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Before computerization data was stored by using a manual filing system. In spite of this, many small
organizations still use manual systems. A, manual filing stem gives error, and files can be easily
damaged, lost, or misplace It is difficult to share data in a manual system and it can be time
consuming to access and also to maintain. Other problems with manual systems are the lack of
security and data redundancy. When multiple copies of one file exist, perhaps in different
departments or regions, data inconsistencies may arise. One solution to such type of problems of
manual file keeping is to computerize data.

The merits of a change over to a computerized files based system are:

• Reduces storage space
• Security of data is maintained
• Easier access to data is possible. Less time consuming to manage

Consider the data needs of any type of small business, say XYZ Distributors. This business sources tools from
suppliers and sells them to customers in the retail trade. The business runs three computer
• Purchasing • Inventory Accounts Receivable • Sales.

(DataBase Management System) Software that controls the organization, storage, retrieval, security
and integrity of data in a database. It accepts requests from the application and instructs the
operating system to transfer the appropriate data. The major DBMS vendors are Oracle, IBM,
Microsoft and Sybase.

DBMSs may work with traditional programming languages (COBOL, C, etc.) or they may include their
own programming language for application development.

DBMSs let information systems be changed more easily as the organization's requirements change.
New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system.
Adding a field to a record does not require changing any of the programs that do not use the data in
that new field.

The following are examples of database applications:

 Computerized library systems
 Automated teller machines
 Flight reservation systems
 Computerized parts inventory systems

The basic operations that can be performed on a database are follows

• Creating new files

• Inserting new records
• designing fields and data items
• Retrieving data items.
• Updating data items
• Deleting data items.

These operations allow the end user to find the data they require and to obtain it in whatever format
is found suitable. One of the most useful operations of the database is to search for required data
and have it presented in the form of a report. A wide range of information needed for management
reports. For decision making with the aid database much of the workload is reduced

A database system is a computerized record keeping system, whose overall purpose is to maintain
data and to make that data available in the form of information.


Speed : The computer can retrieve and change data for faster than a human being can do the things
Compactness : No need for possibly voluminous paper files arid also file, paper tags etc.
Accuracy : Accurate, up-to-date information is available on “ demand at any time.
Efficiency : You can deliver the information efficiently within time.
The database system can have many more benefits depending upon whether the system. is multi-
user-or-single user. In case of multi-user environment, the additional advantages of a database
system are that it provides .the enterprise, with centralized control of its data.

A database is an organized, integrated and shared collection of related data designed to meet the
needs of multiple users. A database environment consists of four components:

1. Data items 2. End-users 3. Hardware component 4. Software component




Block Diagram of a Database System.

1. Data items:
It is item that can be used for processing. There are two main things that distinguish the database
approach from other methods of data storage. The two differentiating points are that a database is
integrated and a database is shared.
If files-based systems each application has its own separate data files. In database systems all data is
stored together and shared by each application. Because data is shared, all applications can access
the same data in the database.

2. End-User:
The second component in the database environment is End users. Users of a database system can be
categorized into three broad classes.
a) Data-Base Administrators (DBA) coordinate the activities of all users of the database and have
ultimate control of the database. (They have a good control over the systems).
b) Application developers develop the programs for applications that process the data stored in the
c). End-users interact with the database by operating application programs of various of same types

3. Hardware:
A database can be run on conventional computer such as mainframes, PCs and of all types. A
database can also be run on dedicated database servers.

4. Software :
The last components are software. The software in a database environment can be divided into two
major categories.
i) Database management system software : This is the software that controls a database. The other
type of software is application software. These are programs written by application developer for

ii) Application software : It utilizes DBMS software for data handling such a retrieval, creation,
updating or deleting. The DBMS effectively acts as a layer between the physical data stored on the
storage devices and the users programs. It is used to create, manage and access a database.

1. It allows concurrent access to multiple database users.
2. It has recovery facilities, for example in case failure occurs.
3. It processes all data requests.
4. The DBMS allows users to set up their data.
The user accesses the DBMS by means of a special purpose data language such as SQL. The DBMS
resides conceptually between the operation system and the user’s application program. The DBMS is
a bridge or a link between the application program and the operating system of the computer.

Although DBMS vary considerably, they all perform the same general functions. DBMS functions falls
into six broad categories.
1. Data independence 2. Data access 3. Data control/data protection
4. Support of a data model 5. Provision of an on-line data dictionary
6. Reduction of data redundancy.

1. Data independence is one of the principal functions of DBMS. Data independence means that data
structures are defined separately from application programs. It has several advantages. Underlying
data structures can be modified without affecting the application programs.

a. While processing the data, Application programs can use separately with the consideration
of Data Independence. The application programs do not deal directly to the file storages.
b. Another advantage of data independence is that access methods are independent of
programs. This is because the DBMS itself decides which method of access to use for a given
data language command. The application program deals with the DBMS. This means that the
reorganizing of files would have no effect on application programs. Data independence frees
the users and the programmers from the responsibility of knowing the physical details of data
storage. It makes possible to concentrate on the logical content of the data.

2. Data Access
The second major function of, a DBMS is to provide access to the balance. In a multi-user
environment the DBMS must provide shared access to data. Data sharing can give rise to problems
that the DBMS must be able to deal with. Concurrency occurs where two or more applications have
access to data at the same time. In multi-user system, data access can be done by means of two
(i) Sharing system.. . (ii) Queuing system.
In sharing system, every user get a certain period of time for processing whereas in queue, user will
get the preference with its relative position.
The DBMS should provide a comprehensive range of data manipulation facilities for batch, on-line
and interactive processing. A DBMS supports at least two types of languages.
• Data Description Language (DDL) • Data Manipulation Language (DML) A DDL is used for defining
database objects. A DML is used to manipulate or process these objects.

3. Data Security
The DBMS can prevent unauthorized users from viewing or updating the database. Using passwords,
users are allowed access to the entire database or a subset of it.No unauthorized person trying to
access this information will be able to read it. Authorized users will be able to see it in normal form.
For example, in an employee database, some users may be able to view salaries while others may
view only work history and medical data.

4. Data Model
It is useful to know the relationship with the data systems. A data model is a method of representing

data and relationships between data. Many data models exist, but not all are supported by real
database management systems.

5) Provision of an on-line data dictionary

Data Dictionary holds definitions of datasets, tables and data elements that can be used as basis for
tools that assists the user in searching large amounts of information.

6) Data Redundancy:
It basically relates to the duplication of data-base. This duplication can be eliminated if the DBMS
supports normalized data structures. If all users have access to the same item of information instead
of each living their own copy, unnecessary redundancies will be eliminated. A data item could be
stored once and accessed by many programs via the DBMS. It don’t eliminate all data redundancies.
There will sometimes to be a trade off between the complete elimination of redundancies and
database performance. Any data redundancy should be strictly documented and controlled.

7) Interactive Data Entry and Updating

A DBMS typically provides a way to interactively enter and edit data, allowing you to manage your
own files and databases. However, interactive operation does not leave an audit trail and does not
provide the controls necessary in a large organization. These controls must be programmed into the
data entry and update programs of the application.


One of the main advantages of using a database system is that the organization can exert, via the
DBA, centralized management and control over the data. The database administrator is the focus of
the centralized control.

1. Integrity: Centralized control can also ensure that adequate checks are incorporated in the DBMS
to provide data integrity. Data integrity means that the data contained in the database is both
accurate and consistent. Therefore, data values being entered for storage could be checked to
ensure that they fall within a specified range and are of the correct format. Integrity check that
should be incorporated in the database is to ensure that if there is a reference to certain object,
that object must exist.

2. Shared Data : A database allows the sharing of data under its control by any number of
application programs or users.

3. Reduction of Redundancies: Centralized control of data by the DBA avoids unnecessary

duplication of data and effectively reduces the total amount of data storage required. It also
eliminates the extra processing necessary to trace the required data in a large mass of data. Another
advantage of avoiding duplication is the elimination of the inconsistencies that tend to be present in
redundant data files. Any redundancies that exist in the DBMS are controlled and the system
ensures that these multiple copies are consistent.

4. Security : Data is of vital importance to an organization and may be confidential. Such

confidential data must not be accessed by unauthorized persons. The DBA who has the ultimate
responsibility for the data in the DBMS can ensure that proper access procedures are followed,
including proper authentication schemes for access to the DBMS and additional checks before

permitting access to sensitive data. Different levels of security could be implemented for various
types of data and operations.

Conflict Resolution It is possible as the DBA makes control over all the operations of the system. In
this regard system software also plays very, important role.

5. Interactive Query
A DBMS provides a query language and report writer that lets users interactively interrogate the
database. These essential components give users access to all management information as needed.

6. Interactive Data Entry and Updating

A DBMS typically provides a way to interactively enter and edit data, allowing you to manage your own
files and databases. However, interactive operation does not leave an audit trail and does not provide the
controls necessary in a large organization. These controls must be programmed into the data entry and
update programs of the application.

1. Data-items, End users, Hardware, Software are the main components of DBMS.
2. Database Administrator co-ordinates all activities of the users of the database.
3. Data Independence means data structures that are defined separately from application programs.
4. Data redundancy relates to the duplication of data-base.
5. Shared data, integrity, security, reduction to redundancy, conflict resolution are the main
advantages of DBMS.

Advantages of RDBMS
RDBMS is the procedural way that includes SQL syntaxes for relating tables with another and handling
datas stored in tables.
1. RDBMS is object based database management system
2. RDBMS can maintain at many users at same time
3. in RDBMS is relation is more important than object itself
4. The main advantage of an RDBMS is that it checks for referential integrity (relationship
between related records using Foreign Keys). You can set the constraints in an RDMBS such
that when a particular record is changed, related records are updated/deleted automatically.
5. RDBMS show the relation
6. RDBMS for large amount of data
7. The tables in RDBMS are dependent and the user can establish various integrity constraints on
these tables so that the ultimate data used by the user remains correct.
8. In RDBMS in each entity is well defined with a relationship set so as retrieve our data fast and
9. RDBMS : - Same as DBMS - Will Support RELATION SHIP between Tables. - Ex : - ORACLE,SQL
2000,DB 2
10. RDBMS follows 8 rules which were proposed by the developer of RDBMS.
11. RDBMS is a multi-user system.
12. RDBMS stores data in the form of tables.
13. RDBMS support client/server architecture and distributed databases

Data types in Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access Data Types

Data Type Use For Size

Up to 255 characters. Microsoft
Access only stores the characters
Text or combinations of text and
entered in a field; it does not store
numbers, such as addresses. Also
space characters for unused
Text numbers that do not require calculations,
positions in a Text field. To control
such as phone numbers, part numbers,
the maximum number of characters
or postal codes.
that can be entered, set the
FieldSize property.
Lengthy text and numbers, such as notes
Memo Up to 64,000 characters.
or descriptions.
Numeric data to be used for
mathematical calculations, except
1, 2, 4, or 8 bytes. 16 bytes for
calculations involving money (use
Number Replication ID (GUID) only.
Currency type). Set the FieldSize
property to define the specific Number
Date/Time Dates and times. 8 bytes.
Currency values. Use the Currency data
type to prevent rounding off during
Currency calculations. Accurate to 15 digits to the 8 bytes.
left of the decimal point and 4 digits to
the right.
Unique sequential (incrementing by 1) or
4 bytes. 16 bytes for Replication ID
AutoNumber random numbers automatically inserted
(GUID) only.
when a record is added.
Fields that will contain only one of two
Yes/No values, such as Yes/No, True/False, 1 bit.
Objects (such as Microsoft Word
documents, Microsoft Excel
spreadsheets, pictures, sounds, or other
binary data), created in other programs
Up to 1 gigabyte (limited by disk
OLE Object using the OLE protocol, that can be
linked to or embedded in a Microsoft
Access table. You must use a bound
object frame in a form or report to
display the OLE object.

Field that will store hyperlinks. A
Hyperlink Up to 64,000 characters.
hyperlink can be a UNC path or a URL.
Creates a field that allows you to choose
a value from another table or from a list The same size as the primary key
of values using a combo box. Choosing field that is also the Lookup field;
this option in the data type list starts a typically 4 bytes.
wizard to define this for you.