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Context: World Events during the time of Rizal

- The Tobacco monopoly – remittances(payment); cigar production – led to cultivation of abaca

United States

and sugar

-

Civil War, Negro slavery, and the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863

- Basco’s efforts were successful- from 1800 to 1810, exports of Philippine origin accounted for

Russia

10 percent of total exports (from forest and sea

-

Czar Alexander II emancipated tens of millions

products).

of serfs.

- By the 1840’s, almost 90 percent of total export

Mexico

revenue came from six Philippine-grown cash

- Just before Rizal’s birth in 1861, had a full- blooded Zapotec Indian President England under Queen Victoria

crops: sugar, tobacco, abaca (hemp) fiber and

cordage, indigo, coffee and cotton. economy replaced trade in kind.

The cash

predominant imperial power in the world Italy and Germany

-

-

unified into powerful, political entities

- - immigrants linked provincial producers to the world market

new

The

rise

of

the

Chinese

mestizo

China

- The Parian (Chinese sector in Manila) was re-

-

divided up by Europeans after the Opium War

established

India

- Indio and mestizo elites- a new middle class

 

-

under British raj rule. The rest of Asia divided up amongst the Europeans

The Galleon Trade

 

Japan

With the end of the Spanish empire in the

-

opened up by America to the world, ending its

America, the Manila-Acapulco galleon which

214 year isolation, with modernization Germany

linked American and Asian trade and which began in 1565, ended in 1815

-

a late imperial power; acquired colonies in

Foreign Trade

Africa and began seeking Pacific possessions. Nearly went to war with Spain over the Central

Manila was opened to world trade officially in 1834- city became a “port of call”

Pacific Islands. If not for the arbitration of Pope Leo XIII.

- more diverse jobs, more money transactions and more cultural diversions

Spain

- Manila’s population increased from 100,000 in

-

was a fading power, having lost her rich colonies

1822 to 150,000 by the mid-1800s

in Central and South America to revolution and

independence. By the late 1800s, the Spanish

Empire was reduced to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and

the Philippines (which included Guam).

The Philippines during the 18 th century

The

rise

of

the

export

crop

economy

and

monopolies

 

-

Governor

General

Jose

de

Basco

y

Vargas

(1778)- who saw the potential for large scale production of cash crops in the colony

-

Basco established the Royal Company of the Philippines in 1785 to finance these projects.

The purpose was to make the colony self- supporting and self-sufficient.

-

Repealed ban on Chinese merchants- would

lead to the rise of the Chinese mestizos

 

-

Began to open Manila to foreign traders, both

Asian and non-Asian

In the 1850s and 1860s, the ports of Iloilo and Cebu opened to foreign shipping, stimulating trade and agriculture in the Visayas. New tracts of forestland on Negros were cleared for sugar.

Opening of the Suez Canal

The Suez Canal was opened to world trade in

1869

- dramatically decreased travel time from Europe and led to many Spanish migrating (like birds of prey) to the Philippines in search of jobs. Therefore, the Philippines became a dumping ground, displacing Filipinos.

- enabled ilustrados to easily reach Europe from the Philippines for study and for travel

- hastened the movement of people and of ideas from Europe to the Philippines

Domination of imports, exports and distribution by the British and by the Chinese in the Philippines

• • Racial hierarchy in the Philippines under Spain

Racial hierarchy in the Philippines under Spain

• • Racial hierarchy in the Philippines under Spain

Foreign

goods for the international market, but also created demand for finished goods made in Europe and America.

The buyers of the goods were the local elite and the emerging middle class

European goods, European fashions and jewelry were seen as a sign of affluence

Many benefited including the traders in contact with the foreign merchants, managers of farms who leased land for agriculture; big landowners also leased lands to inquilinos.

local

businessmen

not

only

bought

The inquilinos lease lands to sharecroppers or tenants known as kasamas, who do the actual cultivation in the field

Inquilinos

- Were in contact with traders who sold the goods locally or abroad. The inquilinos profit enormously. They began to have bahay na bato or stone houses and have better clothes and food. They became the new local elite and had the financial means to send their children to colleges and to universities in Manila or even abroad.

Dark Side To The Commercial Revolution

More lands had to be opened for cultivation

Lands were titled to those who can read and write

Practices

like

landgrabbing

and

duping

of

illiterate landowners became common

People with means, such as religious orders owned lands

Farmers now found that the land was no longer

theirs and that they had to

landowner; they were sometimes driven off the land

a

pay

rent

to

The increasing gap between the rich and the poor

- mestizos and indios rose above others, becoming the new, local elite

- but their rise only became possible because of the sweat and toil of the sharecroppers

- the rise of a new oppressive class and the rise of

the remontados

Also, increasing friction between the haciendas and the prosperous inquilinos over the fruits of the economic boom. The motive would be both political and economic- to weaken the friars’ influence in Philippine political life.

Changes in Political Thinking

Absolute rule gave way to Enlightenment ideas such as power in the people’s hands (the social contract) by the French noble Baron de Montesquieu and Englishman John Locke.

The monarch then enters into a covenant with the people where the monarch is to provide good and just governance to the people who will in turn render him allegiance.

Philosophes (Jean Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu, Locke, Benjamin Franklin and even Thomas Jefferson)

The concept of God-given rights that cannot be taken away unless it was necessary to preserve order and freedom

The American Revolution (led to the Constitution of the United States)

French Revolution (liberty, equality and fraternity)

A note on rights

Though people maybe equal in terms of rights some rights will have to be surrendered for the benefit of the majority. To have equal rights such as speech, expression and movement will invite anarchy. Some will have to be toned down to preserve order.

French Revolution led to regicide

Political Change in Spain

Spain joined France in the Continental System during the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon Bonaparte’s brother, Joseph, ascended to the Spanish throne. But the Spanish preferred the deposed Crown Prince, Ferdinand. The Spanish retreated to the port city of Cadiz and fought a guerilla war against the occupying French.

The Constitution of Cadiz in 1812

Liberal minded Spanish believed that power must be shared with the people and that the government must follow a basic law that is approved by the people.

Through the Constitution of Cadiz in 1812, the government in Cadiz extended representation even to the colonies, giving the Philippines representation in the Cortes.

both Spanish citizens and

Gave equal rights to

a.)

colonials b.) Abolished forced labor c.) abolition of the galleon trade

In Manila, Spanish residents elected a trader named Ventura de los Reyes, who traveled from Manila to Cadiz in 1813. In Cadiz, de los Reyes participated in the deliberations of the Cortes.

End of Cadiz

But as Napoleon pulled out all the French troops from Spain, Ferdinand VII reassumed absolute rule. He persecuted the liberals, dissolved the Cortes and abrogated the Cadiz constitution.

Forced labor was reinstated in the Philippines

Further Representation for the Philippines

In 1822, a separatist revolt succeeded and restored the Cadiz Constitution, and

representation was restored for the Philippines. But this revolt was short lived as Ferdinand VII returned to the throne

In 1833, with the death of Ferdinand, the ascendancy of Maria Cristina as Queen regent for her daughter. Maria Cristina was forced by the Cortes to grant representation to the people and to the colonies, but not to the Philippines.

End of Representation

The Philippines was placed under a government called the Overseas Ministry

From then on, the Philippines did not have representation in the Spanish parliament and Spain continued its downward spiral due to mismanagement.

The Philippine Middle Class

The opening of Manila and ports across the country opened the islands to foreign trade

Traders and inquilinos who traded in agricultural

products

benefited

and

accumulated new

wealth

The new native elite were no longer the

descendants of the datu class but the merchant class

The New Middle Class

The rise of the principals - the new rich and middle class

Prefixes - The use of Dons and Doñas. Even Mr. and Mrs. became badges of distinctions. Also Senor, Senora and the children Senorito and Senorita, which carried bigger weight in pride.

- By contrast, Mang and Aleng are native prefixes. The Limpieza De Sangre (Purity of Blood)

The Indio and the mestizo cannot:

- Become Governor Generals or Governors of provinces

- For those who joined religious life, cannot become Bishops or Archbishops

- Cannot become priests of regular orders like the Dominicans, Augustinians, Franciscans or Recollects

- In the military or civil guard, cannot rise above the rank of teniente

The only way Indios and Mestizos can advance was through business.

Some become lawyers, but the Limpieza de

Sangre ensures that some offices and positions are off limits to indios and mestizos regardless of how well they improve their economic and

off avenues for

social

advancement

status;

closed

Indios and mestizos therefore enter into business, law and secular priesthood

Peninsulares and Insulares also looked down on

the natives and the mestizos.

Worst off were the common and uneducated indios, who only started receiving basic

education in 1863. The indios lead simple lives as tenant farmers and fishermen. Some served the Spanish army as soldiers and some served as policemen.

How the Spaniards Retained So Much Power

The population of the Philippines in the 19th century under Spain numbered around 3 to 4 million people. Spaniards were less than 10 percent of the population.

Most of the Spaniards were concentrated in cities like Manila

But in the provinces, typically the only Spaniard in town was the alferez and the commander of the Civil Guard

Members of the police and the military were natives.

Divide and conquer - troops from another area or province is used to suppress the uprising. - the Spanish also sought to secure native loyalty through the granting of positions and status, especially at the local level

It was also rare to find Spanish residents in the towns as most of them were concentrated in Manila and the cities.

By 1896, there were 30,000 Spanish as compared to 3 million Indios

The British and the Americans handled foreign trade, while the Chinese and the ethnic Chinese were suppliers. Spain merely held positions of religious and political authority. The Scientfic Revolution of the 19 th Century

More emphasis on science rather than religion

- scientific method - the use of evidences and of logic

Free masonry - a brotherhood established on

the principles of equality among its members; encouraged free speech and thought

- opposed to the Church

- Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, secularism

- late 19th century Philippines - Masonic Lodges

The Spanish Time During Rizal’s Time

During the 19th century, the Philippines was

one of the last large colonies of Spain left (and the richest colony) after the independence of the Latin American colonies

Communication with Spain became faster in the 1840s with the invention of the telegraph

In 1869, the Suez Canal significantly cut the sailing distance between Manila and Barcelona from between two to three months to just one

month.

Political Challenges During 19 th Century

of

secularism; conservatives vs liberals, constitution changes, government turnovers, party strifes, and revolutions.

Between 1835 and 1897, the Philippines was ruled by 50 governors general - hampered the

Political

in

upheavals

Spain

-

a

period

political

and

economic

development

of

the

Philippines.

Also,

no

representation

in

the

Cortes, but instead through the Ministry for Overseas Colonies.

Politico-military governments in Visayas and Mindanao, with Mindanao turned into a mission field for the Jesuits.

Challenges such as

a. corruption

b. the inability to provide for basic needs of public works, schools, peace and order

c. oppression and harassment by the Guardia Civil

antiquated form of taxation that

hampered modernization of roads, bridges and other public works

e. highly protective tariffs that forced Filipinos to buy expensive Spanish textiles than the cheaper British ones

corruption, cruelty, incompetence and venality of leaders

The issue of representation in the Cortes

- Filipinos had representation in the Cortes (the Spanish Parliament) between 1810 and

Ventura de los Reyes (Cadiz

Constitution of 1812, which abolished the

d. an

1813 -

galleon trade)

- There were further periods of representation (1820-1823) and (1834-1837)

- Representation of the overseas colonies (including the Philippines) was finally abolished in 1837. Philippine conditions thereafter worsened.

1883 - Graciano Lopez-Jaena - implore the Spanish Cortes in Madrid for Philippine representation. The Philippines never gained

representation until the end of Spanish rule in

1898.

The Laws of the Indies, which protected the

rights of natives and promoted their welfare, were not enforced in the Philippines.

Courts were unjust

- Dr. Rizal’s family

- Juan de la Cruz in Cavite

A fair justice system only appeared to be for White Spaniards.

There was also plenty of racial discrimination - “a white skin, a high nose, and Castilian lineage”- superiority

Racial prejudice - in government offices, in courts, in the armed forces, in the social circles, and even in the educational institutions and in the ecclesiastical hierarchy.

“Government run by the friars”- historically, the friars controlled the religious and educational life of the Philippines, and later in the 19 th century, they came to acquire tremendous political power, influence and riches. (the role played by the friar curate)

“Government Run by the Friars

- the friar runs local affairs, acting as the local school inspector, health inspector, prison inspector, inspector of the accounts, cabezas de Barangay. He approves census lists, tax lists, list of army conscripts, and register of births, deaths, marriages; power and influence increased from 1850s onwards. They acquired tremendous political power, influence and riches.

Rizal, M.H. del Pilar, Graciano Lopez-Jaena and other Filipinos eventually became critical of friar rule in the Philippines, despite Christianity and European civilization.

Most friars were good, but there were also bad friars

Forced Labor- polo y servicio

- All male Spanish residents between 18 and

60 were also required to render forced labor, but they and the well to do Filipinos who can pay for the exemption (falla). Filipinos resented the race-based practices.

Educational Transformations

Colonial education was in the hands of the friars - missionaries established schools, appointed teachers, and developed the schools’ curricula. But focus was on memorization in the vernacular. Contents were on the fear of God and obedience to the friars.

University of Santo Tomas - (Dominicans, 1611)- by Fr. Miguel de Benavides; first known as the College of Our Lady of Rosary, then as Colegio de Santo Tomas. In 1645, it became a university

in

philosophy,

canon and civil law. Only Spaniards, mestizos and wealthy Filipinos were admitted. Young Indios can study for the priesthood or law, with the opening of the Faculty of Civil Law in 1734. By 1871, young physicians or pharmacists may study at the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy.

In schools, the girls were separated from the boys. For boys, Colegio de Santo Tomas and Colegio de San Juan de Letran under the Dominicans and Ateneo de Municipal, under the Jesuits. For girls, Santa Isabel, La Concordia, Santa Rosa and Santa Catalina. The Dominican

known

as

UST,

which

offered

courses

medicine,

pharmacy,

theology,

Rector at UST oversees all the schools. All were

required

to take an examination before

admission.

Educational Decree of 1863 - required one elementary school for boys and one for girls in each town in the country; a normal school for teacher training, with Spanish as the medium of instruction.

Some natives may even aspire to study abroad in universities in Spain and in Europe

Agricultural unrest by rural folks in friar-owned

haciendas.

Rizal, whose family and relatives were tenants of the Dominican Estate of Calamba, advocated

the

Dominican friars. Rizal would accuse all the friars

land

reform,

but

this

went

against

of contributing to economic stagnation.

Guardia Civil in the Philippines was accused of many abuses towards the natives. Rizal and his mother were said to have been victims of the

Guardia Civil.

Filipino Nationhood

Only developed during the last years of Spanish rule in the 1890’s

Owing to:

1. Opening of the Philippines to world

commerce - liberal ideas

- deplorable conditions of the country-

political reform

2. rise of the middle class (basis of nationalism)

– sons of mestizos and the principalia educated in Europe; compared European vs Filipino society

3. the liberal regime of Carlos Maria de la

Torre (1869) - freedom and democracy

4. racial discrimination - in universities and

colleges, government offices, church and court of justice.

- Fray Miguel de Bustamante wrote Si

the

Filipino has low mental ability, is not capable of acquiring education, and could only tend to the field and work the carabao

5. secularization controversy - a racial

controversy between the Spanish friars and the Filipino secular clergy (who the friars

Tandang

Basyong

Macunat

claimed were unqualified to administer parishes)

- Fr. Pedro Pelaez, an insulares and Vicar of Manila, led the fight against royal decrees turning secular parishes over to

6.

friars

- Fr. Burgos - Filipino priests and Spanish priests were equal

defended the Filipino clergy from Spanish attacks; fostered unity Mutiny of 1872 - mutiny of the

Filipino soldiers in the arsenal in Cavite due to the removal of the exemptions from tributes and forced labor

- Fr. Jose Burgos, Fr. Mariano Gomez, and Fr. Jacinto Zamora were executed for their involvement in secularization

Filipinos saw the priests as martyrs and saw the need for unity

A turning point - peaceful campaign for reforms that led to the Propaganda Movement

o

Cavite

Many native priests were relegated to being just co- adjutors due to limpieza de sangre

Fr. Burgos - the youngest and the most brilliant with eight degrees from UST. Fr. Zamora was an examiner of priests at the Manila Cathedral. Fr. Gomez was a crusading parish priest from Bacoor who fought for the natives.

Governor General Carlos Maria de la Torre (liberal) - pardoned the leader of the agrarian unrest in Cavite and even made him chief of police force; abolished flogging as punishment for desertion; dismissed his bodyguards and mingled with people (populist approach)

Governor General Rafael Izquierdo (conservative)- rule with the Cross on one hand and the Sword on the other

Cavite Mutiny of 1872

Mutiny of the Filipino soldiers in the arsenal in Cavite due to the removal of the exemptions from tributes and forced labor

- Fr. Jose Burgos, Fr. Mariano Gomez, and Fr. Jacinto Zamora were executed for their involvement in secularization. But before they were executed, the Archbishop of Manila Meliton Martinez refused to defrocked them.

- Filipinos saw the priests as martyrs and saw the need for unity

- Filipinos witnessing GOMBURZA execution was a turning point for Filipino nationalism

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