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5G Cloud-RAN and Fronthaul

5G-KS 2018 (IITM Research Park)

RaviKanth Pasumarthy, AVP Technology


Vinesh Varghese, Director Technology

Copyright © 2018 Aricent. All rights reserved.


5G Use-cases & Requirements
Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication
Massive MTC (mMTC)
(uRLLC)
Traffic Safety &
Control
Remote Tracking
Healthcare
Industrial Enhanced Mobile BroadBand
Remote Fleet Management
Manufacturing
Application & (eMBB)
Control
Self Driving Car Media Everywhere Smart Meter Smart City
Features 3D Video, Smart
AR/VR
4K,8K UHD Home/Building
• Ultra Reliable Gigabytes in a
UHD Broadcast Second Features
• Very Low Latency
• Very High Availability High Speed Train • Massive numbers
• Small Data Volumes
Features
IMT-2020 Requirements IMT-2020 Requirements • Low Cost
• Very High Bandwidth • High Battery Life
• User plane Latency < 1 ms • Downlink / Uplink Peak Data Rate 20 Gbps / 10 Gbps
• Widespread Coverage
• Control plane Latency < 20 ms • User plane latency: 4ms IMT-2020 Requirements
• Reliability 99.9999% • Downlink Peak Spectral Efficiency 30 bits/s/Hz
• Connection Density 1 million devices per sq.km
• Uplink Peak Spectral Efficiency 15 bits/s/Hz
• Battery life > 10 Years

Transforming and linking multiple industries with Telecom

Automotive Transport Society Healthcare Factory Utilities Public Safety Multimedia

Autonomous Vehicle Intelligent Transport Smart Education Remote surgery Task automation Smart Utility Mgmt Mission-critical PTT Augmented Reality /
Online Predictive Systems Smart Agriculture Wearables Predictive (Water, Gas Metering, Mission-critical video Virtual Reality
Maintenance UAV-based Maintenance power, pollution …) (high upload) Gaming
Smart Grid Remote consultations
Infotainment surveillance / Telemedicine Mission-critical control Smart Traffic Mgmt Mission-critical
Smart airport (traffic routing, sensors (drones,
Platnooning Smart metering
parking, monitoring..) smoke detector,
Fleet Management
security camera)
Railway Signalling

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Key Principles of 5G Network

Unification of multiple technologies and network evolution to connect multiple verticals


• New Air-interface • Next Gen Core • Virtualized / Cloud- • Fronthaul (ideal or non- • Artificial Intelligence
• mmWave • Multi RAT Support RAN ideal) • Big-data and Analytics
• Massive MIMO and • MEC Support • SDN/NFV based • Mid-haul / Backhaul • Network Automation
beamforming • Network Slicing Networks • Resource differentiation • Security
• Distributed deployment • Synchronization

Network Programmable
New Radio (NR) Transport Management
Elements Networks

• Flexible numerology – allows multiplexing of services with qualify and latency requirements and also • Service Based Architecture (SBA) – stateless, open, flexible and realization using VNFs, enabling
large SCS for mmWave movement and scaling of AFs dynamically
• Spectrum - Allocation of higher frequency bands – ensures additional spectrum and wide bandwidth • CUPS: Separation of control and user-plane
availability, ensuring support for very high data-rates • SDN: Improved QOS model for packet flow and policies. Helps defining service chaining for SDN
• Adaptable air-interface - scalable sub-carrier spacing, variable slot-lengths, scalable TTI, minimize based data flow
control overhead, short PUCCH (for latency) and long PUCCH (for coverage), advanced channel coding • NFV: Orchestration and Virtualization (NFV) – de-couple logical function from hardware
techniques, flexible HARQ
• Slicing – logical end-2-end networks tailed to customer needs
• Self-contained slot structure (TDD) to reduce latency – adaptable UL/DL switching, data/ACK in
same slot, SRS in every slot etc • MEC Support for low-latency services and offloading of data at EDGE. It provides Computing
resources, Caching, Low latency and less traffic through core to meet the requirements for use-cases
• Ultra-lean design to enhance network energy performance – minimizing always-on signals, reduce
• Exposure Functions, APIs, Common API Framework – to enable external interworking with 3GPP
periodicity of PSS/SSS/PBCH
• Shortened TTI and processing– reduces latency • New 3GPP accesses: wire line-wireless convergence, satellite access. Also allows subscribe to events and
have analysing and optimizing network performance and behaviour wrt services being offered
• Support of carrier aggregation of upto 16 carriers,
• Beam-centric design enabling usage of beamforming and massive number of antennas to improve
performance
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5G Transport Architecture Terminology

SDN/NFV & MANAGEMENT CONTROL & ORCHESTRATION

RRU DU CU/MEC
eCPRI F1 NG CN
Aricent FH-TSS
4G - CPRI
Aricent FH-TSS UNI Aricent FH-TSS UNI Aricent FH-TSS UNI

1914.3 RoE
eCPRI

eCPRI

Midhaul Backhaul Backhaul


1914.3 RoE
1914.3 RoE

Fronthaul

UNI
Time Server
Latency
~100-500us Ref: T-TUT-HOME-2018-MSW-E
~100us 1.5 to 10ms
UP latency
eMBB – 4ms, URLLC – 0.5ms
Coverage
FH 1-20km, typically p2p MH 20-40km, p2p or p2mp BH upto ~200km, p2mp or mp2mp

✓ Fronthaul – Network between RRU/RU (Remote Unit) and DU (Distributed Unit) – can be CPRI or eCPRI or IEEE 1914.3
✓ Midhaul – Network between DU and CU (Centralized Unit) – “F interface”
✓ Backhaul – Network between CU and 5G NGC (and EPC)

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5G Cloud-RAN

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(Typical) RAN Architecture Evolution

RRH

Ethernet
BASE BAND BASE BAND BASE BAND
DU

fiber F1
fiber BASE BAND BASE BAND BASE BAND
BASE BAND
CONTROL UNIT CONTROL UNIT
CONTROL UNIT
TRANSPORT UNIT TRANSPORT UNIT
TRANSPORT UNIT CU
vBBU

Cloud RAN (e) Cloud RAN


Distributed RAN
Representative figure

For typical Macro network deployment, RAN evolution has evolved as


• Distributed RAN – with separate BBU HW per sector connected to RRH via optical interface
• Cloud-RAN – where the BBU is pooled on common (COTS) HW at centralized site and connects to multiple distributed units (RRH) via optical interface
• (e) Cloud-RAN – where CU, DU split is done with standardized interface between CU/DU, and Ethernet as option to connect to RRU
• With Cloud-RAN based architecture, NFV techniques and data center processing capabilities can be exploited and also enables coordination and centralization in
mobile networks

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RAN Split Options

• RAN -split options helps to reduce the fronthaul requirements and also allow flexible and scalable HW implementations

Data-rate
Latency

7a: 10.1-22.2Gbps
7b: 37.8-86.1Gbps 157.3Gbps
DL data 4Gbps 4016Mbps 4000Mbps 4000Mbps 4133Mbps 7c: 10.1-22.2Gbps

High Low High Low High Low


RRC PDCP RF
RLC RLC MAC MAC PHY PHY

Data

Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Option 5 Option 6 Option 7 Option 8

High Low High Low High Low


RRC PDCP RF
RLC RLC MAC MAC PHY PHY

Data

7a: 16.6-21.6Gbps c
UL data 3Gbps 3024Mbps 3000Mbps 3000Mbps 5640Mbps 157.3Gbps
7b: 53.8-86.1Gbps
7c: 53.8-86.1Gbps
Latency 10ms 1-10ms ~100us ~100ms 250us

Scenario - 100MHz and 256QAM UL/DL, MIMO layers – 8 UL/DL, Number of antenna ports – 32,IQ – (2*7-16)) UL/DL

Latency requirement becomes stringent and data-rates also increase as we move to option-7/option-8

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(Common) RAN Split Options

Option -2 Option -7.x Option -8 • Most commonly used RAN-Split options are Option-2, Option-6,
Option-7.x and Option-8
CU CU CU
• Option-8 is equivalent to Small-cell type of realization
RRC RRM RRC RRM RRC RRM

• Centralized scheduler possible for options-6 onwards leading to


PDCP PDCP PDCP better realization of high-gain coordinated algorithms (like joint
scheduling, joint reception, and joint transmission options as
part of 5G CoMP)
DU DU DU+RU
RLC RLC RLC
• Provides scalable and virtualized architecture options based on
MAC MAC MAC CU/DU and RU architecture

PHY SW PHY-high SW PHY SW


• Allows for cloud-RAN realization with CU running in cloud, and
connected to multiple DU
RU RU
• DU will also be virtualized and can be scaled-up/down
PHY-low SW
RF RF based on the load/traffic/capacity requirements
RF

• Fronthaul can be based on CPRI or eCPRI

CPRI eCPRI
• CPRI is pre-dominantly used in 4G fronthaul. Max data rate supported in CPRI v7.0 is 24.33 • eCPRI is used as fronthaul between CU/DU and RU for 5G network, using packet based fronthaul
Gbps (rate 10) transport network
• For typical LTE scenario of 20MHz, 2x2 DL MIMO, the fronthaul data rate is ~1.96Gbps • Enables flexible functional decomposition while limiting the complexity of the eRE - Supports for
• The IQ data of different AxCs are multiplexed by TDM scheme onto an electrical or optical Ethernet interface types – 10G, 25G, 40G and 100G
transmission line, and link is always “ON” with Constant bit-rate data • More traffic dependent rather than antenna dependent, and and Ethernet can handle this with
• Specified for point-to-point topology and is more antenna dependent (rather than traffic support of statistical multiplexing
dependent) • Enables realization of SDN/NFV based fronthaul
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5G Fronthaul Transport Requirements

Handling of very high data-rate requirements

Handling of traffic and for different service types (or slices) with varied priorities (include packet prioritization) and quality of service
over a unified network
Flexibility to scale the bandwidth based on user plane traffic

Statistical multiplexing for aggregating traffic from multiple sites

Should be traffic dependent and NOT be antenna dependent

Support for multiple network architectures

Meet stringent Synchronization and Timing requirements for 5G

Cost / Performance Trade-off by selecting proper FH/BH suitable for the network deployment

• Mix of transport technologies – optical, packet, microwave


• Ethernet based solutions provide - Reuse of existing infrastructure, flexibility, statistical multiplexing, flexible routing
• SDN is a key enabler for converged FH/BH networks in 5G to virtualize the transport network to support slicing and allow a flexible
deployment of virtual functions in different places of the network
• GNSS, 1588, PTP are some of the synchronization options

p(D) = offered traffic can be transported without queueing with a probability Ref: 5G transport network requirements for the next generation fronthaul interface

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5G RAN Realization

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Towards Software Defined “Open” Network

• CU/DU Hardware
Migration towards Software-defined “Open” Network philosophy • 5G is accelerating the adoption of commodity HW,
disaggregated solution within Telco’s.
Monolithic, Custom build Solutions Flexible, COTS based Solutions • Limited SOC options available for 5G RAN realization,
CPU based (x86 or ARM) solution with FPGA used
Closed and Proprietary interfaces Open and modular interfaces and flows
• ASIC based solutions for baseband will come into picture
Built around available network Network defined by Services once the solutions are verified

INTEGRATED DISAGGREGATED OPEN & MODULAR SW


• RU Hardware
• 5G RU designs will be “inherently intelligent”. Part of
Telecom/Datacom
Protocols & Application
PHY runs in RU and also handling for digital beam-
forming functionality
Network Function • This will also have challenge wrt some of the key
Software
Abstractions
considerations of RU design like size, weight, and power
Hardware &
Software
HW/ Platform
Abstractions • Realization of Virtualized cloud native network and moving
towards “open” interfaces
White Box HW White Box HW

• Reduction in overall deployment timelines with disaggregation

Pre-tested & HW Platform Independent • Built around usage of open-source and open interfaces in overall
Feature Rich & Cost Effective
solutioning along with 3GPP standards

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CU/DU Solution Trends

Intel Server FPGA


ARM based SOC ASIC
DSP based SOC Smart-NIC • Reference HW solution being proposed in open-
source computing hardware can be used for 5G
Network solution till DU
• Open19, OCP and also Intel Rack Sack Architecture
Power Consumption are some of the options that can be explored
Scalability
Virtualization
Deployment / Use-cases
xHaul Interfacing Synchronization
Factors influencing CU/DU Solution

• Moving towards Open-Hardware, Open-Software and “Open-Interfaces” paradigm


• Existing Central offices being transitioned to Datacentres, with additional that will be spawned to cater to the unique use cases.
• Reducing the overall TCO is still a priority, Solution around GP processor architectures, still drives the innovation.
• Solutioning compute , storage , network node elements around the xhaul will be a key driver for innovation.

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SmartNIC/FPGA based acceleration in RAN

INSTANCE

INSTANCE

INSTANCE

INSTANCE

INSTANCE

INSTANCE

INSTANCE

INSTANCE
• Fully programmable, FPGA based and enables disaggregated “cloud”
based architecture
• Optimization at Platform Level and replaces standard NICs HYPERVISOR HYPERVISOR

• Workload specific Acceleration for better TCO vSWITCH Storage


Crypto
Compress
Security
• Reducing the load of CPU by offloading to SmartNIC leading to leading to
better CPU core utilization
Crypto
• In-line processing of data-plane vSWITCH Storage Compress
Security

• Can be programmed and scaled on-demand resulting in a real “elastic” cloud TRADITIONAL NIC SMART NIC

XEON XEON SMARTNIC

CORE CORE CORE CORE CORE CORE


STORAGE SERVICES
CORE
CORE CORE CORE CORE
CORE CORE CORE CORE CORE CORE
SECURITY SERVICES
CORE
CORE CORE CORE CORE
CORE CORE CORE CORE PCIE SNIC
CORESW NETWORK
CORE CTRL CORE
PLANE
CORE CORE CORE CORE
CORE CORE CORE CORE SECURITY Acc & STORAGE Tranport
CORESECURITYCORE CORESTORAGECORE
CORE CORE CORE CORE NETWORK DATA PLANE
CORE NETWORK
CORE CONTROL
CORE
PLANE CORE
CORE CORE CORE CORE FPGA/ASIC
CORE NETWORK
CORE DATACORE
PLANE CORE

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Programmable data-plane with SmartNIC

• As VNFs are scale to meet high processing requirements, performance


goals for data-plane acceleration can be realized with SmartNICs
• Distribute and optimize workloads between x86 server and FPGA ALGORITHMS
software-reconfigurable, FPGA-based SmartNICs in virtualized
environments
• Performance at lowest power but lacks major flexibility
• Cores & Optimized SW
• Match-Action Pipeline
CORES ASIC
• Connection tracking
• Packet Parsing
• High Performance programmable data planes
• FPGA Flexibility but at increased cost & power
• ASIC  highest SOFTWARE
DATAPLANE
PROGRAMMING
• Flexible Architecture Partition to enable high performance,
throughput workloads.

Programmable SmartNICs help in accelerating critical BB and security workloads and migrating acceleration
services

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RU Solution - Solution trends

Domain Specific
Architecture

Enabling Post Moore Era, Domain Specific Architecture

Highly Integrated Heterogenous SoC, solution


Adaptable
• Processing Core (Reduced process Node) for Radio Apps 5G Radio Radio
• FPGA’s for unique digital/acceleration logic Unit
• SW Programmable Engines , Enabling custom Functions
Architecture
• Integrated Data Converters
• Scalable & high Performance IO
Platform SW/Acceleration SW : Common Framework
Common SW
framework

Enabling Scalable RU Product,


• Reduced Power Envelope (Target within PoE Specs)
• Better Performance & Smaller Form factor Designs
• High Through put, low latency
• Higher Adoption and flexibility leads to lower TCO.

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Thank You
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