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University of Perpetual Help System DALTA

Las Piñas Campus

An Assessment of Health and Safety Management Practices on


Business Performance of Selected Construction Businesses in
Metro Manila

An Accounting Technology Research


Presented to the Faculty of the
College of Business Administration and Accountancy
University of Perpetual Help System DALTA, Las Piñas City

In Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Accounting Technology

BLAZA, Kristine B.
ESPAÑA, Joana
URBANO, Gerard Edward
SEVILLENO, Queenie A.

July 2018

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The construction industry plays a vital role in a nation’s economy and society.

Construction continues to be one of the main contributors to occupational related

accidents, injuries and ill health. This is attributed to unsuitable working

environments, unsafe worker behaviour, exposure to the harsh weather and other

factors (Griffith and Howarth, 2001; Haslam et al., 2005; Manu et al., 2014). Health

and safety (H&S) management is one of the most important aspects in construction

businesses due to its impacts on cost, time, and the loss of human life resulting from

accidents. Amongst the many other factors which affect business performance, H&S

management is one of the most significant.

There are a wide variety of reasons why occupational safety and health is crucial

for running a success business and here are some. It demonstrates that the business

is socially responsible. It also increases the productivity of employees and workers

of all kinds. It may also enhance the worker’s commitment to their company and

most of all, it builds a healthier workforce and increases the worker’s competency

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levels.

It decreases business disruption and its costs, by allowing business to meet the

OSH expectations of their customers and encouraging the work field to have an

active life. Every company or business could take pleasure in various benefits if

they give importance in occupation safety and health. Its simple improvements

could rise profitability, competitiveness and also motivate the employees. By

having an occupational safety and health system, the workforce could have an

effective and efficient framework to help minimize and/or prevent workplace

injuries, accidents, medical illnesses and even death. This would mean savings for

the company too.

According to Katie Martinelli (2017), A poor health and safety culture can be

disastrous for your business, clients, and construction workers. It may result to

injury, death, loss or reputation, legal repercussions, decrease in productivity,

increase in turnover. On the other hand, an organization that puts a high priority on

the health and safety of employees is likely to have healthy workforce with a much

better job performance record. Jinnet, (2013) suggests that more employers are

increasing their focus on the Link between health and job performance in order to

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foster their company’s success. Keller and Price (2011) in their study found that

the organizational health performance is what an enterprise delivers to stake

holders in financial and operational terms. Armstrong, (2006) states that safety

programs deal with the prevention of accidents and with minimizing the resulting

loss and damage of persons and property and that they relate more to systems of

work than the working environment.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Health and safety is very important to all areas in the building and construction

industry. It has always been considered very important as it is considered to be a

greatly exposed sector when it comes to occupational accidents. The economics

behind construction companies’ commitment to health and safety has been

characterized by absurdity, confusion and elusiveness (John Peter Cooney 2016).

Löfstedt’s (2011) report highlights that many construction entrepreneurs are of the

view that health and safety is ‘merely an obstructive official routine and time-

consuming bureaucracy that does not add to a company’s bottom line’. Conversely,

others are of the view that well practiced health and safety bring about profit (benefit)

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to a company. Waterman (2012) claims that ‘managing health and safety well is not

a cost, it is an investment’. However, he also states that various attempts to elucidate

these viewpoints remain elusive. Globally, the construction industry by its very

nature tends to be dangerous due to the hazardous nature of its activities, which

manifests itself in the high rate of accidents compared with other industries. It still

place the construction industry amongst the most dangerous. Over the years,

numerous improvement strategies from both the private sector and governments

have been initiated to salvage the construction industry from its health and safety

woes.

Despite all these, accidents still happen and the consequences can be seen in the

high rate of death and the negative impact on the profitability of construction

businesses. An article published on February 4, 2015 by Buena Bernal about fatal

accident. Part of the suites in Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, which is under

construction, collapses, killing two workers. Another article of inquirer.net published

by Kristine Felisse Mangunay on December 11, 2016 states that three construction

workers were rushed to the hospital after the platform they were on while working

on a building in Manila collapsed and many other incidents were not informed and

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published to the public. Indeed, there is evidence of health and safety improvement

in construction, but fatality statistics are still considered disappointing, not just

because of the loss of lives associated with such fatalities, but the overall losses in

terms of the huge social and economic costs linked with failure to adhere to safety

best practice. However, the relative contributions of opportunity and financial costs

to the overall value of incidents varied according to severity’. The value of wages

paid to injured employees or the cost of replacement of labour during periods of

absence were identified as the biggest cost elements in relation to lost time injuries.

The purpose of this study is to assess the health and safety management practices on

the selected construction businesses and to know its effect on business

performance.This study is tested in the context of selected construction business.

To achieve the aim of the study, health and safety best practice was examined from

four perspectives: individual, organisation, environmental and policy. In addition to

detailed analysis of the business performance of construction businesses, the study

also comprises the content of current health and safety laws and an in-depth into the

operations and organisations responsible for ensuring health and safety standards are

maintained within industry. This study thus sought to address the research question

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of, “what is the extent to which H&S management on business performance of

medium sized construction businesses?”. The study commences with an overview

of the status of H&S on business performance of construction industry as well as a

review of H&S management. This provides the foundation for the empirical phase

of the study which is followed by research findings and concluding remarks.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Commented [1]: Discuss the element of health and safety
management practices
There are so many aspects to creating and maintaining a safe working

environment that sometimes it’s easy to get lost in it all. To truly succeed in creating

a safe place of work, the key is to develop and implement an effective safety

management system. safety management system combines all the different elements

in your workplace that need attention to ensure you provide a safe working

environment for everyone who enters it. Safety management systems make health

and safety an integral part of your business’s core operations. By designing,

developing and implementing an effective safety management system, you will have

methods for managing reporting, responsibilities, planning and resourcing to create

a safer workplace. There are 6 elements in safety management system first is a safety

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plan, second is policies, procedures and processes, the third one is training and

induction, fourth is monitoring, fifth is supervision and lastly reporting.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The research questions for examining health and safety management on business

performance of medium sized construction business are derived from the literature

review sections. The study aims to answer the question “Does assessment of health

and safety management practices have a significant effect on business performance

of construction businesses?” specifically it aims to answer the following:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in selected construction

businesses in Metro Manila in terms of:

a. Number of the existence of the company

b. Number of the construction workers employees

c. Number of working hours of workers

2. To what extent do the following elements of health and safety management

practices in terms of:

a. Management Commitment and Employee Involvement

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b. Worksite Analysis

c. Hazard Prevention and Control

d. Training

3. Does assessment of health and management practic es have a significant Commented [2]: has

effect on business performances?

4. What is the level of business performance of the company in terms of:

Do they finish their work on time? Yes or No Commented [3]: Remove this?

How will you measure business performance? Include it


here.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is to give a general overview of our current state of

health and safety in the construction industry. The purpose of this study therefore

includes the following:

1. To determine how accounting information is practiced when grouped

according to:

a. Number of the existence of the company

b. Number of the construction workers employees

c. Number of working hours of workers

2. To determine the element extent of practices of health and safety

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management in terms of:

a. Management Commitment and Employee Involvement

b. Worksite Analysis

c. Hazard Prevention and Control

d. Training

3. To determine if there is significant effect of health and safety management

practices on business performance of construction business

4. To determine if their work period is finished on time Commented [4]: align with your measurement of business
performance

HYPOTHESIS

For the purpose of analyzing data, the following hypothesis will be tested.

Ho. Assessment of health and safety management practices has no significant effect

on business performance

Ha: Assessment of health and safety management practices has a significant effect

on business performance

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SCOPE AND LIMITATION Commented [5]: where will you get the respondents?
include it here. Briefly provide the methodology.
This study mainly focused on the assessment of health and safety management

practices and its impact to the business performance of selected construction

businesses.

We will be conducting our research in selected construction businesses in Metro

Manila and our chosen respondents are construction employees with any position in

the management field. To collect data and information, we will be using a

questionnaire to serve as a survey.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Commented [6]: Should be like this

A. Construction business. This study will help them to


This study will be beneficial to the following: emphasize the
importance of having a good and sound health and safety
1. Construction business - this study will help them to emphasize the management
practices

importance of having a good and sound health and safety management

practices

2. Construction workers – this study will help them to know and understand the

importance of health and safety management practices

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3. Government – this study will help organisations or businesses to implement

policies and improve their safety and health performance by providing advice

on how safety and health should be managed.

4. Future investors- this study will help them to create investments and

opportunities to construction businesses

5. School- this study help school to inform, teach and educate the importance

of having health and safety management practices in every type of businesses

6. Accounting technology students- this study will enable students to who wants

to study this course in the future to make use or get an idea of this work both in their

academics and research program

7. Future researchers- this study will enable researchers to use the information and

the study itself

DEFINITION OF TERMS Commented [7]: Provide the operational definition

Health and safety management - is the variable assess to know its effect on

business performance

Business performance - is the measurement to know if the company able to meet

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its obligation on time without any extension

Health and safety management practices - management responsibilities and. the

practices, procedures and resources for developing and implementing, reviewing and

maintaining the occupational safety and health policy.

Health and safety risk - within the context of occupational health, relates to an

assessment of hazards that can lead to the harm, injury, death, or illness of a worker

in a determined workplace.

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CHAPTER2

RELATED LITERATURE

Health and Safety Management Practices Commented [8]: Should be like this

2.1 Health and Safety Management Practices


The main occupational safety and health law in the Philippines is the Occupational

Safety and Health Standards (OSHS) 1978. It provides guidance and enforcement

for workplaces involving personnel training for health and safety, safety and health

committee, occupational illness and accidents records, control of occupational and

environmental hazards, personal protective equipments, safe use of materials and

machines, fire protection, and occupational health services.

The main agency responsible for occupational safety and health in the

Philippines is the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). DOLE, a main

OSH agency, is responsible for occupational illnesses and accidents prevention,

enforcement, rehabilitation and compensation. The Occupational Safety and

Health Center (OSHC) is responsible for occupational health and safety research,

training and information dissemination and technical services. The Department of

Local Government (DILG) is responsible for building standard and fire safety of

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Local Government Units (LGUs)around the country. It has 3,000 sanitary inspectors

nationwide who are under the supervision of LGUs. It also has building officials or

municipal engineers who conduct inspection. Department of Health (DOH) leads the

interagency on Environmental Health (IACEH). IACEH is responsible for

protecting everyone from exposure to all kinds of occupational and environmental

hazards by implementing public health and environmental interventions.

By enforcing the Occupational safety and health law, the Philippine national

OSH system is working under cooperation between DOLE, employers and

employees’ organizations and other governmental agencies. Prevention programs

are the main concern of the DOLE through the Occupational Safety and

HealthCenter (OSHC), in collaboration with the Regional Offices, the Employees’

Compensation Commission(ECC) and the Bureau of Working Conditions (BWC).

They work closely with employers and employees’ organizations. About 12,000

safety officers would beneeded for the next five years in construction industry. In

addition, they would be needed for other kinds of high-risk workplace.

In an article by ILO, it states that the safety and health culture is crucial in the

Philippines. The ILO highlights the need for a safety and health culture especially

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among young workers in the Philippines to prevent workplace accidents, injuries

and illnesses. Despite economic progress, the Philippines faces the challenge of

young people in search for decent jobs. Skills mismatch coupled with limited

awareness of labour rights, often lead young people to create or accept whatever

work is available. They turn to low pay, low productive jobs where unsafe and

unhealthy working conditions prevail.

These workplace safety and health challenges were highlighted at the 15th

National Occupational Safety and Health Congress held on 17-18 November in

Quezon City. “Despite the progress made in working towards compliance of all

establishments especially for the formal sector, there remains much to be done for

the vulnerable workers in highly hazardous industries in the informal sector,” said

Undersecretary Ciriaco Lagunzad III of the Department of Labor and Employment

in his keynote message.

According to Undersecretary Lagunzad, the DOLE remains committed to

protect the most important right of workers – the right to be protected against work-

related injuries and illnesses. This will always be a top priority in addition to DOLE’s

efforts to eliminate illegitimate contracting. The Undersecretary stressed that safety

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and health of workers is non-negotiable.

ILO global estimates show that every year over 2.3 million women and men die at

work from an occupational injury or disease with young workers consistently

suffering among the highest rates of workplace injury. More than 350,000 of these

deaths are due to fatal accidents and almost 2 million are due to fatal work-related

diseases. In addition, over 313 million workers are involved in non-fatal

occupational accidents causing serious injuries and absences from work.

“Work should not be the reason for deaths, accidents, injuries or illnesses. It

burdens workers and their families but it also impacts employers and the rest of the

society as they bear the cost. A safety and health preventive culture is crucial to avoid

dangers and risks,” said Khalid Hassan, Director of the ILO Country Office for the

Philippines.

According to auditortraining.pwc.com.au, there are 5 keys to implementing a

successful Health and Safety Management System by company. These are

management commitment and policy, planning, implementation, measurement and

evaluation, review and improvement.

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Importance of Health and Safety Management Practices

Health and Safety Management or occupational health and safety is about

providing safety and health measures in different work environments and sectors. It

is an area that is concerned with the health, safety, as well as welfare of people

engaged in an organization. Every kind of work exposes individuals to a number of

hazards, for instance, dangerous machinery, loads that have to be manually handled,

electricity, toxic substances, working with display screen tools, risk of fire, or even

psychological hazards like stress. It might seem obvious, but management of health

and safety in the workplace is very important because along with protecting

employees, it also increases productivity when employees are healthy and happy.

OSH (Occupational safety and health) in companies is important for legal, economic,

and moral reasons.

Legal reason for OSH is related to the compensatory, punitive, and preventative

effects of laws that protect the safety and health of workers. OSH legislation requires

all organizations to ensure the safety, welfare, and health of employees and to

conduct all work related activities in such a manner that they should not pose any

harm to them.

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There are powerful economic reasons for decreasing work concerning accidents

as well as ill health. In addition to decreasing costs, efficient safety and health

management promotes the productivity of a business. Ill health and diseases related

to work can result in many days absence from work. Accidents can hinder normal

operations and is a possible addition to the operating costs of a company.

Additionally, the strain and stress on other employees can demotivate them, or might

lead to more mishaps. The medical expenses incurred by injured and ill workers in

hospitals will be borne by the company.

It is morally right to safeguard a worker from any kind of harm. It is the duty of

all the companies to provide the best care to their employees. Friends and families

would expect their loved ones who go out to make their livelihood to come back

home safe. The grief, pain, and suffering of people who have their health affected or

are hurt while working for their companies are felt by workers as well as their family

members.

The importance of an health and safety management system should not be

underestimated. It allows your workplace to systematically eliminate the possibility

of accident, illness, injury or fatality caused by workplace hazards. Not only is this

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obviously beneficial for anyone working in the organisation, it is also beneficial for

your organisation as a whole.

Business Performance

The business performance is a complex term which may include different

shadows of meaning as long as it relates to organizational performance, functioning

of the firm and outcomes of its operations. Normally, the firm performance implies

the organizational performance, including manufacturing of products and services,

functioning of different units of the firm, performance of its employees and

outcomes of their work in total. At the same time, the firm performance can be

viewed in a broader context as a part of the business development of the firm. What

is meant here is the fact that the business development mirrors the firm's

performance and allows to assess the extent to which the organizational performance

is effective. At this point, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that the firm's

performance is basically measured in terms of efficiency of the firm's operations. In

fact, the more effective the firm's operations are completed the more positive the

organizational performance is and, on the contrary, the low efficiency of firm's

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operations and employees' performance means the poor firm's performance. In this

respect, employees' performance comprises an integral part of the firm's

performance because, in the contemporary business environment human resources,

comprise an important marketing asset of any organization.

Furthermore, it is important to take into consideration that the firm's

performance is an important indicator for investors and stakeholders. What is meant

here is the fact that the firm's performance indicates whether the company is worth

investing or not. For instance, investors are ready to invest money in firms with the

positive marketing performance, whereas poor marketing performance indicates at

problems firms have in their business development. As a result, investors avoid

investing money in companies with poor performance because they are uncertain in

the return on investments and because of high risks accompanying such investments.

Business performance measures are a set of quantifiable metrics taken from

various sources that together with an appropriate analytical process, allows the

management of a business to track and assess the current status of a specific business,

project or process. Business performance measures may be compared with pre-set

goals and objectives or form part of a balanced scorecard that assesses financial or

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non-financial performance in the four primary areas of financial, learning/growth,

internal processes and the customer. Business performance measures may also be

known as organizational performance, results or key success indicators and are

closely related to an organisation’s key performance indicators (KPI).

Although the business world is profit oriented, profits are not the only way or

even the best way to measure business performance. There are many other elements

to consider that may be even more important than profit.

The purpose of business performance measures are tools that help managers

optimise the interaction of high level strategy with day-to-day decision making and

organisational learning. Business performance measures are used by business to

initiate improvements and to help management focus resources on achieving the key

targets and objectives. These business performance measures provide information

for management in relation to the past position, the future direction, if something has

gone wrong and when the business has achieved its goal. This information derived

from the business performance measures, allows people to manage performance

proactively and gives employees of a business a clear understanding of what success

looks like and what the management is prioritizing. So, these business performance

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measures create a crucial link between the overarching strategy and day-to-day

operations of a business.

Business Performance Measures are like the gauges on the dashboard of a car

giving the driver constant and up to date information about their compliance with

the speed limit, the fuel resources that have remaining and if anything is going wrong

with the engine, as displayed by the temperature gauge. Business performance

measures provide similar information to management on the compliance, resource

levels and problems associated with the business.

Measurement of Business Performance

There are a number of ways to measure business performance. The ones used

most often are financial statements and sales results however, depending on the

business, there are many other ways of measuring how the business is doing; ways

that will help the business better manage to its desired results.

Measuring business performance will keep you focused on the strengths and

weaknesses of your business. When you know where to focus your attention, you

can use specific problem-solving techniques and decision making tips to help

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minimize areas of weakness.

Some of the business performance measures examples are:

Budgeting – Developing an annual financial plan for the business for the coming

year that explains in detail how a business will achieve its financial objectives and

monitor its results.

KPIs (Key performance indicators) – are small target key indicators and navigation

instruments that are clearly liked to the business strategy. They make complex

strategic goals more meaningful and understandable to everyone in the business.

The Balanced scorecard – A top down management tool designed to convert strategic

objectives into executable performance measures and action plans. The Balanced

Scorecard categorises business performance measures by Financial, Customer,

Internal processes and Learning and growth.

Benchmark – Used by businesses to compare their performance with a best practice

performance metric typically developed by industry associations or research

companies and government agencies.

Six sigma – Six Sigma is a tool that measures the stability and predictability of

process results with a goal to limit process errors to no more than 3.4 errors per one

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million opportunities.

Performance dashboards – A performance dashboard is a one page visual overview

of the key results areas within a business that looks at the business overview as well

as key business units. Typical dashboards display metrics covering sales, financial,

HR, operations and production.

CRM (Customer relationship management) – These business performance measures

track the interactions and relationships with the existing or potential customers of a

business and reports on the customer satisfaction with sales activities, customer

service and customer support.

Most companies want to make sure they not only have satisfied customers but

that they turn their.

People performance appraisals – These business performance measures

typically annually assess the job performance of individuals in a business. While

often conducted by the line manager alone, many businesses today use the 360-

degree review system that also includes peers, subordinates and other stakeholders

in the review process.

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Relationship of Business Performance and Health and Safety Management

Practices

Employees are a company's greatest asset an employer has to assist in achieving

business objectives, as well as meeting legal and moral obligations in providing and

maintaining a safe and healthy workplace. Creating a safe work environment is

critical to the success of your business, and one of the best ways to retain staff and

maximise productivity.

In tough economic times, it’s important to remember that poor workplace safety

and health costs money. Some studies show that good OSH management in a

business is linked to improved performance and profitability.

Everyone from individual workers to national health systems loses out when

OSH is neglected. But this means that everyone can benefit from better policies and

practices. Countries with poor workplace safety and health systems use valuable

resources dealing with avoidable injuries and illnesses. A strong national strategy

leads to numerous benefits, such as; improved productivity through less sickness

absence; cutting healthcare costs; keeping older workers in employment; stimulating

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more efficient working methods and technologies; reducing the number of people

who have to cut their hours to care for a family member. Therefore, the efficiency of

employees' performance affects consistently the firm's performance.

There are a wide variety of reasons why occupational safety and health is crucial

for running a success business and here are some. It demonstrates that the business

is socially responsible. It also increases the productivity of employees and workers

of all kinds. It may also enhances the worker’s commitment to their company and

most of all, it builds a healthier workforce and increases the worker’s competency

levels.

It decreases business disruption and its costs, by allowing business to meet the

OSH expectations of their customers and encouraging the work field to have an

active life. Every company or business could take pleasure in various benefits if they

invest in occupation safety and health. Its simple improvements could rise

profitability, competitiveness and also motivate the employees. By having an

occupational safety and health system, the workforce could have an effective and

efficient framework to help minimize and/or prevent workplace injuries, accidents,

medical illnesses and even death. This would mean savings for the company too. Commented [9]: Where is the DSynthesis and Gap
Analysis?

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, we will be discussing the quantitative in research design, data

gathering procedure, data analysis, sample population and sampling technique of the

safety and health practices by selected construction businesses in Metro Manila.

RESEARCH DESIGN

In this study, we assigned to use quantitative in research design because it is best

served to answer the questions and the purposes of the study. This survey research

is one in which a group of people is studied by collecting and analyzing data from

the people who considered to be representative of the entire group. Descriptive

research used for this study since it helped to identify the nature of safety and health

measures used on construction sites and evaluate their enforcement mechanism on

construction sites as practiced in Metro Manila.

The 2015/2016 Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment (ISLE) is one of

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the regular establishment-based surveys of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA)

which is conducted every 2 years. The main objective of the survey is to generate

integrated data sets on employment of specific groups of workers on occupational

safety and health practices. The said data are valuable inputs to studies on industry

trends and practices and serve as bases for the formulation of policies on

employment, conditions of work and industrial relations. Commented [10]: remove this

DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE Commented [11]: where is the population?


how about the sample and sampling design?
In gathering data procedure in this study we have to ensure that the study data

obtained truly reflects circumstances during phenomena in the construction industry

and certain procedures were adhere to. All companies considered as part of the study

population and sample as classified as deemed to be doing business within Metro

Manila construction industry. Another steps were taken to ensure that all companies

are trading, by carrying out transaction checks on each company, using the

company’s house online business search tool. As practically as possible, email and

contact addresses of participants were obtained through telephone and online

searches. The method employed in the collection of quantitative data were effective

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in terms of response to completing the questionnaires. They were informed that they

have the option to complete the questionnaires either anonymously or by identifying

themselves.

Some cases, the questionnaires administered through site visits were completed

on a face to face basis, but in order to limit the disruption of possible business

transactions and to take advantage of a temporary drop in business activity.

DATA ANALYSIS

According to Mohammed (2003), the construction industry is concurrently

recognized as a major economic force and one of the most hazardous industries.

Accidents not only result in considerable pain and suffering but marginalized

productivity, quality, time and negatively affect the environment and consequently

add to the cost of construction. Constructions safety and health management is of

genuine concern to all stakeholders in the construction industry. In most developing

countries, safety and health considerations in construction project delivery is not

given priority and employment of safety measures during construction is considered

a burden (Lema 2004). Safety and Health has been identified as a parameter which

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should be used along with the traditional parameters: cost, quality and time, to

measure the success of projects. The reasons for considering safety and health are

human factor, legislation and financial issues. (Adan, 2004). Safety and Health are

often discussed in site management meetings as a priority, while in reality safety and

health takes a low priority to budget and time discussions.

In the construction industry, it indicates that adequate measures for safety and

health in the sites have not been put in place and also challenges are encountered in

the management of safety and health in construction. The focus of this study lies in

the safety and health of work environment during the construction process and is

concerned with the management of safety and health particularly the measures that

are put in place and the challenges encountered in the safety and health management

and the adequacy of the enforcement mechanisms of safety and health in the

construction sites. Commented [12]: Remove this,

instead, define descriptive and regression analysis

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SAMPLE POPULATION

The sample of the population of this study stood at 30 contractors, in at least 3

construction companies. The population maybe small enough to warrant the

inclusion of all of them in the study, but a study may entail a large population which

cannot all be studied. A sample in this study is a smaller group of elements drawn

through a definite procedure from an accessible population. The elements making

up the sample are those that are actually studied.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The population to be researched is divided into groups from within these

different groups, people are selected randomly. But all of the groups have to be

included in this research. This sampling is called stratified technique. This technique

was employed to ensure a fairly equal representation of the variables for the study.

A stratified random sampling procedure was used for selecting the participants in

this study.

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REFERENCE

Cooney, John Peter, November 2016, The school of the built environment the

University of Salford. Health and Safety in the Construction Industry : A Review

of Procurement, Monitoring, Cost Effectiveness and Strategy

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n%20th

%20Construction%20Industry_%20A%20Review%20of%20Procurement%20

Monitori ng%2CCost%20Effectiveness%20and%20Strategy.pdf

Andrew Oyen Arewa, April, (2014), An Empirical Analysis of Commitment to

Health and Safety and its Effect on the Profitability of UK Construction SMEs

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s.pdf

Nongiba A. Kheni, Alistair G.F. Gibb and Andrew R.J. Dainty The management of

construction site health and safety by small and mediumsized construction

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docs/proceedings/ar2006-0273-0282_Kheni_Gibb_and_Dainty.pdf

Phung, V. M., Manu, P. and Mahamadu, A.-M. (2015) A study of health and safety

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Las Piñas Campus

management practices of contractors in Southern Vietnam. In: The 6th International

Conference on Construction Engineering and Project Management (ICCEPM

2015), Busan, Korea, 11 14 October 2015.

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%20A%20study%20of%20HS%20management%20in%20Vietnam.pdf

Joshua O. Agbede, University of the West of England Health and Safety

Management Practices in the Nigerian Construction Industry: A Survey of

Construction Firms in South Western Nigeria

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Zakari Mustapha, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellinton Didi ThwalaDepartment of

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Environment, International Conference of Socio-economic Researchers ICSR

2016SERBIA

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http://socioeconomica.info/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11171/239/19.pdf?sequenc

e=1

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jspui/bitstream/2134/4079/3/Kheni%27s%20PhD.pdf

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R4.pdf

https://www.skillmaker.edu.au/business-performance-measures/

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occupational-health-and-safety

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