container)
An eyedropper, also known as a Pasteur pipette, or dropper,
is a device used to transfer small quantities of liquids. They are used
in the laboratory and also to dispense small amounts of liquid
medicines. A very common use was to dispense eye drops into the
eye. The commonly recognized form is a glass tube tapered to a
narrow point (a pipette) and fitted with a rubber bulb at the top.
• Glass/Stirring Rod (Mixing Equipment)
A glass stirring rod, glass rod, stirring rod or stir rod is a
piece of laboratory equipment used to mix chemicals and liquids for
laboratory purposes. They are usually made of solid glass, about the
thickness and slightly longer than a drinking straw, with rounded
ends.

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• Iron Stand with Ring (Support/Stand Equipment)


An iron ring is used to support flasks or funnels upright in a
stand. This is to enable the stability of the flask or funnel while
testing is being performed. A ring stand is used to provide support
for other equipment and a means of raising equipment above the
work surface.
• Litmus Paper (Acid-base Indicator)
Litmus paper is a tool used to test whether a substance is an
acid or base. Red paper is used to detect alkaline pH and will turn a
shade of blue in the presence of a basic solution. Blue litmus paper
is used to test for acids and will turn a shade of red when it comes
in contact with an acidic solution. Neutral litmus paper is purple and
will change color to red or blue depending on if the solution being
tested is acidic or alkaline.
• Test Tube (Glassware Container)
Test tubes intended for general chemical work are usually
made of glass, for better resistance to heat and corrosive chemicals
and longer life. Tubes made from expansion-resistant glasses,
mostly borosilicate glass can withstand high temperatures, up to
several hundred degrees Celsius.
• Wire Gauze (Support/Stand Equipment)
A wire gauze is a sheet of thin metal that has net-like crosses
or a wire mesh. The purpose of wire gauze is to be placed on the
support ring that is attached to the ring stand between the Bunsen
burner and the beakers to support the beakers or other glassware or
flasks during heating.

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IV. Methodology/Procedure

A. Solubility
To 2 ml each of water, ethyl alcohol, ether, and benzene, add a pinch of
benzoic acid then shake. Observe the solubility of benzoic acid on each of the
given liquid solvents.
Repeat the same procedure using the table salt, then calcium carbonate, then
urea instead of benzoic acid.
B. Melting and Boiling Points
In a dry test tube, place ½ gram of benzoic acid and heat directly over the
flame. Do the same on a separate test tube with table salt, urea, and calcium
carbonate. Afterward, put 2 ml each of ether, ethyl alcohol, dilute acetic acid
and water in a separate test tubes and place them on a water bath. Increase the
flame until water boils in the beaker.
C. Stability towards heat
Heat a pinch of salt a test tube for 2 minutes and let the product cool. Repeat
the procedure using sugar, benzoic acid, and calcium carbonate.
D. Combustibility
Warning: Extinguish all lighted burners within your area when performing this
procedure.
Place 5 drops of ethyl alcohol in an evaporating dish then place a lighted
match/splinter over the alcohol. Repeat the procedure using ether and
chloroform or any organic halide.
E. Ionization
Add three drops of silver nitrate to 2 ml of sodium chloride solution. Repeat
the procedure using carbon tetrachloride instead of the salt solution.
F. Acidity and Alkalinity
Using a stirring rod and litmus paper, test the acidity of salt solution, dilute
HCl, dilute acetic acid, ammonium hydroxide, and aniline.

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V. Data and Results


A. Solubility
List down observations on the following table:
Compound Water Ethyl Alcohol Ether Benzene
Benzoic Acid NO YES YES YES
Sodium Chloride YES NO NO NO
Calcium Carbonate NO NO NO NO
Urea YES YES NO YES

B. Melting and Boiling Points


Which compound melted first? Benzoic acid________________________
Which compound melted last? Calcium Carbonate__________________
Which compound boiled first? Ether______________________________
Which compound boiled last? Water______________________________

C. Stability towards Heat


Compound Observations after heating
Sodium Chloride Stable
Calcium Carbonate Stable
Sugar Not stable:formation of dark compound
Benzoic Acid Not stable:melted fast during the first 30 seconds

D. Combustibility
Compound Combustible or Non-combustible
Ethyl alcohol Combustible
Ether Combustible
Organic halide Non-combustible

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E. Ionization
Observation
Silver Nitrate + Sodium Chloride White precipitate
Chloroform + Silver Nitrate No precipitate formed

F. Acidity and Alkalinity

Reaction to litmus paper Classification as


strong acid, strong
Sample Substances
Blue litmus paper Red litmus paper base, weak acid or
weak base
Salt solution No reaction Turned Blue Weak base
Dil. HCl Turned red No reaction Strong acid
Dil. Acetic Acid Turned light red No reaction Weak acid
Dil. NH4OH No reaction Turned light blue Weak base

A. In what type of compounds is benzoic acid soluble?


Benzoic acid is very soluble with organic compounds due to its
organic nature.
B. In what type of compound is sodium chloride soluble?
Sodium Chloride is soluble in highly polar solvents like water.
C. Give a general statement as to the difference in solubility of organic and
inorganic compounds.
Like dissolves like. Organic compounds exhibit solubility to organic
solvents. Inorganic compounds show solubility to inorganic solvents.
Although this generalization is evident in almost all of the compounds, there
are still exceptions like sugar (organic), and water (inorganic).
D. Give a general statement regarding the stability of organic and organic
compounds towards heat.

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Organic compounds are very unstable towards heat, while inorganic


compounds are stable towards heat.
E. Give five examples of organic compounds in the household which changes
is the same way a sugar
Paraffin, plastics, rubber, asphalt, and urea.
F. What can you conclude regarding the combustibility of organic
compounds?
Organic compounds are very combustible and are efficient fuel from
which industries thrive. But it is also important to note that certain types of
organic compounds like organic halides do not combust or ignite.
G. What conclusion can you make based on the results obtained?
Generally, organic compounds are less soluble in water than
inorganic compounds. Organic compounds are more volatile but are poorer
conductors of electricity than inorganic compounds. Organic compounds
react at a slower rate and produce more complex products than inorganic
compounds.
H. What can you conclude regarding the difference in the degree of acidity and
alkalinity between organic and inorganic compounds?
Organic acids and bases (almost all) show weaker acidity and
alkalinity compared to inorganic acids an bases.

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VI. Analysis of Results


In the analysis of the results from this experiment, we have learned that
there are chief distinctions between organic and inorganic compounds. There
are several properties of chemical compounds that we used to compare different
compounds. These properties include: Solubility, Melting and Boiling points,
Stability towards Heat, Combustibility, Ionization, and Acidity.
In the test for solubility, we found that organic compounds dissolve readily
in organic solvents, but do not dissolve in inorganic solvents. Inorganic
compound, on the other hand, dissolves readily on inorganic solvents. This is
because most organic compounds have covalent bonds, while most inorganic
compounds have ionic bonds. The ionic bonds allow inorganic compounds to
dissociate into positive and negative ions in water, making them highly soluble
in water. On the other hand, most organic compounds are insoluble in water,
although they are soluble in other organic compounds.
In the test for Melting and Boiling points, results showed that inorganic
compounds generally have higher boiling points and melting points than
organic compounds. In general, melting and boiling points are not useful in
identifying an inorganic compound, but they can be used to assess its purity if
they are accessible. Inorganic compounds are often ionic, and so have very high
melting points. While some inorganic compounds are solids with accessible
melting points, and some are liquids with reasonable boiling points, there are
not the exhaustive tabulations of melting/boiling point data for inorganic
compounds that exist for organic.
In the test for ionization, it was found that inorganic compounds readily
ionize, while inorganic compounds do not. This is because a stable organic
compound is typically very unreactive - and it takes a lot to get it to react. And
in order to break the bonds of organic compounds, we are breaking covalent
bonds, which are much stronger than ionic bonds. This means that inorganic
compounds have a faster overall rate of reaction than organic compounds. This
rationale can also be a related explanation in several tests and results such as:

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In the test for stability towards heat, it was found that inorganic compounds are
generally more stable than organic compounds; In the test for combustibility,
results showed that organic compounds are combustible while inorganic
compounds are non-combustible; and in the test for acidity and alkalinity,
results showed that the acids and bases of inorganic compounds are generally
stronger than those of organic compounds.

VII. Conclusion and Recommendation


The experiment’s goal is to differentiate the organic and inorganic
compounds through observations of their physical and chemical properties.
In distinguishing the difference of the organic and inorganic compounds, its
solubility is tested, organics are more soluble than inorganic compounds. Next,
that has been tested was the melting and boiling points. Organic compounds
tend to melt and boil first than the latter. Third is stability through heating the
compound directly in the fire, and the organic compound is not stable due to
changes that happened after heating. Also, the organic compound is
combustible, and for the inorganic compounds, it forms white precipitate from
ionization test. Lastly, the organic compounds are analyzed to be weak bases
and acids and the inorganics are analyzed to be strong acids and bases.
To sum up, organic and inorganic compounds are different from one
another. It is undeniable from the physical and chemical changes observed in
the experiment. They are both compounds with different properties which one
may be dominant to certain property and vice versa.

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VIII. Appendices
A. Definition of Terms
• Splinter - in this experiment, a splinter is a thin sharp piece of wood
ignited
• Solubility - the amount of substance that will dissolve in a given
amount of another substance
• Stability- the quality or state of something that is not easily changed
or likely to change
• Combustibility - the capability of being easily excited or ignited
• Ionization - conversion to ions
• Acidity - degree of being acid
• Alkalinity - degree of being alkaline
B. Documentation
No documentation available
C. Computation
Not applicable
D. Answers to questions
1. Name 5 other differences between organic and inorganic compounds not
illustrated in this experiment.
Organic Inorganic
Compounds Compounds
Rate of Reaction:
• Room temperature Slow Rapid
• High temperature Moderate fast to Very fast
explosive
Volatility Readily evaporates Does not evaporate
Bonding Covalent bond Ionic bond
Conductivity Non-conductors Good conductors
Isomerism Exhibits isomerism Limited to a few

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2. What are some similarities between organic and inorganic compounds?


• They both dissociate partially in water to give hydrogen ion and a
conjugate base
• Both have carbon atoms
• Both are necessary compounds in maintaining bodily functions of the
human body systems
3. Who is considered the Father of Organic Chemistry?
• Friedrich Wohler
4. What contribution in organic chemistry entitled him to be named as such?
• He initiated the downfall of the vital force theory when in 1828; he was
able to synthesize urea, a constituent of urine, by simply heating
ammonium cyanate, a substance considered to be inorganic.
5. Give 5 other major uses of inorganic compounds and 5 major uses of organic
compounds.
INORGANIC
• Minerals- used extensively in medicine and food supplements
• Catalyst- some inorganic compounds have an unreactive nature during
a reaction where they can hasten or slow reaction rates.
• Pigment coating- derived from salts and metal oxides
• Ammonia- used mainly as a fertilizer
• Chlorine- used for water treatment, pharmaceuticals, sterilization, and
others
ORGANIC
• Alkanes- used extensively in fuel
• Alcohols- used in beverages, sterilization, sanitation
• Acids- used in chemical analyses
• Polymers- used as containers
• Cosmetics- uses oil extracts at an industrial level

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6. What are the sources of organic compounds?


• Plants
• Animals
• Petroleum
• Coal

IX. Bibliography/References
COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY (2012) William Collins Sons & Co.LTD.
Pan, B.Y., & Xing, B. (2008). Adsorption mechanisms of organic chemicals on
carbon nanotubes. Environmental science & technology, 42 24, 9005-13.
Ronconi, L., & Sadler, P.J. (2008). Applications of heteronuclear NMR
spectroscopy in biological and medicinal inorganic chemistry.

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