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ADDIS ABABA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND BIO-ENGINEERING


FINAL INTERNSHIP REPORT

REPI SOAP AND DETERGENT FACTORY


October (2018) – February (2019)

Name ID Number

1. Sara Gethaun…………………………. ATR/8177/08


2. Kedir Mahmud………………………. ATR/6665/08
3. Matias Teshome ……………………. ATR/3035/07
4. Ezedin Tamrat ………………………. ATR/3348/08

Academic Advisor: Mr. Khalid


Company Advisor. Gezahegn
SUBMISSION DATE: February 19, 2019
Final Internship report, Addis Ababa institute of Technology

Declaration

We hereby, declare this final internship report is the results of our work except as cited in
reference; and compiled according to the internship report guideline given.

Name of the students & Signature

1. Ezedin Tamrat
2. Kedir Mahmud
3. Matias Teshome
4. Sara Getahun

This final internship report has been submitted for examination with my approval as university
advisor.

Advisor Name: Mr. Kalid Hussien

Signature: :

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Final Internship report, Addis Ababa institute of Technology

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost we would like to thank God for his unlimited support during our stay
in the company and the employees for supporting and guiding us through the process, for the
safety supplies they provided, for the hospitality they have showed us they have provided us with
good information on how to manufacture or produce detergents like powder, and the university
for supporting us in accessing this internship program and for providing us with all the necessary
budget and knowledge. And special thanks to our family, for being there to give with all the
necessary requests.
And special thanks to Mr. Gezaheng Mr. Kalid and Mr. Jemal for assisting us in the four
months of our internship program

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Final Internship report, Addis Ababa institute of Technology

Executive summary
This report is based on observation of the company from Repi &Willmar soap and
detergent S.C., it explains briefly on History of the company, background and ancient story about
the preparation of soaps and detergents and how the process have changed to the present time
and the investors who poured their investment into these factory literature which gives an insight
to soap and powder detergent(detailed discussion about the production process, how it’s made,
what raw materials to put in, properties of materials that leads to the understanding of effective
soap cleaning power and Proper use of detergent which is the key to good laundry. Amount of
time needed for the reactions, instrumentation usage, and process technology. It also includes
different figures used for modified description of the content and a table that states the addition
procedures of the raw materials. Material and energy balance calculations that illustrate the
material and energy balances on the heart of the production process i.e. slurry preparation and
spray dryer. The challenges we face in the time spent, problem identification and solving. This
report also briefly explains about the outcomes of the internship programs in terms of practical
skills, interpersonal communication, leadership skills, and entrepreneurship skills etc.
Conclusion and recommendations are also included.

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Contents
CHAPTER 1 .................................................................................................................................................... 1
1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Company background and review................................................................................................. 2
1.2 The overall organization and work flow ....................................................................................... 3
CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................................................. 4
2. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................. 4
2.1 Soap and detergents ...................................................................................................................... 4
2.1.1 Powder detergent ...................................................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................................. 6
3. MANUFACTURING PROCESS ..................................................................................................... 6
3.1 Working section ............................................................................................................................ 6
3.2 Tasks we have been executing ...................................................................................................... 6
3.3 Work flow of the company ........................................................................................................... 7
3.4 Introduction on powder detergent ................................................................................................. 7
3.4.1 Raw materials........................................................................................................................ 8
3.4.2 Properties of raw materials ................................................................................................... 9
3.5 Raw materials addition procedure............................................................................................... 18
3.5.1 Addition procedure for ROL bio powder detergent ............................................................ 18
3.5.2 Addition procedure for normal powder detergent ............................................................... 19
3.5.3 Addition procedure for Ajax scouring powder production (dry mixing) ............................ 20
CHAPTER 4 ............................................................................................................................................... 21
4. MECHANISMS OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS .................................................................. 21
4.1 Burner ......................................................................................................................................... 24
4.3 Boiler................................................................................................................................................. 24
4.4 Pump ................................................................................................................................................. 25
4.5 Spray dryer .................................................................................................................................. 26
4.5.1Spray dryer working principle ......................................................................................................... 26
4.6 Packaging .......................................................................................................................................... 28
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4.6 Calculation......................................................................................................................................... 30
4.7 The Revamping Project ..................................................................................................................... 35
CHAPTER 5 .................................................................................................................................................. 39
5. The overall benefits we gained from the internship program........................................................ 39
5.1 In terms of improving our practical skills .................................................................................... 40
5.2 In terms of upgrading our theoretical knowledge ...................................................................... 40
5.3 In terms of improving your interpersonal communication skills ................................................ 40
5.4 In terms of improving our team playing skills ............................................................................. 41
5.5 In terms of improving leadership skills ....................................................................................... 41
5.6 In terms of understanding the work ethics related issues ......................................................... 41
5.7 In terms of entrepreneurship skills ............................................................................................. 41
CHAPTER 6 .................................................................................................................................................. 42
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 42
Recommendation........................................................................................................................................ 43
References .................................................................................................................................................. 45

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List of table and figures


Figure 1.1 overall work flow of the organization……………………………..……………. …..3
Figure 3.1 surfactants reducing the surface tension…………………………….………………10

Figure 3.2 surfactants forming structure called micelles…………………………….…………10


Figure 3.3 builders binding to the magnesium and calcium ions in water……………………...12
Figure 3.4 Tinopal absorbing UV light and re-emitting visible blue light ……………………..16
Table 3.1 Raw material proportion for the ROL detergent powder………………………......…20

Figure 4.1 Main unit operations in the powder production process……………………………..21


Figure 4.2 Powder production process Slurry preparation Section……………………………………….22

Figure 4.3 Overall process flow diagram for powder production………………………………..23

Figure 4.4 water and steam line in the boiler room…………………………..………………….24


Figure 4.5 Spray dryer; conversion of slurry into powder ………………………...…………….26

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Final Internship report, Addis Ababa institute of Technology

CHAPTER 1
1. INTRODUCTION

From ancient times, chemical additives were recognized for their ability to facilitate the
mechanical washing with water. The Italians used a mix of sulfur and water with charcoal to
clean cloth. Egyptians added ashes and silicates to soften water. Soaps were the first detergents.
The detergent effects of certain synthetic surfactants were noted in Germany in 1917, in response
to shortages of soap during World War I. In the 1930s, commercially viable routes to fatty
alcohols were developed, and these new materials were converted to their sulfate esters, key
ingredients in the commercially important German brand FEWA, produced by BASF, and Draft,
the US brand produced by Procter and Gamble. Such detergents were mainly used in industry
until after World War II. By then, new developments and the later conversion of aviation fuel
plants to produce tetra propylene, used in household detergents, caused a fast growth of domestic
use in the late 1940s. The use of enzymes for laundry was introduced in the early part of the
1900s by Otto Rohm. Only in the latter part of the century with the availability of thermally
robust bacterial enzymes did this technology become main stream.
At the present time, soap has largely been displaced as the main cleaning agent in
developed countries. Soap is, by weight, relatively ineffective, and it is highly sensitive to
deactivation by hard water. By the 1950s, soap had almost been completely replaced by branched
alkyl-benzene sulfonates, but these detergents were found to be poorly biodegradable. Linear
alkyl-benzene sulfonates (LABs), however, proved to be both highly effective in cleaning and
more biodegradable than the branched relatives. LABs remain the main detergents used
domestically. Other detergents that have been developed include the linear alkyl-sulfonates and
olefin sulfonates, which also resist deactivation by hard water. Both remain specialty products.
During the early development of non-soap surfactants as commercial cleaning products, the term
syndet, short for synthetic detergent, was promoted to indicate the distinction from so-called
natural soaps.

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1.1 Company background and review

Repi Soap Detergent S.C was established in 1974by the name Bianil Ethiopia
Share Company by foreign investors of Swiss & Greek origin aiming to produce way for the
establishment of Repi Soap &Detergent Share Company.
Lina Plc is a share company mainly involved in trading, real estate and small-scale
manufacturing of corrugated steel& tea and added Repi Soap & Detergent S. Co to its
portfolio of investment by acquiring 51% of share amounting to Birr 9,360,000.00 of the
total share amounting to 18,360,000 while the remaining 49% amounting to birr 9,000,000
was raised by Pessa in the form of assets based on business evaluation of the factory. The
joint venture arrangement lasted one year followed by a full takeover of the share company
by Lina Plc after settling of the remaining 49% share previously held by the Ethiopian
government.
In July,2014 Repi Soap and Detergent S.C and Willmar International Limited
(Willmar) have signed a joint investment agreement for the upgrading of an existing
manufacturing facility in Jimma (sebeta) Road, Kolfe Karenio Sub City and building of a
new integrated manufacturing complex in Dima, Sebeta Town, Oromia Region in Ethiopia
that will house an edible oil refinery and packing plant, production plants for specialty fats,
soft oils, soaps and detergents, as well as a facility for sesame seed processing. Repi and
Willmar will have a 50%participation in the joint investment.

About Willmar
Willmar International Limited, founded in 1991 and headquartered in Singapore, is
today Asia’s leading agribusiness group. Willmar is ranked amongst the largest listed
companies by market capitalisation on the Singapore Exchange.

Willmar’s business activities include oil palm cultivation, oilseed crushing, edible oils
refining, sugar milling and refining, specialty fats, oleo chemical, biodiesel and fertiliser
manufacturing, and grain processing.

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It has over 450 manufacturing plants and an extensive distribution network covering
China, India, Indonesia and some 50 other countries. The Group is backed by a multinational
workforce of about 90,000 people. Willmar is able to extract margins at every step of the
value chain, thereby reaping operational synergies and cost efficiencies.
Willmar remains a firm advocate of sustainable growth and is committed to its role as
a responsible corporate citizen.

1.2 The overall organization and work flow

Figure 2.1 overall work flow of the organization

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CHAPTER 2

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Soap and detergents

Soap is a cleaning agent (bar) which is produced by saponification process. And detergent
is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants having cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Commonly, "detergent" refers to alkyl benzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are
similar to soap but are less affected by hard water. The main difference between soap and
detergent is that most soap does not work very well in hard water.
At Repi Wilmar soap & detergent s.c. both of these products are produced. Diva soap and
Tiffany beauty soap are produced. Detergents produced here are classified as liquid, bar
&powder detergents. Largo & Ajax bar are liquid and bar detergents respectively. Powder
detergents include ROL (Bio & All-in-1), Ajax scouring powder (VIM) and Essex. For the
days we were at the factory we were able to learn the production process of powder
detergents except Essex.

2.1.1 Powder detergent

In this department mainly two types of powder are produced. These are ROL bio and ROL
normal. These products mostly have the same procedures of production but there has to be some
minor alteration of the raw materials and their proportions in the manufacturing process. The
other types are easily produced using the recycled powder from the main powder production as a
raw material and other additives and fillers. It’s done by dry mixing process.
The raw materials that are used for the production of ROL bio and normal powder is added
with the right proportion and addition procedure in the batch reactor that is found on the second
floor. The steam generated in the boiler is continuously fed to the batch reactor as the process
starts with the preparation of a paste which is the mixture of water, caustic soda (NaOH) and
LABSA (linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid). After it neutralizes the rest of the raw materials are
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added while. The final mixture will result in slurry, after the slurry is mixed it’s passed down to
third floor and filtered to the ground floor directly to an aging mixer where it is temporary stored
and mixed for a period of 20-30 minutes. After the mixing is done the slurry goes to the high-
pressure pump due to gravity. Then it’s pumped to the nozzles at the top of the spray tower by
means of pressure, meanwhile in the tower there will be a conversion of this slurry liquid into
powder form by the hot gas generated inside the burner from the ground floor. The powder is
then extracted at the bottom of the spray dryer and passed to the belt conveyer, waiting to
transport it to the pneumatic pump where it is lifted to the top floor where the air lift separator is
found, then to sieve vibrator then to the perfume homogenizer, silo and carriage then finally to
the packaging machines.

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CHAPTER 3

3. MANUFACTURING PROCESS

3.1 Working section


First, we were made familiar with the safety rule and regulation they follow in the industry. This
includes:

 PPE usage, which are the personal protective equipments. The Occupational Safety and
Health sets out the obligation of an employer 'where it is not practicable to avoid the
presence of hazards at the workplace, provide the employees with, or otherwise provide
for the employees to have, such adequate personal protective clothing and equipment as
is practicable to protect them against those hazards, without any cost to the employees'.
 The fire assembly area
 The emergency assembly area

Since we got in there, we have been working in the powder detergent section for 5 days a week,
we have a one-month schedule to work in 5 different sub sections, which are:

• The raw material properties section


• The raw material addition procedure section
• The spray dryer section
• The boiler section
• The packaging section

3.2 Tasks we have been executing

We were required to report every 2 weeks throughout our internship experience. This is a
requirement because reporting is a great opportunity for us to process and document what we
have learned as well as reflect on the experience on a regular basis and at the end to determine
what is next in our academic and professional direction

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During this time, we have prepared 2 reports for the company. The first one includes and
briefly explains our stay in the raw material properties and their addition procedures. And the
second one was on the spray dryer, boiler and the packaging process along with the burner. This
report includes working principles of the different machines, the process flow diagrams, the heat
and mass transfer calculations and our recommendations based on our observations for the
company.

But we have spent more than 2 months in the company so soon after we finish our one-
month program the company started a project on the detergent powder factory so we were also
given a chance to observe the procedures. Alongside we were given certain tasks like material
handling and selection for the project. Even though it wasn’t directly connected to our site it
helped us to know several material types and their functions like that of valves, bolts, elbows,
reducers, and pumpsso on.

3.3 Work flow of the company

In the section that we have spent a month we observed every procedure and we applied
the knowledge and understanding we gathered from the courses we have taken during our 3
years of stay in the school of chemical and bio-engineering department in order to understand the
preparation of the detergent powder, ROL powder and it effectiveness in cleaning clothes.

3.4 Introduction on powder detergent

Detergent is a cleansing agent. A detergent contains an active agent called surfactant


that wets the fabric, emulsifies oily matter, solubilizes grime and keeps the soil (dirt) in
suspension. This active agent contains two groups.
 Oil loving or lipophilic and
 Water loving – hydrophilic

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The first synthetic detergents synthesized were derived from fats by reduction with
hydrogen, followed by reaction with sulphuric acid, and then neutralization. But this process was
found to be expensive. Within a few years, cheap synthetic detergents were produced from
petroleum products. Made largely from a material called acid clurry, this is chemically linear
alkylbenzene (LAB). LAB is sulphonated to get linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LABS). This
is reacted with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate (Soda ash) to form its sodium salt soluble
in water. The products for use in homes and commercial laundries usually contain much more
than LABS molecules. The LABS is called a surface-active agent or surfactant. In addition to the
LABS modern detergent formulations contain a number of other substances to improve
detergency, to bleach, to lessen redeposition of dirt, to brighten, or simply to reduce the cost of
the formulation.

3.4.1 Raw materials\


The detergent powder produced in Repi and Wilmar S.C is called ROL powder. And here are the
raw materials used in the production process.

 Water (H20)
 LABSA (Linear Alkyl Benzene sulphonic acid)
 Caustic Soda Flakes (NaOH)
 Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3)
 Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC)
 Tinopal CBS-X
 Sodium Sulphate Anhydrous (Na2SO4)
 Soda Ash Light (Na2CO3)
 Sodium TripolyPhosphate (STPP)
 4A Zeolite (Na2O.Al2O3.SiO2.4,5H2O)
 Salt (non-iodized)
 Perfume

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Final Internship report, Addis Ababa institute of Technology

 Dolomite
 TrichloroIsocyanuric acid (TCCA)

3.4.2 Properties of raw materials

Raw materials for the production of Powder detergent can be classified into six parts according
to their property: -

1. Surfactants (Active Materials)


2. Builders (Washing Auxiliaries)
3. Buffering Agents
4. Synergic Agents
5. Auxiliary Elements

1. Surfactants

Surfactants are chemicals that reduce surface tension of the washing solutions and reduce
the adhesive force of the stains to the clothes. In a word, it’s to help to make it easier to remove
the stains from the clothes when rubbing with hands or washing machine.

Surfactants are the active cleaning agents that perform three major roles:

• Penetrating and wetting fabric

• Loosening soils (assisted)

• Emulsifying soils and keeping them suspended in wash solution

• Foaming
How do they work?

When detergents are added, surfactant molecules accumulate near the surface of the
water because the non-polar (hydrophobic) tail of the surfactant wants to get away from the
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water. Since the surfactant disrupts the bonding of water molecules, the water distorts and more
surfactants molecules fit near the surface. Because the water now has reduced surface tension it
can permeate previously non-wet able surfaces, such as fabrics. This is the main ingredient for
the synthetic detergent powder, and the key index for the quality of synthetic detergent powder.

Figure 3.1 surfactants reducing the surface tension

Surfactants are amphiphilic, they have two domains with the one molecule: a polar,
hydrophilic (“water loving”) or lipophobic and a non-polar, fatty (“water hating”) or lipophilic
tail. Think of a surfactant molecule as a matchstick, with the thick end being the ‘head’ and the
thin end being the ‘tail’. This ‘head’ is water soluble (hydrophilic) but oil-whereas the ‘tail’ is
water-insoluble (hydrophobic) but oil-soluble.

Figure 3.2 surfactants forming structure called micelles


When added to water as part of a detergent or cleaning formulation, surfactants form
structure called micelles. These micelles are small spheres made of surfactants molecules where
the tails attract and trap oil molecules while the heads of the micelle suspend them in water.

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There are four sort of surfactants, Anionic surfactants, Nonionic surfactants, Positive
ion surfactants and Amphoteric surfactants. The last two are seldom used in surfactants.

Non-ionic surfactant, this is used as a kind of additive in detergent, for its high
foaming, high emulsification and its high permeability.

LABSA

Anionic surfactant is the most common surfactant used in detergent production. In


Repi Wilmar soap and detergent LABSA (Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid) which is one
of the most commonly used Anionic surfactant for the production of synthetic detergent is used
as the main ingredient. Its common use is because of its good solubility in the water, high
detergency and foaming, highly biodegradable and most importantly because of its lower cost.

The percentage of LABSA in detergents range from 5%-28%,

5%-12%..........low-class quality

12%-16%........mid-class quality

16%-28%.......high-class quality

LABSA (CH3(CH2)11C6H4SO3H) is produced by the sulfonation of LAB with OLEUM (a


highly corrosive solution of Sulphur trioxide in sulphuric acid), or other sulfonation reagents like
sulphuric acid, Sulphur tri oxide.

2. Builders (washing auxiliaries)

Builders enhance or maintain the cleaning efficiency of the surfactant. The primary
function of builder is to reduce water hardness.

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How do they work?

Builders enhance the action of surfactants by sequestration or chelation (The action of


forming a chelate or other stable compound with an ion or atom or molecule so that it is
no longer available for reactions) (holding hardness minerals in solution), by precipitation
(forming an insoluble substance), or by ion exchange (trading electrically charged particles).

Builders prevent free water ions, such as magnesium and calcium to react with other
ingredients. Builders can be classified in to two depending on their characteristics, organic
detergent builders and inorganic detergent builders.

Figure 3.3 builders binding to the magnesium and calcium ions in water

Builders are basically water softeners that are used to soften wash water by extracting and
binding the magnesium and calcium ion but other benefits might be available, such as: -

• Buffering of water in the alkaline range

• Prevent redeposition of soils

• Carry absorbed liquid components

• Improve the wetting and emulsification


Builders used in Repi Wilmar are 4A zeolite and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP).

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Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (Na5P3O10)

Sodium tripolyphosphate is an in organic phosphate polymer most commonly used in


detergents in detergents and fertilizers. It serves as a “builder”, industrial jargon softener. In hard
2+ 2+
water (water that contain high concentration of Mg and Ca ), detergents are deactivated.
Being a highly charged chelating agent, TPP 5-binds to dictation tightly and prevents them from
interfering with the sulfonate detergent.

STPP reaction with hard water

+M +5Na+

 M represents the hardness ions (Mg2+, Ca2+ and Fe3+) found in hard water and it
exchanges them for Na+.

Adverse effect: Detergents containing phosphorus contribute, with other sources of phosphorus,
to the eutrophication of many fresh waters. Eutrophication is an increase in chemical nutrients
like phosphorus and nitrogen in aquatic environment that induce excessive growth of plant and
algae. This results in severe reduction of water quality and fish and another aquatic animal
population. Due to this reason other builders are more preferable, in the developed countries
there is a regulation concerning the use of STPP but in developing countries not so much.

4A zeolite (sodium alumino silicate)

4A zeolite is a crystalline material, with a zeolite A type structure. It is produced by


precipitation and crystallization from pure sodium aluminate and sodium silicate solutions to
yield a product with the following composition: Na2O · 2SiO2 · Al2O3 · 4,5H2O.4A has a silicon:
aluminum ratio of 1 (the maximum attainable aluminum content). 29Si and 27Al NMR, spectra
indicate an ordered distribution of tetra-hederally coordinated atoms with no extra framework

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aluminum species. The maximum aluminum content leads to the highest negative charge on the
framework and hence to the highest theoretically achievable calcium ion exchange capacity. This
is important for detergents, since it allows maximum water softening.

4A Zeolite reaction with hard water

Ca2+ + Na2X ------>CaX + 2Na

Mg2+ + Na2X ------>MgX + 2Na

Na2X- represents Zeolite A, Na12[(AlO2)12(SiO2)12].27H2O

Ca2+ + Na12[(AlO2)12(SiO2)12].27H2O6Ca[(AlO2)12(SiO2)12].27H2O + 12Na (+2Ca2+, -4Na+)

Mg2++ Na12[(AlO2)12(SiO2)12].27H2O6 Mg[(AlO2)12(SiO2)12].27H2O +12Na (+2Mg2+, -4Na+)

4A is a zeolite of the first generation optimized for use as a builder, liquid carrier and/or
processing aid in laundry detergent products, helping manufacturers to produce detergents with
excellent physical properties and cleaning performance.

3. Alkalis (buffering agents)

The term alkali represents a substance, which is a base (chemically) and which reacts
with an acid to neutralize it. Alkalis are good grease removers as they form emulsion, a mixture
where oily or solid particlesare held in suspension. This is done by raising the PH of the laundry
wash water. However, since high pH can also damage fabrics the pH of laundry detergents is
carefully controlled. The particles do not separate from the remaining liquid and hence they do
not redeposit. The most common alkalis used now days include NaOH& soda ash light (NaCO3).

Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH)

Sodium hydroxide in the solution form is manufactured by mercury electrode electrolysis


process. Sodium hydroxide is a strongly electrolyte, being completely ionized in a solution state.
It’s very hygroscopic, it can absorb water from the air .it can also absorb CO2 from air.

Soda ash light (NaCO3)

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Soda ash light is a one of the most important basic industrial, chemical and most widely
used fixed alkali for the manufacture of other alkali products.

Sodium carbonate also known as washing soda, soda ash, is the water-soluble sodium salt
of carbonic acid. it has a strongly alkaline taste and it forms a moderately basic solution in water.
It is synthetically produced from salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) and limestone (CaCO3) by a
method known as Solvay process.

Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3)

Sodium Meta silicate (Na2SiO3) acts as a surfactant that pulls away dirt from the fabric.
They remove minerals and therefore the hardness of the wash water is reduced through an ion
exchange mechanism. The alkalinity of sodium silicates enables them to neutralize acidic stains.
It has emulsifying and wetting properties particularly for in washing detergents.

4. Synergic agents

Synergic agents provide a special power of washing and protection.

 Anti-redeposition agent

Sodium carboxyl methylcellulose (SCMC, C8H16NaO8)

SCMC is a cellulose derivative which is beta (1, 4) glucopyranosepolymer. It is an ionic


water-soluble polymer derived from cellulose and is also known as sodium cellulose glycolate,
carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and cellulose gum etc. the chemical name of SCMC is sodium
salt of methyl ether of cellulose. It’s a hygroscopic powder readily dissolves in water to form
colloidal solution. SCMC one of the best activated assistants for detergents, it can prevent
dirt(‘soils’) from attaching to fabrics. SCMC helps to greatly improve the quality of the soap.it
makes the soap flexible.

 Optical Brightener

Tinopal CBS-X (C28H20Na2O6S2)


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It is a florescent whitening agent which absorbs UV light and re-emits visible blue light,
thus compensating the yellowish appearance of washedclothes. It has a solubility and achieves
high level of whiteness and brightness from cold to medium washing temperature, even by short

washing time.

Interaction of blue
andyellowproduceswhitelig
ht

Incoming
ultraviolet
light (invisible)
Emitte
d blue
light

Optical
brightener
molecules
Fabric surface

Figure 4.2 Tinopal absorbing UV light and re-emitting visible blue light
TCCA (Trichloroisocyanuricacid)

TCCA is a white slightly hygroscopic crystalline powder or lump solid with a mild
chlorine-like odor it’s an active ingredient in household dry bleaches.

TCCA is a strong oxidant and chlorinating agent which has efficient, broad-spectrum and
safe disinfection effects. It has the strongest bactericidal activity among chlorinated is cyanuric
acid products against bacteria, virus, fungi, mold, vibrio cholerae, bacillus. The product has a
strong sterilization and, bleaching effect.

Perfume

Perfume is generally added to detergents to provide a good fresh (pleasant) smell for
washed clothes. These fragrances also invite customers to buy and use the detergent. There are
two kinds of perfumes used in our case:

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• The perfume used for ROL powder production and


• The perfume used in the Ajax scouring powder.

The perfume for the ROL powder detergent is the mixture of four fragrant chemical
compounds namely.

 Coumarin (2H-chromen-2-one)
 Eugenol (2-methoxy-4(2-propen-1-yl) phenol)
 Citronellol (3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol)
 3-hexyl-3-phenyl-2-propenal

For the Ajax scouring powder the perfume being used is known as lemon grass perfume.

Addition method

It is added to the ROL detergent powder in the perfume drum mixer.

It is added to the Ajax scouring simply by syringe while in the dry mixing process.

5. AUXILIARY ELEMENTS

 Fillers

Fillers are used to change the consistency of the detergent, to make it more pourable,
more soluble and to help it disperse evenly.

Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2)

It is a carbonate of calcium and magnesium; it is used as filler in the production of VIM


(Ajax scoring powder) in repi wilmar soap and detergent.

Sodium sulphate anhydrous (Na2SO4)

Sodium sulfate is found in natural form (thenar tide). It is easy to absorb water when
being exposed to become hydrous sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate is a desiccant. Desiccants are

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able to bind multiple molecules of water, forming “hydrates”. This effectively locks up any
moisture that enters the detergent, maintaining a dry, free-flowing powdered detergent.
Sodium sulfate anhydrous is the anhydrous, sodium salt form of sulfuric acid. It
dissociates in water to provide sodium ions and sulfate ions. Sodium ion is the principal cation of
the extracellular. it is used as a filler in manufacture of detergent powder. It also absorbs water
from air (hydroscopic).it also has an anti-caking effect.

All of these raw materials have their own addition procedure and as described the type
and measurements of these raw materials differ for bio and normal ROL powder.

3.5 Raw materials addition procedure

3.5.1 Addition procedure for ROL bio powder detergent

 Steam was provided to the reactor in order to boil the chemicals and clean the pipe ways.
 Water was added to the slurry preparation tank.
 Caustic soda (NaOH) was added to the tank.
 LABSA was added to the mixture. And the chemicals were left for some minutes until
LABSA was neutralized. The above mixture is called paste.
 Then Sodium Silicate was added. After that measured amount of the powered raw
materials were introduced to the slurry preparation tank.
 Sodium Sulphate Anhydrous.
 Soda Ash Light.
 Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP).
 Then the slurry was prepared therefore, it was washed with additional water and passed
to the filter.
 Once it was passed through the filter, the slurry was stored temporarily in the aging tank
before it was passed to the spray dryer.

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3.5.2 Addition procedure for normal powder detergent

 Steam was provided to the reactor in order to boil the chemicals and clean the pipe ways.
 Water was added to the slurry preparation tank
 Caustic soda (NaOH) was added to the tank. The amount varies depending on the
concentration of NaOH solution prepared from the caustic soda flakes.
 LABSA was added to the mixture.
 After 4 minutes of neutralization sodium silicate was added. The rest raw materials were
added in the following order.
 Non-iodized sea salt was added to the reactor. Then a few minutes were waited for the
chemicals to boil together.
 After some minutes Tinopal CBS-X and sodium carboxyl methylcellulose (SCMC) with
some amount of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) taken from the totalrequirement was
added and boiled with the others. When the mixture boiled the remaining raw materials
were added in this order.
 sodium sulphate anhydrous.
 soda ash light.
 The remaining sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP).
 4A zeolite.
 Finally, additional amount of water was added to adjust the thickness of the slurry and the
preparation was finished.
 Finally, the slurry was passed through the filter and stored temporarily in the aging tank
before it was passed to the spray dryer.

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Table: Raw material proportion for the ROL detergent powder

Raw Material Proportion of Raw Material


ROL All-in-1 ROL Bio
1 Water 16.98 % 18.49 %
2 Caustic Soda 4.08 % 4.44 %
3 LABSA 11.93 % 12.99 %
4 Sodium Silicate 15.29 % 17.10 %
5 SCMC 0.68 % 0.74 %
6 Tinopal 0.08 % 0.01 %
7 Sodium Sulfate 23.78 % 20.80 %
8 Soda Ash 12.74 % 13.87 %
9 STPP 3.40 % 11.56 %
10 Zeolite 3.40 % -
11 Salt 7.64 % -

3.5.3 Addition procedure for Ajax scouring powder production (dry mixing)

 Recycled powder –ROL detergent powder which was collected at the fine powder traps at
the Air Lift was measured and prepared for dry mixing.
 Sodium tripolyphosphate(STPP) was mixed with the recycled powder.
 Dolomite was added to the mixture.
 Trichloroisocyanuricacid was then added.
 Lemon grass perfume was measured &added using syringe piston to give the product a
pleasant smell. Then they were all dry mixed and packed to become Ajax scouring
powder.

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CHAPTER 4

4. MECHANISMS OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

Figure 4.1 main unit operations in the powder production process

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Figure 4.2 over all process flow diagram for slurry preparation

KEY:
1 Water Scale
2 Caustic Soda Dissolving Mixer
3 Caustic Soda Storage Tank
4 Slurry Preparation Tank
5 Filter
6 Aging Tank
7 Slurry Recycling Tank
8 Filter
9 Homogenizer Pump
10 High Pressure Pump (Piston Pump)

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Figure 4.3 overall process flow diagram for spray drying and powder production process

KEY:

1. Burner
2. Furnace
3. Hot Air Fan
4. Spray Drying Tower
5. Spray Nozzle (Atomizer)
6. Cyclones (Fine Powder Traps)
7. Exhaust Fan
8. Conveyer Belt
9. Air Lift
10. Settling Vessel
11. Fine Powder Traps
12. Air Lift Fan
13. Vibrating Screen
14. Perfume Homogenizer
15. Dust collecting Fan
16. Fine Powder Traps
17. Powder Silo
18. Packing Machine

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4.1 Burner
A burner is a mechanical device that.

• Supplies required amount of fuel and air


• creates condition for rapid mixing of fuel and air
• Produces a flame which transfers thermal energy to furnace and charge.

In the liquid fuel burner, oil is heated and atomized into a fine spray by a spray nozzle
and air is supplied for combustion in the spray chamber. Alternatively, oil may be atomized by
high speed air to produce a fine dispersion of droplets in to air. In Repi and Wilmar soap and
detergent S.C. the fuel used is called Furnace oil, it is a fraction obtained from petroleum
distillation either as a distillate or a residue, in general terms fuel oil is any liquid fuel that is
burned in a burner or boiler for the generation of heat. The heat generated in the burner is then
transferred to the inducing fan; this fan has an impeller which is used to lift up the hot gas in
counter clock wise (CCW) direction and introduces it to the spray dryer in the total of 12 entry
lines around it.

4.3 Boiler
Boilers are part of a hydronic heating systems, denoting cooling or heating systems
circulating the water. Hydronic systems use water to transfer heat to the distribution source; they
can heat via hot water or steam. Boiler is the part of the system that heats the water to be
distributed.

Figure 4.4 water and steam line in the boiler room

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The numbers on the top line of the boiler represents as follows:

 1: It represents the chimney; chimney is a vertical pipe which conducts smoke and gasses
up from the boiler.
 2: It represents the line where the produced steam is distributed from. This produced
steam is used in the following unit operations:
 The slurry preparation tank
 High pressure pump
 Caustic soda tank
 Nozzle lines
 Generally, this steam is used to open the pipe ways and facilitate the whole
process.
 3: It represents the line where the steam is distributed to:
 Aluminum water tank
 Furnace oil tank
 Steam heat

4.4 Pump

A pump converts mechanical energy (hydraulic horsepower) by pushing fluid


into the system. All pumps work on the same principle generating an increasing volume on the
intake side and a decreasing volume on the discharge side; but the different types of pumps vary
greatly in methods and sophistication. In ROL detergent powder production the type of pump
used is called piston pump, high pressure pump. All piston pumps operate on the principle that a
piston reciprocating in a bore will draw fluid in as it is retracted and expel it as it moves forward.
Therefore, the prepared slurry is pumped to the top of the spray dryer through the nozzles
because of this piston pump.

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4.5 Spray dryer

Spray drying may be defined as the drying of an atomized solution or slurry in contact
with a stream of hot gases, under conditions 'Which permit the recovery of the dried product.

Spray dryers can vary in size and shape depending on the application, atomization device
and air flow direction. There are numerous applications for spray dryers, as powders are
commonly manufactured for use in the detergent, food, pharmaceutical, and many other
industries.Spray drying stands out from other processes involving liquid drying by its ability to
handle feedstock of varying nature, producing flowing powders of specific particle size, high
productivity and versatile applications.

Figure 4.3 Spray dryer; conversion of slurry into powder

4.5.1Spray dryer working principle

Spray drying is the transformation of feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate form
by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium. A spray dryer operates on convection mode. The
principle of working is moisture removal by application of heat to the feed product and
controlling the humidity of the drying medium. Here, the uniqueness is that the evaporation of
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moisture is promoted by spraying the feed into a heated atmosphere, resulting in improved
drying rate. The mechanism can be better understood, when the spray drying process is divided
into its constituent unit operations. A liquid feed entering the spray dryer undergoes a series of
transformations before it becomes powder. The changes are due to the influence of each of the
four stages involved in spray drying, namely:

1. Atomization of the feed solution; slurry


2. Contact of the slurry with the hot gas
3. Evaporation of the slurry moisture content
4. Particle separation (fine, coarse and bead, normal).

Atomization is the heart of spray drying, and is the first transformation process that the
feed undergoes during spray drying. The breakup of bulk liquid into a large number of droplets
drives the rest of the spray drying process by reducing the internal resistances to moisture
transfer from the droplet to the surrounding medium. This is because of the enormous increase in
surface area of the bulk fluid as the droplet fission proceeds, with its instability increasing in
accordance with the intensity of atomization.

Therefore, the atomization technique (droplet generation), the temperature of the hot gas
entering the spray dryer, the insulation technique (fiber glass in our case), the inlet moisture
content of the slurry, the piston pump or high pressure pump, the type of oil the burner uses to
generate heat…all these parameters plays a crucial role for producing a bead size powder.

The detergent powder produced in the spray dryer is discharged at the bottom, at a
temperature of 80oC by means of belt conveyer, to a continuous crystallization unit which is the
air lift where it is conveyed upward by the flow of ambient air that cools it down so completing
the drying and initiating the particle surface crystallization .by this way the product is also lifted
up to such a height as to allow the next operations by gentle gravity-discharge avoiding as much
as possible any breaking of the hallow beads. The powder that is capable of being lifted is
collected at the bottom of the cone, the cyclones that are connected to it will collect the very fine
powder and the rest will be passed to the vibrator sieve. This vibrator sieve is used to classify
materials by separating them by particle size through a screen mesh. Using a combination of

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horizontal and vertical movements, they spread the material over a screen in controlled flow
patterns and stratify the product. Therefore, they separate the powder that has a right size which
is called the bead size and the one that is over sized. The bead size then will be passed to the
perfume drum which will give the powder pleasant smell by rolling the powder and pumping
sprayed perfume. And after that it’s passed to the silo where its then collected by the carriages
and passed through the holes to the packaging machines.

4.6 Packaging

These packaging machines are used to seal the powder in different sized pouches and
make it handy for the public users. But before the product leaves the company quality
supervisors randomly opens one product and checks its quality (weight, whiteness…), if they
found it to be unqualified correction will be taken right away.

The following appears on the packaging of the detergent products:

 Name and trade name of the product


 Name, full address and telephone number of the party responsible for placing the product
on the market
 The address and email address (where available) telephone number from where the
datasheet may be obtained
 Website address where the list of ingredients of the product is provided

Utilities

 Pouches (100gm, 200gm, 1kg)


 Carton
 White glue
 Plaster
 Sticker
 Packaging bag(in 5kg and in 10kg)
 Thread

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 Sewing machine
 Balance
 Packing machine:
 Seal machine

The products that are produced in this factory are being packed in different sizes by using
packaging machines:

• 200gm
• 500gm
• 1kg
• 5kg
• 10kg

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4.6 Calculation

The main unit operations we observed were the slurry preparation tank and the spray dryer. So,
we made material and energy balances on the slurry preparation tank and spray dryer.

In the slurry preparation tank neutralization of LABSA with caustic soda occurs. This reaction
generates water.
LABSA + Caustic Soda SABS + Water
CH3(CH2)11C6H4SO3H + NaOH CH3(CH2)11C6H4SO3Na + H2O
From this reaction we determined the limiting reactant and the amount of water generated.

Material Balance on the Slurry Preparation Tank


We used mass balances to estimate the amount of water associated with steam
and reducing slurry thickness (viscosity).
Basis: 1 Batch
 Moisture content of prepared slurry is measured to be 35 to 45%. An average value of 40%
is taken
 Mass fraction of Moisture in the slurry: XWS =0.4
Measured data from the lab
 Mass fraction of dry solids: XDS =0.6

 Mass of caustic soda solution (NaOH) used varies from 46 to 50 kg. We took an average
value of 48 kg. The concentration is 36%.
Mass fraction of water in NaOH solution: XW =0.64.
 Moisture contents of LABSA and Sodium Silicate are taken to be 1% and 50% respectively.
 Moisture content of All Raw Materials (for Normal Powder) is calculated based on the
above values and it is 26.4%.
R – mass of Raw materials

S – mass of slurry produced

W – Unknown mass of water

XW – mass fraction of water

XWR – mass fraction of water in the raw materials

XWS– mass fraction of water in the slurry

XSR – mass fraction of solids in the raw materials

X f ti f lid i th t i l

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 Overall mass balance


R+W=S
1227.52 + W = S ………. (1)

 Water mass balance


R (XWR) + W + Water Generated = S (XWS)

 Water is generated in the system from neutralization of LABSA with Caustic


Soda (NaOH). This mass can be calculated using stoichiometric relations.
LABSA + Caustic Soda SABS + Water
CH3(CH2)11C6H4SO3H + NaOH CH3(CH2)11C6H4SO3Na + H2O

 LABSA used have 96% active matter out of 140.52 kg. This is about 135 kg.
135 kg
Moles of LABSA = = 0.414kmol
326 kg/kmol
 NaOH used is 36 % w/w. so, mass of NaOH available for the reaction is
0.36 x 48 kg= 17.28 kg.
17.28 kg
Moles of NaOH = = 0.432kmol
40 kg/kmol
 Since the stoichiometric ratio is 1:1; LABSA is the limiting reactant. So the
moles of water produced will be equal to moles of LABSA.

CH3(CH2)11C6H4SO3H + NaOH CH3(CH2)11C6H4SO3Na + H2O


0.414 kmol 0.432 kmol 0.414 kmol 0.414 kmol

Mass of water generated = 0.414 kmol x 18 kg/kmol


= 7.46 kg
 Water mass Balance
R (XWR) + W + Water Generated = S (XWS)
1227.52 (0.264) + W + 7.45 = S (0.4)
331.515 + W = S (0.4) , From eqn. (1) S= 1227.52 + W
331.515 + W = 0.4 (1227.52 + W)
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331.515 + W = 491.008 + 0.4 W


0.6 W = 159.493
W = 256.82 kg , is the total amount of water associated with steam and
thinning (reducing viscosity)
 From overall mass balance
S = R + W = 1227.52 + 256.82 kg
S= 1493.34 kg , is the mass of slurry
produced from one batch.
Material and Energy Balance on the Spray Dryer
Basis: Amount of slurry fed to the dryer = 100 kg/hr.
 Moisture content of slurry = 40%
xW = 0.4 xS =0.6
 Flow rate of dry solids (mS):
mS = XS (100 kg/hr)
= 0.6 (100 kg/hr)
mS = 60 kg dry solids /hr

 Moisture content of slurry in dry basis (XWS)


40 kg moisture
XWS = = 0.667 kg/kg dry solids
60 kg dry solids
 Moisture content of the dried powder is expected to
be 5%. Moisture content of the dry powder in dry
basis (XDS) can be calculated as:
0.05 0.05
XDS = = = 0.053 kg/kg dry solids
1−0.05 0.95
 Air Temperatures: Tgi = 250 0C = 523 K
Tgo= 100 0C = 373 K
 Slurry Temperature: TWS = 60 0C = 333 K
 Powder Temperature: TDS = 80 0C = 353 K
 Moisture content of Hot air from the burner:
Hgi= 0.013 kg water vapor/kg dry air
 CONSTANTS: Specific heat capacities

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CP (water vapor) = 2.01 kJ/kg K


CP (liquid water) = 4.18 kJ/kg K
CP (dry powder) = 1.84 kJ/kg K
CP (dry air) = 1 kJ/kg K
Latent heat of vaporization of water at 100 0C: λ = 2256.4 kJ/kg
Reference temperature: Tref = 0 0C = 273 K
 Unknowns
mg: mass flow rate of dry air required (excluding moisture)
Hgo: moisture content of air leaving the dryer
 Energy Balance:
Heat input = Heat output
Q air in + Q slurry = Q air out + Q dry powder + Q evaporation
Heat Inputs
Q air in = mg CP (dry air) ΔT + mgHgiCP (water vapor) ΔT
= mg [CP (dry air) + Hgi CP (water vapor)](Tgi – Tref)
= mg [1 +(0.013 x 2.01)] (523–273)
Q air in = 256.5325 mg
Q slurry = ms CP (dry powder) ΔT + ms XWS CP (liquid water) ΔT
= ms [CP (dry powder) + XWS CP (liquid water)] (TWS – Tref)
= 60 [1.84 +(0.667 x 4.18)] (333–273)
Q slurry = 16661.016 kJ/hr
Heat outputs
Q air out = mg CP (dry air) ΔT + mgHgoCP (water vapor) ΔT
= mg [CP (dry air) + Hgi CP (water vapor)](Tgo – Tref)
= mg [1 +(0.013 x 2.01)] (373–273)
Q air out = 102.613 mg
Q dry powder = ms CP (dry powder) ΔT + ms XDS CP (liquid water) ΔT
= ms [CP (dry powder) + XDS CP (liquid water)](TWS – Tref)
= 60 [1.84 +(0.053 x 4.18)] (353–273)
Q dry powder= 9895.392 kJ/hr

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Q evaporation = mevp[CP (water vapor) (Tgo – Tevp)+ λ+ CP (liquid water) (Tevp – Tref)]
 Mass of water evaporated; mevp can be calculated as
mevp= 40 kg/hr – (moisture in the dried powder)
moisture in the dried powder = XDS (ms) = 0.053 x 60 kg/hr = 3.18 kg/hr
So, mevp= 40 kg/hr – 3.18 kg/hr
mevp=36.82 kg/hr
 Assume evaporation takes place at 100 0C; Tevp= 100 0C = 373 K
Q evaporation = mevp[CP (water vapor) (Tgo – Tevp)+ λ+ CP (liquid water) (Tevp – Tref)]
= 36.82 [2.01 (373 – 373)+ 2256.4+ 4.18 (373 – 273)]
Q evaporation = 98471.408 kJ/hr
 Energy Balance
Q air in + Q slurry = Q air out + Q dry powder + Q evaporation
256.5325 mg + 16661.016 kJ/hr = 102.613 mg + 9895.392 kJ/hr + 98471.408 kJ/hr
153.9195 mg = 91705.784
mg = 595.8 kg dry air/hr
Q air in = 256.5325 mg = 152842.06 kJ/hr
Q air out = 102.613 mg = 26323.57 kJ/hr
 Moisture Balance
ms XWS + mgHgi = ms XDS + mgHgo
mgHgo = ms XWS + mgHgi – ms XDS
595.8(Hgo) = 40 + 7.7454 – 3.18
Hgo = 0.075 kg water vapor/kg dry air
The total mass flow rates (Dry + Moisture) can be summarized as:
 Hot Air input flow rate = mg + Hgimg = 595.8 + 0.013(595.8) = 603.5454 kg/hr
 Flow rate of Air leaving = mg + Hgo mg= 595.8 + 0.075(595.8) = 640.485 kg/hr
Flow rate of Dried powder = ms + XDSms = 60 + 0.053 (60) = 63.18 kg/hr.

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4.7 The Revamping Project

As the name describes it a revamping project is aspecial type of project aimed at


modifying an existing plant to improve product features, increase overall plant capacity, usually
by replacing any equipment that limits the flow rates(debottlenecking), and comply with new
environmental regulations and so on. Debottlenecking is the process of getting more production
out of existing plants and equipment by improving process or revamping equipment.

After we finished our first given schedule in the powder detergent section a revamping
project has started and we were given a chance to be part of it which becomes our second task.

The task we have been executing includes material handling and sorting out process. We
were collecting materials for the project and the sort them out for easier usage. The materials are
i.e.

1. Valves
Ball valve, Gate valve, Globe valve, Pressure relief valve, Butterfly valve, Check valve,
Double Flap valve
2. Reducer
Centric reducer, Eccentric reducer
3. Gaskets
4. Flanges
Threaded flange, Blind flange, Neck flange
5. Pipe Fittings
Elbows, T-connector, Union, Adaptor, Nipple
6. Strainer
7. Steam trap
8. Hooper

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First we collected them from the store where they have been bought and stored, but since
the project were meant to be started two years ago most of the materials has rusted. Therefore,
our tasks were as follows:

 First we collected all the materials and transport them to the second store room by forklift
truck.
 Sort them out based on their type.
 Then each type of material’s size will be measured using caliper or meter, mostly we
measure them in mm and inch.
 Prepare cartons for the purpose of containing the materials.
 Alike materials both on type and size was counted and inserted in the prepared cartons
 The last but not the list, the materials type, size and quantity will be written on each of
the cartons. This way it will be easier to keep up with the numbers and also easier for the
selection process.

And also we were given the P&ID (piping and instrumentation diagram). It’s a detailed
diagramin the process industry which shows the piping and vessels in the process flow, together
with the instrumentation and control devices. In other words, it’s a diagram that shows the
interconnection of process equipment and the instrumentation used to control the process.
Therefore, they taught us how to read it. And we were reading it and understanding the outcome
of the revamping project. The main points can be summarized as follows

 Steam Usage

At the slurry preparation tank, steam is used for two purposes. One, for heating the slurry
prepared, making it easier to evaporate moisture in the spray dryer. The other is preventing the
raw material powders from binding together and forming larger solids in the slurry. This is
carried out by the pressure of steam.

But this was affecting the process, since it adds unwanted & unmeasured amount of water into
the slurry. So the slurry moisture was difficult to control. Besides the extra water incorporated
into the slurry must be removed in the spray dryer. This was a waste of energy (fuel) and also
water.

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In the Revamping Project the above problems will be fixed through:

1. Using Jacketed Slurry Preparation tank, i.e. steam (water) will not be added into the
slurry. The steam condensate can be recovered and used as boiler feed again and again.
This will reduce the amount of water used.
2. Using Screw Conveyer to add the powder raw materials into the slurry preparation tanks.
This conveyer will provide the raw material particles gradually so that the particles would
not form large solids.

 Liquid Raw Materials Handling

Liquid raw materials such as caustic soda, LABSA & sodium silicate are highly corrosive and
very dangerous to eyes and skin. These chemicals were measured and added to the slurry
preparation tank with human labor. This posed a higher safety risk, increased wastage and errors
in accuracy.

In the Revamping Project these corrosive chemicals will be transported through pipes,
controlled with valves and measured with weighing scales. This will improve the above issues.

 Height of Spray Dryer

The height of the spray tower will be increased by 2 meters. This will increase the drying time
(residence time) producing uniform sized powder with uniform moisture content. It will also
increase the plant’s production capacity.

 Enzyme Addition

In the Revamping Project separate enzyme addition process will be introduced. Enzyme is the
main ingredient of ROL Bio powder. Enzymes will effect stain removal and provide color
&fabric care. This will increase the effectiveness of the detergent.

Different enzymes are able to break down different types of stains. Some enzymes degrade
protein stains, (such as blood, dairy products, eggs, meat, mud, and grass), into small units called
“peptides”. Other enzymes degrade carbohydrates (such as potato, pasta and rice) into smaller
molecules called “oligosaccharides” or “monosaccharides”. Others degrade fats (or “lipids”)

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such as butter and oil. Whatever the type of stain, after its enzymatic breakdown, surfactants
suspend the resulting fragments in solution.

Some enzymes act to smooth cotton fabrics by cleaving fibres that protrude from the surface.
A smoother cotton surface means that soils are less readily taken up by fibres, and are more
easily liberated. Enzymes can also help remove fuzz and pills, and can assist color protection of
fabrics.

The challenges we face mostly occurred because the process they follow differ from batch to
batch:

 We were unable to get the right amount of water they added in order to prepare the slurry.
This problem makes it difficult for us to calculate the solid and moisture content of the
slurry.
 And also the temperature of the slurry and the final product were not stated. These
unknown temperatures were crucial for the calculation of the heat transfer that occurred
in the spray dryer.
 Finding the specific heat of the slurry. Cpslurry, which is necessary for finding the total
heat transfer.

The measures we have taken for the challenges we face.

 To get the right amount of water they added to prepare the slurry, we observe several
batches slurry preparation procedures and took our own data and based on the gathered
data we excluded to take the average amount of water and use that number to calculate
the solid and moisture content of the slurry. Which becomesXsolid=0.6 and Xwater=0.4.
 We measured the unknown temperatures using thermometer, as for the slurry we
measured it while it was in the aging tank and for the final product, the powder when it
comes at the bottom of the spray dryer.

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CHAPTER 5

5. The overall benefits we gained from the internship program

The skills that are required from us as we finish the internship program are:

Hard skills: as we complete our internship, we were able to develop many skills related to
a particular industry. These industry-specific skills are essential for a particular career field, and
are often called “hard skills.”

Soft skills: These are skills that are not taught in a classroom. Often these skills are
developed by interacting in professional work settings, involvement and leadership in student
groups, volunteer’s positions and other outside the classroom experiential opportunities like that
of internship. Soft skills are known as transferable skills. The great thing about soft skills is that
once we develop these, we can apply them to various situations down the line. It is important to
develop these soft skills in our internship, if we consider incorporating the common
competencies below as we create our learning goals for our internship. Developing these
competencies will serve us well professionally and will make us more acceptable in the
workforce:

• Communication skills • Interpersonal skills • Problem solving skills

• Team work skills • Analytical skills • Strong work ethic

• Organizational skills • Leadership skills • Initiative/ entrepreneurship skills

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5.1 In terms of improving our practical skills


Learning new skills and add to our knowledge base while gaining confidence in our abilities.

• We believe we have developed our writing skill


• We now know how to drive the hand forklift
• We made ourselves familiar with the mechanism of installing pipelines

5.2 In terms of upgrading our theoretical knowledge

Since Internship programs are designed to expand the depth and breadth of academic
learning for us in our particular areas of study. It is an opportunity to receive experience in
applying theories learned in the classroom to specific experiences work world. An internship can
also heighten our awareness of motivate us to create opportunities, embrace new ideas, and give
direction to positive change.

5.3 In terms of improving your interpersonal communication skills

We made an effort to observe the personal style of supervisors and try to identify
interpersonal mannerisms and leadership styles that seem to promote good working relationships
or hinder a productive work environment. We pay attention to how the supervisors and
colleagues deal with the problems that stand in the way of working process, pressure, tension,
and praise in work relationships. We tried to learn how we can communicate what we know to
our Internship Supervisor and/or peers. This involves learning to recognize when to speak and
when to listen. Therefore, we can’t help but sharpen our interpersonal communication skills by
interacting with people on a professional level and in a way that we would never have the
opportunity to do in the classroom.

We come to understand the significance of networking which is just because we’re a


four-month intern at the very bottom of the corporation; it doesn’t mean that we can’t make an
impression on others. This means having to learn how to create and develop professional
relationships with colleagues, managers, a vitally important skillthat can benefit us for the entire
duration of our career.

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5.4 In terms of improving our team playing skills

Every single successful company in the world is built upon the core foundation of
teamwork. We learnt how to work within a group and recognize that the strengths and
weaknesses of individuals are only effective when combined into something greater.

5.5 In terms of improving leadership skills

Our leadership skills are an essential part of our career development and can help us
determine our career path. There are several ways to develop our leadership skills during our
college experience and internship is one of it. We learnt that getting into the habit of decision
making will serve us well further down the line. If we have any ambitions of working our way
into a management or leadership position, being able to work throughout the situation and issues
with a degree of self-confidence will certainly earmark us as suitable.

5.6 In terms of understanding the work ethics related issues

We have learned so much from the employees at the factory about the major work ethics
such as discipline, punctuality,initiative, industriousness, innovation andshowing respect.
Evaluation of employees is done periodically based on these qualities. Employees with the
required marks are awarded “Bonus” payments. The company also celebrates “Workers Day” in
which outstanding employees are recognized and awarded. Hopefully we will apply the above
qualities in the future.

5.7 In terms of entrepreneurship skills

Based on our understanding being an entrepreneur is to recognize an opportunity and the


value of taking risks. Thinking like an entrepreneur in our internship helped us to enjoy our tasks
their as an intern student, impact the company, and prepare ourselves for the future career. Take
advantage of all that the experience has to offer, and keep on being a problem solver. We were
always seeking out for the things that stand in the way of the production process and trying to

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figure out how to correct them. This helped us to believe even at large companies there’s room
for us to create an impact.

In the company most of the materials they use for packaging purpose are being imported,
it bothered us to see that we are losing so much on something that can be made in the country if
the right amount of attention and knowledge is poured to it. It teaches us to take advantage of
what makes us unique and not to try to fill the same roles as the others. To think about ways, we
can be innovative in our role and focus on the advantages and different perspectives an intern can
bring.

CHAPTER 6

Conclusion

In general,to prepare this internship report we spent the four-month program in Repi and Wilmar
soap and detergent S.C observing every stage for the production of ROL powder, improving our
practical skills, theoretical skills, interpersonal communications with the employees alongside
developing our leadership skills and learning the work ethics and other issues required from us.

Starting from slurry preparation line up to packaging process, we observed every single stage.
We also observed the series of transformations slurry undergoes before it becomes powder;
detergent powder and that the changes are due to the influence of each of the four stages
involved in spray drying i.e. Atomization of the feed solution; slurry Contact of the slurry with
the hot gas, Evaporation of the slurry moisture content, Particle separation (fine, coarse and bead,
normal).And also the requirements to achieve the production of this powder, like steam and heat;
the machines providing these requirements (boiler and burner) respectively. In these four months
of stay we have learned a lot more about the heat transfer, the mass transfer occurring in the
spray dryer. Therefore, we calculated the moisture content of the raw materials and the slurry as

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a whole, the heat ofthe air entering, the heat of air leaving, the heat of the slurry entering, the
heat of powder leaving and the heat of evaporation.

The revamping project that we were a part of had given us the bigger picture that lies in our
future. We were able to read and understand the P&ID (process and instrumentation diagram)
diagram which is a diagram that shows the interconnection of process equipment and the
instrumentation used to control the process. Sorting out and handling the materials which
involvesorting them out in type and size, has given us the opportunity to easily understand their
type and function. And also spending time with different kinds of experienced engineers work
together in harmony was amazing for learning their techniques in finding solutions for every
problem that stands in the way which is what being engineer is all about; solving a problem. This
helped us to understand the instruments for a quality of leadership and interpersonal
communication which is a key for a quality work.

We gain valuable understanding of chemical engineering and be able to grasp how our
coursework in preparing us to enter our chosen field. We also discover gaps between our
classroom learning and what we need to know in the real world and can strategize how to fill
those gaps.

We develop corporate skills. We may already have the interpersonal skills employers
seek but in an internship, we can’t help but sharpen them by interacting with people on a
professional level.

Recommendation

• Enzyme is the main ingredient for ROL Bio powder detergent and a reason to classify
between Bio and normal powder. But in the production, we didn’t see addition of enzyme.
This could affect the cleaning power of the ROL Bio powder, which can reduce its
marketability. We were told this would be improved on the upcoming project. And we
proved that on the P&ID diagram.

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• In order to improve the quality of the ROL powder produced you can increase the percentage
of LABSA concentration in the product.

• A number of countries have been successful in reducing Eutrophication through


implementation of measure to reduce phosphorus loads. The main source of phosphorous
entering surface of earth is from municipal waste water and agriculture, based on the result of
life cycle analysis. Zeolite A was found to be suitable alternative to STPP. To provide the
other uses of STPP, Zeolite A in combination with polycarboxylates can be used. In terms of
overall performance other than water softening STPP helps in buffering, alkalinity, soil
dispersion and production. In comparison on performance in water softening we found STPP
to be better. But if the aluminum to silicate ratio for zeolite can be improved, zeolite can
perform alternatively.
• The openings of nozzles are being damaged due to long use which will have an effect on the
atomization process, this leads to a large droplet generation which is going to need large heat
consumption in order to dry it. Since these nozzles can be simply made in the workshops
increasing fuel consumption doesn’t have to be an option.
• Using filter bag before releasing the very fine powders to the open air (atmosphere) will
reduce the air pollution. This is also being added on the revamping project.
• On the revamping project the former perfume homogenizer is replaced with the new one
which is more effective in performance and larger in size. In our observation the dry mixing
they execute in the open area is hazardous for the employees that perform it and also for the
employees that work around them, since the mixing is simple and only requires good mixing
and addition of perfume, old perfume homogenizer can done the job effectively. This way
it’s safe for the environment, time consuming and proper usage of instruments.

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References
1. Coulson, J.M., and J.F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Vol. 1, Sixth ed., Butterworth-
Heinemann (1999).
2. Coulson, J.M., and J.F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Vol. 2, Fifth ed., Butterworth-
Heinemann (2002).
3. Laundry Detergent Ingredients Information Sheet, An initiative of ACCORD. PP 1-11.
4. Phosphates and Alternative Detergent Builders- Final Report, EU Environment Directorate,
WRc plc. (2002).
5. Zeolites for Detergents - As Nature Intended, CEFIC, the European Chemical Industry
Council,http://www.cefic.org (2000).
6. C. Anandharamakrishnan and Padma Ishwarya S., Spray Drying Techniques for Food
Ingredient Encapsulation, First ed., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (2015).

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