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Elements of Computer System Control Unit

1) Hardware – the physical components of a - Directs the flow of instructions and data within the
computer system central processing unit (CPU) (passes data to the
ALU for processing)
2) Software – instructions or programs that the
computer follows - Acts as a traffic controller. It interprets each
instruction and initiates the appropriate action to
3) Peopleware – people who develop or use
carry out
computer systems e.g. end-users, system
developers, database administrators, etc. Arithmetic Logic Unit
Hardware - Performs all the arithmetic and logical calculations
of the CPU
Hardware is the tangible physical parts of the
computer and related devices. Main Storage
Main Units of a Computer - Also called memory or primary storage
 Input - Stores 3 basic types of items
 Output
• OS and other system software
 Main Storage
 Processor • Application program

- Control Unit • Data/ Information.

- Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Types of Memory:

System Unit – houses the electronic components 1.) RAM (Random Access Memory) - stores data
that make up the computer system, such as: and instructions for processing; volatile

- Processor 2.) ROM (Read Only Memory) - contains stored

- Memory instructions that a computer requires to be able to do
- adapter cards its basic routine operations; nonvolatile
- ports Cache memory – high speed holding area ; for those
- drive bays informationwhich is frequently used by the CPU
- power supply
3.) CMOS (complementary metal-oxide
Two important components of the system unit: semiconductor) – provides information everytime
1) Processor – “brains” of the computer; contains computer is turned on, e.g. RAM capacity, date/time
the central
processing unit
2) Memory
PROCESSOR - interprets and carries out the basic
instructions that operate a computer
The processor contains
1. Control Unit
2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit
3. Registers- small, high speed storage location that Input device
temporarily hold data and instructions - a hardware or peripheral device used to send data
4. System Clock- controls the timing of computer to a computer. An input device allows users to
operations; it generates regular electronic pulses communicate and feed instructions and data to
(ticks) that sets the operating pace of the system unit computers for processing, display, storage and/or
components transmission
Examples of input devices
- camera
- joystick
- keyboard
- mouse SOFTWARE
- mic Programs which consists of step-by-step
- handheld scanner instructions to tell the computer how to
- touch tablet perform a task
- flatbed scanner Two Categories:
- Mark Interface Character Recognition 1) System Software
(magnetic ink character recognition) MICR - 2) Application Software
used to read the numbers printed at the
bottom of checks System Software
- Touch Screen -Consists of programs that control or
- Light Pen maintain the operations of the computer and
- Speech Synthesizers-converts human speech its devices
into digital form or written text into -Serves as the interface between the user, the
computerized voice application software, and the computer’s
- Sensors hardware
- Optical Mark Recognition Two (2) types of System Software
• Operating System
Output device
• Utility Programs
- Any device used to send data from a computer to Operating System
another device or user. -is a collection of programs that:
coordinates all the activities among
Secondary or Auxiliary Storage Devices computer hardware devices
- Is where data are stored permanently. It is -manages a computer system's internal
workings— its memory, processors, devices,
outside the primary storage and serves just like a and file system
filing cabinet. We store data in an auxiliary storage -Provides a means for users to communicate
device for 2 reasons: with the computer and other software
1. Primary storage can only store a limited amount Functions of OS
of data Boot Operation
- When a computer is first powered on, it
2. Data stored in primary storage are volatile and must initially rely only on the code and data
temporary stored in nonvolatile portions
Examples of Secondary or Auxiliary Storage of the systems memory.
Devices - This code is referred to as the BIOS (basic
input/output system), a firmware which
 Magnetic tape resides in the ROM. BIOS performs a series
of tests called the POST (power- on self
- Data are stored serially and can only be accessed
in a serial manner; high capacity cheap
- POST checks for various system
 Magnetic Disk components including system clock, adapter
cards, RAM chips, mouse, keyboards etc.
- Direct access storage media; high capacity
POST results are compared with data in the
and fast retrieval speed
 Optical Disc (CD, DVD, Blu-ray) - Reads/ - CMOS stores configuration information
write data through light/laser beams rather such as the amount of memory, current
than by the use of electromagnetism date/time, types of drives, etc.
 Solid State Drives - If any problems are identified, error
messages may display.
- uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory - If POST completes successfully, the BIOS
 External hard drive searches for system files and load them into
memory from storage (usually the hard
 Flash drive
 Cloud
- Next the kernel of the OS loads into
memory. Then the OS
in the memory takes control of the
Providing User Interface Administer Security
Interaction with a software is through its Provide File System
user interface. Three (3) types of UI: Providing File Management and other
1. Command-line interface – Utilities
displays a prompt, user types on the -OS provides users the capability of -
keyboard, computer executes and provide Managing files
the textual output - Viewing images
2. Menu-Driven interface – - Uninstalling programs
user has a list of items to choose from and - Scanning disks
can make selection by highlighting one - Diagnosing problems
3. Graphical User interface (GUI) - Disk Defragmenter
uses windows, icons, pointers, menus - Screen Saver
Manage Program Utility Programs
- Single user / single tasking operating - Type of system software that allows a user
system to perform maintenance-type tasks usually
- Single user / multitasking operating system related to managing a computer, its devices,
- Multiuser operating system or its programs
- Multiprocessing operating system - Back-up
Manage Memory - Anti Virus
- OS allocates, or assigns, data and 2. Application Software
instructions to an area of memory while they - can be called end-user programs since they
are being processed allow users to perform tasks such as creating
- Monitors contents of memory and releases documents, spreadsheets, publications,
items from memory when the processor no running business, playing games, etc.
longer requires them -Consists of programs designed to make
Schedule Jobs users more productive and assist them with
Jobs may include the following personal tasks
- Receiving data from an input device
- Processing instructions 2. Application Software Categories
- Sending information to an output device 2.1 Business
- Transferring items from storage to memory Word Processing
and vice versa Spreadsheet
Configure Devices Database
- A Device driver is a small program that tells Project Management
the OS how to communicate with a specific Accounting
device. 2.2 Graphics and Multimedia
- Each I/O device has its own specialized set Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
of Desktop Publishing
commands and thus require its own specific Paint-Image Editing
driver. When you boot the computer, the OS Video-Audio Editing
loads each devices driver. Web Page Authoring
Monitor Performance 2.3 Home Personal Educational
- OS assesses and reports information about Software Suite
various computer resources and devices Personal Finance
such as processor, disk, memory, and Photo/Video Editing
network usage Educational
Control Network Entertainment
A network OS organizes and coordinates 2.4 Communications
how multiple users access and share E-mail
resources on a network. Resources include Chat Facility
hardware, software, data, information Videoconferencing
Category of OS
- Stand Alone OS – can operate with or Application Software is available in a
without a network variety of forms
- Network OS – designed specifically to - Packaged
support a network; resides on a server - Custom
Open source software
software provided for use, modification, and
redistribution; no restrictions from the PEOPLEWARE
copyright holder regarding modification of
IT Group and Job Title
the software
Shareware Management Group
copyrighted software that is distributed at no
cost for a trial period Computer Systems Manager
Freeware -Plans and directs programming, computer
copyrighted software provided at no cost by operations, and data processing needs of the
an individual or a company that retains all company.
rights to the software; distributed for free in
the aim to expand the marketshare -He performs planning, organizing, monitoring and
of a"premium"product. controlling,staffing of the project.
Public-domain software - He must possess technical skills
software that has been placed in the public
domain: in other words, there is absolutely - must be a critical thinker
no ownership such as - knowledge of the business process
copyright, trademark, or patent.
Software in the public - ability to communicate and motivate people
domain can be modified, distributed, or sold Systems and Procedures Group
without any attribution by anyone* Systems Analyst
Low Level Languages
-Develop and apply principles to produce computer
Machine Language – 1st GL
applications and . They also design programming
Assembly Language – 2nd GL
tools, knowlege based systems, and computer
Procedural Languages – 3rd GL
Object Oriented Programming Computer Engineer
-A computer engineer tests computer components
Compiler – converts the entire source
and systems by developing and designing memory
program into machine language; Result is
devices, processors, circuit boards, and networks.
called the object code
Interpreter - translates and executes one - They make computers more mobile or incorporate
statement at a time; reads a code statement, computers in other areas, such as machines or
converts it to one or more machine language building materials.
instructions, and then executes those
machine language Programming Group
Computer Programmer
Resposible for writing, testing, and maintaining
detailed instruction or programs. The computer
- must be a critical thinker
- must pay close attention to minute details
- must have the ingenuity, creativeness and
imagination to develop problem-solving
Computer Operator
Computer Operator - sets up the processor, loads
and unloads programs, and ensures proper and
correct operations of the computer.
Data encoder - prepares and encodes documents to
transform source document into machine readable
Computer librarian - catalogues, strores,and secures
processing storage media
SECURITY AND FORENSICS This specialization focuses on network applications
and management.
This specialization focuses on application, data, and
network security and the management of WEB DESIGN AND APPLICATION
information technology security.
Design and development of fullyinteractive
Data collection, cleansing, and processing. websites and online applications for Internet
Application of statistical analysis on data. deployment
Correlating disparate data, storytelling, and
Computer Professionals
- Database Administrator
A Data Scientist does exploratory data analysis.
- Network or Systems Administrator
Make predictions based on trends in the data using
- Web Developer
supervised machine learning
- Application Specialist
The data scientist role also calls for strong data - Hardware/Software Test Engineer
visualization skills and the ability to convert data - Applications Architect
into a business story. - Quality Assurance Analyst
- Data Scientist
A Data analyst does exploratory data analysis He
- Data Analyst
must understand the data, cleanse it, and then
- Telecommunications Specialist
provide a visual representation of the data to
- Computer Security Specialist
business decision makers.
- Software Certification Specialist
He develops key performance indicators (KPI) to - Network Security Specialist
assess performance - Cloud Solutions Architect Business
Intelligence Developer
• Businesses saw the availability of such large - Information Security Analyst
volumes of data as a source of competitive
• It was clear that companies that could utilize this
data effectively could make better business
inferences and act accordingly, putting them ahead
of competitors that didn’t have these insights.
• To make sense out of such data, the need arose for
a new skillset – a profile that included business
acumen, customer/user insights, analytics skills,
statistical skills, programming skills, machine
learning skills, data visualization, and more.
• This led to the emergence of the data scientist role.
This specialization focuses on programming and the
development of sophisticated applications.
Over-all management of data resources in an
organization and handling of security, availability,
and accuracy of data.
Computer Security computer fools a network into believing that its IP
address is associated with a trusted source
Internet and Network Attacks
Safeguards vs. DOS/ Spoofing
1. Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses
- Firewall – hardware and/or software that protects a
2. Denial of Service Attacks
network’s resources from intrusion
3. Spoofing
(Use of proxy server to screen incoming and
Internet and Network Attacks
outgoing messages)
1. Virus - a program that affects or infects a
- Intrusion Detection Software – automatically
computer and can spread throughout, damaging and
analyzes network traffic, identifies unauthorized
altering files
intrusions, and notifies network administrators of
2. Worm – a program that copies itself repeatedly, possible system breaches
e.g. in memory of on a network, using up resources
- Honeypots – a vulnerable computer set up to
and possibly shutting down the computer or
entice an intruder to break into
Software theft
3. Trojan Horse – a program that hides within or
looks like a legitimate program; cause loss / theft of - Physical theft
data; does not replicate itself
- Intentional erasing programs
Key Difference Between Virus and Worms
- Illegal copies of a program
- Worms use Computer Networks to spread itself
Information Theft
while Viruses spread to different systems through
executable files. - Encryption
- The virus needs human action to replicate, - Digital Signatures
whereas, Worms don't.
Ethics and Privacy
- Spreading speed of a Worm is faster than a Virus.
- The virus tends to damage, destroy or alter the Computer Ethics
files of target computers, whereas, Worms does not - Moral guidelines that govern the use of
modify any file but aims to harm the resources
computers and information systems
Anti-Virus Software
Areas of Computer Ethics
What it does
1. Unauthorized use of computers and networks
- Scans for programs that attempt to modify
programs that are normally read only 2. Software theft (piracy)

- Uses virus signature (specific pattern of virus 3. Information accuracy

code) to identify a virus 4. Intellectual Property Rights
- Inoculates a program file – records information 5. Codes of Conduct
such as file size and file creation date in an
inoculation file to determine if file has been 6. Information Privacy
tampered Areas of Computer Ethics
- Quarantines infected file in a separate area of a 1. Unauthorized use of computers and networks
hard disk
- Gain access to a bank computer to perform
Internet and Network Attacks
unauthorized transfer
4. Denial of Service Attacks – purpose is to disrupt
computer access to an internet service e.g. web or - Employee using an organization’s computer to
email; influx of confusing data messages are sent to send personal e-mail messages
the computer network Safeguard: Companies should have Acceptable Use
5. Spoofing – technique used by intruders to make Policy (AUP) which outlines the computer activities
their network or internet transmission appear for
legitimate e.g. IP spoofing is when intruder
which computer and network may or may not be information is entered into a database
- Everytime you click an advertisement on the Web
2. Software Theft or register software online, your information and
preferences enter a database
- Stealing of software media
- Intentional erasing of program
A small text file that a Web server stores on your
- Illegal Copies of Program (Piracy)
computer; contains data about you e.g. your
Safeguard : Issuing of licence agreement for
software use
3. Information Accuracy
- User passwords
- Information on the Web may not be accurate
- User’s shopping cart
- Concerns about the ethics of using computers to - Visits to a site and web pages visited
alter output primarily graphical output
- Information on the Web may not be accurate
- A program placed on a computer without the
- Concerns about the ethics of using computers to user’s knowledge that secretly collects information
alter output primarily graphical output National about the user
Press Photographers Association believes that
- Spyware can be hidden in adware, a program that
allowing alterations could lead to misrepresentative
displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-
up window on web pages, email or internet services
4. Intellectual Property Rights
- Another type of spyware, called a Web bug, is
- IP (Intellectual Property) - unique and original hidden on Web pages on in email messages in the
works such as ideas, inventions, art, writings, form of graphical images. Web businesses use Web
processes, company and product name and logos bugs to monitor online habits of online visitors

- Intellectual Property Rights – rights to which Spam - unsolicited email messages

creators are entitled for their work
Phishing – when seemingly legitimate / official
Copyright gives authors and artists exclusive rights
looking email attempts to obtain personal /financial
to duplicate, publish, and sell their materials
5. Code of Conduct
An IT (Information Technology) code of conduct is
a written guideline that helps determine whether a
specific computer action is ethical or unethical
- Computers may not be used to harm other people
- Computers may not be used to steal
- Computers may not be used to bear false witness
- Employees may not meddle in others computer
-Employees may not use others computer resources
without authorization
- Employees shall consider the social impact of
programs and systems they design
6. Information Privacy
- Everytime you fill out an e-form e.g. for magazine
subscription, contest entry, product warranty, your