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Cider Process and process simulation

Cider process as previously stated is mainly a 3-step procedure starting with Harvesting

and processing apples into apple juice followed by mixing the untreated apple juice with yeast and

Fermentation of the mixture in a jacketed batch tank reactor, Pasteurization and/or treatment of the

batch and final storing prior to bottling. (4)

A process overview is as previously shown in the block flow diagram. But prior to

discussing the process steps one should note that the apple juice should be obtained from at least

a variety of three or more types of apples. The reason behind this is the intended end goal of alcohol

content, sugar content and type of cider obtained (sweet, bitter sweet, sharp…). Having that in

mind one could proceed to the steps of cider making from apple juice, which can be summarized

as follows

1. Mixing of apple juice and Yeast

This process is crucial for industrial cider making. The apple juice is mixed with a batch

of yeast. The amount of yeast added should be adequately chosen for its potential to reduce

fermentation time. The Saccharomyces Byanus (of the genus Saccharomyces) is the most suitable

choice for apple juice fermentation and is better than the typical yeast used for wine fermentation

(Cerevisiae A.K.A baker’s yeast). Due to its inoculation within the apple juice, enhancing its
(5) (4) (9) (12)
fermentation, and the conversion of sugars (sucrose and glucose) to alcohol (ethanol).
(11)

Saccharomyces Byanus also provides different set of aromas and flavors to the cider product.
Based on the literature and of the experience of grown aged brewers, 0.5g of yeast should be added

for every two to four liters of apple juice for proper fermentation. One can conclude that the amount

and quality of yeast needed for fermentation to take place, is a crucial step. Although yeast is a

minor reactant it plays a major role of utmost importance. Hence considering a batch of 21000

kg/week resulting in a 125kg/h mass flow rate of apple juice, about 15 kg of yeast are mixed with

the apple juice stream flowing a about 25 ℃ at atmospheric pressure P=1 atm=101.325Kpa.

2. Fermentation in a jacketed batch tank reactor.

The fermentation reaction is the most important step in cider production since it is the only

part of the process where apple juice is converted to cider by ethanol formation from sugar (and

the only major reaction taking place). This process requires operation at low temperature

controlled environment. So, a 21 m3 jacketed tank reactor is used for this process to operate at a

temperature range of [6,22] ℃. Fermentation usually carries on until the pre-added yeast runs out

of nutriments or results in a “stuck” fermentation and cannot further metabolize the enzymes

present within the yeast-juice mixture. For this simulation and with the pre-mentioned flow rate of

125kg/hr. or 21000kg/week, both fermentation reaction yielded a satisfactory conversion of about

99% (X=0.99) thereafter, verifying the fermentation reaction time needed (7 days=1 week) and

the appropriate choice of yeast needed for this reaction to take place as well as the temperature of

the jacketed batch tank reactor set at T=18℃. (4) (5)


3. Ethanol and Yeast Recovery

The CO2 produced from fermentation is removed from the reactor with traces of ethanol

vapor that are recovered in a pressure vessel and added to cider. This can be done by compressing

the vapor stream to a pressure vessel where CO2 is vented out of the plant through the means of a

Carbon Cap which serves to reduce the toxicity of The gas. It should be noted that every industrial

plant in the U.S.A have to acquire a permit set to limit their greenhouse gases emissions. However,

in this process, CO2 is produced in small amounts which if carbon cap vented properly would have

little to no environmental effect. The recovered ethanol is then added to the cider to enhance its

alcoholic content. (4) (1) (11) (12) (9). The solid separator is used to recover the yeast at the end of each

batch. The unreacted yeast or undissolved yeast strains found in the fermented cider stream are to

be recycled for they can be reused in a following batch considering the fact that not all yeast has

indeed reacted with the apple juice and also due to the fact that undissolved solid yeast can cost

undesired fouling effect and pipe clogging especially for the heat exchangers that are to be used

later on.

The yeast removed by the solid separation of about 7.785kg (about 52% of the initial yeast stream)

is then recycled back and remixed with yeast to be re-added for the second batch and the amount

of fresh yeast is then adjusted to fit the mixing stoichiometry. (4) (11)
4. Pasteurization

Pasteurization is the process of heating the apple liquid stream (or other food related

streams generally) to kill pathogenic bacteria making the food/drink safer to consume. This step is

crucial and effects the overall texture, flavor and aroma of the final cider product. Pasteurization

also reduces the transmission of diseases such as Polio, dysentery, tuberculosis etc... (2) (7) (4)

Pasteurization for cider is set ideally at temperatures between 65 and 98 ℃. (4) Generally,

Pasteurization can be done through the means of a plate heat exchanger. However due to the

limitation on Aspen HYSYS® V8.6, pasteurization was done by using shell and tube heat

exchangers. The shell and tube heat exchanger design is less efficient and costs slightly more than

a plate heat exchanger, but it does offer greater heat exchange surface area which in industry can

be put to best use and it does offer a higher capacity of flow streams, a parameter which also

presents practical use.

Hence for this pasteurization process, a total of three shell and tube heat exchangers were

used. The first heat exchanger serves as a heater whose role is to heat the cider stream from 18.5

℃ to 80 ℃ and low pressure steam was used for this purpose. Steam flows at 125 kgsteam/h. in the

shell side at a pressure of 618 kPa and 160 ℃ as saturated vapor and flows out at 513.5 kPa as a

liquid-vapor mixture. After reaching the desired hot temperature, a second shell and tube heat

exchanger was used to cool the heated cider stream back to an approximate temperature of 35 ℃

through the means of cold water (that can pass through a copper cooling circuit for further cooling

if needed) flowing in the shell side with an inlet temperature of 25℃ and outlet temperature of

27.46 ℃ Then the cider is pumped to a final shell and tube heat exchanger which cools down the

medium from 35 to around -2℃ (optimum pre-bottling Temperature) which enables the final to
product to rest and have a homogenous unified phase of equal flavor distribution throughout the

whole batch.

This is done by the application of a Refrigerant of type Re-15(ammonia) going in at the shell side

at about -18 ℃ and then leaving the heat exchanger at -13.6℃. This refrigerant has similar

properties to that of refrigeration by ammonia which presents enhanced refrigeration efficiency

and reduces the amount of refrigerant used and its cost. (2) (16) (8)
5. Bottling and Pressing cider for storage and market distribution.

The process of pressing cider can be mainly done by either the means of compressed CO 2

Or N2 gases. In fact, CO2 is more widespread than N2, and even the process is named after it

“Carbonation” which renders the product undergoing this process to be known as a carbonated

beverage. Cider can be bottled in either a 250 ml bottle, 330 ml bottle, 470 ml (U.S Pint) bottle or

570 ml (U.K Pint) Bottle and can then be distributed in the market and sold at either cooled

temperature room temperature preferably cold at around 0 ℃. (4)

To note that, cooling is not a part of the pasteurization process and can be done using air

cooler rooms which is more effective both economically and process wise but again due to the

Aspen HYSYS imitations it was simulated here as a final processing step. However, the cooling

step followed by the bottling and pressing procedure are simply mechanical processes and do not

affect cider making as a chemical process approach. They were added for increased accuracy of

the process simulation.


II. ASPEN HYSYS® SIMULATION AND DESIGN

Figure 6. Aspen HYSYS® process simulation

This simulation represents the process flow sheet of cider production process. the process

clearly shows the flow streams and units used for cider production. The simulation is done

considering two energy and material stream which were normalized by the software. These 2

material and energy stream show the conversion of both mass and energy and the losses present

(If any).

For this process we used a flow rate of Q=21000 kg/week of apple juice (about

2032lL/week), 𝝆apple-juice=1048.3 kg/m3). (10) According to the Lebanese industry (Pomaris®,


Besharreh) for every 20 kg of apples pressed, approximately 9.5 kg of apple juice are obtained (the

fact that we’re working with Kg and not L for the liquid is due to the machinery which operates

on mass flow rates and not volumetric flow rates which are then correlated by using the density of

the obtained apple juice (varies from batch to batch). (10)

Taking into consideration that 2-simultaneous fermentation reaction are taking place with

about the same kinetic parameters (Glucose fermentation and sucrose fermentation as stated in

section IV methodology). With an average of 48 batches per year taking into consideration that

some batches might to an extent take more time to achieve the desired product quality (for several

reasons, such as apple quality, whether its harvesting season or not, the conditions were apples are

stored in the agricultural and industrial coolers, transportation of the apples, the climate source of

apples and many other factors).As well as considering maintenance and emergency shut down of

operations. As well as referring to the industry and acquiring an average number of batches done

per year because apple juice is a primary juice needed for the production of cider (which the plant

can produce initially up until reaching the cider processing stage). Hence with an average number

of batches about 48 with Q=21000kg/week. The apple cider production in Lebanon would be

around 1008000 kg/year this means a yearly consumption of about 2122105.3tons/year which is

about 6.256% of the yearly Lebanese apple production losses (between 2015,2017). (10)

Which is acceptable considering the amount of cider being produced as well as the amount

of apple mostly being gone to waste. (a fraction used for soil fermenters, apple juice production,

apple jam making…But still mostly is not being consumed neither locally or on an international

market basis.)
Hence for this simulation the following material and energy balance streams were applied

for a successful simulation and both were normalized to about 100% which means “nothing was

created, nothing was destroyed, everything is transformed”

Figure 10. Schematic of a Jacketed stirred batch tank reactor


UNIT DESIGN AND SIZING

Jacketed-stirred batch tank reactor

Considering that the reactants need to be present for a period of 1 week within the reactors

at a constant 18 ℃ for the fermentation reaction to take place, in addition to the fact that the

production rate for this process is 21000kg/h < 5x106 kg/h; makes a jacketed stirred batch tank

reactor a most suitable choice for this process.

A stirred, jacketed, batch tank reactor allows the inlet flow to react within the medium for

a certain amount of time (1 week in our case). It consists of an agitator and a jacket built around it

for cooling purposes. (4) (1)

A jacket consists of agitation nozzles, which ensures a higher turbulence and enhance a

somewhat uniform heat transfer throughout the entirety of the reactor. A jacket is applied to ensure

an adiabatic well insulated tank of a Tin=18 ℃. (4)

For a constant volume batch tank reactor with a period of 1 week and a conversion rate for 2

simultaneous reactions with a conversion yield of 98.87 and 99.32 % for glucose and sucrose

respectively the volume ought to be pre-set and a volume of choice should be picked out.

Figure 10. Schematic of a Jacketed stirred batch tank reactor


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Figure 10. Schematic of a Jacketed stirred batch tank reactor


Considering the following equations:

𝐹𝐴0 ∗ (1 − 𝑋) = 𝐹𝐴 (4)

tb = te + tr + tc + tf (5)

In our case tb will be taken as tb=7 days =1 week.

where:

tb= entire batch time in s, te= emptying and cleaning time, tr=reaction time, tf=filling

time, tc=cooling time.

𝑚̇ × 𝑡𝑏 (6)
𝑉𝑟 =
𝜌

Where 𝒎̇ is the mass flow rate, 𝝆 mixture density, tb is the previously stated batch time

And Since both reactions taking place have a conversion rate X =99%, this gives me

Fa=20800 kg/h which is the case in the simulation. (1)

The next step, is to set a volume for the reactor hence a V r=21.1264 m3 Jacketed batch reactor is

to be chosen considering the flow rate and the wide use and availability of this reactor.

Based on this volume, the height and diameter of the reactor ought to be calculated, using Aspen

HYSYS® and its iterations and due to the fact that both reactions are irreversible, and CO2 is

vented out and ethanol is to be present within the apple mixture and that the reactor’s shape does

not interfere with the overall reaction efficiency (considering the traditional wood barrel medium

for fermentation). (11) (9) (12)

 L= 154.252 In = 3.918000038 m.

 D= 102.8347 In= 2.61200011 m.

 R=51.41735 In =1.30600069 m.


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And for the type of material used for this reactor the best economic and practical combination

was found stainless steel grade 304 which is non-corrosive and suitable for food product (non-

toxic and does not interfere with the reaction (passive medium) whereas wood barrels are active

mediums play a role in the fermentation reactions). (9) (12)

Pumps design and sizing

Material Used:

Stainless steel was chosen since based on corrosion, temperature, resistance and acidity

withstanding.

Pump head:

𝑃 (7)
𝐻 (𝑚̇) = × 1000
𝑄×𝜌×𝑔

0.3936 (8)
𝐻 (𝑚̇) = × 1000 = 43.31045𝑚̇
0.000984 × 941.424 × 9.81

Where P is the power required at 75% efficiency

Q: volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

ρ: is the density of the fluid (kg/m3)

g: gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/𝑠2)

Pressure Drop in Pipelines:

𝜌 × 𝑢2 (9)
∆𝑃𝑓 = 8𝑓 (𝐿/𝑑𝑖) ( )
2
75 941.424 × 1.9432 (10)
8 ∗ 0.023 (0.0254 ) ( 2 )
∆𝑃𝑓 = = 965.478𝑘𝑃𝑎
1000

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f is the friction factor found from Moody charts

L is pipe length (assuming a pipe length of 75 m)

u is the fluid velocity (m/s)

di is pipe diameter (assuming a pipe diameter of 2.54 (cm)=0.0254 (m)

M (kg/s)= ρ × A × u

𝑀 0.926388 (11)
𝑢= = = 1.943 𝑚̇/𝑠
𝜌×𝐴 941.424 × 0.000506451

To obtain the friction factor f, Re and the relative roughness of the pipe must be calculated.

𝜌 ×𝑢×𝑑 941.424 × 1.943 × 0.0254 (12)


𝑅𝑒 = = = 40784.0159
𝜇 0.0011392

Stainless steel is used, then the absolute roughness ϵ = 0.015 mm

The relative roughness e = ϵ/d = 0.015/25.4 = 0.00059055

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Figure 11. Moody's Chart

Using Moody’s chart shown in the following figure, the friction factor f can be determined

(1).

Total Head loss:

Velocity head:

𝑢2 1.9432 (13)
𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 = = = 0.193
2𝑔 2 × 9.81
Miscellaneous losses:

Assume the following fittings/valves are present in the system resulting in more losses (1)

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Table 3. Fitting valves

Fitting/Valve Number of Velocity Heads


Entry 0.5
Elbows 0.8 x 4
Globe valve, open 6
Gate valve, ½ open 4
Exit 1
Total 14.7

Head loss:

ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠(𝑚̇) = 14.7 × 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑


ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠(𝑚̇) = 14.7 × 0.193 = 2.828526𝑚̇
ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 (𝑘𝑃𝑎) = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 (𝑚̇) × 𝜌 × 𝑔 (14)
ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 (𝑘𝑃𝑎) = (2.828526 × 941.424 × 9.81)/1000
= 26.12249𝑘𝑃𝑎

Total head loss:

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 (𝑘𝑃𝑎) = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 (𝑘𝑃𝑎) + ∆𝑃𝑓 (𝑘𝑃𝑎) (15)
𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠 (𝑘𝑃𝑎) = 26.12249 + 965.478 = 991.6𝑘𝑃𝑎

Pump specifications:

a. Pump type:

From the figure below, the pump type can be determined.

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Figure 12. Centrifugal pump selection guide

From the obtained Reynold’s number and the total head, one can deduct from the chart that

a single stage pump with 3500 rpm is to be used.

Pump specific speed

The pump specific speed Ns (dimensionless) is calculated using the following equation:

𝑁 × 𝑄0.5 3500 × 0.000980.5 (16)


𝑁𝑠 = = = 0.011048
𝑔 × 𝐻0.75 9.81 × 33.31670.75

Where N is the number of revolutions per second (RPS)

Q is the volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

g = 9.81 m2/s

H is pump head

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And:

N × Q0.5 3500 × 0.00098 × 15850.30.5 (17)


N′s = = = 335.859
H0.75 142.0946 × 3.280840.75

Using another definition for pump specific speed:

Where Q is volumetric flow rate (US gal/min), and H is head in ft.,

Ns’ = number of rounds per minute

From this Ns’, the pump type is confirmed (1)

Impeller Type:

Table 4. Impeller type for different specific speeds

Ns’ Lower Bound Impeller Type Ns’ Higher Bound


(rpm) (rpm)
400 Radial 1000

1500 Mixed Flow 7000

7000 Axial …

Figure 13. Mixed flow impellers

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Pump capacity:

To avoid any disturbance or overflow in the pump, it should be designed with a capacity of 30%

higher than the volumetric flow rate.

Summary:

Table 5. Summary of the main parameters for pump design

Material Used Stainless steel

Pump Head 43.31045m

Total Head Loss 991.6kPa

Pump Specific Speed (Ns) 0.011048

Impeller Type Radial

Pump Capacity 4.60525 m3/h

Efficiency 75%

Pressure vessel:

In order to size the flash vessel, the following parameters need to be calculated: the settling

velocity (𝑢𝑡 in m/s), diameter (D in m) and the depth of the liquid in the vessel (ℎ𝑙 𝑖𝑛 𝑚̇). The

equations listed below are used to calculate the parameters. (1)

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Equations

𝜌𝑙 − 𝜌𝑣 0.5 (18)
𝑢𝑡 = 0.07 ( )
𝜌𝑣

4𝑉𝑣 (19)
𝐷=√
0.15 × 𝜋 × 𝑢𝑡
𝜋𝐷2 (20)
𝐴𝐶𝑆 =
4
𝑉𝑙 × 𝑡 (21)
ℎ𝑙 =
𝐴 𝐶𝑆
3𝐷 (22)
ℎ𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + + ℎ𝑙
2

Where:

𝜌 is the density of the liquid in kg/m3

𝜌 is the density of the vapor in kg/m3

𝑢𝑡 is the settling velocity in m/s

𝑉̇ is the volumetric flow rate of the vapor in m3/s

𝑉̇ is the volumetric flow rate of the liquid in m3/s

𝑡 is the holdup time in s

ℎ𝑙 is the depth of the liquid in the vessel in m

𝐷 is the diameter of the vessel in m

𝐴𝑐𝑠 is the cross-sectional area of the vessel in m2

ℎ𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 is the total height of the vessel in m (1)

Calculations

855.7 − 7.381 0.5 (23)


𝑢𝑡 = 0.07 ( ) = 0.7504 𝑚̇/𝑠
7.381

33
𝐾𝑔 1 𝐾𝑔 1
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 ( )∗ 5.94( ) ∗ (24)
𝑉𝑣 = ℎ𝑟 3600 = ℎ𝑟 3600
kg 𝑘𝑔
ρv ( ) 7.814( )
m3 𝑚̇3
= 223.55 ∗ 10 𝑚̇ /𝑠
−6 3

4 ∗ 223.55 ∗ 10−6 (25)


𝐷=√ = 0.05028 𝑚̇
0.15 ∗ 𝜋 ∗ 0.7504
𝜋 ∗ 0.050282 (26)
𝐴𝐶𝑆 = = 1.986 ∗ 10−3 𝑚̇2
4
𝐾𝑔 1 𝐾𝑔 1
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 ( )∗ 0.1969( )∗ (27)
𝑉𝑙 = ℎ𝑟 3600 = ℎ𝑟 3600
kg 𝑘𝑔
ρl ( ) 855.7(
m3 𝑚̇3)
= 5.505 ∗ 10−8 𝑚̇3/𝑠

𝑡 = 10 min (taken as a reference)

10 ∗ 60 ∗ 5.505 ∗ 10−8 (28)


ℎ𝑙 = = 16.63 ∗ 10−3 𝑚̇
1.986 ∗ 10−3
3 ∗ 0.5028 (29)
ℎ𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 0.4 + + 16.63 ∗ 10−3 = 492 ∗ 10−3𝑚̇
2

Summary for values

The main parameters and values are summarized in the table below.

Table 6. Summary of the values of the main parameters that are used to size the flash vessel

Parameter Value
𝝆𝒍(kg/m3) 855.7
𝝆𝒗(kg/m3) 7.381
𝒖𝒕(m/s) 0.7504
𝑫(m) 0.05028
𝑨𝑪𝑺(m2) 21.986*10-3
𝒉𝒍(m) 5.505*10-8

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Figure 14. Schematic representation of a design of a pressure vessel

Solid separator

Choice of solid separator

The solid (yeast) is dissolved in a liquid solution which is the fermented apple juice. Hydro-

cyclones are used in solid-liquid separations. (Coulson, J. M., Richardson, J. F., & Sinnott, R. K.

(2005)) describe this solid separator as a centrifugal device with a stationary wall, the centrifugal

force being generated by the liquid motion. This unit can be used to separate solids whose particle

size ranges from 4 to 500 micron. This is a valid separator since the yeast particle size can range

from 1- 50 micron depending on the growth rate (Engineering Tool-Box, 2005). (2) (1)

35
Numerical and graphical calculations
𝐷𝑐3 ∗ µ (30)
𝑑 = 4.5 ∗
50
𝐿1.2(𝜌𝑠 − ρ𝑙)

𝜌𝑙 is the density of the liquid in g/cm3

𝜌s is the density of the solid in g/cm3

µ is the liquid viscosity in centipoise (mN.s/m2)

L is the feed flow rate in l/min (1)

36
Figure 15. Determination of d50 from the desired particle separation (Zanker, 1977)

Assume efficiency of yeast separation to be 90%;


𝐾𝑔 𝐾𝑔
𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑 ( ) 133.86 ( ) (31)
ℎ𝑟 ∗ 103 ∗ 1 ℎ𝑟 1
𝐿= kg 60 = 1007.56 ( 𝑘𝑔 ) ∗ 10 ∗ 60
3
ρ feed(
m3) 𝑚̇3
= 2.214 𝑙/𝑚̇𝑖𝑛

𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑠 = 1112.6 ∗ 10−3 = 1.1126𝑔/𝑐𝑚̇3
𝑚̇3
𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑙 = 1007.56 ∗ 10−3 = 1.00756𝑔/𝑐𝑚̇3
𝑚̇3

𝜌𝑠 − 𝜌𝑙 = 1.1126 − 1.00756 = 0.10504 𝑔/𝑐𝑚̇3

µ = 1.1367 𝑐𝑝

37
Figure 16. Chamber dia. Dc from flow-rate, physical properties, and d50 particle size

𝑔
From Error! Reference source not found. (1), for (𝜌 − )= 0.10504 and yeast size
𝑠 𝑙 𝑐𝑚̇3

to be 15microns, d50 is found from the graph to be equal to 10.5 µcm

For µ = 1.1367 𝑐𝑝 and 𝜌𝑠 − 𝜌𝑙 = 0.10504 𝑔/𝑐𝑚̇3 and 𝐿 = 2.214 𝑙/𝑚̇𝑖𝑛 and d50=10.5

µcm, Dc is found to be 1.25cm= 0.5 inches

Hydro-cyclones are assembled in “clog”. The clog assembly may differ from one hydro-

cyclone to another. Diameter of the hydro-cyclone is 16*0.5inch=8in. (A reference clog assembly

is illustrated in Coulson, J. M., Richardson, J. F., & Sinnott, R. K, 2005)) (1)figure below.

38

Figure 17. Reference clog assembly of 16*Dc hydro-cyclone


Heat exchangers for pasteurization:

General procedure

Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are the most commonly used heat transfer equipment’s. A

fluid’s temperature can be easily raised or lowered by heating or cooling the liquid inside the heat

exchanger. In such equipment, one fluid flows through a bundle of tubes and the other liquid flows

through the shell side over the tubes. The two liquids flowing have different temperatures and

hence there is a sensible and/or latent heat exchanged between them leading to a change in the

temperature and sometimes the phase. (7)

Figure 18. Counter current Shell and tube heat exchanger sketch (7)

Basic Heat Transfer Equation

The basic equation of heat transfer for the heat exchangers is:

𝑄 = 𝑈𝐴𝛥𝑇𝑚̇ (32)

Where, Q is the heat transferred per unit time, kJ/h,

39
U is the overall heat transfer coefficient, kJ/h.m2.°C,

A is the heat transfer area (m2)

ΔTm is the mean temperature difference, the temperature dividing force (°C)

This equation shows that the heat transfer per unit time in a counter flow heat exchanger is

mainly dependent on the mean temperature and the heat transfer coefficient. Mean temperature

can be obtained by specifying the inlet and outlet temperatures for the shell and tube sides while

the heat transfer coefficient can be found iteratively. The first thing we need to find is the heat

transfer per unit time.

Heat transfer per unit time (Q)

The following equation allows us to find the heat transfer rate between two fluids during

the heat transfer process. (16) (7)

𝑄 = 𝑚̇ℎ[𝐶𝑝ℎ(𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜) + ∆𝐻𝑣𝑎𝑝(𝑦ℎ𝑖 − 𝑦ℎ𝑜)] (33)



= 𝑚̇𝑐[𝐶𝑝𝑐(𝑇𝑐𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖) + ∆𝐻𝑣𝑎𝑝(𝑦𝑐𝑜 − 𝑦𝑐𝑖)]
𝑐

Where mh mass flow of hot fluid, kg/h

mc mass flow of cold fluid, kg/h

Cph heat capacity of hot fluid, kJ/kg.°C

Q =UAΔTm

Cpc heat capacity of cold fluid, kJ/kg.°C

Thi hot fluid inlet temperature, °C

Tho hot fluid outlet temperature, °C

Tci cold fluid inlet temperature, °C

40
Tco cold fluid outlet temperature, °C

ΔHhvap latent heat of vaporization of hot fluid, kJ/kg

ΔHcvap latent heat of vaporization of cold fluid, kJ/kg

yhi hot fluid inlet vapor fraction

yho hot fluid outlet vapor fraction

yci = cold fluid inlet vapor fraction

yco cold fluid outlet vapor fraction.

Mean Temperature

The following equation represents the log mean temperature for the counter-current heat

exchanger. (7) (16) (8)(8’)

(𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜) − (𝑇ℎ𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖) (34)


∆𝑇𝑙𝑚̇ =
𝑙𝑛((𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇𝑐𝑜)/(𝑇ℎ𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖))

Where ΔTlm is the log mean temperature difference.

However, the true mean temperature is obtained by multiplying ΔTlm with a correction

factor.

𝛥𝑇𝑚̇ = 𝐹𝑡 × 𝛥𝑇𝑙𝑚̇ (35)

Where Ft is the correction factor and can be obtained from the following correlation:

√(𝑅2 + 1) 𝑙𝑛[(1 − 𝑆)/(1 − 𝑅𝑆)] (36)


𝐹𝑡 =
2 − 𝑆[𝑅 + 1 − √(𝑅2 + 1)
(𝑅 − 1)𝑙𝑛[ ]
2 − 𝑆[𝑅 + 1 + √(𝑅2 + 1)

Where

41
(𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇ℎ𝑜) (37)
𝑅=
(𝑇𝑐𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖)

(𝑇𝑐𝑜 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖) (38)


𝑆=
(𝑇ℎ𝑖 − 𝑇𝑐𝑖)

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient(U)

TEMA standards table is used to obtain the initial guess for the heat transfer coefficient.

After that, iteration is done to reach the least value difference between the guessed and calculated

coefficient. (7)

Table 7. Overall heat transfer coefficient for different fluids

42
Table 6 is used to obtain the initial guess for the heat transfer coefficient.

To close the iteration loop, after doing some further calculations discussed in the

paragraphs below, one should recalculate the overall heat transfer coefficient from the following

equation, compare the value obtained with the assumption, and repeat the calculations if the

discrepancy between both values is noticeable. And as heat transfer shows it is not an exact science

hence some estimations ought to take place. (16) (8)

1 1 𝐷𝑜𝑙𝑛(𝐷𝑜/𝐷𝑖) 𝐷𝑜 𝐷𝑜 1 (39)
= + 𝑅𝑜𝑑 + + × 𝑅𝑖𝑑 + ×
𝑈𝑜 ℎ𝑜 2𝑘𝑤 𝐷𝑖 𝐷𝑖 ℎ𝑖

Where

Uo the overall coefficient based on the outside area of the tube, W/m2 oC,

ho outside fluid film coefficient, W/m2 oC,

hi inside fluid film coefficient, W/m2 oC,

Rod: outside dirt coefficient (fouling factor), oC.m2/W

Rid: inside dirt coefficient, oC.m2/W

kw thermal conductivity of the tube wall material, W/mo.C,

Di tube inside diameter, m,

Do tube outside diameter, m.

Heat Exchanger Configuration

The heat transfer area can be obtained from the basic heat transfer equation (7) (16),

𝑄 (40)
𝐴=
𝑈∆𝑇𝑚̇

43
Calculating Tube Side Parameters

Assuming steel tubes, piping standards of steel table can be used to establish a relation

between the inner and outer diameters (7). The table is shown below

Table 8. Piping standards of steel

The length of the heat exchanger and the number of passes is assumed in order to be able to

calculate the length of the tube L.

𝐿 = 𝐿ℎ × 𝑁𝑝 (41)

Where (7)

Lh is the tube side length.

Np is the number of passes assumed.

Thus, the number of tubes is found according to the relation

𝐴 (42)
𝑁=
𝜋𝐷𝑜𝐿

Given that the fluid velocity inside the tube is calculated:

𝑢𝑡 = 4 𝑚̇𝑡 (43)
𝜌 𝑁𝜋𝐷2
𝑡 𝑖

44
Where

ut: Tube-side velocity, m/s

mt: Tube-side mass flow, kg/s

ρt : Density of tube-side fluid, kg/m3.

Calculating Shell Side Parameters

The tube pitch and the bundle diameters are found through the following correlations respectively:

𝑃𝑡 = 1.25 × 𝐷𝑜 (44)
𝑁 1⁄𝑛1 (45)
𝐷𝑏 = 𝐷𝑜 ( )
𝐾1
Where K1 and n1 are found from the below table and they are dependent on the tube pitch. (7)

Table 9. Constants of Bundle diameter equation

After calculating the diameter of the bundle, the diameter clearance can be obtained from the

following figures (7):

COST ANALYSIS

45
For the cost analysis what ought to be done here is the determination of the total capital

investment (T.C.I) by deducing each unit’s cost to be able to determine the overall reactor and

equipment cost. Followed by a profitability study to determine whether this engineering project is

doable or not (profitable/economical or not) hence each unit’s cost analysis will be summarized

according to the equations used for each unit as well as a final cost analysis and profitability study

done for the overall project.

Unit cost analysis

In this section a cost analysis will be performed for each unit in this simulation which is

affected by the size, material of construction design Pressure and Temperature… of the unit. (1)

Pressure Vessel

Resulting in the following table summarizing the total cost of the Pressure Vessel.

Table 15. Cost analysis summary and main factors for the Pressure Vessel

Fm 1
Diameter Di (in) 2
shell thickness ts
(in) 0.00661

density (lb/in3) 0.283


Length (in) 0.492
W (lb) 0.024669
Cv 774.4837
Cpl 365.9139
Cost empty in $ 1140.398

46
Solid Separator

For the evaluation of the cost of the solid separator of choice in this simulation, and considering it

is a hydro-cyclone with known ranging commercial price and for the operations needed for this

project (simple solid (yeast) particle separation from the liquid stream (fermented apple juice), the

hydro-cyclone’s final cost was estimated to be around 5000$/. (1)

Jacketed stirred Batch-Tank Reactor

Similar equations to that of the cost analysis for the Pressure vessel were used to determine
(14)
the cost for a batch tank reactor paving the way to a final cost analysis and profitability study.

Resulting in the following table summarizing the total cost of the Jacketed stirred tank reactor (1)

Table 16. Cost analysis summary and main factors for the jacketed stirred tank reactor

Fm 2.1
Diameter Di (in) 102.8347
shell thickness ts
(in) 0.0979

density (lb/in3) 0.283961


Length (in) 154.252
W (lb) 2126.169
Cv 17333.94
Cpl 392081.1
Cost empty($) 428482.4

47
Pumps

For the cost analysis of the pumps, each pump provides different variables and properties

to be taken into consideration hence resulting in different pricing for each pump taking these

variables into consideration (refer to appendix I pump section). The results are as summarized in

the following table for both pump 1 and 2 as well as the regulator valve used in this project.

Table 17. Cost analysis summary and main factors for the Pumps

Pump 1 2
Q (m3/h) 3.542505821 3.397005542
Q (m3/s) 0.000984029 0.000943613
M (kg/h) 3335 3335
M (kg/s) 0.926388889 0.926388889
Density (kg/m3) 941.424 981.747
viscosity (cP) 1.1392 0.7731015
viscosity (N.s/m2) 0.0011392 0.000773102
Power required (kW) 0.3936 0.08708
Power Ideal (kW) 0.2952 0.06531
Pump Head (m) 43.31045486 9.581997992
Velocity u (m/s) 1.942991863 1.863187941
Reynolds number 40784.01594 60097.09069
friction factor f 0.018 0.0178
P drop in pipes (kPa) 755.5918633 716.5070246
velocity head (m) 0.192416788 0.176935235
head loss (m) 2.828526782 2.600947949
head loss (kPa) 26.12248981 25.04956862
total head loss (kPa) 781.7143531 741.5565932
Ns 0.011047969 0.033537276
Ns' (RPM) 335.8593757 1019.536597
Capacity (m3/s) 0.001279238 0.001226696
Q (gpm) 20.4055 19.60100845
Head (ft) 142.0946682 31.43700129
size factor 243.2406369 109.9003239
Cb($) 2912.628592 3086.180781
Ft 1 1
Fm 2 2
Cp($) 5825.257183 6172.361562
Total Pump Cost ($) 11997.61875

48
Table 18. Valve cost analysis
Number of valves 1
Flow diameter (in) 1.969
Valve cost 171.9477799
Total valves cost 171.95$

49
Heat exchangers

For the cost analysis of the heat exchanger, the first heat exchanger cost analysis’ values

were based on the design and sizing of the 1st heat exchanger as for the following 2 exchangers,

their values were correlated from the Aspen Hysys® simulation software considering the

somewhat similarity obtained for the 1st designed heat exchanger.

Table 19. Heat exchangers detailed cost analysis


HEX Variables Heater Temp adjuster Cooler
Coefficient (U) (KW/m2.
K) 0.795308 403.5 235
UA Calculated (KJ/C.hr) 9116.25 24340 21300
Q (kw) 236.592
Delta tm 103.812
UA in (W/C) 2532.291667 6761.11111 5916.667
Area (m2) 11.46244165 16.7561614 25.1773
Area (ft2) 123.380695 180.36182 271.0063
Pressure (Psig) 89.633 58.015857 53.016
Cb($) 7313.094588 7493.8621 7939.607
Fp 1 0.99131505 0.990321
Fm 3.714815998 2.8296893 2.88838
Fl 1.05 1.05 1.05
Cp($) 28525.14081 22072.1911 23846.16
Total sum 74443.5$

Thereafter, finishing the units cost analysis will pave the way towards a

profitability/Feasibility study which would enable the projected future investor to know whether

the project is actually economical considering the aspects, design sizing and unit analysis

previously discussed.

50
Profitability and feasibility Study

A profitability study is conducted on the cider processing project to determine its

feasibility, its yearly income, the Payback Period (PB) as well as the yearly Annuity(A) and the

project’s life (chosen here to be n=20 years), disregarding interest and inflation rates (which could

indeed influence the project drastically however there are no clear data about inflation whatsoever

in Lebanon) (17) (15) (14)

Table 20. Projected cost and TCI for the equipment used in the cider process

Units Total Cost


Pumps 11997.62
Solid separator 5000
Reactors 428482.3816
Valves 171.947
Vessels 1140.398
Heat Exchangers 74443.4959
Distillation Columns 0
Cost 521235.8425

Cost in 2015 595042.8378


Cost with delivery 654547.1216
FCI 3298917.493
WC 582546.9382
TCI($) 3881464.431

Table 21. Different power costs of the equipment

Units P (kW)
Pumps 0.48068
Reactor 2.801
Pressure vessel 0.2671
Solid separator 2.2
Compressor 0.2009
Total 5.94968
Total price ($) 4283.7696

51
Table 22. Prices of raw material used in the cider process
Total price
Compound Mass flow (kg/h) price ($/kg) ($/year)
Apple juice 125 0.36 360000
Yeast 15 6.75 810000
compound 3 0
Total($) 1170000

Table 23. Cooling water cost based on its duty (0.16$/GJ)

C.W Total duty (GJ/h) 23.25


C.W Total duty (GJ/year) 186000
Cost ($/year) 29760

Table 24. Employee fees and monthly paychecks for this process
# of salary per
Employees structure workers month
worker 5 3500
engineer 1 1800
lawyer 1 1500
salesman 2 2000
manager 1 3000
Total cost of employees 11800$

Table 25. Product sales revenues Per year

Total price
Compound Mass flow (kg/h) price ($/kg) ($/year)
compound 1 119.1 3.5 3334800
compound 2 0
Total($) 3334800

52
Table 26. Total Costs and revenue for gross earning and gross revenues
raw material 1170000
utilities
power 4283.7696
water
Labor 141600
supervision 21240
maintenance MR 230924.2245
Lab supplies 21240
operating supplies 34638.63367

indirect operating
cost 1623926.628

taxes 65978.34985
insurance 32989.17493
overhead 236258.5347
administration 28320
total indirect OC 363546.0595

Operating cost C 1987472.687

Gross Earning ($) 1,347,327


Net Earnings ($) 1239541.128

Table 27. Detailed Cash flow showing P.B period (+)

End of
year(EOY) 0 1 2 3 4
Capital cost -$3,881,464.43
Operating cost -$1,987,472.69 -$1,987,472.69 -$1,987,472.69 -$1,987,472.69
revenue $3,334,800.00 $3,334,800.00 $3,334,800.00 $3,334,800.00
cash flow -$3,881,464.43 $1,347,327.31 $1,347,327.31 $1,347,327.31 $1,347,327.31
Product value -$3,881,464.43 $1,247,525.29 $1,155,116.01 $1,069,551.86 $990,325.80
net value -$3,881,464.43 -$2,633,939.14 -$1,478,823.13 -$409,271.27 $581,054.52

53
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