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Karen B.

Bathan ∙ Gaetano Mosca


∙ Max Weber
REVIEWER IN DISCIPLINE AND IDEAS OF SOCIAL
SCIENCES ∙ Talcott Parsons
BEHAVIORAL REVOLUTION - continued to play a
THE DISCIPINE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE significant role in political science at this point,
introducing various methods of research and techniques
POLITICAL SCIENCE - the study of political power of data collection.
relations, behavior and activities as well as system of
government from domestic, international, and CLASSICAL POLITICAL THINKERS
comparative perspective. ∙ HAMMURABI - King of Babylon.
- focuses on state and nations. - provided a set of laws which has been preserved
POLITICS - derived from the Greek word politikos which in life sized clay and steel slabs.
means “of, for, or relating to citizens” or in Aristotelian THE CODE OF HAMMURABI - was discovered by
terms “affairs of the cities.” archeologists in 1901 and is currently display at the
- it is the theory or principles or organizing control Louvre Museum.
or governance uses people community and state.
∙ CONFUCIUS - he was and Ancienr Chinese
DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AS A philosopher form the spring and autumn period of
DISCIPLINE Chinese History.
- For him, the emperor should always think about
∙ It was only in the 19th century that the discipline was
the people.
given particular focus. THE PRINCIPLE OF ZHENGMING - or rectification of
FRANCIS LIEBER - a professor of political science and names had been the core of Confuciu’s political
history at Columbia University. philosophy.
CIVIL LIBERTY AND SELF GOVERNMENT (1853) - - it states that there will be a just and orderly
publication of Francis Lieber. society when roles are fulfilled.
- the nature and history of civil liberty that
∙ PLATO - he was an ancient Greek philosopher.
incorporates studies on different constitutions.
JOHN W. BURGESS - he established a school for - his philosophy was influenced by the idea of just a
political science at Columbia University in 1880. state or republic.
POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY - published in - for him, justice is achieve when each person acts
1886, which became the first academic journal used as according to the functions of his or her class.
a platform by scholars to express their ideas on the 3 CLASSES OF PEOPLE
discipline. ∙ Merchant
HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCE ∙ Soldiers
ASSOCIATION - established one year earlier by Johns
∙ Philosopher-kings
Hopkins University in 1877.
POSIVIST MOVEMENT - during the 1920s, a rigorous ∙ ARISTOTLE - he was an ancient Greek philosopher
application of empirical and statistical method in political and a student of Plato.
science. - according to him, self-interest must give way to
- this movement was mainly attributed to the the common interest in order for a society to exist.
directive given by the Social Science Search Council - he did not provide an ideal system or a particular
(established in 1923) to encourage scientific research in type of government; nevertheless, he made a distinction
the fields of economics, sociology, and political science. between the true and despotic forms of government.
BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY OR BEHAVIORALISM - TRUE FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
1950s; which push the study to become ∙ Monarchy
interdisciplinary.
∙ Aristocracy
NOTABLE CONTRIBUTERS THINKERS
∙ David Easton ∙ Polity
DESPOTIC FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
∙ Charles E. Merriam
∙ Tyranny
∙ Arthur Bentley
∙ Aligarchy
In the aftermath of World War II and in the early 1950s,
political science integrated more and more ideas from ∙ Democracy
other disciplines such as sociology - with thinkers like: ∙ ST.AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO - he was an early
∙ Alexis de Tocqueville Christian theologian and philosopher.
- his approach to politics was directly influenced by
his theologian idea. societies for the common good.
- no system of government or institution on Earth- FIELDS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
even that of the CATHOLIC CHURCH - is comparable ∙ COMPARATIVE POLITICS - studies the differences
to the city of God, since all reside in the Earthly City. and similarities of the political systems of the world in an
2 TYPES OF CITY empirical manner.
∙ EARTHLY CITY - on which is deeply rooted in original - method of analysis.
sin and man’s love for something other than God. - comparative foreign policy and comparative
∙ CITY OF GOD - whose citizens are mere pilgrims and government are some of its specific fields.
whose only desire is love of God. ∙ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY - is the root from which
∙ ST.THOMAS AQUINAS - also known as the “Doctor political science sprouted from.
Angelicus,” was the most influential scholar and - the most notable concepts include justice, law,
theologian of the scholastic tradition. rights, and government.
- his political philosophy related to human nature to - a field of study covers theories from the ancient
that of the state. past to post modern rhoughts on politics.
- considered reason as the primary capacity of the ∙ PUBLIC LAW - which focuses on the legal concerns
human soul. between the state and the people such as constitutional
- he conceived an idea state which is led by a law and administrative law.
single ruler. - the field appears to be focused on the study of
∙ NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI - was an Italian historian, law.
politician and philosopher. KEY CONCEPTS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
- his vision when he wrote The Prince was to have ∙ POWER - the capacity to influence another.
a ruler capable of uniting Italy by any means possible. - from this concept of power, questions such as
- he developed his treatise by the use of historical authority, rights, and justice emerge.
and contemporary information. - this questions can be analyzed historically,
POLITICAL THINKERS IN THE AGE OF comparatively or even philosophically.
ENLIGHTENMENT ∙ POLITICS - the state’s exercise of power and
∙ During the 17 - 18th centuries, absolute monarchy
th
management of internal issues and international
was the system of most governments in Europe wherein concerns.
rulers asserted that their powers were derived from ∙ STATE - the definition of state differs from period to
divine right. period and even within the same period of time.
∙ This period was also the Age of Enlightenment. - the Oxforf English dictionary provides a simple
∙ THOMAS HOBBES - a british philosopher and one of definition “an organized political community under one
the founding fathers of modern political philosophy, government.”
arhued in defense of absolute monarchies in his work - consists of four elements; territory, sovereignty,
The Leviathan. government and people.
- instead of ascribing the ruler’s right to rule from RESEARCH METHODS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE
devine right, he conteded that the right to rule must ∙ CASE STUDY - this metjod aims to produce a viable
come from the people. public policy by examining how political actors interact
∙ JOHN LOCKE - known as the Father of Classical with the political system.
Liberalism. DAVID EASTON’s SYSTEM THEORY - classical model
- argued that the ruler’s function is to protect the used to analyze political systems, which uses the
rights of his or her people. following variables; input, political system, output,
- according to him, society considered on being environment, and feedback.
ruled so that their rights on life, liberty, and property are ∙ COMPARATIVE APPROACH - compares political
protected. systems using selected variables, such as type of
∙ MONTESQUEU - argued for the decentralization of regime, type of political values implemented, and
state power in The Spirit of the Laws. political events among others.
- he proposed a tripartile system of governance CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
divided into the executive, legislative, and judiciary ∙ PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION - the descipline which
branches. tackles the maangement and implementation of
∙ JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU - a Swiss philospher. governent policies.
- developed a social contract theory that traced the ∙ INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - interdisciplinary field
origin of how societies were formed. of study which covers the interaction of international
- he argued that people come together to form state and non state actors.
∙ CHUNQIU - Spring and Autumn Annals
THE DISCIPLINE OF HISTORY
∙ SHUJING - Classic of History.
HISTORY - came from the Greek word historia which SHIJI - Historical Records, a more detailed and longer
means “finding out”, “inquiry” and “narrative.” historical study by Sima Quian.
- In some interpretation historia means “knowledge - which covered a 2, 500 years of Chinese history.
inquired by investigation.” The American Historical SIMA QUIAN - was regarded as the “Grand Historian.”
Association defines history as “the never ending THE HEBREW OR THE OLD TESTAMENT - is
process whereby people seek to understand the past considered as an important historical writing in the
and its meaning. Western Civilization.
WILL and ARIEL, the former a historian ang the latter LOGOGRAPHERS - from the Greek word logos which
the researcher represent how history could be industry, means “story” and grapho which means “to write.”
art and philosophy: - In ancient Greek, were considered to be the first
historian.
∙ AS AN IDUSTRY - “(ferrets) out facts” which means
- while they wrote stories based on oral tradition at
that the historian should discover the primary sources the time, they added factual data to these stories,
that describe past event, and not simple rely or hearsay including Geographic and Cultural Information.
or unsubstantiated opinion. POLYBIUS - a Greek historian was instrumentalin
∙ AS AN ART HISTORY - “(establishes) a meaningful igniting Roman historioragphy as he wrote why Rome
order in the chaos of material.” the historial, must dis not see fit to recount its historic achievement.
analyzed the fact that he or she obtained to be able to - was also one of the first to have used the Method
make sense out of all the available data. of Comparative Analysis in the study of History.
∙ AS A PHILOSOPHY - “(seeks) perspective and - also become one of the first thinkers to have
enlightenment,” the historian must provide a critical made a comprehensive comparative political analysis
interpretation of the historical fact, so that his or her between Greek City States and Rome.
target audience could grasp and understand the past GEOPOLITICAL STATE AND FOREIGN RELATIONS -
event. by Polybius, describing how history must be focused on
THE DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORY the continuity of events that surpasses borders, rather
PREHISTORICAL PERIOD - refers to the time when that writing that transpire separately without boarder.
the system of writing was not yet invented to record QUR’AN - it traces humanity’s history form Adam to
history, which at the time was past down from Muhammad.
generation to generation through oral tradition. - also relied on the Hadith or the traditions and
CUNIEFORM - is a form of recording events by saying that were said to have come directly from
inscribing them in stone, bones, tablet and bronze. Muhammad.
- earliest systems of writing in Mesopotamia. MUHAMMAD - the prophet and founder of Islam.
HIEROGLYPHICS - earliest systems of writing in Egypt. PHILOLOGY - or the study of the original form of text
LOGOGRAMS - earliest systems of writing in ancient became popular iin order to augment obscurities.
China. IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES IN HISTORY
∙ IN ANCIENT EGYPT - written history started around ∙ HERODOTUS - a Greek historian, is known to be the
the middle o the third millennium BCE. The early Father of History.
Egyptians history by listing the name of kings and the - compiled and systematically arranged his
ruler of Egypt. collection of works in The Histories.
- h presented his accounts by providing geographic
∙ IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA - also recorded history
and ethnographic information, which was in part
by providing a list of kings: but aside from that, they also provided to him by people he had interviewed.
wrote narration, which weaved a coherent historical THE HISTORIES - narrating the events which took
account. place during the Greco-Persian War.
SUMERANIAN STELE OR STANDING STONE SLABS
∙ THUCYDIDES - was a Greek philosopher, historian,
- which contained inscription of war with bordering
regions and depiction of battle. and general.
- he is known as the Father of Scientific History.
∙ IN ANCIENT CHINA - the studying and recording of
HISTORY OF THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR (431 BCE)
history become more developed. - recounted events based on evidence and
- history was used to propagate Chinede Moral analysis.
Philosophy, which was closely linked to their political - narrated facts without becoming fictional by using
and social life. Gods and dieties as references.
CONFUCIUS - was the first to have studied and BAN GU - was a Chinese historian and poet.
compiled Chinese history in the books: - he became famous for compiling The Book of
Han. - placing stages in their histories wherein each
- his approach in writing Chinese history by dynasty stage is either a failure to respond or a triumph against
became influential that historians latur studied Chinese challenges.
history also in a dynastic framework.
THE BOOK OF HAN - which of the Han Dynasty. FIELD OF HISTORY
- it is regarded as the first work to have covered a ∙ CULTURAL HISTORY - focuses on the study of belief
single dynasty in detail. systems, customs, social forms, political systems,
∙ LEOPOLD VON RANKE - was a German historian material traits, and economic activities of a group
and founder of the modern study of history. community usually for the purpose of cross comparison
- was the first to have provided a historical seminar with others.
where he elaborated on the methods and techniques in - it looks into the process of cultural development
studying history. as well the refinement of intellectual and artistic traits.
- emphasized a strict empirical approach and ∙ SOCIAL HISTORY - is concerned with the studt of
adherence to primary resources in conducting historical particular kinds of phenomena such as family and
research. marriage, adolescence and mass media, human rights
- he was against the idea ofen compassing and inequlaity, industrialization and development, and
historical events within a single concept or unifying work and leisure through the use of sociological
theory. theories and approaches.
∙ KARL MARX - a German philosopher, economist, ∙ INTELLECTUAL HISTORY - looks into the history of
and sociologist. ideas and theories.
- is often referred to as the Father of Communism. HISTORIOGRAPHY - is one of its primary subfields
THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY - theory on the materialist wherein the development of schools and approaches
conception of history. are documented.
- the principle idea of this theory is that the material - uses content analysis to provide a critical
conditions or resources determine a group’s social evaluation of historical sources.
structure and social order -- “it is not the consciousness KEY CONCEPT IN HISTORY
of men that determines their existence, but, on the
∙ SIGNIFANCE - is a process of determining which part
countrary, their social existence that determines their
consciousness.” of a historical event has more value to be included in a
- according to this theory is shaped by the narrative.
development or stages in production (as technologies - entails the critical thinking and selectivity of the
advance and the necessities for living change) and the historian.
effects this development has on society. LORD HARTINGTON - who promoted the six-part
criteria.
∙ JACOB BURCKHARDT - was a Swiss historian
SIX-PART CITERIA
known as one of the Fathers of Cultural History. 1. The people thought that the event was important
- he regarded the arts as an important aspect during that time.
through which history could be understood, contrary to 2. The event affected a lot of people.
the prevailing model during his time -- that history was 3. Itled to other important events.
viewed only as an interplay between politics and 4. It still affects attitudes and beliefs today
society. 5. It affected people for a long time
THE CIVILIZATION OF THE RENAISSANCE - In Italy, 6. It affected people deeply.
depicted the interconnectedness between art and its
∙ CONTINUITY AND CHANGES - historians have the
effect on socity and social institutions.
goal of examining the shifts and transitions of
∙ ARNOLD J. TONYBEE - was a British historian and
institutions, actors, and landscapes over time.
phlosopher known for his monumental 12-volume work - through the chronological method, historians trace
titled A Study of History. the changes that transpire insocieties and in a larger
- his approach to the study of history views extent, the world.
civilizations as cultural entities rather than bounded by
∙ CAUSE AND EFFECT - a common theme in historical
nationalities.
- presented an overarching theory on the rise and analysis
fall of civilization. - through this paradigm, historians inquire on the
A STUDY OF HISTORY - narrated the histories of 26 factors that led to the events in history.
civilizations, describing how they overcame challenges ∙ PERSPECTIVE - as history is primarily based on
with the guidance and leadership of an elite group of written records or oral traditions made by different
leaders. people in different eras and cultures, the reconstruction
CHALLENGE AND RESPONSE - the rise and fall. of the events require historians to adapt analytical
lenses or perspectives. ∙ The general phenomenon of human language.
∙ Different families of languages (example: Germanic,
including English, German, Dutch and Scandinavian,
RESEARCH METHODS IN HISTORY among others).
∙ ORAL TRADITION - in societies where written ∙ Specific languages (example: Arabic, Mandarin and
language is not present, traditions are passed on French).
through stories handed down from one generation to ∙ Communicative codes or behaviors that are not so
the next. These stories could be in the form of legends well defined (example: the language of recent
and myths or insome contexts, community laws. immigrants, the ways by which bilinguals choose one or
∙ EXTERNAL CRITICISM - this is a method wherein another language in certain settings).
the historian checks the validity and originality of the THREE PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS
evidence used for the reconstruction of a historical ∙ SOUND - divided into phonetics and phonology.
event or figure. ∙ STRUCTURE - divided into syntax and morphology.
∙ INTERNAL CRITICISM - this is a method where the ∙ MEANING - divided into semantics and pragmatics.
historian checks the validity of the content of a historical PHILOLOGY - In the 19th century, the study of history of
document or artifact by comparing it with existing words.
historical evidence related to the same event or figure. PHILOLOGISTS - studied how and why words
CURRENT APPLICATION OF HISTORY\ transformed over time.
∙ MUSUEM STUDIES - this field, also called SUB-FIELDS OF LINGUISTICS
museology, studies how museums developed through ∙ MORPHOLOGY - the study of the internal structure of
time and their current role in the society as a depository words in a language.
evidence of world history. - focuses on what makes a word and what
- part of museum studies is the analysis ofthe determines when a word changes form.
motivations for the creation of themes in museum MORPHOLOGISTS - people who study morphology.
displays. MORPHEMES - the smallest linguistic units of a
∙ HISTORIC PRESERVATION - the preservation of language with semantic meaning — of a language.
artifacts and fossils for the use of future generations is ∙ PHONETICS - is a branch of linguistics that focuses
one of the concerns of applied historians who utilize on the production and classification of the worls’s
historical knowledge and methodologies in providing speech sound.
contexts to social issues for their resolution. INTENATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) - focus
on the sorting of speech sounds into categories.
DISCIPLINES OF LINGUISTICS - is a framework that uses a single symbol to
LINGUISTIICS - linguistics is often called ‘the science describe each distinct sound in the language and can
of language,” the study of the human capacity to be found in dictionaries and textbooks worldwide.
communicate and organize thought using different tools
∙ PHONOLOGY - is the study of the organization and
(the vocal tract for spoken languages, hands for sign
languages, etc.) and involving different abstract and use of human speech sounds in a language.
tactile components. - focuses on the inventory of sounds in a language
- linguistics is a human science—in fact, one of the and tghe rules that specify the interactions between
foundational disciplines in the western intellectual those sounds.
tradition—and may be compared with programs such as PHONOLOGIST - people who study phonology.
sociology, psychology or anthropology. PHONEMES - the smallest units of constractive sound
- is interdisciplinary in nature, intersecting the in a language -- of a language.
humanities with the social sciences as it inquires on the ∙ LEXICOLOGY - is the study of words including the
basic element that allows societies to communicate relations between words.
ideas across time and space. LEXICOLOGISTS - people who study lexicology.
LANGUAGE - allows us to express and understand LEXEME - is an abstract minimal unit of morphological
each others thoughts, idea and feelings. analysis in the lexicon of a language that roughly
LINGUA - was derived from the Latin word which refers corresponds to a set of forms a single word.
to languages. ∙ SYNTAX - is the study of word order of a language.
ROBERT A. HALL - a linguistic professor defined - examines the ways in which structures that are
language as “the institution where by humans larger than a word such as phrases and clauses are
commnuicate and interact with each other by means of constructed within a language.
habitually used oral-auditory symbols.” SYNTACTICIANS - people who study syntax.
LINGUISTICS LOOK AT:
∙ SEMANTICS - is the study of meaning in a language. be emphasized in studying language -- this resulted to
- focuses on the relationship between words and “ear traning.”
laguage users, and the relationship between words and ∙ J.R. FIRTH - he turned linguistics as a recognized
other words. academic discipline in Britain.
SEMANTICISTS - people who study semantics. - viewed linguistic as an analysis of the meaning of
∙ PRAGMATICS - is the study of language from the words.
point of view of language users. - he rejected the distinction between language and
- examines language use in terms outside of paroles.
linguistic knowledge such as context, status of speaker ∙ EDWARD SAPIR AND BENAJAMIN LEE WHORF -
and addressee, and interference and implicature. were American linguists who developed the principle of
PRAGMATICISTS - people who study pragmatics. linguistic relativity or the Sapir-Whorf hyphotesis.
BENEFITS OF STUDYING LINGUISTICS LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM - the idea that language
∙ Teachers of English or other subject can better influemces the way people think and shape the way
understand their subject matter. people perceive the world.
- language deeply rooted in culture.
∙ Cuonselors and mediators can learn the value of such
- direct translation of languages cannot be perfectly
hidden things as affect or intonation. achieved in this sense.
∙ People communicating with others -- of their culture or ∙ ROMAN JAKOBSON - a Russian-born linguist and
another -- can become more effective and persuasive. literary theorist.
IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES OF LINGUISTICS - had many influential ideas about language; most
∙ FERDINAND de SAUSSURE - a Swiss linguist and remarkably, he changed the way scholars studied
semiotician. phonology, the sound structure of language.
- is widely considered to be one of the forefathers DISTINCTIVE FEATURES - proposed by Roman
of both linguistics and semiology, which is the Jakobson, which suggests that all sounds of speech are
philosophical study of interpretation of signs and remarked by binary contrasts which can be described
symbols. and quantified.
- created as the father of structural and modern ∙ NOAM CHOMSKY - the best-known name on the list
linguistics. and famous for many things.
SIGN - is instrumental in communication. - an American linguist, philosopher, and social
2 COMPONENTS OF LINGUISTIC SIGN justice activist that continue to direct linguistic studies
∙ SIGNIFIER - or the phonetic form of a word. until today.
- the sound or written letters of an idea. UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR - which poses that all
∙ SIGNIFIED - or the conceptual meaning underlying languages have the same underlying structure, and
the sign simply use different words and sounds on the surface.
- the idea addressed by the signifier. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE - are biologically
REFERENT - the actual object in the real word equipped, which endows us with the innate ability to
addressed by the sign. learn language.
CONVENTION OF LANGUAGE - the adherence of a GENERATIVE GRAMMAR - a linguistic theory wich
speech community to a specific connection between state that human beings are capable of forming and
signifier and signified. distinguishing well formed sentence.
LANGUE - the system governing a particular ABSTRACTION - the ability allows the speakers to
convention of language such as syntax and phonology. create new sentence patterns in every new being
PAROLE - the actual use of language by an individual. immersed.
DIACHRONY OR HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS - ∙ PAUL GRICE - is one of the most important
evolution pf language over time. contributors to pragmatics, which is the study of how
THE LONDON SCHOOL - is more of tradition of context contributes to meaning.
linguistic studies rather than a group. - articulates that speakers must be truthful, relevant
∙ HARRY SWEET - an english philologist, phonetician, and unambiguos, and must say neither too much nor
and grammarian. too little.
- established an applied linguistics tradition through COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE - best-known idea of Paul
his works, which focused on language and phonetics. Grice, which breaks down how people behave in
conversations in order to enable effective
∙ DANIEL JONES - another prominent English
communication.
phonetician. FIELDS OF LINGUISTICS
- stressed the perceiving, transcribing, and
∙ HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS - it study the history of
reproducing minutes distinction of speech sounds must
specific languages as well as general characteristics. ∙ COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS - the study of how
- one of the first subdisciplines of linguistics formed language can be computationally modeled.
during the late 19th century.
∙ LEXICOGRAPHY - the practice of collecting words
- a shift to the study of synchronic linguistics
become more predominant in early 20th century. and their meanings in a systematic manner resembling
their structure or dictionary.
DIACHRONIC LINGUISTICS - study of how one
particular language has changed over time.
SYNCHRONIC LINGUISTICS - the comparative study
of more than one language at a given moment in time.
∙ SOCIOLINGUISTICS - examines how language is
used in relation to a people’s sociocultural environment.
- research in sociolinguistics can effectively be
done by using sound or video recordings.
It take the following into consideration:
1. The social background of the addresser and the
addressee.
2. The relationship of the addresser to the addressee.
3. The context and manner through which the
communication transpired.
∙ DEVELOPMENT LINGUISTICS - analyzes the
development of language acquisition. It studies the
development of linguistic ability among children and the
stages.
∙ NEUROLINGUISTICS - studies the physiological
mechanisms by which the brain processes information.
- it investigates how human brain functions.
APHASIOLOGY - study of linguistics problems as a
result of brain damage.
APHASIOLOGY, BRAIN DAMAGING,
ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, AND COMPUTER
MODELLING - some of the techniques and instruments
used in neurolinguistics.
KEY CONCEPTS IN LINGUISTICS
∙ Coherence
∙ Critical discourse analysis
∙ Dialect
∙ Discourse
∙ Etymology
∙ Functionalism
∙ Grammar
∙ Cohesion
∙ Grapheme
∙ Lexicon
RESEARCH METHOS IN LINGUISTICS
∙ CORPUS LINGUISTICS - is a method of studying a
language based on real-world text essentially.
ANNOTATION - where the scholar creates schemes.
∙ CONTEXT ANALYSIS - this is a method used no just
in linguistics but also in most forms of qualitative
research.
CURRENT APPLICATION OF LINGUISTICS