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Different Approachs to Teaching of Science

UNIT 3 DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO


Notes TEACHING OF SCIENCE

Structure
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Learning Objectives.
3.2 Methodology of Teaching
3.3 Expository Approaches or Transmission Approach
3.3.1 Statement of Rule
3.3.2 Clarification/Explanation of Rule
3.3.3 Justification of The Rule
3.3.4 Application of The Rule
3.3.5 Advantages
3.3.6 Limitations
3.4 Discovery Approaches- Advantages, Limitations
3.4.1 Clarification of the Rule
3.4.2 Justification of the Rule
3.4.3 Statement of the Rule
3.4.4 Application of the Rule
3.4.5 Advantages
3.4.6 Limitations
3.5 Inquiry Approaches or Process Skills
3.5.1 Clarification of the Rule
3.5.2 Justification of the Rule
3.5.3 Statement of the Rule
3.5.4 Application of the Rule
3.5.5 Advantages
3.5.6 Limitations
3.6 Let Us Sum Up
3.7 Suggested Readings and References
3.8 Unit-End Exercises

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3.0 INTRODUCTION
A set of human behaviours is infinite. Similarly a set of teaching behaviors which is a Notes
subset of human behaviours is also infinite one. For every element belonging to the first
set, there exists a corresponding element in another set. In short, these two sets are
equivalent. Then question arises, what is the distinguishing characteristic between these
two sets of behaviour? The distinguishing characteristic is the difference between their
intentions. Teaching behaviour is intentional; its basic intention is: Somebody learns
something. (P learns X)
The intentions can be simple as knowing the name of an object and as complex as
development of the character of students. The complexity of the teaching varies directly
according to the complexity of its intentions. This complexity is greatly increased when
the teacher interacts with different types of the students in different classroom settings
and that too under numerous constraints of time, resources etc. Many experts have
tried to define teaching but there is no agreement on the definition of teaching. But
generally they agreed upon the following definition as:
“Teaching is an interactive process between the teacher and the students in classroom
situation with predetermined objective to be achieved, and its effects can be measured
in terms of both immediate and intermediate product variables.”
On the basis of studies on research on teaching, there exist three distinct different
mathematical equations which can describe teaching. These are as follows:
Table 3.1 Teaching as a Mathematical relationship
Sr.No. Author Relationship Teacher’s role Students role
1 ????? X—Y Authoritarian Passive
2 Henderson X—Y—Z Moderator Less passive, more
(1969) active
3 Jones & In W, Facilitator Totally active
Bhalwankar X—Y—Z
(1986)
X- Teacher, Y- Subject, Z- Students, W- Learning Environment.
Out of these three equations, the first equation is dominating the classrooms as on
today also. In order to use other two equations it is necessary to use different method
of teaching by the teachers. After studying this unit you will be able to evolve your own
style of teaching by blending all the method appropriately while teaching in the classroom.
This is necessary to keep the quality of teaching and schooling very high.

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3.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES


Notes
After going through this unit, you will be able to
● describe different approaches of teaching such as expository, discovery, and
inquiry.
● differentiate between all the approaches of teaching.
● explain the relationship between all the approaches of teaching.
● use the methods to different units from Science.
● develop lesson plans based on a particular unit with respect to all the three methods
of teaching.
● explain different units of Science from the perspective of three methods.

3.2 METHODOLOGY OF TEACHING


Well known American Psychologist of the last century B. F. Skinner (1971) had said,
‘You can teach anybody anything provided you know how to teach’. This highlights
the importance of pedagogy/ methods of teaching at all levels of education. Therefore,
if one analyses any curriculum of teacher education, one finds that more weightage is
given to methodology of teaching courses. In some teacher education programmes
methods and /or contents of school subjects are taught, whereas in some content-
cum-methodology is taught to the prospective teachers. However, Methodology of
Teaching has been at the heart of the teacher education programme throughout the
world. In order to learning to happen in the classrooms, teaching behaviours should
occur in a sequence. These sequences can be classified into different meaningful
categories such as strategies, methods, patterns etc. The definitions of method are
given below –
The relationship established by an educational institution with a group of participants,
for the purpose of systematically diffusing knowledge among them.
Henderson (1963, p.1007) observes – a pattern that is set of common properties
that a set of behaviour manifests will be called as a method.
According to Broudy (1963,p.2) methods refer to the formal structure of sequence of
acts, commonly denoted by instruction.
These definitions clearly indicate two important aspects of the method:
(a) Systematic organization of the content.
(b) Imparting knowledge and methods of acquiring it.

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Table 3.2 Relationship between Different Approaches of Teaching


S.No. Parameters Expository Discovery Approach Inquiry Approach/
Notes
transmission process skills
Approach

1 Cues All cues provided Some cues provided No cues provided by


by the teacher by the teacher the teacher.

2 Structured ness Highly Structured Averagely structured Low structured

3 Teaching-Learning Totally teacher Moderately teacher Totally Student


process centered centered centered

From the table it is very clear that all the three approaches are not mutually exclusive
but related to each other. All the three approaches differ with respect to cues, structured
ness, and the involvement of the teacher and the student in teaching learning process.
In expository approach all the cues provided by teacher while teaching, the deductive
thinking where in abstract content is differentiated by the teacher giving appropriate
examples to the students. Teaching Learning process is totally controlled by the teacher.
In Discovery Approach some cues in the form of a learning material is presented by
the teacher to the students and using Inductive thinking, the students are expected to
discover the concept or the generalization/rule. Therefore the teaching learning process
is partially controlled by the teacher and students also involved to a great extent. In
Inquiry approach the students are given a problem or a discrepant event. The students
will ask the teacher questions to collect the data and they through interaction find out
a satisfactory solution to a given problem or explanation to the given discrepant event.
In this approach the teaching learning process is totally controlled by the students.
As a teacher, one has to teach facts, concepts and rules/generalizations across all the
subject matter and all levels of education. Henderson (1963) has systematically analyzed
thousands of audiotapes of classroom teaching of mathematics teachers. He has
identified the four general teaching moves, which are required to teach any rule. These
are given below:
Statement of rule (SR): A statement of rule under study may be made either
(Assertion move) by the students or the teacher
Clarification of the rule (CR): Through the use of examples, demonstrations,
evidence of proof, discussions of sub rule.
Justification of the rule (JR): This move identifies the veracity of that which is under
study, cross-proofs, opinions of experts etc.
Application of the rule (AR): In order to insure that the students are able to take
learned rules into other settings, there must be some
form of practice

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Different methods can be generated by making use of one or more moves referred
above and changing the sequence of these moves. In short all the three methods are
Notes not mutually exclusive but are related to each other. Therefore, it is highly essential for
every teacher need be conversant with these moves so that depending on subject
matter, availability of resources, time, etc. he/she can select and execute appropriate
method(s) while teaching in the classroom
In short, the concept of method can be stated in terms of a Mathematical equation as
Method of Teaching = Content + Processing of Content
How the content can be processed in the classroom by teacher is explained in
subsequent sections. Effectiveness of teaching largely depends on the method used by
the teacher in the classroom. Effectiveness of teaching is just like a Mathematical ray
which has a starting point but no end point at all.

3.3 EXPOSITORY APPROACHES OR


TRANSMISSION APPROACH
Expository Approach is also known as Transmission Approach. In this approach the
teacher is communicating maximum information to the students in minimum of time.
This approach helps the teacher to cover the content to be taught to the students. This
approach is widely used across all the subjects and different levels of education by the
teacher. The main proponent of this method is David P. Ausubel. The word expository
is derived from exposition which means an explanation or interpretation in which
commentary by the teacher is given that seeks to clarify the meaning of and implications
of the object of exposition. In this approach there are various methods such as Expository
Method, Tell and do method, deductive method etc. are included. The approach is
totally teacher centered. In this section you will be studying Expository method in
detail.
Expository Method: If the initial move of the teacher is the statement of the rule or
generalization or principle (followed by clarification, justification and application of the
rule) then the sequence of moves is known as Expository Method.
SR—CR—JR—AR.
Depending upon the combination of these moves and number of moves used by the
teacher while teaching, the expository method takes different forms such as telling
method, tell and do method, lecture method, and expository method. In order to be
effective expository teacher the teachers must use all the four moves in a sequence that
is mentioned above.
Let us study the following example where in expository method has been applied to a
unit from VI standard Science.

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3.3.1 Statement of Rule


If two liquids mix very well with each other than the liquids are known as miscible Notes
liquids. If the two liquids do not mix well then the two liquids are known as immiscible
liquids.
The teacher can make use of different media to show this rule to the students such as
writing on the board or use of PPT slide or preparing a worksheet specially prepared
by the teacher to record the data.
After introducing the rule to the students, the teacher will give different examples by
demonstration of miscibility/immiscibility of two liquids. All the cues are provided by
the teacher hence the observations also should be from the teacher only.

3.3.2 Clarification/Explanation of Rule


In order to clarify the rule to the students, the teacher will conduct the experiments to
demonstrate miscibility-immiscibility of any two liquids. He will have to use a number
of liquids to clarify the rule.
Materials Required
Test tubes, Liquids such as Water, Alcohol, Milk, Kerosene, Lemon Juice, Mustard
oil, Vinegar, Coconut oil, Butter milk and many others.
Data sheet to record observations
Sr. No. Liquid 1. Liquid 2 Observation as reported by
the teacher
1 Water Milk
2 Water Kerosene
3 Water Alcohol
4 Water Mustard oil
5 Water Coconut oil
Many examples need be used by the teacher.
The teacher should demonstrate a number of examples to clarify miscibility and
immiscibility of two liquids. Each example should be related to the rule stated in the
beginning. This will help the students to assimilate the rule meaningfully.

3.3.3 Justification of the Rule


This is the rare move used by the teacher in the classroom. The justification of the rule
can be done by various techniques such as historical development of the rule, proving

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the rule by different methods, asking the students to perform the experiment and reporting
of the observations. In this example, the teacher can justify by changing the sequence
Notes of the mixing the liquids. If liquid A is miscible with B then B is miscible with A.

3.3.4 Application of the Rule


a) The teacher can apply the rule to more than two liquids
b) If A is miscible with B, B is miscible with C then A is miscible with C.
c) What would have happened if milk would not have miscible with water?
d) What would have happened if kerosene would not have miscible with diesel/if
petrol?
Every time the teacher will relate to rule that is stated in the beginning. Ausubel has
termed it as an Advance Organizer. This advance organizer is differentiated in terms of
examples. Every time examples are anchored with Advance organizer, resulting in to
Meaningful Verbal Learning.

3.3.5 Advantages
This is mostly preferred method/approach by the teacher all over the world. This
method has definite advantages over two other approaches. These are given below.
● Effective in communicating new knowledge in short period of time. The teachers
always complain shortage of time to complete the syllabus. If this method is
judiciously used the teacher can ‘Cover’ the syllabus.
● Gestaltic view of the subject is presented to the students resulting into meaningful
verbal learning.
● Effective for knowledge and comprehension objectives. There is no conclusive
proof.
● Suitable for all types of subject matter and high levels of education. Hence it is
still used to large extent at all levels.

3.3.6 Limitations
Although this is widely used approach/method, it suffers from the following limitations.
● Students are passive to a large extent. All the cues provided by the teacher.
● Rote memorization is encouraged.
● Not effective for higher level of objectives especially analysis, evaluation and
creativity.

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● Students depend on teacher all the time.


● No scope for the creativity of the students. Notes
● Not at all suitable at lower level (Elementary and secondary)
In order to be effective transmitter of information/knowledge, the teacher should make
all the four moves while teaching in the classroom. He/she will have to use first move
as statement of the rule.

ACTIVITY -1

You know there are three types of substances- Acidic, Basic, and Neutral.
Select any rule and draft a plan to teach that rule by Expository Method as
explained in the preceding section.
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3.4 DISCOVERY APPROACHES


The main proponents of this category of methods are Jerome Bruner, Hilda Taba,
Robert Davies and many others. Warren Colburn published a book entitled “First
Lessons Intellectual Arithmetic upon the Inductive Method of Instruction”. Since then
a number of educators trying to popularize these group methods, but this method is
rarely used by the teachers in the classroom. According to Bruner, discovery is a
process, a way of approaching problems rather than a product or a particular item of
knowledge. Many educators developed instructional strategies based on ideas proposed
by Bruner.
The discovery approach is a type of teaching that encourages students to take a more
active role in their learning process by answering a series of questions or solving
problems designed to introduce a general concept (Mayer 2003). While teaching any
rule from any discipline, the same moves are to be used as given in the Expository
method but its sequence is different while using the discovery approach. There are
three types of methods that are included under discovery approach- Open Discovery
method, Guided Discovery method, and Deductive discovery method. The first two
types Open Discovery and Guided Discovery methods are based on Inductive thinking
and Deductive Discovery based on Deductive Thinking. Open Discovery method is
mostly followed by Scientists where as the teachers use Guided Discovery method
while teaching to the students. The pattern that is used in Guided Discovery method is

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Example-Rule. The teacher starts with the examples of the rule and then the students
generate rule on the basis of similarities and difference between different examples
Notes presented to them by the teacher. In this section Guided Discovery Method is explained
in detail.
Since the moves used in the discovery approach are the same as those used in the
expository approach, the distinguishing factor between the two is the position of the
assertion move or statement of rule move. Hence guided discovery method can be
defined as a sequence of moves in which the assertion move, if at all appears, appears
late in the sequence. The typical sequence is as under:
CR—JR—SR—AR
Let us study this method by taking the same unit of Miscibility and Immiscibility of
liquids. In this method the teacher does not state the rule in the beginning but starts
with the examples of the rule as follows-

3.4.1 Clarification of the Rule


At this stage the teacher will make available all the material required for conducting the
experiment related to miscibility/immiscibility of two liquids. The teacher should provide
data sheet where in the students are required to record the data/observations of the
experiment.
Materials Required
Test tubes, Liquids such as Water, Alcohol, Milk, kerosene, lemon juice, Mustard oil,
Vinegar, Coconut oil, Butter milk and many others.
The teacher will start demonstrating experiment related to mixing of two liquids. Here
is one more option available to the teacher as providing experimental kits to each
student asking the students to write their observations in the data sheet.
Table 4.3 Data sheet for recording observations.
Sr. No. Liquid 1. Liquid 2 Observations by Students
1 Water Milk
2 Water Kerosene
3 Water Alcohol
4 Water Mustard oil
5 Water Coconut oil
Students are free to select any two liquids provided they do not choose harmful liquids
such as Concentrated Sulphuric acid. The students should classify miscible and
immiscible liquids in the context of Water.

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3.4.2 Justification of the Rule


This is the rare move used by the teacher in the classroom. The students should be Notes
encouraged by the teacher to justify by changing the sequence of the mixing the liquids.
The students should generalize as if liquid A is miscible with B then B is miscible
with A.

3.4.3 Statement of the Rule


Through interaction between the teacher and the students, the students will generate
the rule related to miscibility and immiscibility of two or more liquids. The teacher
should help the students to verbalize the rule.

3.4.4 Application of the Rule


The items which have been given in Expository method can be dealt in discovery
method also. The difference is that the students should do the experiment first and then
based on observation the students can generate rules.
a) The students can take more than two liquids and mix with each other and observe.
b) The students mixes A with B, B with C and A with C then generate rule.
The students can discuss in small groups the following questions and report in the
class.
a) What would have happened if milk would not have miscible with water?
b) What would have happened if kerosene would not have miscible with diesel/
petrol?
The example given above is of Guided discovery method. Some cues have been
provided but the thrust is always from example to rule and that too rule is to be
generated by the students.

3.4.5 Advantages
Since the students are involved in the teaching-learning process this method has certain
advantages which are given below.
a) Process of teaching is more important than product of teaching. This creates
interest among the students with respect o the subject of study. All the time the
students may not be able to generate rule and put it in verbal form. In the beginning
of discovery lesson the teacher should help in developing rule. As students exposed
to such lessons they will learn to generate rules very easily.
b) Ability to analyze, organize knowledge in attacking problems is developed because
students are actively involved in all the learning experiences created by the teacher.

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c) Students enjoy learning because they themselves discover knowledge.

Notes d) There is always constant interaction between content, teacher and the students.
This results into development of information processing abilities of the students.

3.4.6 Limitations
Although the teacher is moderately monitoring the teaching learning process, if it is not
properly handled then it may lead to the following limitations.
a) Time consuming; students may not progress beyond basic notions in any discipline.
b) Frustration may be there with low ability students because they may not discover
any relationship.
c) A lot of efforts should be put in by the students and the teacher. The school
should have enough resources to be provided to the students.
d) All teachers may not be comfortable with this method.
e) Costly method in terms of time and other resources.
It is generally found that teaching by discovery is more effective for achieving higher
level objectives, and retention of the content taught by Guided Discovery Method
than that of Expository Method.

ACTIVITY -2

The rule that is selected in the preceding section. Plan the teaching episode
by guided discovery method. Use the space given below to write your plan.
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3.5 INQUIRY APPROACHES OR PROCESS SKILLS


There are number of inquiry approaches suggested by different experts. The common
element in all these approaches is that the process skills are developed of the students
when this approach is judiciously used by the teacher. This approach is proposed by
Richard Suchman, Oliver and Shaver, Schwab, among others .The Inquiry Approach
is the extension of the discovery approach. In any inquiry discovery is always there but
vice versa is not true. In this method cause and effect relationship is established and
the teacher provides no cues to the students. This is truly learner centered method. In

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this method teacher presents the students a problem/discrepant event to solve. Then
the students ask questions to the teacher and collect the data. Then the students test
the different hypotheses and finally find the satisfactory explanation to the discrepant Notes
event.
The typical sequence is as under:
CR—JR—SR—AR.
Although the sequence of Discovery and Inquiry is the same, the students ask questions
to the teacher to collect the data related to a discrepant event presented by the teacher
in the initial stages of the teaching episode. The following method is based on Inquiry
Training Model proposed by Joyce and Well (1985). The ground rules for asking
questions are as follows-
● Questions should be phrased so as to answer by ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
● Once called upon student can ask as many questions as he may wishes.
● The teacher does not answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ of theory verifying questions.
● Any student can test any theory at any time. Any time if the students feel to
confer, they can do it.
● Inquirers are allowed to work with experimental kits.
Inquiry training has following phases.
i. Encounter with the problem.
ii. Data Gathering- verification.
iii. Data gathering—Experimentation.
iv. Hypothesizing.
v. Testing of hypothesis /Formulation of an explanation.
vi. Analysis of the inquiry process.
Discrepant Event / Problem for inquiry-
The first step in Inquiry Training model is the teacher demonstrates the experiment to
all the students.
The teacher takes 20 cc of one liquid in one of the test tube and it was mixed in 20 cc
of another liquid.
The teacher measures the volume of the resultant mixture of two liquids which is less
than 40 cc.

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The teacher asks the questions to the students.-Why the volume of the mixture did is
less than 40 cc?
Notes
Table 4.4 Showing types of questions can be asked during inquiry training model.
Types of data Type of questions Verification Experimental Synthesis Necessity

Objects

Properties

Events

Conditions

The students can questions to verify objects, events, properties and conditions with
respect to verification, experiments and necessity. In all there are sixteen types of
questions that can be asked with respect to any discrepant event or problem. It is
generally observed that in the first encounter with this approach the students may not
be able to ask 16 types of questions mentioned in the table. But once the students are
exposed to this approach/method they ask different types of questions. A sample of
16 types of questions is given in the next section.

3.5.1 Clarification of the Rule


After observing the discrepant event demonstrated by the teacher, the students are
allowed to ask the questions as they like so that they will collect the data with respect
to the discrepant event. Examples of each of the sixteen types of questions are given
below:
Verifying objects Teacher’s Response
Is it water as one of the two liquids? Yes
Is it kerosene the other liquid? No
Verifying events
Does it happen with any two liquids? No
Is it peculiar phenomenon with respect to these two liquids? Yes
Verifying properties
Does the first liquid evaporate quickly? No
Does second liquid evaporate quickly in comparison with first liquid? Yes
Was there any leakage in the third test tube? No

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Verifying conditions.
Does this reduction of volume happen at room temperature? Yes Notes
Does it happen when glass test tubes are taken? No
Was there any liquid left in any one of the test tube? No
Once the students are familiar with this method they start asking experimental questions
with respect to the problem/discrepant event.
Experimental Questions- Objects.
If we change from glass test tube to metal tubes, does Yes
volume get reduced?
If we add colour to both the liquids, do we get same result? Yes
Experimental Questions- events
If we take 40cc of both the liquids, do we get volume less than 80cc? Yes.
If we change the experimenter do we get the same result? Yes
Experimental questions- properties
If we take 40 degrees Celsius temperature of both Yes
the liquids, do we get same result?
If one of the liquid is not mixable, then do we get the same result? No
Experimental questions- conditions
If we mix second liquid to first liquid, do we get same result? Yes
If we perform the experiment in the open air, Yes
do we get the same result?
Synthesis –objects
Does this phenomenon happen with water and alcohol? Yes
At this point the students discover that 20 cc of water When mixed
with 22 cc of alcohol, the resulting volume is less than 40 cc. But
inquiry goes beyond discovery. Why the volume is decreased is
further explored by the students through questioning.
Does this phenomenon depend on type of test tubes, experimenter? No
Synthesis Questions - Events
Does the reduction in volume due to miscibility of two liquids? Yes.

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Does the reduction in volume due to evaporation of one No.


of the liquids?
Notes
Synthesis Questions- Properties
Does reduction in volume is due to miscibility of water and alcohol? Yes
Does reduction in volume is due to difference in sizes of the test tube? No
Synthesis questions –conditions.
Does reduction in volume is due to conduct of the experiment
at normal temperature? Yes.
Does reduction in volume is due to error in measurement? No
Necessity Questions- Objects.
Is it necessary to use the two liquids to observe this phenomenon of
reduction in volume? No.
Is it necessary that only water and alcohol should be used? Yes.
Necessity Questions Events
Is it necessary alcohol should be added to water in
order to observe the phenomenon? No
Is it necessary to use same measuring cylinder for finding
out volumes? Yes.
Necessity Questions Properties
Is it necessary both the substances in liquid form? Yes.
Is it necessary that both the liquids should be colourless? No.
Necessity Questions- Conditions
Is it necessary that both the liquids mixed together at the same time? No.
Is it necessary to repeat the experiment several times to arrive at
conclusion? No.
The various types of questions that can be asked have been given above. The students
may not be able ask so many different types of questions in the beginning but with
repeated use of this method gradually start asking number of different types of questions.
The questions may not appear sequentially. The process is more important than finding
out satisfactory answer to the discrepant event. With the help of questioning the students
may arrive at satisfactory solution to the discrepant event.

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3.5.2 Justification of the Rule


This is the rare move used by the teacher in the classroom. The students should be Notes
encouraged by the teacher to justify by changing the sequence of the mixing the liquids.
The reduction in volume takes place irrespective of order of mixing the two liquids.

3.5.3 Statement of the Rule


Through interaction between the teacher and the students, the students will generate
the satisfactory explanation why there is reduction in the volume when alcohol and
water are mixed together.

3.5.4 Application of the Rule


The rule/scientific principle can be applied to other fields also. It has been observed
that the students actually applied this principle to different fields. The items which have
been given in Expository method and discovery method, these can be used in Inquiry
method also. The difference is that the students should do the experiment first and then
based on observation the students can generate rules.
a) The students can take more than two liquids and mix with each other and observe.
b) The students mixes A with B, B with C and A with C then generate rule.
The students can discuss in small groups the following questions and report in the
class.
c) What would have happened if milk would not have miscible with water?
d) What would have happened if kerosene would not have miscible with diesel/
petrol?

3.5.5 Advantages
This is most effective method from the students’ point of view. They control the teaching
learning process all the time. The advantages of this method are as under.
a) Thought provoking method. Divergent type of thinking is encouraged and nurtured.
This is reflected in different types of questions that are asked by the students
during data gathering phase.
b) Development of the inquiry processes of the students. The process consists of
collection of the data, formation of hypotheses, testing of hypotheses and ultimately
formulation of satisfactory explanation of discrepant event/problem.
c) Learning becomes challenging and joyful.
d) Students become independent learners. Develops scientific outlook.

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e) Students realize the tentative nature of the knowledge. A particular theory may be
modified subsequently leading to more satisfactory explanation.
Notes
f) Cause and effect relationship is established. This is required for development of
theory from that area of specialization.

3.5.6 Limitations
This method is quite modern in comparison with earlier methods. It has the following
limitations.
a) Time consuming. When the students are exposed to this method first time they
are not able to ask precise questions. This result in to delay in finding out solution
to the given problem.
b) All the units cannot be taught by this method. It can be applied to the situation
where cause and effect relationship is to be established
c) The students may get frustrated if there is no satisfactory explanation is reached.

ACTIVITY -3

1. The different questions related to discrepant have been given in the


preceding section. Write down at least one question under each of the
categories of questions.
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2. Develop discrepant/problems to be solved by Inquiry method.
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3.6 LET US SUM UP


It is clear from the above discussion that the methods are not mutually exclusive but
they differ in the sequence of moves. Although the sequence in discovery and inquiry is
the same, they differ in with respect to the clarification move. In inquiry the students
ask questions to the teacher related to the discrepant event and collect the data. This

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is part of the clarification move. By using these methods judiciously in an eclectic


manner the following transformation takes place in the classroom which is experienced
by the author. Notes

Lower level objective — Higher level objectives


Monologue—Dialogue — Interaction between the students.
Content knowledge — Syntactic knowledge.
Knowledge as a product — Knowledge as a process.
Convergent thinking — Divergent Thinking.
Memorization — Mastery Learning.
Teacher centred — Student centred
It is experience of the author that the teachers can be trained to use all these methods
comfortably and can be applied in any classroom irrespective of the number of students
in the classroom, the subject taught, and grade level of the students. The author is of
the opinion that there a few units of teaching which can be taught by either by discovery
or by inquiry. If the teachers spend about 15% to 20% of the total teaching time on
these two methods it will make our classroom more enjoyable and vibrant. And
ultimately the statement made in the report of the education commission by prof. Kothari,
‘The destiny of India being shaped in her classroom’ will come true.

APPENDIX
In the section 4.5 Inquiry Training Model has been explained briefly. Some of the
examples of the discrepant events are given below. You as a teacher can yourself find
out the discrepancy.
i) Materials. - Rubber band, weights. Suspend the weight by the rubber band. Put
the lighted match near the rubber band. The weight will rise. Why the weight rises
when rubber band is heated?
ii) Materials- Matches, piece of cotton cloth, rubbing alcohol, and water. Soak the
cloth in a mixture of 2 parts of alcohol and 1 part of water. When lit the alcohol
will flame up and burn, but the cloth will not be consumed Why the cloth is not
burnt although dipped into alcohol?
iii) An explorer walks one mile south, then walks 1 mile east, then turns and walks
one mile due north. He finds himself back where he started. Why the explorer
reached to the same point where he started?
iv) Carbon dioxide raw hide why decide tightly boxed Hold the glass rod over these
words. Look through the glass rod. What do you observe? Why some words
look exactly the same whereas some words differently?

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Different Approachs to Teaching of Science

v) Materials — Raw egg, large jar, vinegar. Place an egg in the jar full of vinegar and
let the egg stand over night. The egg will rise to the surface, sink to the bottom
Notes and perhaps rise again. By morning the egg will be enlarged and have a soft shell.
Why the egg is enlarged and become soft?

3.7 SUGGESTED READINGS AND REFERENCES


Bhalwankar A. G.(1984) A study of the effects of the expository and guided discovery
methods of teaching mathematics on the achievements of the students of different
levels of intelligence. Unpublished Ph.D.Dissertation, University of Pune, Pune
Bhalwankar A. G. and Jones H. E.(1987) Inquiry training model, University of Houston,
Houston,
Bhalwankar A. G. (1998) Research on content cum methodology-A framework, in
Joshi A. N.(Ed.) Content cum methodology, Yeshvantrao Chavan Maharashtra
Open University.
Bloom B. S. (1956) Taxonomy of educational activities, Handbook I Longman.
Devenport T. H. (1997) Information Ecology, Oxford University Press, New York.
Duck Lloyd, (1981) Teaching with charima, Allyn & Bacan Inc Boston.
Dunkin and Biddle B. (1974) The study of teaching, Holt Riehart & Winston.
Henderson K. B. ( 1969) in Gage N. L.(Ed.) Handbook of research on teaching,
Rand MacNally and company, New York,.
Jones H.C. and Bhalwankar A. G. (1990) Classroom teaching models in Rust V. D.
and Dalin Per (Eds) Teachers and teaching in developing world, Pergamon Press,
New York.
Joyce Bruce and Weil Marsha, (1985) Models of Teaching, Prentice Hall Inc. New
Delhi,
Shulman, L. S. & Keislar E.R. (Eds) (1966) Learning by Discovery, Rand, Macnally,
Suchman, J. R. (1962) Inquiry Training: Building skills for autonomous discovery,
University of Illinois, Illinois

3.8 UNIT-END EXERCISE


Assignment/Project
Shri Lawate is a secondary school teacher from a small town from the state of
Maharashtra. He has evolved his style of teaching with the help of blending tenets of

86 Diploma in Elementary Education (D.El.Ed)


Different Approachs to Teaching of Science

Philosophical role model Experimentalism, and Psychological theories such as


Constructivitism, and Humanism. He typically uses these tenets to teach a unit from
Chemistry to the VII grade students as follows- Notes

One day he started teaching unit by showing two test tubes half filled with two liquids.
He asked the students about the colour of the two liquids which were colourless. Then
he poured both the liquids in a beaker. The students were surprised to see the colour
after mixing as beautiful ‘PINK’ colour. Then he threw the liquid on the students who
were sitting just near to the teacher’s table. Then the students started shouting saying
that sir what are you doing? Is it holi?. There was dissonance in the class.
Today we will study why was there pink colour after mixing two liquids? And Why
was colour faded away?
You can ask me as you can but I will answer by Yes or No. The students were
exposed to Inquiry Training Model by the teacher. The students could arrive at
explanation of the discrepant event.
Carefully study this learning scenario and complete the assignment with the help of
following activities.
1. Prepare a plan based on four moves as SR, CR, JR and AR.
2. Implement the prepared plan in your classroom.
3. Audio record the lesson.
4. Transcript the lesson.
5. List down the different types questions asked by the student.
6. Prepare a report of your teaching-learning process.
7. Your suggestions to improve teaching.

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