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National Technology University of Tucumán (UTN) A First Introduction to Space Missions

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Requirements
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Requirements
Based on Microsatellites

Requirement is:
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• a necessary attribute in a system

• a statement that identifies a capability, characteristic, or quality factor of a system in order for it
to have value and utility to a customer or user.

Source: Young, 2004

A statement that defines:


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• What the stakeholders, in a potential new system, need

• What the system must do in order to satisfy that need

Source: Hull et al, 2005

The term requirements refers to the total set of considerations that govern :
• what is to be accomplished,

• how well it is to be accomplished, and

• under what conditions it is to be accomplished.

They also govern, as appropriate, logical, and physical characteristics of the system.’

Source: EIA 632 2


A First Introduction to Space Missions

Requirements importance
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Agreed requirements form the basis for:


 quality engineering and management
 project planning;
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 communication along project and product life cycle


 risk management;
 acceptance testing;
 tradeoff;
Source: Hull et al., 2005 and Loureiro, 1999
 change control. 3
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National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019

Source: Hull, 2005


system life cycle
Requirements and the

4
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National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019

Source: Hull, 2005


in layers
Requirements engineering

5
National Technology University of Tucumán (UTN) A First Introduction to Space Missions
National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019

(1/2)

• system

Source: Hull, 2005


are met by

requirements
requirements

• subsystems
• stakeholder

• components.
are partitioned into

are implemented as
Requirements traceability

6
National Technology University of Tucumán (UTN) A First Introduction to Space Missions
National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019

(2/2)

Source: Hull, 2005


Requirements traceability

7
National Technology University of Tucumán (UTN) A First Introduction to Space Missions
National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019

Source: Loureiro, 1999


domains

Requirements

System
Problem and solution

Stakeholders

Relationships
Problem Domain

Solution Domain
Attributes

8
A First Introduction to Space Missions
Requirements in the problem and
solution domains
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07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019
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Without a clear distinction between problem and solution, the following


may result:
• lack of understanding of the real problem;
• inability to scope the system and understand which functions to include;
• domination of debate about the system by the developers and suppliers,
because the only descriptions of the system are expressed in terms of solutions;
• inability to find optimal solutions due to lack of design freedom.
Source: Hull, 2005

9
A First Introduction to Space Missions

System development
process
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Requirements by analysis:
refers to the evolution from
stakeholder needs to
system requirements or
higher level requirements
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Requirements by design:
refers to the evolution from
higher level requirements to
lower level requirements

Source:Hull, 2005
10
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Input requirements and derived


requirements
• Requirements
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derived at one
process become
the input
requirements of
another project
• A generic
‘engineer
requirements’
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process takes in
input
requirements and
generates derived
requirements

Source:Hull, 2005 11
Input Requirements, Derived
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Requirements and Qualification strategy


• Considers how the requirements will be
demonstrated when the system (or component) has
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been implemented;

 Determines, foreach requirement, the criteria that will


be used to establish whether or not the system that
claims to implement the requirement is acceptable to
the customer

 Determines the circumstances under which the


criteria will be examined
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 Often introduces new requirements for test


equipment, the use of existing facilities (e.g. wind
tunnels, anechoic chambers) and special diagnostic
functions or monitor points.

 In some circumstances a whole new project may


evolve to develop the test equipment and other
facilities required

 At lower levels in the hierarchy where items are to be


manufactured, the qualification strategy may consider
issues such as whether the supplier or the customer
is responsible for the testing of each item supplied. Source:Hull, 2005
Possible strategies include full testing of every item
prior to delivery, batch testing by the supplier and
possible random checks by the customer. 12
REQUIREMENTS
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Capabilities
Stakeholder
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Constraints
Functions

States
Functional Modes

Inputs & outputs


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Requirements
Interface

Performance

Environment
System
Resources
Non-functional
Physical

Quality

Design
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Capability
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 In a system specification, is a function that a system is capable of but strictly


performs only when requested to by a user or another system.

 Functions not exposed to agents outside the system are not capabilities.

 However, the term is often used loosely to mean no more than "system
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function."

 In user requirements, a capability means something a user wants to be able to


do, so in this sense it is a synonym for affordance.

Source: Alexander & Stevens, 2002

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A First Introduction to Space Missions

Constraints
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 Statement of restriction, modifying a requirement or set of requirements by


limiting the range of acceptable solutions.

 Constraints govern qualities such as safety, dependability, and performance. An


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older but possibly misleading synonym for constraint is "nonfunctional


requirement.“ (Source: Alexander & Stevens, 2002)

Source: Alexander & Stevens, 2002

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A First Introduction to Space Missions

Functional requirements
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 Describe what the system or software must do. (Young, 2004)

 Are sometimes called behavioral or operational requirements because they


specify the inputs (stimuli) to the system, the outputs (responses) from the
system, and behavioral relationships between them. (Young, 2004)
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 Are qualitative statement s of what an item (organisation, person, product or


process) is to accomplish. This can be the behaviour of an item, an effect
produced, or an action or service to be performed.
• An example of behaviour is ‘the engine shall move to cranking state’;
• an example of an effect produced is ‘cause an emergency signal’;
• an example of an action or service to be performed is ‘signal shall close valve’.

 A functional requirement states the actor that is to perform the function, the
function to be performed and, if appropriate, the object acted upon. (Loureiro,
1999)

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A First Introduction to Space Missions

Conditions, states and


modes
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 Conditions are statements of under what conditions a function is to be accomplished with the required
level of performance. Conditions include statements of the environment within which the function is
performed, the conditions that cause the function to start, and the conditions that cause the function to
terminate. These statements may contain measurement ranges or values. Conditions of interaction
between items are stated in interface requirements. (Loureiro, 1999)

 Conditions come as ‘ when’ and ‘ while’ statements and they derive states and modes of the system.
Conditions, states and modes must be documented as requirements. (Martin, 1996 and Halligan,
2006)
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 Circumstances refer to the potential values that can be assumed by the attributes of the elements in
the environment of the system and interacting with the system (Loureiro, 2007)

 Modes refer to a set of functional requirements and performance requirements that will be
accomplished by the system under required circumstances (Loureiro, 2007). Examples of modes are:
normal, emergency, surge, degraded, reset. Each mode may have different capabilities or in a mode
only specific capabilities are valid. (Martin, 1996)

 States refer to the set of values that can be assumed by the attributes of the system or system
elements in a given instant or period of time of interest. (Loureiro, 2007) Examples of states are: Off,
Start-up, Ready, On, Deployed, Stored, In-flight, In-service. (Martin, 1996)

 Conditions may require that the system functions and perform in a given mode (Loureiro, 2007)

 Change in conditions may require the system to change to a different mode (Loureiro, 2007)
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A First Introduction to Space Missions

Performance requirements
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 Define how well the functional requirements must perform.


Source: Young, 2004

 Are statements of measure of the accomplishment. Performance requirements state


how well (or how much, how far, how long, how often, etc.). It complements the function
statement with measurement ranges or values that apply to the function performed and,
as appropriate, the object acted on. (Source: Loureiro, 1999)
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18
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Design requirements and


design constraints
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Here are examples of why it’s difficult to separate requirements engineering from
design activities:

 New systems are often installed in environments that already have other
systems. The other systems usually constrain the design of the new system.
For example, a requirement (design constraint) may be that the system to be
developed must obtain its information from an existing database. The database
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has already been designed and parts of its specification will usually be included
in the requirements document.

 For large systems, some architectural design is often necessary to identify


subsystems and relationships. Identifying subsystems means that the
requirements engineering process for each subsystem can go on in parallel.

 For reasons of budget, schedule, or quality, an organization may wish to reuse


some or all existing software systems in the implementation of a new system.
This constrains both the system requirements and the design.

 If a system has to be approved by an external regulator (e.g., systems in civil


aircraft), it may be necessary to use standard certified design that has been
tested in other systems. Source: Young, 2004 19
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Physical properties and resource


requirements
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Physical properties

 Refers to dimensions such as mass, volume, length, size, depth.

Resource requirements
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 Refers to requirements related to the resources necessary to the system to


perform its functions with required performance

 Resources refer to, for example, type of fuel, fuel, fuel economy, type of power,
power, power consumption

Source: Halligan, 2006


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A First Introduction to Space Missions

Environmental
requirements
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Environmental Requirements

 These are requirements that result from the physical setting and social and
cultural conditions of the system development effort and the setting in which the
system or software will be used.

 Refer to parameters such as humidity, pressure, temperature, frequency that


describe the characteristics of the enviroment where the system’s life cycle
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processes happen

Source: Young, 2004


21
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Quality requirements
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07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019

The “Ilities” and Specialty Engineering Requirements

 One often hears references to the “ilities” of a system, sometimes called quality
attributes, such as the following:
◗Designability; ◗ Capacity;
◗ Efficiency; ◗ Degradation of service;
◗ Human engineering; ◗ Maintainability;
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◗ Modifiability; ◗ Memory;
◗ Portability; ◗ Timing constraints;
◗ Reliability; ◗ Modifiability;
◗ Testability; ◗ Usability.
◗ Understandability

 These are the nonfunctional or nonbehavioral requirements of a system or the


software.
Source: Young, 2004
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A First Introduction to Space Missions

Interface requirements
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Interface Requirements

 Identifies physical and functional relationships among system elements and


between system elements and theSource:
system environment.
Young, 2004

 Include both logical and physical interfaces.

 They include, as necessary, physical measurements, definitions of sequences


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of energy or information transfer, and all other significant interactions between


items.

 There are interfaces between a system and things external to the system

 There are interfaces between elements within a single system. (Loureiro, 1999)
Logical

Physical

Interfaces
Internal

External 23
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(1/4)

Source: Hull et al., 2005


Requirements attributes

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National Technology University of Tucumán (UTN) A First Introduction to Space Missions
National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
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(2/4)

Source: Hull et al., 2005


Requirements attributes

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National Technology University of Tucumán (UTN) A First Introduction to Space Missions
National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019

(3/4)

Source: Hull et al., 2005


Requirements attributes

26
National Technology University of Tucumán (UTN) A First Introduction to Space Missions
National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
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(4/4)

Source: Loureiro, 1999


Change history
Target specification
Required of subsystem
Required by subsystem
Target (development team)
Requirements attributes

27
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Requirements value
 For still negotiable requirements:
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 “The system shall support [M: 50, D: 100, B: 200] simultaneous users.”

 Add, for example,three attributes such as:


• M: the mandatory lower (or upper) limit;
• D: the desired value;
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• B: and the best value

 An attribute can be used to represent a value function as a set of performance/


value pairs:

28
A First Introduction to Space Missions Organize assumptions, goals and stakeholder and system requirements

Compliance
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Constraint
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Verifiability
Number Text Concern

Status
Type

PPO
T/I/D Procedure
S003 Provides for personal comfort/convenience Comfort F M TBD Prod Y D R202
S003.001 Comfortable front seats Comfort P M TBD Prod Y D R202
S003.002 Driving position is fully adjustable Comfort F D TBD Prod N D R202
S003.002.001 Can personalise seat, head rest and arm rest position Comfort F D TBD Prod N D R202
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S009.007.001 Starts quickly every time whether hot, cold or wet Driveability P M TBD Prod Y T R202
S009.007.002 Never stalls when cold or hot Driveability P M TBD Prod Y T R202
S009.007.003 Quick to idle and settle Driveability P M TBD Prod Y T R202
S009.007.004 Consistent start times Driveability P M TBD Prod Y T R202
S009.007.004 No overheating Driveability F M TBD Prod Y T R202

S012 Easy to service Maintenability P M TBD Proc Y T CETP

S020 Reuse resources from previous vehicle programs Investment efficiency F D TBD Org N D TBD
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Quality characteristics of a
requirement
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Atomic: each statement Precise


carries a single traceable Concise
element; Complete
Unique: each statement Consistent
can be uniquely identified; Unambiguous
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Clear: each statement is Implementation free or


clearly understandable; abstract
Legal: legally possible; Attainable, achievable,
Necessary feasible
Verifiable

Source: Kar & Bailey, 1996, Hull et all, 2005 30


A First Introduction to Space Missions

Pitfalls to be avoided
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Avoid ambiguity Don't mix requirements and


Don't make multiple plans
requirements Don't speculate
Avoid putting more than Don't play on ambiguous
more requirement in a requirements
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paragraph Don't use vague,


Don't build in let-out clauses undefinable terms
Don't ramble Don't express possibilities
Don't design the system Avoid wishful thinking
Don't mix requirements and
design

Source: Alexander & Stevens, 2002 and Hull et al., 2005

31
Stakeholder requirements
A First Introduction to Space Missions

boilerplates
 The <stakeholder type> shall be able to <capability>.
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 The <stakeholder type> shall be able to <capability> within


<performance> of <event> while <operational condition>.

 Example: The weapons operator shall be able to fire a missile within 3


seconds of radar sighting while in severe sea conditions.
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 The <stakeholder> shall not be placed in breach of <applicable law>.

 Example: The ambulance driver shall not be placed in breach of national


road regulations.

Source: Hull et al, 2005 32


System requirements boilerplates
A First Introduction to Space Missions

 The <system> shall <function> not less than <quantity> <object> while <operational
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condition>.

 Example: The communications system shall sustain telephone contact with not less than 10
callers while in the absence of external power.

 The <system> shall <function> <object> every <performance> <units>.

 Example: The coffee machine shall produce a hot drink every 10 seconds.
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Source: Hull et al, 2005 33


Lexical analysis in requirements
A First Introduction to Space Missions

engineering
 Consists of the identification of the presence of words and expressions in
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requirements statements, in requirements documents, and, from that presence


the confirmation whether the requirement has any quality problem.

 Shall: counting the number the word ‘shall’ appears in requirements


statements may indicate the presence of more than one requirement in one
paragraph
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 Words and expressions to be avoided: may, might, should, ought, could,


perhaps, probably, user-friendly, versatile, flexible, approximately, as
possible, efficient, improved, high performance, modern, usually,
generally, often, normally, typically, “if that should be necessary”, fault
tolerant, high fidelity, adaptable, rapid, fast, adequate, support, maximize,
minimize, etc, and/or.

 Words that require attention: will, if, when, but, except, unless, although,
always, and, or, with, also

 Attention must be given also to references to: dates, project phases, and
development activities, system, design, testing, or installation, names of
components, materials, software objects/procedures, database fields 34
Elements of requirements
A First Introduction to Space Missions

statements
Based on Microsatellites
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The transmitter shall send a message, with not more than 400
characters, every 30 seconds, with a transmission rate of 56
Kbits/second, until receiving acknowledgement message from receiver.

 Actor – the subject, the thing being specified

 Action – the verb, the action to be taken by the actor


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 Object of action – the thing acted upon by the actor.

 Conditions of action – the conditions under which the action is to take


place.

 Constraints of action – qualifies the action, e.g. required performance

 Refinement/source of object – qualifies the object

 Refinement/destination of action – qualifies the action, additional


constraints of action Source: Halligan, 2010

35
A First Introduction to Space Missions
Syntax analysis and parsing for
requirements
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 Syntax analysis consists of the identification of the roles of the terms in the
requirements statement.

 If the requirements statements were built based on boilerplates the roles of the
terms are already explicit.

 Parsing analysis consists of the comparison of a given requirement statement with


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a pattern boilerplate with which it should comply.

Source:
Halligan, 2010

36
National Technology University of Tucumán (UTN) A First Introduction to Space Missions
National University of Tucumán (UNT) Based on Microsatellites
07/10/2019 to 09/10/2019 Requirements quality assessment

Source:
Halligan, 2010

37
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Organizing requirements
documents
 minimize the number of requirements;
Based on Microsatellites
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 understand large amounts of information;


 find sets of requirements relating to particular
topics;
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 detect omissions and duplications;


 eliminate conflicts between requirements;
 manage iteration (e.g. delayed requirements);
 reject poor requirements;
 evaluate requirements;
38
Hierarchy in requirements
A First Introduction to Space Missions

documents
 use the section heading structure to categorize the requirements
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statements.

 the position that a requirement statement has in the document


represents its primary classification.

 secondary classifications can be given through links to other sections,


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or by using attributes.)

 use hierarchies from models as part of the heading structure for the
requirements document:
• goal or capability decomposition as in stakeholder scenarios;
• functional decomposition as in data flow diagrams;
• state decomposition as in statecharts.

39
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Requirements specification
according to Robert Halligan
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System
Component
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States Funct- Perfor- External Environ- Other


Resource Physical Design
& Modes ional mance Interface mental qualities

Boundary Boundary What Physical General Directed


Alternatives What How well
conditions conditions consume properties attributes design

N/A for N/A for


SW SW,
Human

Halligan, 2010

40 40
A First Introduction to Space Missions

Requirements specification
according to Robert Halligan
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1. Scope (or introduction) 4.6 Environmental requirements


2. Applicable and other reference documents 4.6.1 Classes of environment
2.1 Appplicable documents 4.6.x Class
2.2 Other referenced documents By parameter
3. Definitions, acronyms and abbreviation 4.6.y Environmental envelope(s) for x class
3.1 Definitions 4.7 Resource requirements
3.2 Acronyms By resource
3.3 Abreviation 4.8 Physical requirements
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4. Requirements (and goals) By parameter


4.1 Identification of external interfaces 4.9 Other qualities
The system shall have the following external interfaces By other qualities
4.2 Identification of states and modes By parameter
The system shall [states] 4.10 Design (& Construction) requirements
The system may [permitted states] 4.10.1 General design requirements
The system shall [modes] Requirements with no secondary actors
4.3 Functional and performance requirements 4.10.2 Characteristics of subordinate elements
Follow the hierarchy of a functional flow diagram 4.10.2.1 Engine
4.4 Relationships between states and modes Emulate 4.10 to 4.10.1 Warning:
4.5 External interface requirements 4.10.2.2 Flight manuals
Directed design
should be avoided
By interface, maybe organized hierarchically 4.10.2.3 Fuel pump
4.10.2.4 Nose wheel
5. Verification requirements (maybe)
6. Notes 41 41
A First Introduction to Space Missions
Organizing functional and
performance requirements -
example
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4.2 Functional and performance requirements


4.2.1 Functions common to all states
4.2.2 Standby state
4.2.3 Degraded operational state
4.2.3.1 Functions independent of mode in degraded operational
state
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4.2.3.2 Autonomous mode


4.2.3.3 Networked mode
4.2.3.4 Ship detection mode (degraded)
4.2.4 Operational state
4.2.4.1 Functions independent of mode in operational state
4.2.4.2 Autonomous mode
4.2.4.3 Networked mode
4.2.4.4 Ship detection mode
4.2.4.5 Aircraft detection mode
4.2.4.6 Satellite detection mode Halligan, 2010

4.2.4.7 High resolution mode 42 42


A First Introduction to Space Missions

Functional hierarchy vs.


specification structure
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EXAMPLE FUNCTIONAL HIERARCHY CORRESPONDING SPECIFICATION STRUCTURE


4. SPACECRAFT REQUIREMENTS
4.1 Identification of external interfaces
4.2 Identification of states and modes
4.3 Functional and performance requirements
SPACECRAFT ORBIT INJECTION 4.3.1 Spacecraft orbit injection
SPACECRAFT CHECKOUT AND DEPLOYMENT 4.3.2 Spacecraft checkout and deployment
TRANSFER TO OPERATIONAL ORBIT 4.3.3 Transfer to operational orbit
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OPERATIONS 4.3.4 Operations


SPACECRAFT ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION 4.3.4.1 Spacecraft electric power generation
SPACECRAFT ATTITUDE STABILIZATION 4.3.4.2 Spacecraft attitude stabilization
SPACECRAFT THERMAL CONTROL 4.3.4.3 Spacecraft thermal control
SPACECRAFT ORBIT MAINTENANCE 4.3.4.4 Spacecraft orbit maintenance
COMMAND RECEPTION 4.3.4.5 Command reception
HI-GAIN COMMAND RECEPTION 4.3.4.5.1 High-gain command reception
OMNI COMMAND RECEPTION 4.3.4.5.2 Omni command reception
COMMAND PROCESSING 4.3.4.6 Command processing
PAYLOAD DATA ACQUISITION 4.3.4.7 Payload data acquisition
SUBSYSTEM STATUS DATA ACQUISITION 4.3.4.8 Subsystem status data acquisition
PAYLOAD AND SUBSYSTEM DATA TRANSMISSION 4.3.4.9 Payload and subsystem data transmission
SUBSYSTEM DATA TRANSMISSION 4.3.4.10 Subsystem data transmission
CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS 4.3.5 Contingency operations
TRANSFER TO STS ORBIT 4.3.6 Transfer to STS Orbit
SPACECRAFT RETRIEVAL 4.3.7 Spacecraft retrieval Halligan, 2010
RE-ENTRY AND LANDING 4.3.8 Re-entry and landing
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quality
 complete
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 consistent
 non-redundant: each requirement is expressed once;
 modular: requirements statements that belong together
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are close to one another;


 structured: there is a clear structure to the requirements
document;
 satisfied: the appropriate degree of traceability coverage
has been achieved;
 qualified: the appropriate degree of traceability coverage
has been achieved.
Source: Hull et al, 2005 44
Requirements document
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completeness
 complete: the set of requirements has addressed
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all categories and covers all allocations from


higher levels.
• develop the system operations concept and an
associated set of scenarios.
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• walk through these from cradle to grave: how will the


system be delivered? how will it be deployed? how will it
be used, upgraded and disposed of?
• walk through the same set of scenarios and play the
"what if" game. What if something goes wrong?
• develop a checklist of topics or areas such as given in
MIL STD 490A or DOD STD 2167A Source: Kar & Bailey, 1996; Hull et al, 2005
• check the aggregate against a higher level specification 45
Requirements document
A First Introduction to Space Missions

consistency
 consistent: the set of requirements does not have individual
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requirements which are contradictory. Requirements are not


duplicated. The same term is used for the same item in all
requirements.

 In order to avoid inconsistencies:


• Classify requirements in several ways;
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• Use filtering and sorting techniques to draw together small numbers of


statements that address the same topic.
• Requirements can be given primary and secondary classifications.
Typically, each has a single primary classification (perhaps by virtue of its
position in the document), and multiple secondary classifications, perhaps
using links or attributes.
Source: Kar & Bailey, 1996; Hull et al, 2005

46