Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 115

SLTEC 1×135MW 循环流化床项目

化学培训教材
Training Material of WTP for
SLTEC 1×135MW CFB Project
目录
Table of Contents

第一章 原水预处理系统............................................................................................................ 7
Chapter 1 Raw water treatment system.....................................................................................7
1.1.1 混凝处理...................................................................................................................7

1.1.1 Coagulation treatment:..........................................................................................7

1.1.2 澄淀处理...................................................................................................................7

1.1.2 Sedimentation treatment.......................................................................................7

1.1.3 过滤处理...................................................................................................................8

1.1.3 Filtration treatment:................................................................................................8

1.2 普丁巴图电站原水预处理流程..........................................................................................8
The process of raw water pretreatment in Putting Bato power plant..............................8
1.3 絮凝沉淀池原理..................................................................................................................8
1.3 Working principle of Flocculation/Settling Basins........................................................8
1.3.1 药剂混合扩散机理...................................................................................................8

1.3.1 Chemical Mixing and Diffusion Mechanism.......................................................8

1.3.2 孔板式净水混合器混合工艺...................................................................................9

1.3.2 Orifice Water Purifying Mixer Mechanism..........................................................9

1.3.3 小孔眼网格反应设备工艺.....................................................................................10

1.3.3 Small-Hole Grid Reacting Equipment Mechanism.........................................10

1.3.4 沉淀设备沉淀工艺.................................................................................................11

1.3.4 Settling Equipment Mechanism.........................................................................11

1.4 普丁巴图电站混合絮凝沉淀处理工艺流程....................................................................11
1.4 Procedures of Mixing/Flocculation/Settling for Puttin Bato Power Plant................11
1.5 全自动自清洗过滤器的工作原理....................................................................................12
1.5 Fully-Automatic Self-Cleaning Filter Mechanism.......................................................12
1.6 石英砂过滤工作原理........................................................................................................14
1.6 Quartz Sand Filter Mechanism......................................................................................14
1.7 超滤....................................................................................................................................15
1.7 Ultrafiltration......................................................................................................................15
1.7.1 超滤的运行方式.....................................................................................................16

1.7.1 Operation Mode of Ultrafilters............................................................................16

1.7.2 普丁巴图电站锅炉补给水超滤系统具体参数....................................................17

1.7.2 Parameters of Boiler Feedwater Ultrafiltration System for Putting Bato

Power Plant.....................................................................................................................17
第二章 预脱盐系统...................................................................................................................20
Chapter Three Pre-DM System..................................................................................................20
2.1 概述....................................................................................................................................20
2.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................20
2.1.1 反渗透原理.............................................................................................................21

2.1.1 Principle of RO......................................................................................................21

2.1.2 反渗透(RO).......................................................................................................22

2.1.2 RO..........................................................................................................................22

2.1.3 普丁巴图电站锅炉补给水预脱盐系统................................................................24

The pre-DM water system of boiler makeup water in Puting Bato Power Station

...........................................................................................................................................24

2.2 保安过滤器........................................................................................................................25
2.2 Cartridge filter...................................................................................................................25
2.3 高压泵................................................................................................................................26
2.3 HP pump:..........................................................................................................................26
2.4 反渗透加药装置................................................................................................................26
2.4 RO dosing device............................................................................................................26
2.5 反渗透膜的性能指标........................................................................................................28
2.5 Performance index of RO membrane..........................................................................28
2.6 膜的污染及劣化................................................................................................................29
2.6 Membrane Pollution and Deterioration........................................................................29
2.6.1 膜的污染.................................................................................................................29

2.6.1 Membrane Pollution:............................................................................................29

2.6.2 膜的劣化.................................................................................................................30

2.6.2 Membrane Deterioration:....................................................................................30

2.7 膜污染的清洗....................................................................................................................31
2.7 Cleaning membrane........................................................................................................31
(2)降低加收率,调整好浓水,产水流量。............................................................................51
第三章 二级除盐系统....................................................................................................................52
Chapter 3 Secondary DM System...............................................................................................52
3.1 概述....................................................................................................................................52
3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................52
3.1.1 阳床.........................................................................................................................52

3.1.1 Cation Bed.............................................................................................................52

3.1.2 除碳器.....................................................................................................................52

3.1.2 Carbon remover....................................................................................................52

3.1.3 阴床.........................................................................................................................53
3.1.3 Anion Bed..............................................................................................................53

3.1.4 混床.........................................................................................................................53

3.1.4 Mixed Bed..............................................................................................................53

3.2 一级除盐+混床系统..........................................................................................................54
3.2 Primary DM + Mixed Bed System.................................................................................54
3.2.1 一级除盐系统.........................................................................................................54

3.2.1 Primary DM System.............................................................................................54

3.2.2 逆流再生离子交换器.............................................................................................55

3.2.2 CCR Ion Exchanger.............................................................................................55

3.2.3 鼓风式除碳器.........................................................................................................58

3.2.3 Air-Blowing Carbon remover..............................................................................58

3.2.4 混合离子交换器.....................................................................................................60

3.2.4 Mixed Ion Exchanger...........................................................................................60

3.2.5 离子交换原理.........................................................................................................62

3.2.5 Principle of Ion Exchange...................................................................................62

3.2.6 树脂储存罐.............................................................................................................78

3.2.6 Resin storage tank...............................................................................................78

3.2.7 再生系统及酸碱中和系统.....................................................................................79

3.2.7 The regeneration system and, acid and alkali neutralization system.........79

3.3 除盐系统的投运步骤:....................................................................................................81
3.3 The procedures to put resin exchangers into operation...........................................81
3.3.1 一级除盐系统的投运顺序:.................................................................................81

3.3.1 The procedures to put the class one demineralization system into

operation..........................................................................................................................81

3.3.2 混床的投运顺序:.................................................................................................81

3.3.2 The procedures to put the mixed resin exchanger in to operation..............81

3.4 二级除盐系统的再生步骤................................................................................................81
3.4 The regeneration procedures of resin exchanger......................................................81
3.4.1 阴阳离子交换器的再生步骤:.............................................................................81

3.4.1 The regeneration procedures of cation and anion resin exchanger............81

3.4.2 混合离子交换器的再生步骤:.............................................................................83

3.4.2 Regeneration procedures for mixed ion exchanger.......................................83

3.5 二级除盐系统出水水质指标............................................................................................85
3.5.2 Criteria for outlet water quality of secondary DM water system...........................85
第四章 化学加药系统及水汽取样装置........................................................................................86
Chapter 4 Chemical dosing system and water-steam sampling device...............................86
4.1 概述.....................................................................................................................................86
4.1 Overview.............................................................................................................................86
4.2 加药系统及原理.................................................................................................................88
4.2 Dosing system and working principle................................................................................88
4.2.1 给水加氨系统.........................................................................................................88

4.2.1 Ammonia dosing system.....................................................................................88

4.2.2 给水加联胺系统.....................................................................................................89

4.2.2 Hydrazine dosing system....................................................................................89

4.2.3 炉水加磷酸盐系统.................................................................................................90

4.2.3 Phosphate dosing system for boiler water.......................................................90

4.3 水汽取样系统....................................................................................................................91
4.3 Water and steam sample system..................................................................................91
4.3.1 取样点分析仪的配置及水汽分析装置的组成....................................................91

4.3.1 Configuration of instruments at sampling points and water steam analysis

device...............................................................................................................................91

4.3.2 汽水取样装置的组成.............................................................................................93

4.3.2 Composition of steam water sampling device.................................................93

4.4 防止给水系统金属腐蚀的维护方法................................................................................95
4.4 Prevention of Metal Corrosion of Feedwater System...............................................95
4.4.1 给水除氧.................................................................................................................96

4.4.1 FW Deaeration......................................................................................................96

4.4.2 热力除氧.................................................................................................................96

4.4.2 Thermal Deaeration.............................................................................................96

4.4.3 化学除氧.................................................................................................................98

4.4.3 Chemical Deaeration...........................................................................................98

第五章 机组水汽品质化学监督.................................................................................................104
Chapter 5 Supervision of Unit Water-Steam Quality..............................................................104
5.1 锅炉打压试验监督..........................................................................................................104
5.1 Supervision of unit water quality for hydraulic pressure test..................................104
5.1.1 打压试验前的化学准备工作...............................................................................104

5.1.1 Preparation for hydraulic pressure test..........................................................104

5.1.2 打压试验期间的化学监督...................................................................................104

5.1.2 Supervision of water quality during the hydraulic pressure test................104


5.2 机组启动阶段化学监督..................................................................................................105
5.2 Supervision of water-steam quality during the start-up process...........................105
5.2.1 机组启动前的化学准备工作...............................................................................105

5.2.1 Preparation for start-up.....................................................................................105

5.2.2 锅炉启动时给水质量标准...................................................................................106

The water quality standard during start-up..............................................................106

5.2.3 锅炉冷态冲洗时化学监督...................................................................................107

Supervision of water-steam quality during boiler cold flush..................................107

5.2.4 锅炉热态冲洗时的化学监督...............................................................................108

Supervision of water-steam quality during boiler hot flush...................................108

5.2.5 汽机冲转前的化学监督.......................................................................................110

Chemical supervision before turbine rolling.............................................................110

5.2.6 机组带负荷时的化学监督...................................................................................111

5.2.6 Chemical supervision when the unit is loading.............................................111

5.3 机组运行阶段的化学监督..............................................................................................112
5.3 Chemical supervision when unit is under operation................................................112
5.3.1 化学监督取样点参数表:...................................................................................112

5.3.1 Parameter table of Sampling point for chemical supervision.....................112

5.3.2 机炉运行时的水汽质量标准...............................................................................114

5.3.2 Water and steam quality when boiler and turbine is under operation.......114

5.3.3 日常运行管理.......................................................................................................116

5.3.3 Daily operation management...........................................................................116


第壱章 原水预处理系统
Chapter 1 Raw water treatment system
1.1 概述
1.1 Introduction
原水预处理主要任务就是除去水中的悬浮物和胶体,为以后除去溶解物质打好基础。预处
理的方法主要有混凝处理、澄清处理和过滤处理。
The main objective of raw water treatment is to remove suspended materials
and colloids in water, and lay a foundation for getting rid of dissolved matters.
The main methods of pretreatment include coagulation treatment, clarification
treatment and filtration treatment.
1.1.1 混凝处理
1.1.1 Coagulation treatment:
水的混凝处理就是在水中加入一种称为混凝剂的物质,促使细小颗粒聚集成大
颗粒的絮凝物,然后从水中分离出来的过程。
It is a process wherein small and fine particles assemble and come out in the
form of floc of big particles and separated from water due to addition of
coagulant in water.
1.1.2 澄淀处理
1.1.2 Sedimentation treatment
澄淀处理就是在反应池内加入混凝剂,混凝剂发生电离和水解,生成的物质
(絮凝体)本身具有吸附和粘合性,它可以进一步与水中杂质颗粒相碰撞、吸附
粘合,从而形成更大的絮凝体(泥渣)而提高沉淀处理效果。澄清处理的容器一
般称为澄清池,按其工作原理可分为泥渣悬浮式澄清池和泥渣循环式澄清池
(又叫加速澄清池),目前在火力发电厂中后者使用较为广泛。
By adding coagulants to the reaction basin, ionization and hydrolization
happen to coagulants. The generated material (floc) inherently can further
rub, absorb and conglutinate with other impurity particles and form bigger floc
(sludge), and as a result further improves particle removal performance. The
container for clarification treatment is normally called clarification basin.
Nowadays the type of sludge circulation clarification basin (also called
acceleration clarification basin) is widely used in coal-fired power plants.
1.1.3 过滤处理
1.1.3 Filtration treatment:
原水经过混凝、澄清处理后,虽然降低了水中大部分的悬浮物和胶体的含量,但
还残留少量细小的悬浮颗粒,会对下一步深度水处理工艺过程产生不良影响。水
的过滤就是用滤料将水中分散的悬浮颗粒从水中分离出来的过程。
After going through coagulation treatment and clarification treatment, a
majority of suspended materials and colloids are removed. But still a small
amount of suspended particles are remained, which will have adverse effect
on further water treatment process. The filtration of water is a process to
separate the scattered suspended materials out of water by filtration material.

1.2 普丁巴图电站原水预处理流程
The process of raw water pretreatment in Puting Bato power plant
海水 sea water→絮凝斜板澄清池 the flocculation water clarification
basin(2×200m3/h)→清净海水池 clean sea water pool(2×250m3)→海水
泵 sea water pump(2×95m3/h)→细砂过滤器 fine sand filter→自清洗过滤器
self-clean filter(2×95m3/h)→超滤 ultra filter(2×90m3/h UF)

1.3 絮凝沉淀池原理
1.3 Working principle of Flocculation/Settling Basins
1.3.1 药剂混合扩散机理
1.3.1 Chemical Mixing and Diffusion Mechanism
药剂在水体中的混合扩散是絮凝反应重要的准备, 混合的实质是混凝剂水解产
物在水中的扩散。使水中胶体颗粒同时脱稳发生凝聚,是取得好的絮凝效果的先
决条件,也是节省投药量的关键。混凝剂水解产物在混合设备中的扩散应分为两
个过程:(1)宏观扩散,即混凝剂水解产物扩散到水体各个宏观部位,其扩散系
数很大,这部分扩散是由水体的宏观流动——主要是大涡旋的动力作用完成的,
因而宏观扩散可以短时间内实现;(2)亚微观扩散,即混凝剂水解产物在极邻近
部位的扩散,这部分扩散的扩散系数比宏观扩散小几个数量级。亚微观扩散的实
质是层流扩散。因此使混凝剂水解产物扩散到水体每一个细部是很困难的。在水
处理反应中亚微观扩散是起决定性作用的动力学因素。
To mix and diffuse chemicals in the water is an important premise for
flocculation reactions. To mix means to diffuse hydrolysate of coagulants in
the water. It is essential that the colloids in the water can coagulate to
facilitate the flocculation and therfore minimize the chemicals consumed.
Hydrolysate of coagulants diffuses in the water through two phases—1)
Macro diffusion—Hydrolysate of coagulants diffuse into all the macro parts of
the water body with high diffusivity, partly due to large-scale vortex power, so
that the macro diffusion can be finished in a short time; 2) Sub-Micro diffusion
—Hydrolysate of coagulants diffuse into very adjacent parts with its diffusivity
several magnitude orders smaller than the macro diffusion. The sub-micro
diffusion is a decisive dynamics factor in water treatment reaction.

1.3.2 孔板式净水混合器混合工艺
1.3.2 Orifice Water Purifying Mixer Mechanism
孔板式净水混合器是利用高比例高强度微涡旋的离心惯性效应来克服亚微观传
质阻力,增加亚微观传质效率。实际生产使用表明,这种设备在低浊或高浊时混
合效果良好,不仅比传统的静态混合器可大幅度增加处理能力,也大大地节省
了投药量。在低温低浊水中,固体颗粒少,颗粒尺度小,有机物含量相对较高,
矾花比重小。同时,由于水的温度低,水中的布朗运动也会减弱,从颗粒尺度分
布来看也相对偏低,加之低温时药剂吸附架桥能力下降,这些都给絮凝带来困
难。这种情况下更需要均匀快速高强度地实现亚微观扩散,新技术的采用恰好满
足了这一需要。对高浊水来说,颗粒碰撞已不成问题,但在这种情况下混凝剂的
亚微观扩散阻力大幅度增加。传统方法很难使亚微观传质在混合设备中完成。如
果混合工艺实施不当,局部水体会出现过反应情况,而其它地方则反应不足,
致使絮凝效果恶化,以致于矾花沉降性能变坏,使得高浊水处理成为难题。新技
术由于能在各种情况下迅速完成药剂的亚微观扩散,同时均匀的混凝剂分布为
下一步的絮凝反应实现了充分的准备,故此对高浊水处理也十分有效。
The orifice water purifying mixer overcomes the resistance of sub-micro mass
transfers with centrifugal inertial effects of high proportional/intensity micro-
vortex in order to increase the efficiency of sub-micro mass transfers. The
practice proves that the device performs good mixing under low or high
turbidity condition. Compared with traditional static mixers, the orifice mixer
greatly improves the working capacity as well as reducing the added
chemicals. There are fewer solid particles with smaller sizes, relatively high
proportion of organic content and low proportion of floc in the water with low
temperature and turbidity. Meanwhile, the low water temperature weakens the
Brownian motion with looser particle distribution. The low temperature also
weakens the chemical adsorption. All these bring troubles to flocculation. The
even, rapid and high-intensity sub-micro diffusion is essential under this
situation. With high turbidity water, the particle collision is not a problem
anymore although the sub-micro diffusion resistance of coagulants increases
dramatically. If the mixing is inappropriately carried out, part of the water body
will over react while others fail to react so that bad flocculation is produced
and floc settles with difficulty. In this case, the high turbidity water treatment
becomes a problem. The new technology makes rapid sub-micro diffusion of
chemicals under all kinds of situations and the even distribution of coagulants
well prepares for the following flocculation. That’s why the new technology
meets the demand of high turbidity water treatment.
1.3.3 小孔眼网格反应设备工艺
1.3.3 Small-Hole Grid Reacting Equipment Mechanism
基于快速高效的原则,反应工艺采用小孔眼网格絮凝反应技术。该技术通过科学
地布设多层网格,使水流过网格时产生强烈的惯性效应和对矾花的柔动作用,
控制矾花合理的有效碰撞,迅速形成密实且易沉淀的矾花。在反应池全程分段布
设格网,使矾花颗粒由小到大,由松散到密实,大大缩短了反应时间。
The equipment has the technology of small-hole grid flocculation reaction
based on the principle of rapidity and high efficiency. When water flows
through multiple scientifically-arranged layers of grid, strong effects of inertia
will be produced and the alum floc will be softly moved. In this way, the alum
floc can be controlled to collide appropriately to form dense precipitation
rapidly. The grid is arranged in section in the reaction basin so that the alum
floc particles can be produced from small to large and from loose to dense
and so the reaction time will be greatly shortened.

1.3.4 沉淀设备沉淀工艺
1.3.4 Settling Equipment Mechanism
提高沉淀池空间效率,以达到大幅度提高水量的目的,沉淀工艺采用小间距斜
板沉淀池技术。该技术是浅池技术的发展,由于间距小,矾花可快速沉淀,雷诺
数(Re 值)较常规设备减小,能够有效抑制颗粒沉降的水力脉动,又由于结构
上的优化无侧向约束不排泥,从而保证小的矾花絮凝体亦可有效去除,同时小
间距斜板又具有布水均匀不短流的优点。另外,无侧向约束,沉泥面积与排泥面
积相等,大幅度提高了沉淀排泥负荷,利于排泥,并且使沉淀池清水区上升流
速可达到 3.0~3.5mm/s,沉后水浊度亦可稳定保持不超过 3FNU。
The settling technology uses settling basins with small-distance inclined
plates to raise the settling basin’s space efficiency and to raise the water flow
to a large extent. The technology is the development of the shallow basin
technology. The alum floc can be settled rapidly because of the small
distance. The relatively small Reynolds number compared with standard
devices can restrain the hydraulic pulse from the particle settlement
effectively. Moreover, the structural improvement makes no sidewise restraint
does not discharge mud so that small alum floc flocks can be successfully
removed. The small-distance inclined plates also make water distribution even
without shortage of water flow. Meanwhile, zero sidewise restraint enables the
mud settling area to be the same with the mud discharge area, thus raising
the settling and discharging load greatly. This helps with the mud discharge
with the rising flow speed of the settling basin’s clean water area up to 3.0-
3.5mm/s and the water opacity below 3FNU after the settlement.

1.4 普丁巴图电站混合絮凝沉淀处理工艺流程
1.4 Procedures of Mixing/Flocculation/Settling for Puttin Bato Power
Plant
普丁巴图电站混合絮凝沉淀处理工艺流程:海水→混合→反应凝聚→沉淀→
出水。
一期工程总处理水量为 400m3/h,共建混合絮凝反应沉淀池 2 座,单座处
理水量为 200 m3/h。原水经混合絮凝反应沉淀池处理后,沉淀后出水浊度
≤5NTU。混合絮凝沉淀结构示意图详见图 1-1
Procedures of Mixing/Flocculation/Settling for Puttin Bato Power Plant : Sea
water → to be mixed → to react and flocculate → to settle → water comes
out.
The total water volume for the phase one project is 400m 3/h. Two integrated
flocculation-settling basins were built with each one processing water of
200m3/h. The raw water flows through the integrated flocculation-settling
basins, gets settled and the exiting water opacity is kept ≤5NTU. Refer to the
figure 1-1 for detailed structure of the integrated flocculation-settling basin.
Mixing Flocculation-Settling Basin

图 1-1 混合絮凝沉淀池结构示意图
Fig. 1-1 Structure of Mixing Flocculation-Settling Basin

1.5 全自动自清洗过滤器的工作原理

1.5 Fully-Automatic Self-Cleaning Filter Mechanism


全自动自清洗过滤器待处理的水由入水口进入机体,水中的杂质沉积在不锈钢
滤网上,由此产生压差。通过压差开关监测进出水口压差变化,当压差达到设定
值时,电控器给水力控制阀、驱动电机信号,引发下列动作:电动机带动刷子旋
转,对滤芯进行清洗,同时控制阀打开进行排污,整个清洗过程只需持续数十
秒钟,当清洗结束时,关闭控制阀,电机停止转动,系统恢复至其初始状态,
开始进入下一个过滤工序。
The pre-processed water flows from the water inlet into the body of the fully-
automatic self-cleaning filter with impurities left outside on the stainless steel
screen thus producing differential pressure. The differential pressure switch is
used to monitor the changes in the differential pressure between the water
inlet and outlet. When the differential pressure reaches the set value, the
electrical control device gives signals to the hydraulic CV and the drive motor
and the following action is triggered—the motor makes the brush spin to clean
the filter element; meanwhile the CV is opened to conduct blowdown. The
cleaning lasts for only tens of seconds. When the cleaning is finished, close
the CV to stop the motor; the system is restored to the original conditions; the
following filter will begin.

设备安装后,由技术人员进行调试,设定过滤时间和清洗转换时间,待处理的
水由入水口进入机体,过滤器开始正常工作,当达到预设清洗时间时,电控器
给水力控制阀、驱动电机信号,引发下列动作:电动机带动刷子旋转,对滤芯进
行清洗,同时控制阀打开进行排污,整个清洗过程只需持续数十秒钟,当清洗
结束时,关闭控制阀,电机停止转动,系统恢复至其初始状态,开始进入下一
个过滤工序。全自动自清洗过滤器的壳体内部主要由粗滤网、细滤网、吸污管,
不锈钢刷或不锈钢吸嘴、密封圈、防腐涂层、转动轴等组成。全自动自清洗过滤器
示意图详见图 1-2
After the equipment is installed, technical staff should adjust its performance,
set filtering time and cleaning-transferring time. The pre-processed water
enters the machine body from the water inlet and the filter starts to work.
When the set cleaning time is up, the electrical control device gives signals to
the hydraulic CV and the drive motor and the following action is triggered—the
motor makes the brush spin to clean the filter element; meanwhile the CV is
opened to conduct blowdown. The cleaning lasts for only tens of seconds.
When the cleaning is finished, close the CV to stop the motor; the system is
restored to the original conditions; the following filter will begin. The inside of
the fully-automatic self-cleaning filter mainly consists of the rough screen, the
fine screen, the absorption tubes, the stainless steel brush or nozzle, the seal,
the anti-corrosive lacquer, the moving shaft and etc. Refer to the figure 1-2 for
detailed structure of the fully-automatic self-cleaning filter.
Motor

Control circuit Water inlet

Filter
DP switch
Water outlet
SS brush

Discharge switch

图 1-2 自清洗过滤器结构示意图
Fig. 1-2 Structure of Fully-Automatic Self-Cleaning Filter

1.6 石英砂过滤工作原理

1.6 Quartz Sand Filter Mechanism


石英砂过滤器是利用一种或几种过滤介质,常温操作、耐酸碱、氧化,PH 适用
范围为 2-13。系统配置完善的保护装置和监测仪表,且具有反冲洗功能,泥垢等
污染物很快被冲走,耗水量少。在一定的压力下,使原液通过该介质的触絮凝、
吸附、截留,去除杂质,从而达到过滤的目的。其内装的填料一般为:石英砂、
无烟煤、颗粒多孔陶瓷、锰砂等,用户可根据实际情况选择使用。其过滤精度在
0.005-0.01m 之间,可有效去除胶体微粒及高分子有机物和去除水中的悬浮物
The quartz sand filter uses one or several filtering media and operates under
normal temperature. The filter has good acid-alkali and oxidation resistance,
working with PH between 2 and 13. The filter system is equipped with a
complete protection device and monitor instruments as well as backwash.
Pollutants such as mud can be flushed away rapidly with very little amount of
water consumed. Under certain pressure, the raw liquid is filtered by its
impurities being flocculated, absorbed and intercepted through the medium.
The filter’s filling is usually quartz sand, anthracite, porous ceramics,
manganese sand and etc. Users can choose the fillings according to the
actual conditions. The filter fineness is between 0.005 and 0.01. The colloid
particles, high-molecular organic substances and suspended solid in the
water can be effectively removed.
石英砂过滤示意图详见图 1-3
Refer to the figure 1-3 for detailed structure of the quartz sand filter.

Medium filling hole Water inlet

Distribution plate

Sand bed

Maintenance hole

Water outlet
Water filtration cap

图 1-3 砂滤结构示意图
Fig. 1-3 Structure of Quartz Sand Filter

1.7 超滤

1.7 Ultrafiltration
超滤系统主要去除水中的颗粒、细菌、胶体、悬浮物、大分子有机物、病毒、浊度等
使出水满足反渗透的进水条件。普丁巴图电站每套超滤设置 34 支 SFR2860 组
件,共 2 套,每套产水量为 2×95m3/h,反洗自用水约 5%,2 套净产水量为
190m3/h。
The ultrafiltration system is mainly used to remove particles, germs, colloids,
SS, macromolecular organic substances, viruses, opacity and etc from water
so that the outlet water meets the conditions of the inlet water for reverse
osmosis. Each ultrafiltration system in the Putting Bato power plant is
equipped with 34 SFR2860 assemblies. There are two ultrafiltration systems
in total with either yielding water of 2×95m 3/h and 5 percent being backwash
water. The two systems yield water of 190m3/h.

1.7.1 超滤的运行方式
1.7.1 Operation Mode of Ultrafilters
1.7.1.1 超滤的运行有全流过滤(死端过滤): 当超滤进水悬浮物、浊度和 COD
值低,如洁净的地下水、山泉水等水质,或超滤前处理较严格,如有砂滤器、多
介质过滤器等过滤,超滤可按照全流/死端过滤模式操作。此过滤模式与传统过
滤相仿,原水进入超滤膜管,100%经过超滤膜过滤自膜管过滤液侧产出。被超
滤膜截流的大分子颗粒物、胶体等在超滤定时反冲洗、快冲和化学清洗过程中自
超滤膜管排出。普丁巴图电站采用的超滤膜设计形式为死端过滤模式。
1.7.1.1 The ultrafilters filter with full flow (dead end). If the inlet water contains
small amount of SS, opacity and COD, e.g. clean ground water and spring
water, or if the water is already strictly filtered through sand filters, multiple
media filters and etc., conduct the operation mode of full flow/dead end filter.
Similar to the traditional operation, this filter mode makes raw water enter the
ultrafilter membrane tubes, get 100% filtered by the ultrafilter membrane and
get out through the tube’s filtration medium side filtration medium side The
intercepted macromolecular particles, colloids and other substances get
discharged during the periodical backwash, rapid flush and chemical cleaning
of the ultrafilter. The Putting Bato power plant uses the ultrafiltration with dead
end filters.

1.7.1.2 单通错流过滤: 一般当原水中悬浮物和胶体含量较低时可按死端过滤模


式来操作。原水以较低的错流流速进入膜管,浓缩水以一定比例从膜管另一头排
出。产水在膜管过滤液侧产出,运行回收率通常是 92-99%,这由原水中微粒
的浓度来决定。
1.7.1.2 Single crossflow filter.
Generally, if the raw water contains small amount of SS and colloids, use
the dead end filter. The raw water enters the membrane tube with relatively
slow crossflow speed and the condensed water is discharged from the other
end of the tube with certain percentage. The water is produced through the
membrane tube’s filtering medium side. The operational return is usually 92-
98%, with the exact figure dependent on the particle density of the raw liquid.

1.7.1.3 循环错流过滤: 当原水中悬浮物含量较高及在大多数废水应用领域,就


需要通过减少回收率来保持纤维内部的高流率。这样就会造成大量的废水。为了
避免浪费,排出的浓水就会被重新加压后回到膜管内,这就称为循环模式。这会
降低膜管的回收率但整个系统的回收率仍旧可以很高。在循环流程模式,进水连
续地在膜表面循环。循环水的高流速阻止了微粒在膜表面的堆积,并增强了通量
因为较少的进水成为产水,为了获得相同的产率能耗就会比死端过滤高。
1.7.1.3 Circulating crossflow filter.
If the raw water contains relatively large amount of SS or in most waste
water application areas, it is necessary to reduce the return to maintain the
high flow rate inside the fiber. In this way, huge amount of wasted water will
be produced. In order to save water, the exiting water will be put on more
pressure and go into the membrane tubes again. This is called the circulating
mode. It will reduce the return of the membrane tubes but the whole
system’s return will remain high. The inlet water continuously circulates on
the surface of the membrane in this mode. The circulating water’s high flow
speed prevents the particle accumulation on the membrane surface and
raises the flux. To achieve the same yield, this mode, with less inlet water,
will consume more energy than the dead end filter.

1.7.2 普丁巴图电站锅炉补给水超滤系统具体参数
1.7.2 Parameters of Boiler Feedwater Ultrafiltration System for Putting
Bato Power Plant

项目 参数
膜元件型号 SFR2860(DOW)
膜材质 PVDF
形式 外压式中空纤维膜
膜面积 51m2
膜公称孔径 0.03μm
中空纤维膜内径 0.7mm
中空纤维膜外径 1.25mm
项目 参数
膜元件型号 SFR2860(DOW)
pH 范围 2-11
最大进水浊度 300NTU
工作水温 5-40℃
进水最大压力 3.0bar
膜两侧最大允许压
2.1bar

运行方式 外压式、死端过滤

Project Parameters
Membrane SFR2860(DOW)
Element Model
Membrane PVDF
Material
Form Outer pressure Hollow Fiber Membrane
Membrane Size 51m2
Membrane 0.03μm
Nominal Hole
Diameter
Hollow Fibre
0.7mm
Membrane Bore
Hollow Fibre 1.25mm
Membrane
Diameter
pH Range 2-11
Maximum Opacity
300NTU
of Inlet Water
Working Water
5-40℃
Temperature
Maximum
Pressure of Inlet 3.0bar
Water
Maximum
Differential
Pressure between 2.1bar
Both Sides of
Membrane
Operation Mode Outer pressure/dead end filter
第弐章 预脱盐系统
Chapter Three Pre-DM System
2.1 概述
2.1 Introduction
反渗透技术是在上个世纪 60 年代发展起来的一种新型水处理技术,它可以除去
水中的大部分溶解盐类,其除盐率可达 98%以上,延长后续除盐系统运行周期,
大大节约水处理成本。而且它具有排废少,适用原水水质范围广,出水水质稳定
节约能源,占地面积少等优点。故其被广泛的用于电厂锅炉补给水处理系统中。
普丁巴图电站共设置 2 套产水能力为 2×35m3/h 一级一段海水反渗透装置,膜元
件选用 DOW 复合膜,通量为 15L/m2h。2 套产水能力为 2×15m3/h 一级二段淡
水反渗透装置,膜元件选用 DOW 复合膜,通量为 22.4L/m2h。一级二段式反渗透
脱盐装置见图 2-1。
RO is a new water treatment technology developed in 1960s, which can
remove a majority of dissolved salt in water. The salt removal rate can reach
above 98%. It can extend the operation cycle of following DM system and
save the cost of water treatment considerably. It has less waste discharge,
and is applicable to a wide range of raw water quality. It also has the
advantage of stable produced water quality, energy efficiency and covering
less space. With the merits it has, it is widely used in boiler makeup water
system in power plants.
Putting Bato Power Station is equipped with 2 sets of sea water RO device of
2×35m3/h at section I. The membrane element is DOW composite membrane.
The pass flux is 15L/m2h. It is also equipped with 2 sets of sea water RO
device of 2×15m3/h at section II. The membrane element is DOW composite
membrane. The pass flux is 22.4L/m2h.
Membrane group Membrane group
at primary at secondary
section section

Water intake

Carriage filter HP pump


Water of higher Fresh water
concentration

图 2-1 一级二段反渗透脱盐装置
Dig2-1 RO salt removal system

2.1.1 反渗透原理
2.1.1 Principle of RO
当把浓溶液和稀溶液(不同浓度)分别置于渗透膜的两侧,稀溶液侧的水将自
发的穿过膜向浓溶液侧流动,这种现象就叫渗透现象。此时,稀溶液侧液位下降
浓溶液侧液位上升,等到两侧液位出现一定的高度差后,水通过的净流量为零,
此时该渗透过程达到了一个平衡点,此时液位对应的压力差即为渗透压。而当在
浓溶液侧施加一个大于渗透压的压力时,水从浓溶液侧流向稀溶液侧,这种现
象就叫反渗透。
When dense solution and dilute solution (different concentration) are placed at
two sides of the osmosis membrane, water of the lower concentration side
will flow to the higher side through the membrane. This phenomenon is called
osmosis. At this time, the level of lower concentration side goes down and the
higher side goes up. The net flow of the water will be zero after there is a
certain differential height between the two sides. The osmosis process
reaches a equalizing point. The corresponding differential pressure of the
level then is called osmotic pressure. When a pressure slightly greater than
the osmosis pressure is exerted on the higher concentrated side, water will
flow from the higher concentration side to the lower side. This phenomenon is
called reverse osmosis.
2.1.2 反渗透(RO)
2.1.2 RO
反渗透膜按其材质分类主要有两大类:一类是醋酸纤维素膜,另一类是芳香族
聚酰胺膜。芳香聚酰胺膜是以高交联芳香聚酰胺作为膜表皮的致密脱盐层,高交
联芳香聚酰胺由苯三酰氯和苯二胺聚合而成。反渗透膜是一种以压力为推动力,
利用渗透膜的选择性将溶液中的溶质和溶剂进行分离的技术。在水处理技术上属
于物理水处理技术。依靠压力作为水的推动力,使水得以淡化和纯化。其能耗小
适用的原水水质范围较大。普丁巴图电站采用美国 DOW 公司生产卷式复合膜,
卷式膜元件类似一个长信封状的膜口袋,开口的一边黏结在含有开孔的产品水
中心管上。将多个膜口袋卷绕到同一个产品水中心管上,使给水从膜的外侧流过
使淡水通过膜进入膜口袋后汇流入产品水中心管内。为了便于产品水在膜袋内流
动,在信封状的膜袋内夹有一层产品水导流支撑层。为了使给水均匀流过膜袋表
面并使给水水流以扰动,在膜袋和膜袋之间的给水通道上夹有隔网层,膜袋之
间的网状分隔层不仅起保证原料液流过通道间隔的作用,而且还可以改善膜面
流动状况,控制膜面浓差极化。反渗透装置给水是从膜元件端部引入,给水沿着
膜表面平行的方向流动,被分离的产品水垂直于膜表面,透过膜表面进入产品
水膜袋,如此形成一个垂直、横向相互交叉的流向。而传统的过滤,水流是从滤
层上部进入,产品水从下排出,水中的颗粒物质全部截流于滤层上。反渗透装置
膜元件结构详见图 2-2

In terms of material, RO membrane is mainly classified into two types. One is


cellulse acetate membrane. The other is aromatic polyamide membrane. RO
membrane is a technology that uses pressure as a driving force and separate
solute from solvent with the help of osmosis membrane. In is a physical water
treatment technology. Relying on pressure as the driving force for water, it
dilutes and purifies water. Its energy consumption is small and the applicable
raw water quality is wide.
Putting Bato Power Station uses rolling type composite membrane
manufactured by Dow Company. The shape of the rolling type membrane
element is like a membrane pocket similar to a long envelope. The open side
is attached to the middle generation water pipe with open holes. Membrane
bags are rolled to the same middle generation water pipe so that feed water
can flow at the external side of membrane, fresh water can enter membrane
bag through membrane and converge into the middle pipe.
In order to facilitate generation water flow inside the membrane bag, there is a
guiding support layer for generation water inside membrane bag. In order to
make feed water evenly pass the surface of membrane bag and give feed
water flow disturbance, there is filter layer in the feed water pass between
membrane bags. The net spacer layer between the membrane bags not only
serves to make feed solution flow to the pass spacer, but also improves
flowing condition of membrane surface, and controls polarization of
concentration difference on membrane surface. The feed water of RO device
is introduced from the end of membrane element. Feed water flows along the
direction parallel to the membrane surface. The separated generation water is
perpendicular to the membrane surface. It enters the generation water
membrane bag through the membrane surface. The schematic of membrane
element of RO device is to be seen 2-2.

lower concentration water

Higher concentration water

Middle pipe
membrane
Inlet water
in Spacer layer

图 2-2 反渗透膜元件结构
Dig 2-2 Membrane element of RO device
2.1.3 普丁巴图电站锅炉补给水预脱盐系统
The pre-DM water system of boiler makeup water in Puting Bato Power
Station
普丁巴图电站锅炉补给水预脱盐系统包括:2 套出力为 35 m3/h 海水反渗透装置
及 2 套出力为 15 m3/h 淡水反渗透装置,具体参数如下:
The pre-DM water system of boiler makeup water in Puting Bato Power
Station includes: 2 sets of sea water RO device with the capacity of 35 m 3/h
each and 2 sets of fresh water RO device with the capacity of 15 m 3/h each.
项目 单位 数据 备注
海水反渗透设备产水量 m3/h 2×35
海水反渗透系统回收率 ≥40%
海水反渗透脱盐率(一年
≥99.3%
内)
海水反渗透脱盐率(三年
≥98%
内)
淡水反渗透设备产水量 m3/h 2×15
淡水反渗透系统回收率 ≥85%
淡水反渗透脱盐率(一年
≥98%
内)
淡水反渗透脱盐率(三年
≥97%
内)

item unit data remark


Water generation quantity of
m3/h 2×35
sea water RO device
Recycle rate of sea water
≥40%
RO system
Salt removal rate of fresh
water RO system (within ≥99.3%
first year)
Salt removal rate of sea
water RO system (within ≥98%
three years)
Water generation quantity of
m3/h 2×15
fresh water RO device
Recycle rate of fresh water
≥85%
RO system
Salt removal rate of fresh
water RO system (within ≥98%
first year)
Salt removal rate of fresh
water RO system (within ≥97%
three years)

2.2 保安过滤器
2.2 Cartridge filter
保安过滤器的作用是截留预处理系统中漏过的颗粒性杂质,防止其进入反渗透
装置或高压泵中造成膜元件被划破,或是划伤高压泵叶轮。
The purpose of Cartridge filter is to retain the escaped impurity particles in the

pretreatment system and prevent it from entering OS device, or cause scratch in

membrane or in impeller of HP pump.


保安过滤器的滤芯为蜂房式结构,将滤芯固定在容器内的隔板上,保安过
滤器运行时,进水自进水管进入过滤器后经滤芯过滤,清水经滤芯集水管进入
下部滤过室配水空间,然后由出水管引出。其结构见下图 2-3。滤芯是由聚丙烯
纤维线按照一定规律缠绕在不锈钢多孔管制成的,绝对过滤精度为 5m,因为
这种滤芯为深层过滤,截污容量大,使用寿命长。同时保安过滤器采用了快开式
启盖机构,可以快速的更换滤芯,方便了保安过滤器的检修。普丁巴图电站采用
美国 Pall 公司生产的大流量不可反洗滤芯。
The filter core of cartridge filter is of honey comb structure. The filter core is
fixed at the isolation plate inside the container. When cartridge filter is placed
in service, water is admitted to the filter via inlet water pipe, and go through
the filter core. The clean water enters the water distribution space of the lower
filtration room via water collection pipe of filter core. Next, water will be
directed out by outlet water pipe. Refer to 2-3 for its schematic. The filter core
is made up by polypropylene fiber line winding at stainless steel perforated pipe with
absolute filtration precision of 5m. The filter core is for deep filtration with big
capacity for retaining impurity and long lifespan. Moreover, cartridge filter uses
fast cover open structure for fast filter core replacement. This facilitates the
maintenance of cartridge filter. Big flow filter core produced by Pall Company
is used in Puting Bato power station. Back wash is not applicable to this filter
core.

Air vent

Water intake

Water outlet

图 2-3 保安过滤器
Cartridge filter
2.3 高压泵
2.3 HP pump:
高压给水泵是将水升压送入反渗透装置。普丁巴图电站高压泵选用性能优良的进
口(ERI/KSB/SULZER)产品,采用 2507 双相不锈钢材质,耐海水腐蚀机械
密封。每台高压泵对应一套反渗透装置并配有变频器。
HP pump is a device that increase the pressure of water and drive water to RO device.

The HP pump applied in Putting Bato Station is an imported

product ( ERI/KSB/SULZER ) of excellent performance. It uses 2507 double phase of

stainless steel material and mecnical sealing that can withstand the corrosion of sea

water. Each HP pump is equipped with VDF and has a corresponding RO device.

2.4 反渗透加药装置
2.4 RO dosing device
反渗透加药装置主要有:氧化剂加药装置、还原剂加药装置和阻垢剂加药
装置。
RO dosing device mainly includes: oxidant dosing device, reducer dosing
device and scale inhibitive dosing device.
由于原水中细菌、病毒和活性微生物、有机物及其它杂质能造成反渗透膜的
污染,而造成反渗透装置脱盐率和产水率下降。
Bacteria, virus and activated microorganism and other impurities can
contaminate the RO membrane, and consequently lead to a decrease of salt
removal rate and water generation rate of RO device.
加入氧化剂(次氯酸钠)其作用是杀死原水中的细菌、病毒和活性微生物、
有机物。避免了细菌、微生物等在反渗透膜上生成黏泥而造成膜的污染。加入还
原剂(亚硫酸氢钠)其作用是消除原水中残余的氧化性杀菌剂,避免氧化性物
质对膜元件(不耐氧化的高分子材质)造成的损害。同时还原剂亚硫酸氢钠还是
细菌的抑制剂,可以抑制细菌在反渗透膜表面的生长。加入高效阻垢剂
(MDC220)其作用是防止 Ca、Mg、SiO2、Sr、Ba 等物质在反渗透膜元件浓水
侧结垢。
Adding oxidant (NaClO) is to kill bacteria, virus and active microorganism and
organics. It can prevent contamination to the membrane by slime formed by
bacteria and microorganism. Adding reducer (NaHSO3) is to remove the
residual oxidants in raw water and prevent oxidants causing harm to
membrane elements (High polymer material that cannot withstand oxidization)
. Moreover, reducer NaHSO3 is also a inhibitor for bacteria, which can inhibit
bacteria from growing on the surface of RO membrane. Adding high efficiency
scale inhibitor (MDC220)is to prevent materials such as Ca, Mg, SiO 2, Sr,
Ba among others forming scale at the higher concentration side of membrane
element.
氧化剂和还原剂加药装置均采用一箱二泵组合式成套装置,即共设一台搅
拌溶液箱和二台加药计量泵。阻垢剂加药装置采用一箱三泵组合式成套装置,即
设一台溶液箱和三台加药计量泵。其溶液箱上均装有不锈钢电动搅拌器,并配有
液位计和低液位开关,当液位低时发出报警信号,提示运行人员补充药品,并
和计量泵连锁。溶液箱出口装有药液过滤器,以截留溶液中的杂质,溶解好的溶
液通过计量泵打入系统中。
Both oxidant dosing and reducer dosing devices use the configuration of 1
tank with two pumps, i.e. there is a blending solution tank and two dosing
measurement pump. The scale inhibitor dosing device use the configuration
of 1 tank with three pumps, i.e. it has one solution tank and three dosing
measurement pumps. On the solution tanks, stainless steel motor-driven
agitator is arranged with level gauge and level switch. When level is low, it
sends an alarm signal, reminding operation staff to make up chemicals. It is
also interlocked with measurement pump. At the outlet of solution tank, one
solution filter is mounted to retain impurities in solution. The well-mixed
solution is transported to the system by the measurement pump.
氧化剂和还原剂加药计量泵均为一用一备,阻垢剂加药计量泵为两用一备,
计量泵采用美国米顿罗公司的隔膜计量泵。计量泵出口设三功能阀,可以对泵
进行超压保护,并防止虹吸和背压;计量泵出口设脉冲缓冲器,使药品加入均
匀,脉冲缓冲器上装设压力表;加入点处设不锈钢管式混合器,保证药品在水
中混合均匀。
For oxidant dosing pump and reducer dosing pump, they have one running
pump and one standby pump each. For scale inhibitive dosing measuring
pump, there are two running pumps and one standby one. The measuring
pump is a diaphragm measurement pump from Milton Roy Company in
America. 3-function valve is arranged at the measuring pump outlet for
overprotection of the pump and preventing siphon and back pressure.
Pulsation dampener is mounted at the outlet of measuring pump to ensure
that chemicals are added evenly. A pressure gauge is installed at the pulse
buffer. At the adding point, there is a stainless steel tube type mixer, which is
designed to make sure that chemicals are mixed well in water.
加药计量泵的药品加入量根据反渗透进水母管上的流量信号的变化按比例
自动调节,即保证加入足够的药品,满足阻垢效果,又避免药品的浪费。
The dosing quantity of dosing measuring pump automatically is adjusted
proportionally according to the change in flow signal of RO inlet water header.
This can guarantee adequate chemicals are added; meet the requirement to
inhibits scale formation and avoid waste of chemicals.
2.5 反渗透膜的性能指标
2.5 Performance index of RO membrane

评价反渗透膜的性能指标主要是脱盐率和回收率。
The main indexes for assessing RO performance are salt removal rate and
recycle ratio.
脱盐率是给水中总溶解固形物中未透过膜部分的百分数。
 产品水中总溶解固形物 
脱盐率=1-   100%
 给水中总溶解固形物 

Salt removal rate means the percentage of total dissolved solids in feed water
that does not permeate the membrane.
Salt removal rate=(1-total dissolved solids in generation water/ total dissolved
solids in feed water)×100%
回收率是产品水流量与给水流量之比,以百分数表示。
产品水流量
回收率=  100%
给水流量

Recycle ratio is the ration of generation water flow to feed water flow, which is
indicated by percentage.
Recycle rate= (generation water flow/feed water flow)×100%
一般影响回收率的因素,主要有产品水质量,浓水的渗透压、易结垢物质的
浓度、有机物等因素。
Normally the recycle ratio is mainly affected by water quality, isomeric
pressure of higher concentration water, concentration of matters that are
prone to scale, and organics among others.
2.6 膜的污染及劣化
2.6 Membrane Pollution and Deterioration
2.6.1 膜的污染
2.6.1 Membrane Pollution:
指由于膜表面上形成了附着层或膜孔堵塞等外部因素导致膜性能的变化。附着
层对膜性能的影响,其具体表现为膜的水通量显著降低。任何原因引起的膜孔堵
塞都使得膜的水通量降低和截留率增高。对膜孔小的反渗透而言,在实际使用中
主要是面临附着层形成对膜性能的影响。
根据其发生的原因采取相应的对策,可以使膜性能得以恢复,膜面上附着层形
成的原因,是由于悬浮物、水溶性大分子和难溶物质析出分别形成滤饼层、凝胶
层及结垢层。悬浮物或水溶性大分子在膜孔中受到空间位阻,蛋白质等水溶性大
分子在膜孔中的表面吸附,以及难溶性物质在膜孔中的析出都可能产生膜孔堵
塞。
It refers to adhesion layer formed on the surface of the membrane or jam in
membrane and other external factors leading to change in performance.
Adhesion layer’s influence on the membrane performance is mainly
manifested by obvious decrease of water flux to the membrane. Blockage of
membrane pores can cause decrease in water flux and increase in retaining
rate. For RO membrane with small pores, the performance is mainly affected
by adhesion layer. The performance of membrane can be restored if we take
corresponding measures against the causes. Adhesion layer is mainly caused
the separated suspended matter, water-soluble macromolecular and insoluble
forming cake layer, gel layer and scale layer respectively. Suspended matter
or water-soluble macromolecular suffer steric hindrance in membrane pore,
the water-soluble macromolecules such as proteins is adsorbed on the
surface of membrane pores, and seperation out of the insoluble substance in
the membrane pores are likely to lead to jam in membrane pore.

2.6.2 膜的劣化
2.6.2 Membrane Deterioration:
指膜自身发生了不可逆转的变化而导致膜性能的变化。化学劣化和生物劣化使膜
的透过流速增加,而截留率降低;物理劣化使膜的透过流速降低,而截留率增
加。导致膜劣化的原因可分为化学、物理及生物三个方面。化学劣化是指由于膜
材质的水解和氧化反应等化学因素造成的劣化;物理劣化则是指在很高的压力
下导致膜结构的致密化,或因其置于干燥状态下发生的不可逆转性变形等物理
因素造成的劣化;生物劣化通常是由于处理料液中微生物的存在导致膜材料发
生生物降解反应等生物因素造成的劣化。
It means change in performance of membrane due to some irreversible
change occurring to membrane itself. Chemical and biological degradation
cause increase of permeance flow rate and decrease of retaining rate.
Physical degradation causes decrease of permeance flow rate and increase
of retaining rate. Reasons leading to degradation in membrane can be
classified into chemical, physical and biological ones. Chemical degradation
means the one caused by hydrolyzation of membrane material and oxidation
reaction. Physical degradation means the one caused by compacting of
membrane structure under very high pressure, or irreversible deformation
under dry environment and other physical factors. Biological degradation
means the one caused by degradation reaction caused by existence of micro
organics in disposing liquid and other biological factors.
总之,膜的污染是在膜运行过程中不可避免的,但是通过对膜元件的进水
进行适当的预处理并采取适宜的操作方法可以减少其影响;膜劣化则是在膜运
行过程中必须避免的,采用耐酸、耐碱和抗氧化的新型膜,严格遵守操作规范,
可以有效地延长膜的使用寿命,较大程度地避免膜劣化的发生。
In a word, pollution of membrane is unavoidable when membrane is
under operation. However, appropriate pretreatment to the inlet water of
membrane element and proper operation methods can minimize its influence.
Degradation must be avoided when membrane is under operation. By using
new acid-resistant, caustic-resistant and oxidization-resistant membrane,
service life of membrane can be effectively extended, and degradation of
membrane can be substantially avoided.
2.7 膜污染的清洗
2.7 Cleaning membrane
即使进水水质符合要求,反渗透组件也会发生一些污染,因而需要进行定期的
反冲洗或化学清洗,以防止膜组件堵塞、污染。一般反渗透装置运行一定时间
(3~6 个月)或膜污染后,组件阻力会升高,这时可对组件进行反冲洗和化学
清洗。当反渗透装置的产水量,出水水质明显降低,组件压差明显升高,而反冲
洗效果不明显时,即需进行化学清洗。膜组件污染的特征见下表 2-1
Even when inlet water quality has met the requirement, pollution can occur to
RO module. That is why regular back wash or chemical cleaning shall be
carried out to prevent jam and pollution occurring to membrane module.
Normally when RO device has run for a certain period of time (3-6) , the
resistance of the module will go up. This is when back wash and chemical
cleaning can be done. When generated water flow and quality of outlet water
go down dramatically, DP of module go up dramatically and effect back wash
is not desirable, then chemical cleaning shall be done. The indications of
pollution in membrane module can be seen in the following table 2-1.
表 2-1 膜组件污染的特征
The indications of pollution in membrane module

一般特征
污染物
盐透过率 组件压差 产水量
金属氧化物 增加速度快①≥2 增加速度快①≥2 急速降低① 20%~
(Fe 、Mn、Ni) 倍 倍 25%
钙沉淀物(CaCO3
增加 10%~25% 增加缓慢②≥2 倍 稍微减少<10%
CaSO4)
胶体物(胶体硅等) 增加缓慢②≥2 倍 增加缓慢②≥2 倍 减少缓慢②≥50%
混合胶体(铁、有机物 增加速度快① 2~
增加缓慢②≥2 倍 减少缓慢②≥50%
等) 4倍
细菌③ 增加≥2 倍 增加≥2 倍 减少≥50%

General indication
Pollutants Salt permeation Generation water
DP of module
rate flow
Rate of
Metal oxide(Fe, Mn, Rate of
increase①≥2 Drop by①20%~25%
Ni) increase ≥2times

times
Calcium
Increase by 10% Increase slowed Slightly reduced by
precipitate(CaCO3
~25% by②≥2 times <10%
CaSO4)
Colloid (colloidal silica Increase slowed Increase slowed Decrease slowed
and others) by②≥2 times by②≥2 times by②≥50%
General indication
Pollutants Salt permeation Generation water
DP of module
rate flow
mixed colloid (Fe,
Rate of increase Increase slowed Decrease slowed
organic matter and
by①2~4 times by②≥2 times by②≥50%
others)
Increase by more Increase by more Decrease by more

Bacteria
than 2 fold than 2 fold than 50%

注:① 24 小时内发生;
②2~3 周以上发生;
③ 在无甲醛液保护的情况下。
Note: ①happens within 24 hours;
② happens in 2-3 weeks
③when there is no protection of formaldehyde solution. (HCHO)

化学清洗用药配方及清洗方法见下表 2-2 和表 2-3。化学清洗后一般压差明


显降低,产水量升高,脱盐率略有降低。当脱盐率降低太多时,可用 PT-A(聚
乙烯甲基醚)等药剂进行补膜处理,脱盐率可适当回升,但同时产水量略有降
低。
Chemical formula for chemical cleaning can be seen in the following
tables 2-2 and 2-3. After chemical cleaning is completed, DP will dramatically
reduced, generated water flow will increase, de-salt rate will go down slightly.
When De-salt rate is greatly reduced, PT-A can be used for make-up
membrane treatment. Then de-salt rate can recover a little bit but the
generated water flow will slightly go down.
表 2-2 化学清洗用药剂及其配方
Table 2-2 chemicals and formula for chemical cleaning
污染物 清洗用药 配方
柠檬酸 0.2%~2%水溶液,用氨将 pH 值调至 2~4
钙垢 CaCO3
EDTA 1%~2%水溶液,用氨将 pH 值调至 7
CaSO4
六偏磷酸钠 0.2%~1%水溶液
金属氢氧化物
〔Fe(OH)3、Al( 草酸 0.2%~2%水溶液,用氨将 pH 值调至 2~4
OH)3〕
污染物 清洗用药 配方
油性有机物 表面活性剂 0.1%~1%水溶液,用酸将 pH 值调至 7~8

微生物(粘 5~10mg/L 氯,溶液 pH 值调至 7~8(必要
(次氯酸
泥) 时清洗中补充加药)
钠)

cleaning
pollutants formula
chemicals
0.2%~2% solution. Use ammonia to adjust
calcium scale citric acid the PH to 2-4
(CaCO3 EDTA 1% ~ 2% solution. Use ammonia to adjust
CaSO4) SHMP the PH to 7.
0.2%~1% solution
metal
0.2%~2% solution. Use ammonia to adjust
hydroxide〔Fe( oxalic acid
the PH to 2~4
OH)3、Al(OH)3〕
oily organic surface 0.1% ~1% solution. Use acid to adjust the
matter active agent PH to 7~8
5~10mg/L chlorine,adjust the PH to &-8.
Microbe (with chlorine
(add dosing in the course of cleaning if
mud) (NaOCl)
necessary)

表 2-3 清洗各种污染物使用的药剂和方法
Table 2-3 chemicals and methods for cleaning pollutants
污染物 清洗液 药剂用量 清洗方法
a.0.2mol/L 的柠檬酸 a.压力 0.392Mpa,15L/min
金属氧化
铵 流量,约循环 2 小时
物 每台组件约
b.4%的亚硫酸钠 b. 保 持 压 力 0.98 Mpa , 冲
100L
a.盐酸 pH=4 洗 30min
钙沉淀物
b.柠檬酸 pH=4 c.正常运行
a.柠檬酸 pH=4
a.压力 0.392Mpa,40L/min
b.盐酸 pH=4
有机物、 每台组件约 流量,约循环 2 小时
c.氢氧化钠 pH=12
胶体物 200L b.洗涤冲洗约 30min
d. 中 性 洗 净 剂
c.正常运行
(1%BIZ)
每台组件约
细菌 1%的甲醛溶液 同金属氧化物清洗法
100L

pollutants cleaning solution quantity cleaning method


a.0.2mol/L a. Pressure 0.392Mpa,
metal-
ammonia citrate 每台组件约 15L/min flow,circulate for
oxide
b.4% sodium sulfite 100L for about 2 hours
each b. Keep pressure at 0.98
calcium a.HCL pH=4
module Mpa,flush for 30min
precipitate b. citric acid pH=4
c. normal operation
a. Pressure
a. citric acid pH=4 0.392Mpa , flow of
organic 每台组件约
b.HCL pH=4 40L/min. Circulate for
matter, 200L for
c. NaOH pH=12 about 2 hours.
colloids each
d. neutral clean b. flush for about 30
substance module
agent(1%BIZ) minutes
c. normal operation
每台组件约
The cleaning method
1% formaldehyde 100L for
bacteria is the same as the same
solution each
as metal-oxide
module

2.8 反渗透启、停操作

Start and stop of RO system

2.8.1. 反渗透投运前具备的条件

Conditions to place RO system in service

(1)预处理来水污染指数应达到反渗透装置进水指标;

The pollution index of incoming water for pretreatment has met the criteria for admission

water to RO system.

(2)检查各压力溶器、微过滤器及转动设备正常;

Verify pressure vessels, micro-filters and rotary equipments are normal.

(3)将主控盘上的总电源及仪表电源合上,主控盘上高压泵开关置于停止位置;

Close the main power of main control panel and instrument power. Place the switch of
HP pump at main control panel at stop position.

(4)将所要启动的加药泵开关置于自动位置;

Put the switch of the to-be-started dosing at auto position.

(5)将反渗透就地盘上电动阀门置于自动位置;

Put the MOV of RO local panel at auto position.

(6)检查浓水、淡水手动阀开启,高压泵出口阀开启。

Verify that manual valves for higher concentration water and lower concentration water,

and outlet valve of HP pump are open.

(7)各加药箱液位正常。

The level of dosing tank is normal.

2.8.2 反渗透设备的启动(手动运行)Startup of RO equipment (manual)

(1)送上主控柜及就地盘的电源;

Charge power to main control cabinet and local panel.

(2)将主控柜加阻垢剂计量泵、对应需运行机组的高压泵选择开关转至手动位置;

Place switches of scale inhibitor metering pump of main control panel and its

corresponding HP pump at manual mode.

(3)将反渗透就地盘上所需运行机组的 V4(产水排放门)、V1(高压泵出口电动门)阀门开

关选到开的状态,运行状态转至手动位置上;

Place the switch of V4 (generation water valve), V1 (HP pump outlet MOV) of RO local

panel at open position, and operation status to ‘manual’ position.

(4)手动打开高压泵出口阀门 V2,浓水排水阀门 V6,关闭 V3(浓水排放电动门)、V5

(产水出口门)阀门;

Manually open HP pump outlet valve V2, higher concentration discharge valve V6, close

V3(higher concentration water discharge MOV), and V5(generation water outlet valve).

(5)将 5U 微滤器的进出口手动阀门打开(Va、Vb);

Open inlet and outlet manual valves of 5U micro-filter. (Va, Vb)

(6)使进水连续通过反渗透机组 15---20 分钟,以排出其中的空气,并调整 V6,使浓水

排放量约为 10T/H;

Make inlet water go through RO for 15-20 minutes to vent its air out. Adjust V6 to make

discharged higher concentration water flow 10T/H.

(7)启动计量泵,启动对应的高压泵,5 分钟后,打开 V3,关闭 V4;


Start metering pump, and the corresponding HP pump. Open V3 and close V4 5 minutes

after that.

注意:a、在启动高压泵前,调节高低压保护开关,高压开关上限设定为 2.2MPa,低压开关

下限设定为 0.1MPa;

Note: a. Before starting HP pump, adjust HP LP protection switch. Set the upper limit of

HP switch as 2.2MPa, the lower limit of LP switch 0.1MPa.

b、高压泵转动方向不对,将会使泵造成损坏。

If the rotation direction of HP pump is not correct, it will lead to damage in pump.

(8)调节高压泵出水手动截止阀 V2,反渗透浓水排水阀 V6,控制反渗透产水流量

100T/H,浓水排放量 34 T/H,回收率为 75%;

Adjust HP pump outlet manual stop valve V2, RO higher concentration water discharge

valve V6 to control the RO generation water flow be 100T/H, discharged higher

concentration water flow 34 T/H and recycle rate 75%.

(9)调节加阻垢剂计量泵;

Adjust scale inhibitor metering pump.

(10)连续运行 2 小时以上(指初次投运),这时脱盐率应达到≥98% ;

Run it continuously for at least 2 hours in a row (place in service for the first time). The

de-salt rate shall be ≥98%.

(11)记录各压力表的运行参数,记录各电导率,水温等参数。

Take recordings of operation parameters of various pressure gauges, conductivity and

water temperature.

2.8.3. 反渗透的停运(手动停运)

Stop of RO (manual stop)

(1)按下反渗透就地盘上相对应的高压泵停止按钮,使反渗透高压泵停止运行,停计量

泵;

Press the corresponding stop button for HP pump at the RO local panel to stop RO HP

pump. Stop metering pump.

(2)关闭 V1,打开 V4、V5、V7;

Close V1, open V4, V5 and V7.

(3)打开反渗透冲洗泵的进、出水阀门,打开清洗微过滤器的冲洗进出口阀;
Open the inlet and outlet valves of RO flush pump. Open the flush inlet and outlet valves

of micro-filter for cleaning.

(4)起动反渗透冲洗泵,调节出水阀门,使流量约为 75 T/H 左右,压力为 0.3~0.4

MPa;

Start RO flush pump, adjust the outlet water valve. Control the flow around 75T/H, and

pressure 0.3~0.4 MPa.

(5)连续运行 15 分钟;

Run 15 minutes in a row.

(6)停下反渗透冲洗泵;

Stop RO flush pump.

(7)将 V4、V5、V7 阀门关闭。

Close valves V4, V5 and V7.

注意:系统的冲洗是防止反渗透膜结垢的一项重要措施,是反渗透停运后必不可少的一步

它是简单地通过增加表面流速冲洗膜表面的沾污物、沉积物;对固体颗粒物质沾在膜上,

结合不紧密时,冲洗效果较好,当这种固体颗粒物质与膜结合力较强时,则冲洗无效,应

进行药剂清洗。冲洗应每天进行或运行一段时间后进行,这样能延长膜的使用寿命。

Note: flushing to the system is a very important measure to prevent scale formation on

RO membrane. It is a must procedure after RO is stopped. By simply increasing the

surface flow speed, the pollutants and deposits on the surface of membrane can be

washed. If solids are not closely attached to the membrane, the flushing effect is

desirable. If solids are closely attached to the membrane, the flushing effect is vain.

Flushing shall be done on a daily basis or after t has run for a period of time. By doing so,

service life of membrane can be extended.


Air vent


Outlet water
inlet water
出水
进水

I II
一段 二段

高压泵
HP pump
微过滤器
5U micro-filter

water
Discharge

冲 水

concentration water
Discharge

inlet
Flush
洗 水 排
进 排 放

produced

higher-

反渗透装置图

Diagram of RO device

2.9 反渗透运行中的维护

Maintenance when RO is in service

2.9.1.为保证高压泵进口压力不低于规定值,应对反渗透前预处理的进水压力及各台

设备的压差进行监视调整,

To ensure that inlet pressure of HP pump is not lower than the specified value,

inlet water pressure before RO pretreatment and DP of equipments shall be

monitored and controlled.

2.9.2.温度控制应保证微过滤器进水温度在 20~25℃,最佳温度是 25℃。

The inlet water temperature of micro filter is 20 ~ 25℃. The optimum temperature is

25℃.

2.9.3.当微过滤器进出口压降达到 ≥0.1 MPa 时或 SDI≥4 超标时,必须更换滤芯,否则将

影响系统的正常运行。(当反渗透进水指标达到要求时,一般微滤器可运行 6~8 个月的时


间。)

When inlet and outlet pressure drop of micro-filter is ≥0.1 MPa, or when SDI is≥4, filter

core must be replaced, otherwise it will affect normal operation of the system. (When

index of RO inlet water has met the requirement, normally micro-filter can run 6-8

months)

2.9.4.膜组件的进水压力不超过规定值 2.2 MPa(高压)。

The inlet water pressure of membrane module shall not be higher than 2.2MPa. (High

pressure)

2.9.5 . 高压 泵的 进出 口压 力高 低报 警 范 围: Alarm range of HP pump inlet and outlet

pressure:

入口压力低于 0.1 MPa 后报警、跳闸;

Alarm will occur when inlet pressure is lower than 0.1 MPa, and trip afterwards.

出口压力高于 2.2 MPa 后报警、跳闸。

Alarm will occur when inlet pressure is higher than 2.2 MPa, and trip afterwards.

2.9.6.控制好产水及浓水的流量:产水流量每系列为 100 T/H;浓水排放流量每系列为 34

T/H。

Control the flow of generated water and higher concentration water: The generated water

flow shall be 100 T/H. The discharge flow of higher concentration water shall be 34 T/H.

2.9.7.各转动设备运行正常,管道阀门、法兰及油位正常无泄漏,电机电流、振动、温度等

正常。

The rotary equipments are running in a normal way. The pipes, valves, flanges and oil

level are normal and free of leakage. The current, vibration and temperature of motor are

normal.

2.9.8.化学加药剂量,行程控制正常,计量箱液位下降有规律。

The chemical dosage and travel control is normal. Level drop in measuring tank has a

regular pattern.

2.9.9.高压泵在运行累积达 5000 小时后,需要更换轴承座内的机油。

After the accumulative running hour of HP pump has reached 5000 hours, oil inside

bearing housing shall be replaced.

注意:反渗透启动时,为防止高压泵突然启动升压,产生对膜元件的高压冲击,我厂
每套反渗透装置,在高压泵的出口至反渗透膜组件之间设置了一个慢开电动门,使膜

元件逐渐升压至一定压力;另外,为防止误操作,在每套反渗透产水端设置了一个爆

破装置,在超高压的情况下,自动爆破泄压,目的是防止因超压冲开膜组件的密封胶 ,

保护反渗透膜。

Note: The pressure rise due to sudden startup of HP pump will cause HP impact on

membrane element during the startup of RO system. To prevent this, a slow-open MOV

is arranged between HP pump outlet and RO membrane module to allow the pressure of

membrane element rise to a certain value. On top of this, a explosion device is mounted

at the each water generation end. Under high pressure, it will automatically explode to

release the pressure. The purpose is to prevent over pressure forcing open the sealing

gel of membrane module and protect the RO membrane.

2.10 反渗透在运行中应注意的几个问题

Caution points when RO is under operation

2.10.1. 反渗透在运行前,必须先检查高压泵出口手动门,浓水、产水手动门处于开启状态,

否则在运行时可能会造成膜及管道的损坏。

Before running RO, operators shall check and verify that outlet manual valve, higher

concentration water and generation water valve of HP pump are open. Otherwise, it will

damage membrane and pipe during operation.

2.10.2. 在一般情况下,反渗透运行不允许用手动方式运行,因为反渗透系统在手动方式运

行时,高压泵将无高、低压保护,如出现异常,高压泵将会烧坏。

Under normal conditions, manual operation mode is not allowed for RO operation. As

high pressure and low pressure protection is not available if RO is under manual mode. If

anything abnormal happens, HP pump will be burnt.

2.10.3. 在反渗透产水达到 100 时,可适当降低进膜压力和加收率,这样有利于反渗透膜的

长期运行。

When RO generation water reaches 100, inlet membrane pressure can be appropriately

reduced, which is beneficial to long time service of RO membrane.

2.10.4. 当反渗透系统在运行中出现高低报警并停机时,不可马上复位运行,必须先检查清

楚原因,处理后再按复位按扭,重新启动反渗透系统。
If high or low alarm and stop occurs when RO system is under operation, operators shall

not reset it right away to run it again. They shall first find out the causes, handle it before

pressing reset button to restart the RO system.

2.11 影响反渗透运行的因素

Factors affecting operation of RO

影响反渗透膜寿命的重要因素就是膜的水解速度,而水解速度与溶液的 PH 值和温度

等有关,当反渗透膜水解时,透水量和透盐率将增大,从而使产水质量恶化,所以合理的

PH 值和温度是保证膜合理寿命的重要因素。

An important factor affecting service life of RO membrane is the hydrolysis rate of

membrane, while hydrolysis rate itself has a lot to do with PH value and temperature of

solution. When hydrolysis occurs to RO membrane, the water permeation flux and salt

permeation rate will increase and lead to degradation of produced water quality. That is

why proper PH value and temperature are important to guarantee due service life.

2.11.1. 温度:适当的提高温度,可以降低水的粘度,提高膜的透水量,在温度高于 20℃

时运行,温度每升高 1℃透水量约增加 3%。

Temperature: Increase temperature properly to reduce the stickiness of water, increase

the permeation flux of membrane. When temperature is higher than 20 ℃, permeation

water flux can be increased by 3% every time temperature is increased by 1 ℃.

2.11.2. PH 值:一般使进水的 PH 值保持在 7.0 是最佳状态。

PH value: The PH of inlet water shall be kept at optimum 7.0.

2.11.3. 压力:对运行初期的反渗透膜,在满足产水量和脱盐率的情况下,运行压力宜采用

比正常压力较低的为好。

Pressure: For RO membrane that is in service at the initial stage of operation, it is

advisable for the operation pressure slightly lower than the normal one under the

condition that it can meet the requirement of water generation volume and salt removal

rate.

2.11.4. 流速:在反渗透运行中,膜表面浓缩水和进水之间往往会产生浓度差,严重时会形

成很高的浓度阶梯,这种现象叫浓差极化,它的出现将加大膜表面上难溶盐形成的机率,

损坏膜的致密层(如硫酸锶),为了防止这种现象的发生,所以必须要维持适当的进水流

速。
Flow rate : When RO is under operation, there will be a differential concentration

between concentrated water on the surface of membrane and inlet water. Under serious

occasions, very high concentration step can be created, which is called polarization of

concentration difference. If it happens, the chances of formation of insoluble salt on the

membrane surface will be increased, and as a result compact layer of membrane will be

damaged. To prevent this from happening, appropriate inlet water flow rate shall be

maintained.

2.12 反渗透膜的保养

Preservation of RO membrane

反渗透系统的保养是一个比较重要的问题,如何保护好反渗透系统,即如何保护好反渗透

膜,关系到反渗透系统能否使用长久,是一个关键的事情,为使反渗透系统更好地为您服

务,做好反渗透的保养工作十分重要。

The preservation of RO system is essential. How to protect RO system, namely how to

protect RO membrane, determines the service life of RO system. It is important to

preserve the RO system so that it can provide better service.

2.12.1.系统短时间内停运(1~3 天)

The system is stopped for a short time. (1-3 days)

(1)停运前,先对系统进行低压(0.2~0.4 MPa),大流量(约等于系统的产水量)冲

洗,时间为 15 分钟。

Before stop, flush the system with big flow water( roughly equals to the generation water

volume) of low pressure ((0.2~0.4 MPa) for 15 minutes.

(2)保持自然水流,让水流入浓水道。

Keep natural water flow to make water enters higher concentration water pass.

2.12.2.系统停运 7 天以上

System is shutdown for more than 7 days.

(1)环境温度在 5℃以上

Environment temperature is below 5℃.

A、停运前,先对系统进行低压(0.2~0.4 MPa),大流量(约等于系统的产水
量)冲洗,时间为 15 分钟。
Before stopping the system, water flush ( with the pressure of 0.2 ~ 0.4
MPa)should be carried out for 15 minutes.
B、按照反渗透系统清洗操作进行化学清洗,选用清洗有机物的清洗配方进行系
统的化学清洗。
Chemical flush should be carried out according to reverse osmosis
procedures to remove organic matters.
C、化学清洗完毕后,冲洗干净反渗透膜。
After chemical cleaning is completed, flush RO membrane.
D、配制 0.5%的亚硫酸氢钠溶液,低压输入系统内,循环 10 分钟。
Inject NaHSO3 solution of 0.5% concentration into system for circulation of 10
minute.
E、关闭所有系统的阀门,进行封存。
Close all the valves of all system for sealing and storage.
F、如系统停运 10 天以上,请用 0.5%的福尔马林溶液封存,操作同上,每 30
天须更换一次福尔马林溶液。
If the system is about to be shut down for more than 10 days, formalin
solution of 0.5% concentration should be utilized to seal the system and the
solution should be replaced every 30 days.
(2)环境温度在 5℃以下
Ambient temperature is below 5℃.
A、停运前,先对系统进行低压(0.2~0.4 MPa),大流量(约等于系统的产水
量)冲洗,时间为 15 分钟。
Before stopping the system, water flush ( with the pressure of 0.2 ~ 0.4
MPa)should be carried out for 15 minutes with high water flow.
B、在有条件的地方,可将环境温度升高到 5℃以上,然后按照(1)的方法进
行系统保养。
If possible, the system should be preserved according method (1) and
ambient temperature should be higher than 5℃.
C 、若无条件环境温度进行升高则:低压( 0.1 MPa ),流量为系统产水量的
1/3 进行长流,以防止反渗透膜被破坏,并且保证每天使系统运行 2 小时。或用

重量比为 20%的甘油或丙二醇加 1%的硫酸钠溶液进行封存。、按(1)B)、C)


步骤,对反渗透膜进行清洗后,将反渗膜取出,移至环境温度大于 5 ℃的地方,
浸泡在配的 0.5%的福尔马林溶液中,每二天翻转一次,系统管道中的水应排
放干净,以防止因结冰而造成系统的损坏。
If ambient temperature cannot be increased, the next procedure should be
taken: flush pressure should be contained to 0.1 MPa and flow should be 1/3
of rating flow of system to prevent damage of membrane, the duration should
be 2 hours per day. Or the next procedure should be taken: the glycerol
solution with a specific gravity of 20% should be utilized to seal the system.
After cleaning the membrane by following the procedure (1)B)、C), remove
the membrane to place with ambient temperature of 5 degree Celsius and
merge it in formalin solution of 0.5% concentration, the membrane should be
turned around every two day; residual water in system should be drained out
to prevent icing.
对于多级系统来说,清洗和浸泡操作可以同时在第一级进行,高流量循环可分
级进行,因此最初一级流量不要过低,最后一级流量不要过高,不论是用一个
清洗泵一次清洗一级,还是第一级有分开的清洗泵都可以完成。
For system of multiple stages, cleaning and soaking can be finished in the first
stage, high flow circulation can be finished in several stage so the flow in first
stage should not be so low and the one in last stage should not be so high.
下表列出的适用的化学清洗药品,酸清洗剂和碱清洗剂是标准的化学药品。
酸清洗剂主要用于去除无机沉积物,包括铁,碱清洗液用于去除有机污物,包
括生物物质。硫酸不能用于清洗,因为溶易产生硫酸钙沉淀,最好用反渗透的出
水配清洗液,大多数情况下可用原水,因此,许多酸或氢氧化物需用原水达到
我们所期望的 PH 水平,酸洗为 2,碱洗为 12。
The chemical listed in the table below is standard chemical. Acidic cleaning
agent is mainly for mineral such as iron and alkaline agent is mainly for
organic matters. Sulfuric acid cannot be used to clean system due to its
character of forming fouling; usually raw water is utilized to adjust PH of
solution.
常用反渗透膜的清洗液一览表
Effect of chemicals for cleaning reverse osmosis membrane
无 机 盐 金 属 氧 无机胶
生 物
污 垢 清 洗 药 品 minerals 化 物 质 有机物
二氧化 膜
chemical for (CaCO3、 ( 铁 ) minera organic
硅 SiO2 biofil
removing fouling CaSO4、Ba metal l matter
m
SO4) oxide colloid
0.1 %
(W)NaOH 一 般 一 般
最 好
0.1%(W)Na- commo commo
best
EDTA n n
PH2,30C MAX
0.1 %
(W)NaOH
好 好
0.1%(W) Na- 好 good
good good
DDS
PH12,30C MAX
0.1%(W)STP
0.1%(W)TSP 好
好 good
PH12,30C Na- good
EDTA
0.5(W) HCL 最好 best
0.5(W) H3PO4 一 般
好 good
common
2.0%(W)CITRIC 一 般
ACID common
0.2(W) NH2SO3 一 般
一 般
commo
common
n
2.4%(W)
好 good
Na2S2O4
2.4%(W) CITRIC 一 般 一 般 最 好
ACID
2.4%(W) NH4F-
commo
HF common best
n
PH1.5-2.5, 30C
MAX
注 释 notes : W: 重量百分 specific gravity Na-DDS :十二硫酸钠
HCL:盐酸 hydrochloric acid
V:体积百分比 specific volume STP:三磷酸钠 sodium trioplyphosphate
H3PO4:磷酸 phosphoric acid
CaCO3 : 碳 酸 钙 calsium carbonate TSP : 磷 酸 三 钠 trisodium
(ortho)phosphate
CaSO4:硫酸钙 calsium sulphate CITRIC ACID:柠檬酸
BaSO4:硫酸钡 barium sulphate NH2SO3:亚硫酸铵 ammonia sulfite
NaOH : 氢 氧 化 钠 sodium hydroxide Na 2S2O4 : 硫 代 硫 酸 钠 ium
thiosulphate
Na-EDTA:乙二胺四乙钠 NH4F-HF:氢氟酸铵 ammonia fluoride

2.13 设备运行中的一般故障处理
Troubling shooting during operation
2.13.1.压力和回收率:本系统按照设计规定压力运行,系统中过滤器前后的
压力表用于监视滤芯的压降,初级压力表则用于监视反渗透膜组件压降,调节
进水阀及浓水阀以保证运行压力及回收率,若反渗透系统不能正常运行,请进
行下列工作:
Pressure and recovery rate: the system should run in a rating pressure, there
are pressure meters located before and after filter to monitor pressure drop of
it. The pressure and recovery rate can be adjustable through adjusting inlet
and concentration valve, if reverse osmosis system cannot work normally, the
next procedures should be followed:
(1)检查滤芯是否堵塞;
Check if the filter core is choked.
(2)检查保险丝是否断路,自动开关是否跳闸;
Check if the fuse is blown or breaker trip.
(3)检查泵的运转情况是否正常;
Check if the running conditions of pump are normal.
(4)检查总流量是否与规定的值相同,并与泵运行曲线比较,以确定运行压力;
The total flow should check and maintained the rating value.
(5)若指示灯”启”,但泵未运行则处于报警状态,可能因进水压力偏低等导致
系统停止工作;
If indication lamp show pump is running but it doesn’t, the reason may be low
water pressure blocking system.
(6)检查进水阀门开关是否正确;
Check if the open and close of inlet water valve is correct.
(7)若泵不能启动,检查电气接线,高低保护开关,保险丝和过热保护器等部
件是否正常。
If pump cannot start, electrical connection should be inspected including
breakers, fuses and overheating protector.

2.13.2.供水 SDI 高

SDI high in supply water

原因 causes:(1)预处理系统工作不正常;

The pre-treatment system is not working properly.

(2)微滤器失效或滤芯损坏。

The micro-filter is not working or the filter core is damaged.

处理 Handling:(1)检查预处理系统中的设备;

Check equipments in pre-treatment system.

(2)更换微滤器的滤芯。

Replace the filtration core of micro-filter.

2.13.3.高压泵入口压力低

Outlet pressure high in HP pump

原因:(1)入口流速小;

The inlet flow velocity is slow.


(2)预处理系统压力低;

The pressure of pre-treatment is low.

(3)微滤器滤芯变脏;

The filtration core of micro-filter gets dirty.

(4)前系统阀门故障或未开足。

Valve of pre-system malfunctions or it is not open wide enough

处理 Handling:(1)提高入口水流速或提高前系统压力;

Increase the inlet water velocity or increase the pressure of pre-system.

(2)检查微滤器滤元件或更换滤芯;

Check the micro-filter element or replace the filter core.

(3)检查前系统阀门并开足。

Check the valve of pre-system and open it wide enough.

2.13.4.高压泵出口压力高

Outlet pressure high in HP pump

原因 Cause:(1)泵出口阀门调节不当;

Pump outlet valve is not properly controlled.

(2)有误操作;

Mis-operation is there.

(3)膜组件污堵、结垢。

The membrane module is jammed by pollutants. Scale is formed.

处理 Handling:

(1) 重新调节高压泵出口阀开度;

Readjust the open degree of HP pump outlet valve.

(2)排除误操作;

Correct the mis-operation.

(3)膜清洗或换膜。

Clean the membrane or replace it.

2.13.5.产水回收率低

Recycle rate of generation water is low

原因 Cause:(1)反渗透进水流动速度太大。

The velocity of RO inlet water is too high.


(2)进水温度或压力低。

The temperature or pressure of inlet water is low.

(3)浓水排放门调整不当。

Higher concentration water discharge valve is not properly adjusted.

处理 Handling:(1)降低反渗透系统进水流速。

Reduce the velocity of RO inlet water.

(2) 提高进水温度或提高供水压力。

Increase inlet water temperature or increase supply water pressure.

(3)重新调节浓水排放门。

Re-adjust higher concentration water discharge valve.

2.13.6.产水量下降 decrease in generation water flow

原因 cause:(1)进水温度低;

Inlet water temperature is low.

(2)进水压力低,流量小;

The inlet water pressure is low and the flow is small.

(3)含盐量太大;

The salt content is too high.

(4)有污染物或膜结垢。

There are pollutants or scale is formed on membrane.

处理 handling:(1)提高进水温度;

Increase inlet water temperature

(2)提高供水压力,调大进水流速;

Increase supply water pressure, increase velocity of inlet water.

(3)及时化验供水含盐量;

Do lab analysis of salt content in supplied water.

(4)清洗膜件或更换。

Clean membrane module or replace it.

2.13.7.反渗透膜脱盐率低

De-salt rate of RO membrane is low

原因:(1)膜结垢或污染;

Membrane is contaminated or slag is formed in membrane.


(2)回收率太高。

Recycle rate is too high.

处理 Handling:(1)清洗反渗透膜;

Clean RO membrane.
(2)降低加收率,调整好浓水,产水流量。
Adjust the higher concentration water and produced water flow.
第三章 二级除盐系统
Chapter 3 Secondary DM System

3.1 概述
3.1 Introduction
原水经过预处理,去除了水中的悬浮物、胶体并降低水中有机物,但水中的溶解
盐类并没有改变,所以必须用离子交换法去除水中溶解盐类。一些电厂因使用
常规含盐量的水,所以直接进行深度除盐,未在设置超滤、反渗透预除盐设备。
以下阳床、除碳器、阴床、混床原理的简单介绍:
The pretreatment of raw water removes suspended matters and colloids and
reduces the number of organic compounds. It does not change soluble salts
which have to be taken away through ion exchange process. Some power
plants use water with standard content of mineralized matter and can directly
proceed with advanced DM without ultra-filtration or RO DM devices. Below is
the brief introduction of cation beds, Carbon removers, anion beds and mixed
beds.

3.1.1 阳床
3.1.1 Cation Bed
当水通过内部装有 H 型阳树脂的阳床时发生反应,将水中 Fe3+ > Al3+ 、 Ca2+ 、
Mg2+ 、 K+等去除,反应结果是树脂逐层转成金属型,而交换出来的 H+与水中
HCO3-、Cl-、SO42-等形成稀的酸溶液。
Water flows through the cation bed and reacts with H-cation resin on the
inside, removing elements of Fe 3+ > Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+. As a result, resin
turns metal-like and thin acid solution is produced through the reaction of
separated H+ with HCO3-, Cl- and SO42- in the water.

3.1.2 除碳器
3.1.2 Carbon remover
强酸性阳离子交换树脂可将水中全部阳离子变为氢离子,交换后水中的碳酸氢
根也都转化为二氧化碳。水中二氧化碳可以看作是溶解水中的气体,它的溶解度
符合亨利定律,既在一定温度下气体在液体中溶解度与液面上该气体的分压成
正比。只要降低水面上二氧化碳的分压力,溶于水中的游离二氧化碳便会从水中
解析出来。在除碳器中,由于填料的阻挡作用,从上面流下来的水被分散成许多
小股或水滴状。由于从填料层下部鼓入的空气与水有很大的接触面积,而空气中
二氧化碳分压力很低,这样就将溶与水中的二氧化碳解析出来并很快带走 。
Strong-acid ion exchange resin can turn all the cation in the water into H+
which reacts with HCO3- to produce CO2. The CO2 can be regarded as gas
dissolved in the water with its solubility complying with Henry’s law—“At a
constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type
and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas
in equilibrium with that liquid.” Therefore, decrease the partial pressure of CO 2
above water and the free dissolved CO 2 in the water can be separated out.
Water flows through a Carbon remover from above is scattered into streams
or drops due to obstructions of the Carbon remover fillings. Since the contact
area between air entering from the Carbon remover bottom and water is large
with very low partial pressure of CO2 in the air, the CO2 in the water can be
separated out and taken away rapidly.

3.1.3 阴床
3.1.3 Anion Bed
当经脱 CO2 后的中间水与阴床中的 OH 型树脂接触时,会发生反应,将水中的
SO42-、 NO3-、Cl-等去除,从阴树脂中交换下来的 OH-与从阳树脂中交换下来的
H+反应生成水,这样水中的盐将基本全部除去,从而获得纯净的一级除盐水。
The CO2-free water reacts with OH-resin in the anion bed so as to remove
SO42-, NO3-, Cl- from water. The produced OH - from the anion resin and the H+
from cation resin reacts to form water. In this way, salt in the water is basically
removed and the pure primary demineralized water is produced.

3.1.4 混床
3.1.4 Mixed Bed
混床内装有阴、阳两种树脂,相当于无数个阳、阴床串联在一起的多级复床,由
于阴阳树脂是相互混匀的,所以阴、阳交换反应几乎是同时进行的,或者说水中
的阳离子交换和阴离子交换是多次交错进行的,交换后产生的 H+和 OH-不能积
累,使交换反应进行得十分彻底,出水水质很高(二级除盐水)。
A mixer bed contains both cation and anion resin, like a multi-compound bed
with endless cation and anion beds connected in series. The even mix of
cation and anion resin leads to simultaneous cation and anion exchange
reactions, or more specifically, to alternate exchanges of cation and anion in
the water. The produced H + and OH- do not accumulate so that the exchange
reaction can be thorough, resulting in water (secondary demineralised water)
of very high quality.

3.2 一级除盐+混床系统
3.2 Primary DM + Mixed Bed System
原水经澄清、过滤及预脱盐处理后虽然去除了水中悬浮物和大部分溶解盐类,但
还不能满足超高压锅炉的给水要求的,必须进行二级除盐处理,使出水导电度
小于 0.2μs/cm,才能作为合格的补给水向锅炉供给。
除盐系统为一级除盐加混床的除盐系统。普丁巴图电站共设二套一级除盐+
两套混床装置,一级除盐采用单元布置方式,两台混床其布置方式为并联方式。
Although floating matters and most soluble salts are removed from raw water
after the process of clarification, filter and pre-desalination, the water is still
unqualified to be feedwater of EHV boilers. The secondary DM is required to
reduce the water conductivity to below 0.2μs/cm before it can be fed to
boilers.
The DM system combines primary DM and mixed beds. In Putting Bato Power
Plant, there are two sets of primary DM + mixed bed system with the primary
DM installed in unit and two mixed beds connected in parallel.

3.2.1 一级除盐系统
3.2.1 Primary DM System
水依次通过 H 型和 OH 型离子交换器进行除盐,称为一级除盐,典型的一
级除盐系统包括强酸性 H 离子交换器(阳床),除碳器和强碱性 OH 型离子交
换器(阴床)。一级除盐系统见图 3-1。
Water flows through H-ion exchangers and OH-ion exchangers in order to get
demineralized, known as primary DM. A typical primary DM system consists of
a strong-acid H-ion exchanger (cation bed), a carbon remover, a strong-base
OH-ion exchanger (anion bed). See figure 3-1 for the structure of a primary
DM system.

Carbon remover Anion bed


Self DM water Cation bed

water inlet

blower

Water outlet

Middle tank

Acid inlet Alkaline inlet

图 3-1 一级除盐系统示意图
Fig. 3-1 Structure of Primary DM System

普丁巴图电站一级除盐系统包括 2 套出力为 35t/h 的一级除盐装置,一级除


盐装置采用单元制方式布置,阳床内部装填 001×7 型强酸性阳离子交换树脂,
装填高度为 1500mm(包括 200mm 压脂层);除碳器内部装填聚四氟乙烯多
面空心球,装填高度为 1600mm;阴床内部装填 213 型强碱性阴离子交换树脂,
装填高度为 2500mm(包括 200mm 压脂层)。
In Putting Bato Power Plant, the primary DM system consists of 2 sets of
primary DM devices with output of 35t/h distributed in unit. Inside the cation
bed contains 001×7- strong-acid cation exchange resin of 1500mm high
(including a 200mm press layer). The Carbon remover contains multi-faceted
hollow Teflon balls of 1600m high. Inside the anion bed contains 213- strong-
base anion exchange resin of 2500mm high (including a 200mm press layer).

3.2.2 逆流再生离子交换器
3.2.2 Reverse flow Ion Exchanger
逆流再生离子交换器按用途可分为阳离子逆流再生交换器和阴离子逆流再
生交换器,其结构没有很大的差别,交换器的主体是一个密闭的圆柱形壳体,
体内设有进水、进再生液、中排和出(排)水装置,并装填一定高度的交换剂,
其内部均衬有良好的防酸、防碱腐蚀的保护层,交换器构造图及中排装置见图
3-2 和图 3-3。
Reverse flow ion exchangers can be categorized into cation and anion
reverse flow ion exchangers according to use. The two exchangers share
similar structures with the body a confined cylindrical shell. Inlets of water and
regeneration solution and outlets of middle discharge device and water are
available on the body which also contain exchangers of certain height as well
as good protection against acid and base corrosion. See figure 3-2 for the
structure of an exchanger and 3-3 for middle discharge device.
Water discharge pipe for back wash

Middle discharge pipe


pipe

Water inlet pipe


water outlet pipe

Water inlet pipe for back wash

Acid (alkaline) inlet pipe Water discharge pipe for front wash

图 3-2 逆流再生离子交换器
Fig. 3-2 Reverse flow Ion Exchanger

press layer

Resin layer

图 3-3 离子交换器中排装置
Fig. 3-3 middle discharge device of Ion Exchanger

离子交换器进水装置采用穹型孔板式,其作用同活性炭过滤器的进水装置
的作用类同。排水装置采用水帽式,单台配置 90 各 0.5t/h 的不锈钢水帽。中排装
置为母支管绕丝型结构,使向上流动的再生液或冲洗水能均匀的从此排水装置
中排走,不会因为有水流流向交换剂层上面的空间而将交换剂层松动。交换器壳
体上装有有机玻璃观察孔,是用来观察交换剂反洗情况的。
The water inlet device is equipped with arch coverings; it works the same way
as the water inlet of a charcoal filter. The water is discharged through
stainless strainers and 90 strainers of 0.5t/h are provided to each exchanger.
The structure of a middle discharge device is header and branch pipes of
winding type, so that regeneration solution or flushing water that moves
upwards can be drained evenly through the discharge device without
disturbing and loosening the exchanger layer due to its moving direction.
Observation holes of organic glass are available on the exchanger shell in
order to observe the exchanger backwash.

在中间排水装置之上,交换剂层上加一层 200mm 的粒状物质作为压脂层


(也称压实层),其作用也是为了使液体上流时不乱层。压脂层的材料有密度比
树脂小的塑料白球或离子交换树脂。
交换器运行时,进水自进水管进入交换器后经进水装置将水均匀分配,自
上而下通过离子交换剂层,清水经底部排水装置,然后由出水管引出。
On the 中排 middle water discharge device is a layer of exchanger together
with a resin press layer of particles of 200mm (also known as press layer). It
is intended against disturbance of upgoing liquids. The resin press layer is
composed of plastic white balls of ion exchange resin with their density lower
than resin.
During the exchanger operation, water enters the exchanger through inlet and
is distributed evenly before flowing through the ion exchanger layer from
bottom to top. Pure water is discharged by discharge pipes after flowing
through the discharging device on the bottom of the exchanger.

3.2.3 鼓风式除碳器
3.2.3 Air-Blowing Carbon remover
鼓风除碳器可出去阳床出水中含有的游离二氧化碳,减轻阴床负担,有利
于阴床除硅,提高阴床的周期制水量和出水水质,减少再生用碱量。
鼓风式除碳器的结构为圆柱型塔式结构,它由配水层、填料层 1600mm
(多面空心塑料球见图 3-4)和鼓风装置(脱碳风机)所组成。水从上部进入塔
体,由配水装置均匀地喷淋在填料表面形成水膜,经填料层与空气接触后,流
入下部集水箱(中间水箱)。除碳器构造图见图 3-5。
An air-blowing Carbon remover removes free CO2 from water that comes from
cation beds and thus reducing the burden of anion beds and easing the
disilication. The amount and quality of water at each cycle can be raised and
the amount of base reduced for regeneration.
An air-blowing Carbon remover is a cylindrical tower, composed of a water
distributing layer, a filling layer of 1600mm (multi-faceted plastic ball indicated
in figure 3-4) and an air-blowing device (decarbonized air blower). Water flows
into the tower from top and is evenly sprayed onto the fillings by the
distributing device. A water film is produced and flows downwards to the lower
sump tank (the middle tank) after making contact with air. See figure 3-5 for
the structure of a Carbon remover.

图 3-4 多面空心塑料球
Fig. 3-4 Multi-Faceted Plastic Ball
Water distribution device

Air inlet device

图 3-5 除碳器
Fig. 3-5 Carbon remover

除碳器的工作原理是强酸性阳离子交换树脂可将水中全部阳离子变为氢离
子,交换后水中的碳酸氢根也都转化为二氧化碳。水中二氧化碳可以看作是溶解
水中的气体,它的溶解度符合亨利定律,既在一定温度下气体在液体中溶解度
与液面上该气体的分压成正比。只要降低水面上二氧化碳的分压力,溶于水中的
游离二氧化碳便会从水中解析出来。在除碳器中,由于填料的阻挡作用,从上面
流下来的水被分散成许多小股或水滴状。由于从填料层下部鼓入的空气与水有很
大的接触面积,而空气中二氧化碳分压力很低,这样就将溶与水中的二氧化碳
解析出来并很快带走。
In a Carbon remover, strong-acid cation exchange resin turns all the cations
into H+ which reacts with HCO3- to produce CO2. The CO2 in the water can be
regarded as dissolved gas with its solubility complying with Henry’s Law—“At
a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given
type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that
gas in equilibrium with that liquid.” Therefore, decrease the partial pressure of
CO2 above water and the free dissolved CO 2 in the water can be separated
out. Water flows through a Carbon remover from above is scattered into
streams or drops due to obstructions of the Carbon remover fillings. Since the
contact area between air entering from the Carbon remover bottom and water
is large with very low partial pressure of CO 2 in the air, the CO2 in the water
can be separated out and taken away rapidly.

3.2.4 混合离子交换器
3.2.4 Mixed Ion Exchanger
混合离子交换器同逆流再生离子交换器的结构有所不同,混合离子交换器
内的交换剂由阴、阳树脂组成。此外,混床设备的特点是在两种树脂交换界面有
再生剂收集装置(中间排液装置),中间排液装置为母支管绕丝型结构。在壳体
上有上、中、下窥视窗,中间一个窥视窗用来观察设备中树脂的水平面,下面窥
视窗可用来检测树脂窗准备再生前阴、阳离子交换树脂的分界线,上部窥视窗可
用来观察反洗时树脂的膨胀情况。
The structure of a mixed ion exchanger is different from that of a CCR ion
exchanger in that the former contains exchangers of cation and anion resin.
Besides, a mixed ion exchanger contains a regeneration solution collector (a
liquid discharge device in the middle) between the boundaries of two resins.
The structure of the discharge device is 母支管绕丝型. There are upper,
middle and lower peep holes on the shell with the middle one observing the
water level of resin, the lower one the boundaries of cation/anion exchange
resins before the regeneration of resin window 树脂窗, the upper one the resin
expansion during backwash.
普丁巴图电站共设 2 台混合离子交换器。混床采用并联布置方式,内部装填
001×7MB 型强酸性阳离子交换树脂和 201×7MB 型强碱性阴离子交换树脂,阴
阳树脂装填比例为 2:1,阴树脂层高为 1000mm,阳树脂层高为 500mm。每台
混床出口配有一个树脂捕捉器,防止混床出水装置故障而引起的树脂泄漏,也
可以截流破碎树脂,防止锅炉给水水质因树脂的混入而引起恶化。树脂捕捉器是
靠不锈钢筛管滤元起截流树脂作用的。
In Puting Bato Power Plant, there are 2 sets of mixed ion exchangers
connected in parallel. Inside the exchanger contains 001×7MB strong-acid
cation exchange resin of 1000mm high and 201×7MB strong-base anion
exchange resin of 500mm high. The ratio of the fillings of cation and anion
resin is 2:1. Each mixed bed outlet is equipped with a resin trap to prevent
resin leakage due to errors of the mixed bed’s water discharge device. The
trap also captures broken resins before they enter boiler feedwater for
interference. The trap captures resins by filtration elements of stainless sieve
tubes.
混合离子交换器运行时,进水自进水管进入交换器后经顶部十字多孔管绕
丝型配水装置将水均匀分配,自上而下通过离子交换剂层,清水经底部孔板水
帽进入配水空间,然后由出水管引出。
混床运行应保证其出水水质、水量和经济指标,这些指标与运行操作,特别
是再生操作有很大的关系。当混床失效时,必须停止运行进行反洗、分层再生。
混合离子交换器构造图见图 3-6。
During the operation of mixed bed exchangers, water enters the exchanger
through its inlet and is distributed evenly by the cross-headed tube water
distribution device on top of the exchanger. Water then flows downwards
through the ion exchanger layer so that clear water is produced, enters the
water distribution space via water nozzle of orifice and then gets discharged
by the discharge pipes.
During the operation of mixed bed exchangers, output water quality, amount
and economical criteria must be guaranteed because they can greatly
influence the operation of regeneration together with the exchanger operation.
If the mixed bed malfunctions, stop the bed and start the backwash and
regeneration by layer. See figure 3-6 for the structure of a mixed ion
exchanger.

backwash water discharge pipe

middle discharge pipe

Alkaline inlet pipe

water discharge pipe


water inlet pipe
Front wash water discharge pipe
Air inlet pipe
backwash water inlet pipe
Acid inlet pipe

图 3-6 混合离子交换器
Fig. 3-6 Mixed Bed Exchanger
3.2.5 离子交换原理
3.2.5 Principle of Ion Exchange
3.2.5.1 离子交换树脂
离子交换树脂外观为白色、黄色或棕色的小球,直径在 0.3~1.2mm。内部
为网状的结构骨架。骨架内有许多孔隙和离子交换基团,树脂网状结构孔隙里充
满着水,它和可交换离子共同组成一个高浓度的溶液,使其有可能与外部水中
的离子发生离子交换作用。离子交换树脂结构见图 3-7。
3.2.5.1 Ion Exchange Resin
Ion exchange resins are shaped like white, yellow or brown balls of 0.3-
1.2mm diameter with network structures on the inside. The skeletons of
network contain a lot of holes and ion exchange groups. The holes are filled
with water that can unite exchangeable ions to produce high-concentrated
solutions which are likely to exchange ions with water outside. See figure 3-7
for the structure of ion exchange resin.

Macromolecular chain

Hole

countra-ion, polar molecule

Hydrate water

Functional group

Gel-type
structure Big porous structure

图 3-7 离子交换树脂结构
Fig. 3-7 Structure of Ion Exchange Resin

组成树脂母体(骨架)的单体有苯乙烯系、系、酚醛系等。其中应用广泛的
是苯乙烯系,它是由苯乙烯做单体原料,以二乙烯苯为交联剂,经悬浮缩合反
应而生成物。然后引入不同的交换基团,分别制得阳离子交换树脂和阴离子交换
树脂。
交换基团由两部分组成,固定部分与母体牢固结合,不能自由移动,称为
固定离子;活动部分遇水可以电离,并与水中的同种离子进行交换,称为可交
换离子。通常将树脂母体和固定离子用 R 表示。
The resin matrix (skeleton) is formed in the unit of styrene, acrylic acid,
phenols and etc with the styrene used most widely. Use styrene as a unit raw
material and DVB as the crosslinking agent to produce copolymer after
suspension condensation reactions. Then bring different exchange groups to
produce cation and anion exchange resins.
An exchange group is composed of two parts—fixed ions which are firmly
connected to the matrix without being able to move freely and exchangeable
ions which are ionized by water and can exchange ions of the same type in
water. The letter “R” is usually used to represent resin matrix and fixed ions.

3.2.5.2 离子交换树脂的性能
3.2.5.2 Properties of Ion Exchange Resin

离子交换树脂的物理性能主要有外观、粒度、密度、含水率、转型膨胀率、耐
磨性等。
The physical properties of ion exchange resins include appearance, particle
size, density, water content, transformative expansion rate, abrasion
performance and etc.

离子交换树脂的为不透明的球体,颜色有白、黄至棕褐色。使用过的树脂颜
色变深,树脂中球状颗粒占总颗粒的百分率,称为圆球率,圆球率越大越好,
一般应达 99%以上。
Ion exchange resins are opaque balls of white, yellow or brown. Used resins
grow darker. The percentage of spherical particles among all the resin
particles is called sphericity which is the higher, the better and should be
higher than 99% generally.

树脂粒度对水处理工艺有较大的影响。颗粒大,交换速度慢;颗粒小,水流
过树脂层的大。颗粒大小不均匀时,反洗流速难以控制。
The resin particle size can influence water treatment. Larger particles reduce
the exchange speed and smaller particles lead to big pressure drop of water
past the resin layer. Particles of mixed sizes make it hard to control backwash
speed.

树脂的粒度一般是用不同目数筛子上的累计百分数来表示的。能保留(这边
是指能通过筛子还是不能通过筛子的粒子啊?我的理解是不能通过,如果我理
解错误的话,应该把 retain 改成 let through)50%颗粒的筛孔孔径(以㎜表
示)即为平均粒径;能保留 90%颗粒的筛孔孔径为有效粒径。保留 40%和 90%
颗粒的筛孔孔径之比为均一系数。
保留40%样品的筛孔孔径(mm)
均一系数=
保留90%样品的筛孔孔径(mm)

均一系数越小,说明树脂颗粒大小越均匀。
Resin particle sizes are measured with the cumulative percentage of sieves of
different numbers of mesh 目数. An average particle size is the diameter
(measured in mm) of sieve holes that can retain 50% of particles; an effective
size 90% of particles. The uniformity coefficient (UC) is the ratio of (1) the
diameter of a sieve with the hole size too small that 40% of particles cannot
pass through, to (2) the diameter of a sieve with the hole size too small that
90% of particles cannot pass through.
40% 90%
UC=Sieve Hole Diameter /Sieve Hole Diameter
保留40%样品的筛孔孔径(mm)
均一系数=
保留90%样品的筛孔孔径(mm)

The smaller the UC is, the more uniform the size of resin particles is.

单位体积树脂的质量称为离子交换树脂的密度,离子交换树脂的密度分干、
湿两种,在水处理工艺中都是使用湿密度。具有实际意义的密度是湿真密度和湿
视密度。
The mass of resins of a unit volume indicates the density of ion exchange
resins which are categorized into dry and wet density with the latter one used
in water treatment. The density of practical use is the true density and
apparent density of wet particles.

湿真密度是指单位真体积(不包括树脂颗粒间空隙的体积)内湿态离子交
换树脂的质量,单位是 g/mL 或 Kg/L。
湿态树脂质量
湿真密度=
湿态树脂的真体积

湿态离子交换树脂是指吸收了平衡水分,并经离心法除去了外部水分的树
脂。离子交换树脂的反洗强度、分层特性与湿真密度有关。
True density of wet particles refers to the mass of wet ion exchange resins of
a unit true volume (not including void volume between particles). Its unit is
g/mL or Kg/L.
True Density of Wet Particles=Wet Resin Mass/True Volume of Wet Resin
Wet ion exchange resin is the resin which absorbs water for balance and
removes outer water through centrifuge process. Its true density is related to
its backwash intensity and grading characteristics.

湿视密度是指单位视体积内紧密无规律排列的态离子交换树脂的质量,单
位是 g/mL 或 Kg/L。
湿态树脂质量
湿视密度=
湿态树脂的视体积

湿态树脂的视体积是指离子交换树脂以紧密的无规律排列方式在量器中占
有的体积,包括树脂颗粒的固有体积和树脂颗粒间的空隙体积。
Bulk density of wet particles refers to the mass of irregularly-arranged wet ion
exchange resins of a unit volume. It is measured in g/mL or Kg/L.
Apparent Density of Wet Particles=Wet Resin Mass/apparent Volume of Wet
Resin
The apparent volume of wet resins is the volume of ion exchange resins that
are arranged irregularly but tightly in a container. It includes resin particle
volume and inter-particle void volume.

树脂含水率是指在水中充分膨胀的湿树脂中所含水分的百分数。
湿树脂质量-干树脂质量
含水率=  100%
湿树脂质量

含水率和树脂的类别、结构、酸碱性、交联度、交换容量、离子型态等有关。它
可以反应离子交换树脂的的交联度和网眼中的孔隙率。
The resin water content refers to the percentage of water inside wet resins
which have expanded thoroughly.
Water Content=Mass of Wet Resin – Mass of Dry Resin/Mass of Wet
Resin×100%
Water content can be influenced by the resin type, structure, acid/base,
crosslinking degree, exchange capacity and ion form. It can indicate the
crosslinking degree of ion exchange resins and the gap of sieves.

转型膨胀率指离子交换树脂的从一种单一离子型转为另一种单一离子型时
体积变化的百分数。
耐磨性是指树脂颗粒在使用中,由于相互磨擦和胀缩作用,会产生破裂现
象,所以耐磨性是影响实用性能的指标之一。
The transformative expansion rate refers to the percentage of volume change
when ion exchange resins transform from a single ion type into another single
ion type.
The abrasion means that the ion exchange resins in use can be ruptured
because of inter friction, expansion and contraction. Therefore the abrasion
performance can influence the practical use.

离子交换树脂的化学性能主要有酸碱性、选择性、交换容量。
离子交换树脂的活性基团有强酸性、弱酸性、强碱性和弱碱性之分。水的 PH
值对它们的使用特性有一定的影响。弱酸性树脂在水的 PH 低时不电离或部分电
离,因而只能在碱性溶液中才会有较高的交换能力;弱碱性树脂在水的 P 高时
不电离或部分电离,只能在酸性溶液中才会有较高的交换能力;强酸、强碱性树
脂的电离能力强,适用的 PH 范围较广。各种离子交换树脂的有效 PH 范围见表
3-1。
The chemical properties of ion exchange resins include acid/base, selectivity
and exchange capacity.
The ion exchange resin’s active groups are categorized into ones of strong
acid, weak acid, strong base and weak base. The pH of water can influence
the performance of resins. In water of low pH, weak-acid resins are not
ionized or are partially ionized and so they only exchange effectively in base
solutions. In water of high pH, weak-base resins are not ionized or are
partially ionized and so they only exchange effectively in acid solutions.
Resins of strong acid or base can be ionized in water of different pH. See
table 3-1 for pH range for effective resin exchange of different ions.

表 3-1 各种离子交换树脂的有效 PH 范围
强酸性阳离 弱酸性阳离 强碱性阳离 弱碱性阳离子
树脂类型
子交换树脂 子交换树脂 子交换树脂 交换树脂
有 效 的 pH 范
0~14 4~14 0~14 0~7

Table 3-1 pH Range for Effective Resin Exchange of Different Ions


Strong-Acid Weak-Acid Strong-Base Weak-Base
Resin Cation Cation Cation Cation
Type Exchange Exchange Exchange Exchange
Resin Resin Resin Resin
Effective
0~14 4~14 0~14 0~7
pH Range

离子交换树脂吸着各种离子的能力不一,有些离子容易吸着,吸着后不易
被置换下来,另一些离子很难被吸着,但吸着后容易容易备置换下来,这种性
能称为树脂对离子的选择性。
在一般情况下,树脂对常见离子的选择性次序如下:
强酸性阳离子交换树脂,Fe3+ > Al3+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Na+ > H+ > Li+;
弱酸性阳离子交换树脂,H+ >Fe3+>Al3+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+>Na+>Li+;强碱性阴离子
交换树脂,SO42-> NO3->Cl-> OH- > F-> HCO3-> HSiO3- ;弱碱性阴离子交换树
脂,OH->SO42-> NO3->Cl->F-> HCO3-。
Ion exchange resins sorb different ions with different performance. Some ions
are easily sorbed and then difficult to be displaced; others are difficult to be
sorbed but are easily displaced. This is the resin’s selectivity of ions.
Generally, the resin’s selectivity of usual ions is as follows.
For strong-acid cation exchange resin—Fe3+ > Al3+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Na+ >
H+ > Li+;
For weak-acid cation exchange resin—H+ >Fe3+>Al3+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+>Na+>Li+;
For strong-base cation exchange resin—SO 42-> NO3->Cl-> OH- > F-> HCO3->
HSiO3-;
For weak-base cation exchange resin—OH->SO42-> NO3->Cl->F-> HCO3-.

交换容量表示离子交换树脂的交换能力,即可交换离子量的多少,通常用
单位质量或单位体积的树脂所能交换离子的摩尔数表示。交换容量是离子交换树
脂最重要的性能指标。
全交换容量是指单位质量(体积)的离子交换树脂中全部离子交换基团的
数量,其单位通常以 mmol/g 或(mmol/L)表示。
工作交换容量是指一个运行周期中单位体积树脂实现的离子交换量,即单
位体积树脂从再生型离子交换基团变为失效型基团的量。其单位通常以
mmol/L(或 mmol/mL)表示。影响工作交换容量的主要因素有:树脂种类、粒度
原水水质、出水水质的终点控制,以及运行交换流速、树脂层高度、再生方式等。
Exchange capacity represents the exchangeability of ion exchange resin, i.e.
the number of exchangeable ions, and is usually measured by the mol of
exchangeable ions in a unit mass or a unit volume resin. Exchange capacity is
the most important performance index of ion exchange resins.
Total exchange capacity means the total number of ion exchange groups in a
unit mass (volume) ion exchange resin and is measured in mmol/g or mmol/L.
Working exchange capacity means the achieved amount of ion exchange in a
unit volume resin within a performing cycle, which is the amount of
regenerating ion exchange groups transformed into ineffective exchange
groups in a unit volume resin. The working exchange capacity is measured in
mmol/g or mmol/L. The major factors that influence the working exchange
capacity include resin type, particle size, raw water quality, end control of
exiting water quality, exchange flow speed, resin layer height and
regenerating method.

3.2.5.3 离子交换树脂的保管和预处理
3.2.5.3 Preservation and Pretreatment of Ion Exchange Resin

离子交换树脂的保管和预处理主要有离子交换树脂的储存、离子交换树脂的
预处理和离子交换树脂的污染与复苏几个方面。
离子交换树脂的应在 5~40℃的环境中储存,储存期为两年,超过储存期
的树脂在使用前应进行复验,若复验结果合格,则仍可使用,树脂在储存期应
防止冻裂,防止干燥失水,对干燥失水的树脂,应先浸泡于饱和食盐水中,再
逐步降低食盐水的浓度,以防破裂。对使用过的树脂,应转变成出厂型式保存,
强酸性阳离子交换树脂为钠型,弱酸性阳离子交换树脂为氢型,强碱性阴离子
交换树脂为氯型,弱碱性阴离子交换树脂为游离胺型。
Preservation and pretreatment of ion exchange resins include their storage,
pretreatment and pollution and recovery.
Store ion exchange resins at a temperature of 5~40℃ for utmost two years.
Resins that have been stored for over two years should be re-tested qualified
before use. Prevent resins from being frozen to rupture and from lacking
water. Soak the resins with a loss of water into saturated salt solutions and
then reduce the salt density in prevention of rupture. Used resins should be
preserved like it was just delivered from the factory 出 厂 型 式 . Strong-acid
2
cation exchange resins are stored as Na, weak-acid cation as H , strong-base
2 3
anion as Cl and weak-base anion as free NH .

新树脂常含有未参加反应的有机物和铁、铅、铜等无机杂质,使用前必须进
行处理,以除去这些杂质,
离子交换树脂在运行过程中,可能受到进水中氧化剂如游离氯的氧化而变
质,这种变质是无法恢复的,也可能受到外来杂质的污染而改变其性能,影响
出水水质和周期制水量。但可以采取适当措施,清除污染物,使树脂性能复原或
有所改进。
阳树脂的污染和复苏,阳树脂会受到进水中的悬浮物、铁、铝、油、CaSO4 等
物质的污染。运行中可针对污染物的种类采取不同的处理方法。
New resins often contain un-reacted organic compounds as well as inorganic
compounds such as iron, lead, copper and etc. Remove those impurities
before using new resins.
Ion exchange resins in use may deteriorate due to redox reactions with
3
oxidizing agents such as free NH in the water. The deterioration is
unrecoverable. The resins may also change their properties due to pollution of
outer impurities. The deterioration can influence the exiting water quality and
amount of water in a cycle. Measures can be taken to remove pollutants and
recover or improve the resin properties.
Pollution and Recovery of Cation Resin.
Cation resins may be polluted by floating matters, iron, aluminum, oil or
CaSO4 in the water. Take different measures against different types of
pollutants.
离子交换处理的基本原理
The working principle of anion exchanging
离子交换的基本反应分为氢离子和氢氧根离子的交换反应。
The basic chemical reaction includes hydrogen anion and hydroxide ion
exchanging reaction.
氢离子交换反应
Hydrogen ion exchanging reaction
交换反应式为:
Chemical equation for exchanging:

(HCO3)2 (HCO3)2
 
2RH Ca(Mg,Na2)Cl2 R2Ca(Mg,Na2) H2Cl2
 S O 4 S O 4
 
再生反应式为:
The chemical equation for regeneration:

2HCl Cl2
R2Ca(Mg,Na2)  2RH Ca(Mg,Na2)
H2SO4 SO4
氢氧根离子交换反应
Hydroxide ion exchanging reaction:
交换反应式为:
The chemical equation for exchanging:

 SO 4  SO 4
Cl2 Cl2
 
2ROH  H2  R2  2H2O
CO3 (HCO3)2
SiO3 (HSiO3)2
再生反应式为:
The chemical equation for regeneration:

 SO 4  SO 4
Cl2 Cl2
 
R2  2NaOH  2ROH  Na2
( HCO3)2 CO 3
(HSiO3)2 SiO3
树脂层中的离子交换过程,离子交换水处理是在离子交换器中进行的,在
交换器内装有一定高度的树脂层,假定交换器中装的是 H 型树脂,当水自上而
下通过树脂层时,水中的阳离子首先与树脂表层中的 H+进行交换,所以这一层
树脂很快就失效了,此后水再通过时,阳离子和下一层中的 H+进行交换。
Ion exchanging process: the ion in the water can be removed through ion
exchanger where the resin layer is filled. For example, the cation exchanger
can replace the cation in the water which can pass the exchanger from top to
bottom.
这样整个树脂层可分为三个区:最上面是饱和层(又称失效层),下面是
工作层(也称交换带),最下部为未参加交换的树脂层(称为保护层),交换
器的运行,实际上是其中有效树脂层自上而下不断移动的过程.当工作层的下缘
移动到和离子交换器中的树脂下缘重合时,出水中的 Na+浓度会迅速增加。影
响树脂保护层厚度的因素很多,如水通过树脂层的速度,树脂的种类、颗粒大小
孔隙率,进水水质、水温等。离子交换的过程见图 3-8。
The resin layer can be divided into three major parts: the layer on the top is
saturated layer, the middle one is called the working layer, the layer at the
bottom is called protective layer which is not supposed to replace the ion in
the water during normal operation, and during the whole process the layer on
the top should be the first to be saturated then the middle one, as long as the
protective layer is not saturated, the Na+ concentration in the water after the
exchanger will not increase. There are several causes which can give rise to
saturation of the protective layer such as the speed of water in the exchanger,
the type and particle size of resin, porosity and, the quality and temperature of
water to be processed. The resin layers can be depicted as shown below:
Water inlet

Water outlet

1.Saturated layer 2.working layer 3.protective layer

图 3-8 离子交换的过程
Dig. 3-8 the resin layers in exchanger
离子交换器在运行的末期,由于水中阴阳离子的排代作用,离子交换剂超
出了其交换容量,阳离子交换器开始漏钠,阴离子交换器开始漏硅,导电度随
之上升,出水水质达不到要求,故必须对离子交换剂进行再生处理,还原其交
换容量。
When the resin layers in exchanger is saturated, the Na+ and silicon content
in the water cannot be totally replaced by the resin and the conductivity of
water will increase then the regeneration process become requisite.
树脂再生是离子交换水处理中很重要的一环,影响再生效果的因素很多,
如再生方式、再生剂的种类、纯度、用量,再生液的浓度、流速、温度等。要取得好
的再生效果,必须进行调整试验,确定最优的再生条件。
The regeneration is a very important process in water treatment; there are
several causes which can influence the regeneration such as regeneration
method, the type, purity and volume of regeneration agent and, the
concentration, flow and temperature of regeneration solution. The adjustment
test should be carried out to ensure an optimal result.
再生的方式分为顺流、对流、和分流三种。
The regeneration can be categorized into straight, counter current and split
regeneration.
对流再生指再生液流向与运行时水流的方向是相对的,习惯上将运行时的
水流向下流动,再生液向上流动的工艺称为逆流再生工艺。对流再生可使出水端
树脂层再生度最高,出水水质好。
During the counter current regeneration process, the regeneration solution
move the inverse direction as the working flow, which can ensure the best
desaturation for the layer near the water outlet there for to ensure the optimal
water quality.
3.2.4.5 阳床工作特性
The working characteristic of cation resin exchanger.
阳床的工作特性是除去水中 H+以外的所有阳离子。当其运行出水钠离子浓
度升高时,树脂失效须进行再生。
The cation resin exchanger can remove all the cation in the water except H+
and the exchanger must be regenerated when the Na+ concentration in the
processed water is increased.
阳床运行时,水由上而下通过强酸性 H 型树脂层,因树脂对各种阳离子的
选择性不同,被吸着的离子在树脂中产生分层,其分布状况大致是 Ca2+为上层,
Mg2+为次层,Na+为最低层。实际上各层的界面并不是很明显的,有程度不同的
混层现象发生。在运行过程中,Ca2+、Mg2+、Na+三层树脂层的高度均会向下不断
扩展,直到树脂失效。阳床出水特性曲线见图 3-9。
During the normal operation, water flow move from top to bottom, the Ca 2+,
Mg2+ and Na+ cation in sequence will be absorbed in different location from
top to bottom due to different characteristic of each. The location of different
absorbed cation will move gradually from top to bottom as a whole until the
resin is totally saturated, the working characteristic of cation resin exchanger
is shown in diagram as below:

Water quality
Acidity

Hardness

Water flow

图 3-9 阳床出水特性曲线
Dig. 3-9 working characteristic of cation exchanger
3.2.5.6 阴床工作特性
The working characteristic of anion resin exchanger
阴床的工作特性是除去水中 OH-以外的所有阴离子。由于各种阴离子的选择
性不同,被吸着的离子在树脂中也会产生分层现象,其分布状况大致是 SO42-
为上层,Cl-为次层,HSi03-为最低层。
All the anion can be removed in the anion resin exchanger except OH-. The
SO42-, Cl- and HSi03- in sequence can be absorbed in different location from
top to bottom.
阴床出水特性曲线见图 3-10 和图 3-11。
The working characteristic curve is shown as below:

Water quality

Conductivity
Silicon

Water flow

图 3-10 阴床出水特性曲线(阳床未失效时)
Dig. 3-10 Cation resin exchanger characteristic curve
Water quality

Conductivity
Silicon

Water flow

图 3-11 阴床出水特性曲线(阳床失效时)
Dig. 3-11 Cation resin exchanger characteristic curve (saturated)
阴床运行时,因为阴床设在阳床后面,所以阴床出水受阳床出水水质的影
响很大。
The quality of water after anion exchanging will be influenced by the
performance of cation exchanger because the anion exchanger is behind the
cation exchanger in the water train.
阳床未失效时,阴床到达失效点时,Si02 含量上升,pH 值下降,电导率先
微降后再上升,电导率变化是因为 H+和 OH-要比其它离子易导电,当出水中这
两种离子含量很小时,有一电导率最低点,在失效点前由于 OH-含量较大使水
的电导率较大,在失效点前由于 H+含量增大使水的电导率增大,Na+含量不变。
When the cation exchanger is in normal working, but the anion exchanger is
saturated, the Si02 concentration will increase and PH will decrease, also the
conductivity will increase due to high H+ concentration, the Na+ concentration
will remain the same.
阳床达到失效点时,由于阳床漏钠量增大,这些钠离子通过阴床后转变为
氢氧化钠,使出水 pH 值迅速上升,连续测定阴床出水 pH 值,可以区分是阳床
还是阴床失效。一般阴床失效监督最好用 Si02 和电导率来判断。
When the cation exchanger is saturated, the Na+ concentration in the water
will increase and more NaOH is formed in the anion exchanger so the PH in
the anion exchanger will increase, the PH can be sign to know if the cation or
anion exchanger is saturated. The Si0 2 concentration and conductivity can be
the sign to know the saturation of anion exchanger.
对于单元式的一级复床除盐系统,在设计时阴床中树脂的装填量有 10%的
富余量,因此在正常情况下是阳床先失效。阳床失效即认为是系统失效,需进行
再生。
In the first class demineralization system, there is normally 10% margin of
resin in the anion exchanger so the cation will usually be the first to be
saturated. If the cation exchanger is saturated, the regeneration process is
requisite for the unit.
3.2.5.7 混床工作特性
The working characteristic of mixed resin exchanger
混床离子交换法,就是把阴、阳离子交换树脂按一定的比例装在同一个交换
器内。再生时将它们分层,分别再生成 OH 型和 H 型,然后混合均匀,投入运行
制水,混床可以看作是有许许多多阴阳树脂交错排列而成的多级复床。
In the mixed resin exchanger, the cation and anion resin are filled in the
exchanger with different proportion, during the regeneration process, the
cation and anion resin will be separated then evenly mixed again.
在其中,混合好的阴、阳树脂的离子交换反应几乎是同时进行的。H 型树脂
交换所产生的 H+和 OH 型交换树脂交换生成的 OH-立即中和生成水,使交换反
应进行的十分彻底,因此混床出水水质非常好,电导率可接近理想纯水的电导
率 0.055μs/cm(25℃)。
During the regeneration process, the replacement for cation and anion are
happening almost the same time, the quality of water after mixed exchanger is
very good, the conductivity is almost 0.055μs/cm(25℃).
混床运行过程离子的排代作用见图 3-12。
The saturation during operation of mixed bed is shown as below:

Before operation During operation After operation After backwash Before regeneration

During regeneration After regeneration After mixture After front wash

图 3-12 混床运行过程离子的排代作用
Dig. 3-12 the saturation during operation of mixed bed
混床经过再生清洗开始制水时,出水电导率下降很快,这是由于残留在树脂中
的再生剂和再生产物,立即被混合后的树脂所吸着。正常运行中,出水残留含盐
量在 1.0mg/L 以下,电导率在 0.2μs/cm(25℃),Si02 含量在 20μg/L 以下,
PH 值为 7 左右。混床出水特性曲线见图 3-13。
During normal operation, the salinity of the water after mixed bed should be
less than 1.0mg/L, conductivity should be around 0.2μs/cm ( 25℃ ) , the
silicon dioxide concentration should be less than 20μg/L and the PH should
be around 7. The water quality characteristic curve for mixed bed is shown as
below:

Water quality

Conductivity

Water flow

图 3-13 混床出水特性曲线
Dig.3-13 water quality characteristic curve for mixed bed
混床出水一般很稳定,工作条件变化时,对其出水水质影响不大。进水的含
盐量和树脂的再生程度对出水电导率的影响一般不大,而与混床的工作周期有
关。对于净化一级除盐水的混床,树脂用量有较大的富余度,其工作周期一般在
15 天以上。
The mixed bed is very stable during normal operation; the quality of water
after mixed bed will be deteriorated when the mixed bed is running for a
working period which is usually 15 days.
对混床的流速应适当的选择,过慢会携带树脂内的杂质而使水质下降;过
快水与树脂接触时间短,离子来不及交换而影响水质。因此运行流速一般在 40
~60m/h 之间。
The water flow in the mixed bed should be adjusted to be 40-60m/h which is
proven to be proper, if the water flow is too high, there will not be sufficient
time for ion to be replaced, but if the water flow is too low, the absorbed ion on
the resin will be taken by the water, in both case, the water quality can be
deteriorated.
系统间断运行对混床出水水质影响也较小,无论是混床或是复床,当交换
器停止工作后再投入运行时,开始出水的水质都会下降,要经短时间运行后才
能恢复正常,混床恢复正常所需的时间要比复床的短。混床运行失效时,终点比
较明显。由混床出水特性可以看出,混床在交换末期,出水导电率上升很快,这
有利于实现自动控制。
When the mixed bed is put into operation after shut down, it takes time for
mixed bed to produce the good quality water but it’s short. When the mixed
bed is about to be saturated, the conductivity of water after mixed bed will
increase very fast.
3.2.6 树脂储存罐
3.2.6 Resin storage tank
树脂储存罐的作用是用于离子交换树脂的贮存、清洗、复苏。离子交换树脂
第一次使用时需进行新树脂的处理,在离子交换器进行大修时需将树脂转运至
树脂储存罐储存。当离子交换树脂运行若干周期,工作交换容量降低时,将树脂
输送到清洗罐内进行复苏。
The resin storage tank is used to store, clean and regenerate the resin.
Before the new resin is about to be used in the exchanger, it should be
processed in the tank; when the exchanger need the overhaul, the resin
inside should be transferred to the storage tank; if the resin in the exchanger
is not functional after several working period, it will be transferred into the tank
to be thoroughly regenerated.
树脂清洗罐内部构件有不锈钢进水和排水滤元装置,设备内部衬胶防止设
备腐蚀。
There are stainless steel and rubber liner in the tank to prevent corrosion.
3.2.7 再生系统及酸碱中和系统
3.2.7 The regeneration system and, acid and alkali neutralization system
离子交换除盐的再生系统包括酸碱贮存、溶解、计量、配置和输送。因为酸碱
具有强烈的腐蚀性,所以必须采取妥善的防腐措施并在运行中注意防止酸、碱灼
伤。
The regeneration system includes storage, solution, metering and transfer
system. The proper protective measures must be carried out to prevent injury
by acid and alkali.
3.2.7.1 酸、碱贮存与计量
The storage and metering of acid and alkali
盐酸、液碱通常贮存在密闭卧式贮存罐中。酸碱贮存罐一般用碳钢制作,内
部衬胶。酸碱贮槽高位布置,用酸碱运输槽车将酸碱卸入贮槽,使用时酸碱以自
流的方式送入计量箱。
The acid and alkali are normally stored in the closed storage tank which is
usually made of carbon steel with rubber liner inside.
普丁巴图电站锅炉补给水处理系统再生用盐酸和碱,由酸碱运输槽车通过
酸碱输送泵 12m3/h 输送至高位布置的酸、碱贮存罐内。酸、碱贮存槽内的酸碱自
流至计量箱内。酸碱贮存罐设 10m3 盐酸贮存罐 2 台、10m3 碱液贮存罐 2 台,阳
酸计量箱、混酸计量箱、阴碱计量箱、混碱计量箱各 1 台,均为 0.5m3。
In the Puting Bato power plant, the acid and alkali are transferred by transfer
pump into the acid and alkali storage tank which are located at a high
position, the acid and alkali will gravity flow into the dosing tank. There are
totally 2 acid and 2 alkali storage tanks with the volume of 10m 3, 1 acid dosing
tank of volume of 0.5m 3 for cation exchanger, 1 alkali dosing tank of volume of
0.5m3 for anion exchanger and, 1 acid and alkali dosing tank of volume of
0.5m3 for mixed exchanger.
3.2.7.2 废水中和处理
Waste water neutralization process
离子交换除盐系统中废液和废水的排放量很大,一般为处理水量的 10%,
为了防止环境污染,应使排放废水的 pH 值不超过 6~9 的范围。
The waste water in demineralization process is almost 10% of the water
volume to be treated; the PH of waste water should be contained within 6 to 9
to prevent environmental pollution.
因为排放的有废酸和废碱液,所以可将它们中和至合格后再排出。酸碱废液
排放至中和池后,采用罗茨风机向池内鼓入空气进行搅拌,同时启动泵进行循
环搅拌,根据池内的 PH 值决定是否向池内加酸或加碱。当 pH 值达标后方可排
放。
After the waste acid and alkali solution is discharged into the neutralization
pool, the roots blower should be started to mix the solution, the acid or alkali
can be added into the pool if necessary to adjust the PH to a proper scope
then discharge the waste water.
普 丁 巴 图 电 站 锅 炉 补 给 水 处 理 系 统 设 2 台 150m3 中 和 池 , 废 水 泵
2×100m3/h,锅炉补给水处理系统的再生废水排入废水池中和达标后排放。
There are totally 2 neutralization pool of 150m 3 and 2 waste water pump of
capacity of 100m3/h in Puting Bato power plant.
3.2.7.3 设备的防腐
The preservation of equipments
除盐系统中,酸性水和酸对设备和管道有极强的腐蚀性,除盐设备能否安
全可靠地运行,做好防腐工作非常关键。
The acid and alkali is highly corrosive, the preservation of equipment is very
important.
离子交换器的本体、管道、阀门、贮酸箱、计量箱、除碳器等,都采用橡胶衬
里防腐。
The body of exchanger, pipe, valve, acid storage tank, dosing tank and
carbon remover is equipped with rubber liner.
交换器内进、出水装置,进酸碱装置,中间排水装置,采用不锈钢。地沟的
防腐采用衬玻璃钢。
The water inlet and outlet of exchanger, the acid and alkali injection device
and middle drainage device are made of stainless steel; the drainage trench is
equipped with glass fiber layer.
3.3 除盐系统的投运步骤:
3.3 The procedures to put resin exchangers into operation
3.3.1 一级除盐系统的投运顺序:
3.3.1 The procedures to put the class one demineralization system into
operation
开阳床空气阀→开阳床入口阀→空气阀出水→开正排阀→关空气阀→正排出水
合格→关正排阀→开出口阀→启动除碳器风机→待中间水箱水位至 1/2 以上后
→启动中间水泵→开阴床入口阀→开阴床空气阀→空气阀出水→开正排阀→关
空气阀→正排出水合格→关正排阀→开出口阀→合格出水正常运行。
procedures: open the cation exchanger vent valve →open the inlet valve of
cation exchanger →water coming out of vent valve →open the front drainage
valve →close the vent valve →front drainage water meet the requirement
→close the front drainage valve →open the outlet valve →start the carbon
remover →the water level of intermediate tank reach 1/2 above →start
intermediate pump →open the inlet of anion resin exchanger →open the vent
valve of anion resin exchanger →water coming out of it →open the front
drainage valve →close the vent valve →front drainage water meet the
requirement →close the front drainage valve →open the outlet valve →water
meet the requirement .
3.3.2 混床的投运顺序:
3.3.2 The procedures to put the mixed resin exchanger in to operation
开混床入口阀→开混床空气阀→空气阀出水→开正排阀→关空气阀→正排出水
合格→关正排阀→开出口阀→合格出水正常运行
Open the mixed exchanger vent valve →open the inlet valve of mixed
exchanger →water coming out of vent valve →open the front drainage valve
→close the vent valve →front drainage water meet the requirement →close
the front drainage valve →open the outlet valve.

3.4 二级除盐系统的再生步骤
3.4 The regeneration procedures of resin exchanger
3.4.1 阴阳离子交换器的再生步骤:
3.4.1 The regeneration procedures of cation and anion resin exchanger
离子交换器的运行应保证其出水水质、水量和经济指标,这些指标与运行操作,
特别是再生操作有很大的关系。当阴阳离子交换器失效时,停止运行进行反洗再
生。
When there is exchanger failure, back wash and regeneration is required.
3.4.1.1 小 反 洗 : 由 中 排 管 进 水 , 对 压 脂 层 反 洗 10 ~ 15min , 反 洗 流 速 为
10m/h。
Pre-backwash: The water will go inside through the middle drainage pipe and
back wash for 10-15 min, the speed of water is 10m/h.
3.4.1.2 放水:由中排装置放掉树脂之上的水。
The water above the compacted layer should be drained out through middle
drainage device.
3.4.1.3 进再生液:在顶压情况下由交换器下部进再生液,从中排装置排除废液
和气体。一般用喷射器输送再生液。为了得到好的再生效果,应严格控制好再生
条件,配置再生液的水应用除盐水。
The regeneration solution should be injected from the bottom in a high
pressure condition, an injector is used to transfer the regeneration solution,
and the regeneration solution should be diluted by DM water.
3.4.1.5 逆流冲洗:该步骤又称置换。当进完规定量的再生剂后,关闭计量箱出
口阀,继续用配置再生液的水冲洗至出水基本合格为止。逆流冲洗结束后应先停
止进水,然后再停止顶压,以防止树脂乱层。
Reverse flow washing: After filing the regeneration solution, close the dosing
valve, the DM water is used to wash the resin.
3.4.1.5 小正洗:从交换器上部进水,由中排装置排水,正洗压脂层,一直到残
留再生液冲洗干净为止,一般流速为 8~10m/h,冲洗 10~15 min。
The pre-front washing: fill the water from the top of exchanger and drain the
water from middle drainage component, wash the compacted layer until the
regeneration solution is removed, the water speed is 8-10m/h, and duration is
10-15min.
3.4.1.6 正洗:按一般运行方式,用水自上而下进行正洗,直到出水合格为止。
之后交换器列入备用或投入运行。
Front washing: water is filled from top to bottom until the water meet the
standard then exchanger can be put into operation.
3.4.1.7 交换器经过多次运行后,下部树脂层也会受到污染,因此必须定期进行
大反洗。根据进水浊度,一般 10~20 个运行周期进行一次大反洗。
The lower resin layer can be polluted after long time operation; the periodic
backwash should be carried out to clean it, normally after 10-20 working
periods.
3.4.2 混合离子交换器的再生步骤:
3.4.2 Regeneration procedures for mixed ion exchanger
3.4.2.1 反洗分层,混床运行失效后阴阳树脂仍是混合的,可利用它们的密度不
同,用反洗法将它们分层,反洗开始时,流量易小,待树脂松动后再逐渐加大
流速至 10m/h 左右,使树脂膨胀至上窥视孔位置。反洗 15~20min 后,阴阳树
脂沉降并明显分层。
Layer separation by back wash. After operation of mixed bed fail, anion and
cation resins are still mixed. As their density is different, backwash method
can be used to separate them by layer. It is advisable to use small flow of
water at the beginning of back wash. After resins get loose, water flow can be
increased gradually to 10m/h to enable resin to expand to the level of peek
hole. After back wash for 15-20 minutes, anion resin and cation resin begin to
settle and there is obvious layer separation.
3.4.2.2 阴阳树脂能否明显分层,还与树脂的失效程度有关,树脂失效程度大
分层容易,若在树脂分层前进行进碱,使阳树脂转为 Na 型,阴树脂转变成
OH 型,则可加大两种树脂的湿真密度差,对反洗分层很有利。
Whether anion and cation resins can be separation by layer obviously has a
lot to do with how exhausted the resin is. If alkaline is added before layer
separation of resin gets started, it can enable cation resin to Na type and
anion resin OH type. This increases the difference of wet real density of the
two resins, which facilitates the layer separation by back wash.
3.4.2.3 进酸碱:是对已分层的阴阳树脂,同时进酸碱进行再生。以水力喷射器
进碱为例,具体操作是,依次开启混床中间排水阀、喷射器进水阀、喷射器进碱
阀,将配成的 3%的碱液送入混床上部进碱装置,通过阴树脂层,从中间排水
装置流出,进碱量可选用 2~3 倍的理论量。进酸同进碱一样是从混床下部将
3%的酸液送入混床,从中间排水装置流出,进酸量可选用 2 倍的理论量。
Add acid and alkaline: for cation and anion resins that are separated by layer,
add acid and alkaline at the same time for regeneration. Take hydraulic
injector to add alkaline for example, the procedures are as follows; Open the
middle discharge valve of the mixed bed, water inlet valve of injector, alkaline
inlet valve of injector one by one. Put the alkaline solution of 3% of
concentration to the alkaline dosing device at the upper part of mixed bed. It is
discharged by the middle water discharge device via the anion resin layers.
The alkaline dosing quantity can be 2-3 times of the theoretical value. For acid
dosing, the procedures are similar to that of alkaline: Send acid solution of 3%
of concentration to the mixed bed via the lower part of mixed bed, then it flows
out from the middle discharge device. The acid dosing quantity can be 2 times
of the theoretical value.
3.4.2.4 阴阳树脂的置换:进酸碱完毕后,关闭酸碱喷射器进酸碱阀,继续以除
盐水对阴阳树脂进行小流量置换,直至出水合格。
Replacement of cation and anion resin: After acid and alkaline addition is
completed, close the acid and alkaline injector. Continue to use DM water for
cation and anion resin replacement until the outlet water has reached the
requirement.
3.4.2.5 整体正洗:自顶部进水,底部排水,进行大流量进水,直至出水电导率
≤15us/cm 为止。
Integral front wash: water is admitted from the top and is discharged at the
bottom. Water of big flow shall be admitted until the conductivity of outlet
water is ≤15us/cm.
3.4.2.6 阴阳树脂混合:将混床的水放至树脂层上 100㎜左右。从底部进入压缩
空气〔压力 0.1~0.15Mpa,流量 2.5~3.0m3/(m2·s)〕,对阴阳树脂进行搅拌混
合,当混合均匀后,(一般需 2~3min),尽快放水,使树脂迅速下沉,以防
再次分层。
Mixing of cation and anion resin: Drain the mixed bed to the level where is is
100mm above the resin layer. Introduce compressed air from the bottom(with
pressure of 0.1~0.15Mpa,and flow of 2.5~3.0m3/(m2·s) to blend the cation
and anion resins. After they are well mixd, (normally it takes 2-3 minutes),
drain water as soon as possible so that resin can settle promptly and avoid
layer separation again.
3.4.2.7 正洗:树脂混合后,采用 90/h 的流量对床层进行正洗,直至出水合格后
投入运行或列入备用。
Front wash: after resins are mixed. Take a flow of 90t/h to carry out front wash
to bed layer. Put it into service or standby states until the outlet water has met
the requirement.
3.5 二级除盐系统出水水质指标
3.5.2 Criteria for outlet water quality of secondary DM water system

阳床出水硬度=0mmol/L
Na+≤100ug/L
除碳器出水 CO2 ≤5mg/L
阴床出水电导率≤5us/cm
SiO2 ≤100ug/L
混床出水电导率≤0.2us/cm
SiO2 ≤20ug/L

Hardness of outlet water of cation bed =0mmol/L


Na+≤100ug/L
CO2 content of outlet water of carbon remover≤5 us/cm
conductivity of outlet water of anion bed ≤5us/cm
SiO2 ≤100ug/L
conductivity of outlet water of mixing bed≤0.2us/cm
SiO2 ≤20ug/L
第四章 化学加药系统及水汽取样装置
Chapter 4 Chemical dosing system and water-steam sampling device
4.1 概述
4.1 Overview
普丁巴图电站锅炉为单汽包、一次中间再热、超高压循环流化床锅炉锅炉,
其对水质有严格的要求。因为随给水进入锅内的各种杂质,或被蒸汽带往汽轮机
或沉积在锅炉炉管内,导致热力设备的腐蚀、结垢、积盐。杂质在炉管的沉积,
还会引起水汽系统流动总阻力的增加,增大给水泵的耗能量,甚至迫使锅炉降
负荷运行。因此,需要进行合理的化学加药处理以调节超临界机组的水化学工况
并执行严格的水质监督控制标准.
The Puting Bato power plant adopts the CFB boiler with single drum and
reheater system where the water quality is of high standard. The impurity in
the boiler water can cause the fouling in the pipe of water-steam system
which can lead to corrosion of pipe or higher total flow resistance in the pipes
there for to increase power consumed by feed water pump or reduce the
boiler output, so the monitoring of water-steam quality is very important and
the proper dosing treatment must be carried out following a high standard of
monitoring water-steam quality.
水汽监督的目的是通过对热力系统进行水汽品质化验,准确地反映热力系
统水汽质量变化程度,掌握运行规律,及时地进行调整处理,确保水汽质量合
格,防止在热力系统中产生腐蚀、结垢、积盐,确保机组安全经济地运行。汽水
集中取样分析装置实现对热力系统的水汽品质进行监督分析。
The purpose of monitoring water-steam quality is to avoid the fouling or
corrosion in the pipe system by online analysis and dosing treatment there for
to ensure the safe and optimal operation of power plant. The water-steam
concentrative sampling device is adopted to monitor the quality of water and
steam.
锅炉给水系统中流动着的水虽然较纯净,但其中往往含有氧和二氧化碳。它
们常常是引起给水系统金属腐蚀的主要因素。
The oxygen and carbon dioxide is the major cause of pipe corrosion in the
boiler water train.
铁受水中溶解氧的腐蚀是一种电化学腐蚀。铁的电极电位总是比氧的电极电
位低,铁为阳极,受到腐蚀:Fe →Fe2+ + 2e;氧为阴极,进行还原:O2 +
2H2O + 4e →4OH-。溶解氧起阴极去极化作用,是引起铁腐蚀的因素。铁受到溶
解氧腐蚀后产生 Fe2+,在水中进一步发生反应并在金属表面形成鼓包和蚀坑现
象。其化学反应分别如下:
The corrosion of pipe system in the water train can be explained by the
functions shown below:
Fe →Fe2+ + 2e
O2 + 2H2O + 4e →4OH-
Fe2+ + 2OH- →Fe(OH)2
4 Fe(OH)2+ 2H2O + O2 →4 Fe(OH)3
Fe(OH)2+ 2 Fe(OH)3 →Fe3O4 + 2H2O
水中有游离 CO2 存在时,水呈酸性反应:CO2+ H2O →H++HCO3-。水中 H+
的量增多,就会产生氢去极化腐蚀。CO2 溶于水虽然只显弱酸性,但当它溶在很
纯的水中时,还是会显着地降低其 pH 值。
When there is dissolved CO2, the boiler water will be faintly acidic and the PH
will be reduced dramatically.
在给水系统的水流中,若同时含有 O2 和 CO2 时,则金属的腐蚀更严重,腐
蚀速度更快。O2 的电极电位高,易形成阴极,侵蚀性强。CO2 使水呈微酸性,破
坏保护膜。
If there is O2 and CO2 dissolved in the boiler water in the same time, the
corrosion can be more serious. The O 2 is highly corrosive and the CO2 can
destroy the protective layer.
为了防止给水系统金属的腐蚀,主要的方法是减少水中的溶解氧,并提高
给水的 pH 值,消除 CO2 腐蚀。
To prevent corrosion is to reduce the dissolved oxygen content and increase
the PH of boiler water, and remove the carbon dioxide.
普丁巴图电站采用化学加药系统实现给水的加氨及联胺加药处理,对炉水
进行加磷酸盐处理,从而控制给水中的 pH 值及氧含量、炉水 pH 值和含盐量等,
防止热力设备腐蚀、结垢,满足现场水质处理的要求,确保机组的安全经济运行
The hydrazine and ammonia is dosed into feed water, and the phosphate is
dosed to boiler water to contain the PH, oxygen content and hardness in the
feed water and boiler water to avoid corrosion and fouling.
4.2 加药系统及原理
4.2 Dosing system and working principle
4.2.1 给水加氨系统
4.2.1 Ammonia dosing system
4.2.1.1 给水加氨系统设置:普丁巴图电站给水加氨采用自动加药方式,加药泵
为电控计量泵,给水加氨根据汽水取样系统的给水 PH 模拟信号控制加药量。给
水和闭冷水系统共设一套组合加药装置,为机电控一体化装置,共设 2 台溶液
箱,4 台给水加氨泵(2 用 2 备)。给水加药点设在除氧器下水管上,正常运行
时给水 pH 控制在 9.2-9.6(无铜系统)之间。
Brief introduction: the ammonia dosing system in Puting Bato power plant
adopts automatic dosing control method, the dosing pump can adjust the
dose amount according to the PH of sampling water from feed water system,
which can be indicated on the online meter. There are totally two solution
tanks and four ammonia dosing pump (2 for working, 2 for standby). The dose
point is located on the pipe of deaerator and the PH of feed water should be
contained in the scope from 9.2 to 9.6.
4.2.1.2 给水加氨原理
Working principle of ammonia dosing
氨(NH3)溶于水称为氨水,呈碱性,反应式如下:
NH3 + H2O →NH4OH
给水 pH 过低原因是它含有游离 CO2,所以加 NH3 就相当于用氨水的碱性
来中和碳酸的酸性。反应式如下:
NH4OH + H2CO3 → NH4HCO3 + H2O
NH4OH + NH4HCO3 →(NH4)2CO3 + H2O
本厂加氨以使给水 pH 值调节到 8~9 来防止游离 CO2 的腐蚀。
The working principle can be explained by the functions shown as below:
NH3 + H2O →NH4OH
NH4OH + H2CO3 → NH4HCO3 + H2O
NH4OH + NH4HCO3 →(NH4)2CO3 + H2O
The dissolved carbon dioxide can be neutralized by ammonia and the PH of
the feed water can there for reach 8-9.
4.2.2 给水加联胺系统
4.2.2 Hydrazine dosing system
4.2.2.1 给水加联氨系统设置:普丁巴图电站给水加氨采用自动加药方式,加药
泵为电控计量泵,给水加联氨根据汽水取样系统的给水除氧器溶氧表模拟信号
控制加药量。给水系统设一套加联氨药装置,为机电控一体化装置,共设 2 台溶
液箱,2 台给水加联氨泵(1 用 1 备)。给水加药点设在除氧器下水管上,正常
运行时给水联氨控制在≤30ug/L。
Brief introduction: the hydrazine dosing system in Puting Bato power plant
adopt automatic dosing control method, the dosing pump can adjust the dose
amount according to the dissolved oxygen concentration in sampling water
from deaerator, which will be indicated on the online meter. There are totally
two solution tanks and two hydrazine dosing pumps (1 for working, 1 for
standby). The dose point is located on the pipe of deaerator and the
hydrazine concentration of feed water should be contained within 30ug/L.
4.2.2.2 加联胺原理
Working principle of hydrazine dosing
联胺(N2H4)又名肼,常温时为无色液体,易挥发,易溶于水。遇水会结
合成稳定的水合联胺(N2H4·H2O)。空气中有联胺对呼吸系统及皮肤有侵害作
用。联胺蒸汽量含量达 4.7%,遇火便发生爆燃现象。
Brief introduction about hydrazine: the hydrazine is liquid which can be easily
dissolved into water and combine with water into N2H4·H2O. The vaporized
hydrazine can damage breathing system and skin. The hydrazine steam can
be highly flammable when the concentration in the air reaches 4.7%.
联胺在碱性水溶液中,是一种很强的还原剂,可将水中的溶解氧还原。
N2H4 + O2 → N2 +2H2O
Hydrazine is a strong reducing agent in caustic water solutions. It can
make the oxygen in water oxidized.
N2H4 + O2 → N2 +2H2O
在高温(t>200℃)水中,N2H4 可将 Fe2O3 还原成 Fe3O4 以至 Fe 反应式如
下:
In HT water (t>200℃), N2H4 can reduce Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 or even Fe. The
chemical reaction formulas are as follows:
6Fe2O3 + N2H4 → 4Fe3O4 + N2 + 2H2O
2Fe3O4+ N2H4 → 6FeO + N2 + 2H2O
2FeO + N2H4 → 2Fe + N2 + 2H2O
N2H4 还能将 CuO 还原成 Cu2O 或 Cu ,反应式如下:
N2H4 can also reduce CuO into Cu2O or Cu. The chemical reaction
formulas are as below:
4CuO + N2H4 → 2Cu2O + N2 + 2H2O
2Cu2O + N2H4 → 4Cu + N2 + 2H2O
联胺的这些性质可用来防止锅内结铁垢和铜垢。
Such features of hydrazine can prevent formation of copper scale and iron
scale in boiler.
联胺和水中溶解氧的反应速度受温度、pH 值和联胺过剩量的影响,为使
N2H4 和水中溶解氧的反应进行得迅速且完全,应维持以下条件:
The reaction speed between hydrazine and dissolved oxygen in water is
affected by temperature, PH value and excess hydrazine quantity. To ensure
fast and complete reaction between hydrazine and dissolved oxygen, the
following conditions shall be maintained.
a. 使水有足够温度。温度愈高,反应愈快。
Maintain adequate water temperature. The higher the temperature, the
faster the reaction is.
b. 使水维持一定的 PH 值。一般在 9~11 之间。
Maintain a certain PH. Normally it shall be in the scope of 9-11.
c. 使水中联胺有足够过剩量。过剩量愈多,除氧所需时间愈少。联胺水
溶液显弱碱性,遇热会分解:3 N2H4→N2+4NH3,过剩的 N2H4 分解还
可以提高给水 pH 值。
Make there is adequate excess hydrazine quantity. The more quantity of
excess hydrazine is, the less time s required for removal of oxygen.
Hydrazine solution is slightly caustic, it will decompose at a certain
temperature: 3 N2H4→N2+4NH3. The decomposition of excess N2H4 can
also increase PH value of feed water.
4.2.3 炉水加磷酸盐系统
4.2.3 Phosphate dosing system for boiler water
4.2.3.1 炉水加磷酸盐系统设置:普丁巴图电站炉水加磷酸盐采用自动加药方式,
加药泵为电控计量泵,炉水加磷酸盐根据汽水取样系统的炉水磷酸根表模拟信
号控制加药量。炉水系统设一套加磷酸盐装置,为机电控一体化装置,共设 2 台
溶液箱,2 台磷酸盐加药泵(1 用 1 备)。给水加药点设在锅炉汽包上,正常运
行时给水磷酸根控制在≤3mg/L。
Arrangement of phosphate dosing system: Putting Bato Power Station uses
automatic phosphate dosing mode. The dosing pump is electric-control
metering pump. Based on simulation signal of phosphate group meter, it
controls the dosing flow. The boiler water has one set of phosphate dosing
device. It has 2 solution tanks, 2 phosphate dosing pumps (one for running
and the other for standby). The dosing point is arranged at boiler drum. Under
normal operation, the phosphate group of feed water shall be controlled
≤3mg/L.
4.2.3.2 加磷酸盐原理 principle of dosing phasphate
向炉内加入磷酸盐溶液,使之维持一定量的 PO43-在沸腾和碱性较强的条
件下(PH 值 9--11),炉水中的钙离子与磷酸根发生如下反应:
Add phosphate solution to boiler. PO43- can react with calcium ion under
strong caustic environment when water is boiling.
10Ca2++6PO43-+2OH-→Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6↓
生成的碱式磷酸钙是一种松软水渣,易随锅炉排污除去,从而使炉水中
Cu2+浓度极低。
The generated Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6 is a soft water slag, which can be easily
removed along with boiler blowdown. Consequently, the concentration of
Cu2+ in boiler is extremely low.
4.3 水汽取样系统
4.3 Water and steam sample system
4.3.1 取样点分析仪的配置及水汽分析装置的组成: 普丁巴图电站设置的取样
点、配置仪表及取样点的温度、压力参数(暂定)见下表 4-1
4.3.1 Configuration of instruments at sampling points and water steam
analysis device
Please see the arrangement of sampling points, equipped instrument, and
temperature and pressure parameters of sampling points in the following table
4-1.

取样点名称 取样点参数 配 置 仪 表
压力
温度℃ SC/CC pH O2 M
MPa
1 凝结水泵出口 2.5 45 CC  
2 除氧器出口 1.1 174  
3 省煤器入口 16.7 245 CC  
汽包炉水(左侧) 15 335
4 SC  
汽包炉水(右侧) 15 335
饱和蒸汽(左侧) 15 335
5 CC 
饱和蒸汽(右侧) 15 335
过热蒸汽(左侧) 13.8 540
6 CC 
过热蒸汽(右侧) 13.8 540
再热蒸汽(左侧) 3.5 350
7 
再热蒸汽(右侧) 3.5 350
8 高压加热器疏水 3.75 250 
9 低压加热器疏水 0.1 90 
10 闭式冷却水 0.6 80 
表 4-1
取样点分析仪的配置及功能:共计 CC 表 4 块、SC 表 1 块、PH 表 2 块、氧
表 2 块,110VAC,四线制。电导率表、PH 表等采用上海丽和产品;氧表采用瑞
士 SWAN。本期共一套汽水取样装置。注:表中 CC  带有氢离子交换柱的电导
率 SC  比电导率、 pH  pH 表、O2  溶氧表、M—手工取样。
Parameter of
Equipped instrument
Sampling point sampling point
P MPa T ℃ SC/CC pH O2 M
1 CEP outlet 2.5 45 CC  
2 deaerator outlet 1.1 174  
3 economizer inlet 16.7 245 CC  
Drum water (left) 15 335
4 SC  
Drum water (right) 15 335
saturated steam
15 335
(left)
5 CC 
saturated steam
15 335
(right)
superheated steam
13.8 540
(left)
6 CC 
superheated steam
13.8 540
(right)
reheated steam (left) 3.5 350
7 reheated steam 
3.5 350
(right)
8 HPH drain water 3.75 250 
9 LPH drain water 0.1 90 
closed type cooling
10 0.6 80 
water
Table 4-1
Configuration and function of analysis instrument at sampling points: there are
4 CC meters, 1 Sc meter, 2 PH meters, 2 oxygen meters. 110VAC. 4 wire
system. Conductivity meter and PH meter are Shanghai Lihe products.
Oxygen meter is of Swiss SWAN brand. One common steam and water
sampling device is used. Note : in the table, CC  conductivity with
hydrogen ion exchange column, SC—specific conductivity, PH—PH meter, O 2
—desollved oxygen meter, M—manual sample
4.3.2 汽水取样装置的组成
4.3.2 Composition of steam water sampling device
4.3.2.1 高温高压架:为完成高压高温的水汽样品减压和初冷而设,该部分包括
高温高压阀门、样品冷却器、减压阀、安全阀、样品排污和冷却水供排水管系统。
上述器件与样品管路一起安装在降温减压架内。其主要任务是将各取样点的水和
蒸汽引人降温减压架,由高压阀门控制,一路连接排污管,供装置在投运初期
排除样品中的污物;另一路连接冷却器,冷却器内接逆向通人的冷却水,使样
品冷却降温,冷却后的样品经减压阀减压后送至人工取样和仪表屏。详见图 4-1
HT and HP rack: It is arranged to reduce pressure and for initial cooling for HT
and HP water and steam sample. It includes HT HP valve, sample cooler,
pressure reduction valve, safety valve, sample blowdown and cooling water
supply and discharge pipe system. The above-mentioned components is
arranged inside the pressure and temperature reduction rack along with
sample pipe. The main task is to introduce water and steam of different
sampling points to the rack. It is controlled by HP valve. One route is
connected to blowdown pipe, so that contaminated materials in samples can
be discharged when the device is initially placed into service. The other route
is connected to cooler. Inside the cooler, cooling water with a reverse direction
is introduced inside the cooler in an attempt to cool down the sample. The
sample, after its pressure and temperature is reduced, will be sent to manual
sample and instrument screen. See the picture 4-1 below.
图 4-1 降温减压架
Dig 4-1 temperature and pressure reduction rck
4.3.2.2 低温仪表取样装置:由低温仪表盘和人工取样架两部分合二为一。该部
分包括高温高压不锈钢针型阀门、机械恒温装置、双金属(或数字)温度计、浮子流
量计、离子交换柱、电磁阀、化学仪表和报警仪等。从降温减压架送来的样品,按
照各点需要监测的项目进行分配。一路送至人工取样屏,供人工取样分析;其余
分支样品分别引人相应的化学分析仪表,进行在线测量。分析结果由微机系统进
行数据采集、显示和打印制表。正常情况下,该系统对各取样点在线仪表进行连
续检测,并将各仪表检测信号通过精处理 PLC 控制系统送入水网集中控制系统。
详见图 4-2
LT instrument sampling device: It is made up by LT instrument panel and
manual sampling rack. This part includes HT and HP stainless steel valve
(needle type), mechanical thermostat device, bimetallic (or digital)
thermometer, float flow meter, ion exchange column, solenoid valve, chemical
instrument and alarm instrument among others. The samples sent from
pressure-reduction and attemperator rack will be distributed to points based
on items that need to be monitored. One route will be sent to manual
sampling screen for manual sampling analysis. The other branch routes are
introduced to corresponding chemical analysis instrument for on-line
measurement. The computer system will acquire the data of analysis result,
display and print tables. Under normal condition, the system continuously
detect on-line instrument of sampling points, and send the detected signal of
instruments to water network central control system via PLC of polish
treatment. Please refer to 4-2.
图 4-2 低温仪表盘和人工取样屏
Dig 4-2 LT instrument panel and manual sampling screen

4.4 防止给水系统金属腐蚀的维护方法
4.4 Prevention of Metal Corrosion of Feedwater System
为了防止给水系统金属的腐蚀,通常采用的方法是除掉给水中的溶解氧,并且提高给

水的 PH 值。这种常用的给水处理方法,称为“给水碱性水规范”。使用这种方法时,常在给

水中加入联氨和氨等化学药品,因为这些药品都有挥发性,所以这种给水处理方法又称“挥

发性处理”。此外,近来在国外,对于亚临界和超临界参数以上的机组又出现了两种新的给

水处理技术,即所谓“给水氧-氨联合处理规范”。不过,这种给水处理方法,目前的运行经

验不足,技术还不成熟,尚待继续试验与研究。

Metal corrosion of FW system is usually prevented through the application of “FW

Alkalinity Code”, i.e. to remove dissolved oxygen in water and to raise water’s pH level.

The code is also referred to as “Volatile Treatment” because volatile chemicals such as

hydrazine and ammonia are often added to FW. In addition, a new treatment called “FW

Oxygen-Ammonia Joint Treatment Code” has been lately applied to subcritical and

supercritical units in some foreign countries. However, this treatment still requires further

testing and research due to its insufficient usage and immature technology.

4.4.1 给水除氧

4.4.1 FW Deaeration

给水中的溶解氧,在一般情况下是造成火电厂热力设备腐蚀的主要原因。搞好锅炉给水

的除氧处理、防止热力设备腐蚀,对保证电厂安全经济运行是十分重要的。
在锅炉运行采用碱性水化学工况和络合物水化学工况时,对给水需要进行除氧处理。

除氧处理包括热力除氧和化学除氧。热力除氧可将给水中绝大部分溶解氧除掉,化学除氧

可以进一步除去给水中的残留溶解氧。

Generally speaking, dissolved oxygen in FW is a major cause of thermal equipment

corrosion in power plants. Therefore, boiler FW deaeration and anti-corrosion of thermal

equipment are very important to power plants’ safe and economical operation.

It is essential to remove oxygen out of FW if boiler operation requires chemical

conditions with alkaline water and complex water. Deaeration contains thermal

deaeration which removes most of dissolved oxygen in water and chemical deaeration

which further eliminates oxygen residues.

4.4.2 热力除氧

4.4.2 Thermal Deaeration

从气体溶解定律(亨利定律)可知,任何气体在水中的溶解度与此气体在气水分界面上

的分压成正比。目前,火力发电厂几乎都采用热力除氧器对给水进行除氧。热力除氧器是以

加热的方式除去给水中溶解氧及其它气体的一种设备。即以蒸汽通入除氧器内,把要除氧

的水加热到相应压力下的饱和温度(即水的沸腾温度),使溶于水中的气体解析出来,并

随余汽排出除氧器,以达到除氧的目的。

热力除氧器有多种形式,按进水方式的不同可分为混合式和过热式。在混合式除氧器内,

需要除氧的水与加热用的蒸汽直接接触,使水加热到相当除氧器压力下的沸点;过热式除

氧器的运行方式,先将需除氧的水在压力较高的表面式加热器中加热,至温度超过除氧器

压力下的沸点,当水引入除氧器后,一部分水汽化,其余水沸腾,以达除氧的目的。

电厂中用得最广的是混合式除氧器,按其工作压力不同可分为真空式、和高压式三种。

按构造分为淋水盘式、喷雾填料式和喷雾淋水盘式等。高压和超高压机组常采用喷雾填料式

除氧器,工作压力约为 0.59MPa;亚临界参数机组多采用卧式喷雾淋水盘式除氧器,其最

高压力为 0.78MPa。此外,还有些机组采用凝汽器真空除氧。

According to the gas solubility law (Henry’s Law), the solubility of a gas in water is

directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the water. Currently, in most

power plants, oxygen is removed through the use of thermal deaerators which heat up

FW to eliminate dissolved oxygen; steam enters deaerators to heat water up to its


temperature of saturation (i.e. boiling temperature) under certain pressure so that gas

dissolved in the water can be separated and exit deaerators with remaining steam.

There are different types of thermal deaerators, such as contact and overheating

ones. In contact deaerators, FW to be deaerated meets heating steam directly so that its

temperature can reach boiling point under deaerators’ pressure. To overheating

deaerators, FW with oxygen is first heated in noncontact heaters with high pressure till its

temperature becomes higher than the boiling point under deaerators’ pressure; then that

water enters deaerators with some of it vaporized and the remaining boiled so that

oxygen is removed.

Contact deaerators are most widely used in power plants and can be divided into

vacuum, open-air and HP deaerators according to their different working pressure, or be

divided into tray, spray-packing and spray-tray deaerators according to their composition.

Spray-packing deaerators with a working pressure of 0.59MPa are often applied to HP

and superpressure units; horizontal spray-tray deaerators with its highest working

pressure of 0.78MPa are applied to subcritical units. Besides, condensers are used for

deaeration of some units.

4.4.3 化学除氧

4.4.3 Chemical Deaeration

化学除氧是在要除氧的水中加入能与氧反应的化学试剂,使水中溶解氧降低的一种处理

方法。在电厂中,化学除氧剂应具备的条件是:a)能迅速与氧反应;b)反应产物和化学

药品本身在水汽循环中是无害的;c)具有使金属表面钝化的作用;d)对工作人员的健康

影响最小以及便于使用控制等。

火力发电厂的锅炉给水除氧都是在热力除氧的基础上辅以化学除氧。高参数以上的锅炉

目前大都使用联氨(N2H4)进行化学除氧。

采用联氨除氧的优点是:联氨与氧的反应产物及过剩联氨在高温下的分解产物都不会

产生固体物,因而不会使锅炉给水中的含盐量增加。但是,联氨在低温时与水中溶解氧的

反应速度慢,同时联氨被认为对人可能有致癌作用。针对以上的问题,近年来国外研究并

开发了多种新型的化学除氧剂,尤其在美国,新型除氧剂已在电厂和其它工厂中试用;国

内也正在着手进行除氧剂的研究和开发工作。从新型除氧剂的性能和使用安全与健康角度

考虑,它们会有广泛的应用前景。
Chemical agents that react with oxygen are added to FW to be deaerated so as to

reduce dissolved oxygen. In a power plant, a chemical agent has to 1) react with oxygen

quickly, 2) be harmless in water-steam circulation, so should be reaction products, 3) be

able to passivate metal surface, 4) exert minimum impact on staff health for further

control.

Chemical deaeration always serves as a supplement to thermal deaeration. For

most boilers with high parameters, hydrazine (N2H4) is used for chemical deaeration.

The advantage of hydrazine is that both its reaction product with oxygen and excess

hydrazine’s decomposition products under high temperature are not solid, so that they do

not increase salt content in boiler FW. However, hydrazine reacts slowly with dissolved

oxygen in water when the temperature is low; it is also considered a carcinogen. In the

past few years, many new chemical agents for deaeration have been studied and

developed in foreign countries. In the US, new agents have already been tested in power

plants and other factories; in China, experts have started to study and develop new

agents. Functional, safe and healthy chemical agents will be widely used for deaeration

in the future.

4.4.3.1 联氨

4.4.3.1 Hydrazine

4.4.3.1.1 联氨的性质

4.4.3.1.1 Properties of Hydrazine

联氨(N2H4)又称为肼。在常温下是一种无色液体。它具有挥发性、有害、易燃、易溶于

水和乙醇等特点。联氨是一种还原剂,具有弱碱性,遇热会分解。市售联氨一般是 40%水合

联氨。

Hydrazine (N2H4), also called diazene, is a colorless liquid at room temperature. It is

volatile, toxic, flammable and easily dissolved in water and alcohol. Hydrazine is a

deoxidizer with weak base and can decompose at heat. Hydrazine is generally sold as

40% hydrazine hydrate.

a)物理性质:联氨的一般物理性质列于表 6–2 中。空气中的联氨对人体有侵害作用,故

空气中联氨蒸汽量最高不允许超过 1mg/L。当空气中联氨蒸汽的浓度超过 4.7%(按体积


计)时,遇火会发生爆炸。

表 6–2 氨的一般物理性质

凝 固 点
密度 25℃ 沸点 0.1Mpa 闪 点
项 目 0.1Mpa
(g/mL) (℃) (℃)
(℃)
联 氨(N2H4) 1.004 113.5 1.4 52
水 合 联 氨
119.5 <–40 90
(N2H4·H2O)
a) Physical Properties.

General physical properties of hydrazine are listed in the table 6-2. Hydrazine in air

is harmful to people, so hydrazine steam in air cannot exceed 1mg/L. If hydrazine content

in air is over 4.7% (by volume), explosions may occur if there is fire.

Table 6-2 General Physical Properties of Hydrazine

Boiling Point Setting Point


Density at Flash Point
Item at 0.1Mpa at 0.1Mpa
25℃ (g/mL) (℃)
(℃) (℃)
Hydrazine N2H4) 1.004 113.5 1.4 52
Hydrazine
119.5 <–40 90
Hydrate(N2H4·H2O)

b)化学性质:(1)还原性 联氨在碱性水溶液中,是一种很强的还原剂。它可将水中溶

解氧还原,如下式:

N2H4+O2  N2+2H2O

反应产物 N2 和 H2O 对热力系统的运行没有害处。

此外,联氨的还原性质还可防止锅炉内产生铁垢和铜垢,反应式如下:

6Fe2O3 + N2H4  4Fe3O4 + N2 + 2H2O

2Fe3O4 + N2H4  6FeO + N2 + 2H2O

2FeO + N2H4  2Fe + N2 + 2H2O

4CuO + N2H4  2Cu2O + N2 + 2H2O

2Cu2O + N2H4  4Cu + N2 + 2H2O

b) Chemical Properties.

(1) Reducibility
Hydrazine forms a strong deoxidizer in alkaline water and can reduce the dissolved

oxygen in water:

N2H4+O2  N2+2H2O

The reaction products N2 and H2O are not harmful to thermal system operation.

In addition, the reducibility of hydrazine can prevent iron and copper deposits in

boiler, according to the following formula:

6Fe2O3 + N2H4  4Fe3O4 + N2 + 2H2O

2Fe3O4 + N2H4  6FeO + N2 + 2H2O

2FeO + N2H4  2Fe + N2 + 2H2O

4CuO + N2H4  2Cu2O + N2 + 2H2O

2Cu2O + N2H4  4Cu + N2 + 2H2O

c)弱碱性: 联氨的水溶液显弱碱性,在水中按下式电离:

N 2 H 4  H 2 O  N 2 H 3  OH  K1=0.5×10–7 (25℃)

N 2 H 5  H 2 O  N 2 H 62   OH  K2=0.5×10–16 (25℃)

c) Weak Base.

Water solution of hydrazine has weakly basic properties, as in:

N 2 H 4  H 2 O  N 2 H 3  OH  K1=0.5×10–7 (25℃)

N 2 H 5  H 2 O  N 2 H 62   OH  K2=0.5×10–16 (25℃)

d)热分解: 联氨遇热按下式分解:

3N2H4 N2 + 4NH3

在没有催化剂的情况下,N2H4 的分解速度决定于温度。如在 300℃和 pH 值约为 9 时,

N2H4 完全分解需 10min。实际上,剩余的 N2H4,在进入锅炉内部以后,才发生迅速分解。

d) Heat Decomposition.

Hydrazine decomposes at heat:

3N2H4 N2 + 4NH3

Without catalyst, N2H4’s decomposing speed depends on temperature. At 300℃ and

with pH of 9, it takes 10 min to fully decompose N 2H4. In fact, the remaining N2H4
decomposes rapidly only after it enters into boiler.

4.4.3.1.2 联氨除氧的条件

联氨和水中溶解氧的反应速度受温度、pH 值和联氨过剩量的影响。为使联氨和水中溶

解氧的反应进行迅速和完全,必须维持以下条件:

4.4.3.1.2 Hydrazine’s Deaeration Conditions

The speed of reaction between hydrazine and dissolved oxygen in water depends

on temperature, pH level and the amount of remaining hydrazine. For quick and complete

reaction of hydrazine and dissolved oxygen in water, the following conditions are

required.

必须使水中联氨有足够的过剩量。 联氨同氧的化学反应是一种二元反应,反应速度同水中

联氨及溶解氧浓度成正比:

There must be adequate excess hydrazine in water. The chemical reaction speed

between hydrazine and oxygen is proportional to concentration of hydrazine and

dissolved oxygen in water.

d[ N 2 H 4 ]
 K[ N 2 H 4 ][O 2 ]
d
d[ N 2 H 4 ]
式中: ——反应速度,mmol/(L·S);
d
[N2H4]——水中联氨浓度,mmol/L;

[O2]——水中溶解氧浓度,mmol/L;

K——比例常数。

d[ N 2 H 4 ]
Where: ——reaction speed,mmol/(L·S);
d
[N2H4]——hydrazine concentration in water,mmol/L;

[O2]——dissolved oxygen concentration in water, mmol/L;

K——proportional constant.

理论上联氨同氧反应是等物质量的。在实际控制上,为了加快反应速度,联氨的剂量

通常为理论值的 2-4 倍,当有催化剂存在时,过剩量可以小些。

Theoretically, reaction between hydrazine and oxygen is of equal amount. But in

actual practice, quantity of hydrazine is normally 2-4 times of the theoretical value. Under

the presence of catalyst, the excess amount of hydrazine can be smaller.


b)必须使水维持一定的 pH 值。 pH 值在 9-11 之间时,反应速度最快。因此以除盐水作

补给水时,在给水加联氨前必须先加氨处理,使给水的 pH 值提高到 8.5 以上。

Maintain PH of water at a certain range. When PH is between 9-11, the reaction speed is

fastest. That is why ammonia dosing treatment shall be done t before hydrazine is added

to feed water if demineralized water is used as make-up water in order to increase the

PH of feed water to higher than 8.5.

c)必须有足够的反应温度。 温下,联氨同溶解氧的反应速度是比较慢的,一般长达数

小时,当温度升高时,反应速度急剧增加。通常在除氧器出口处加入联氨,此处给水温度

达 150℃以上,联氨同溶解氧的反应时间仅数分钟。

There temperature shall be appropriate for reaction. Under normal temperature, the

reaction speed between hydrazine and oxygen is relatively slow, which takes as long as

a few hours. As temperature goes up, the reaction speed rises sharply. Normally

hydrazine is added at the outlet of deaerator where the feed water temperature can be

more than 150℃, which enables the reaction time between hydrazine and dissolved

oxygen to only a few minutes.

4.4.3.2.催化联氨的使用 The use of catalyst hydrazine

催化联氨又叫活性联氨,它是在水合联氨中加入微量的催化剂配制成的。催化剂一般是

有机化合物,如对苯二酚,1–苯基–3–吡唑烷酮等,不采用铜、锰、铁等金属化合物作催化

剂。催化联氨大大提高了联氨和氧的反应速度,尤其是在低温水中,催化联氨效果显著地

超过普通联氨。因此,催化联氨可以用于凝结水一给水系统的除氧处理,也就是可将联氨

的加药点移到凝结水泵出口处。

Catalyst hydrazine is also called active hydrazine. It is prepared by adding slight amount

of catalyst in diamide hydrate. Normally, the catalyst used is organic compound, such as

C9H6O4, C9H10N2O. Metallic compounds, such as copper, manganese and Ferrum are not

used as catalyst. The catalyst hydrazine dramatically increases the reaction speed

between hydrazine and dissolved oxygen, especially in water of low temperature. Its

effect is way better than common hydrazine. That is why catalyst hydrazine can be used

for deaeration treatment for condensate water and feed water system. In other words,

hydrazine dosing point can be mounted at the outlet of CEP.


第五章 机组水汽品质化学监督
Chapter 5 Supervision of Unit Water-Steam Quality
5.1 锅炉打压试验监督
5.1 Supervision of unit water quality for hydraulic pressure test
新安装锅炉、运行锅炉大、中修后或锅炉本体系统检修后,在机组整体启动
前,锅炉均要进行打压试验。
The hydraulic test should be carried out after the installation of new boiler,
major overhaul or the maintenance of boiler steam and water system.
5.1.1 打压试验前的化学准备工作
5.1.1 Preparation for hydraulic pressure test.
5.1.1.1 联系锅炉补给水处理站储存质量合格、数量足够的化学除盐水,停用的
除盐系统应处于备用状态。
The water treatment plant should store sufficient DM water which can meet
the standard; the standby demineralization system should be in good
condition.
5.1.1.2 检查各种分析仪表校验良好,药品齐全、足量、分析器皿齐全;
All the apparatus for analysis should be in good condition, the chemicals
storage should be sufficient.
5.1.1.3 做好配氨、配联胺的准备工作,检查氨泵、联胺泵处于良好备用状态;All
the preparation for dosing ammonia and hydrazine should be done the
ammonia and hydrazine transfer pump should be in standby condition.
5.1.1.4 冲洗取样管,汽水取样装置完好。
The sampling pipe should be flushed clean, the steam and water sampling
device should be in good condition.
5.1.2 打压试验期间的化学监督
5.1.2 Supervision of water quality during the hydraulic pressure test
5.1.2.1 从循环建立后,开启除氧器取样管,大流量冲洗至取样水透明、无杂质
后,调整取样流量正常,取样化验除氧器铁、硬度,记录分析结果;
After the water circulation is underway, the sampling pipe of deaerator should
be opened until the sampling water is clean without impurity then adjust the
sampling water flow to the normal level and get the sampling for Fe and
hardness analysis, the result of which should be recorded.
5.1.2.2 大循环建立后,启动给水加氨泵,使给水 PH 值至 9.2~9.6,打开汽包
水侧取样管,冲洗到样水透明、无杂质后,调整取样流量正常;
After the major water circulation is underway, the hydrazine pump should be
started to adjust the PH of feed water to 9.2-9.6 then the drum water sampling
pipe should be opened until the sampling water is clean without impurity and
the sampling water flow should be adjusted to normal level.
5.1.2.3 当汽包水侧 Fe>1000μɡ/L 或硬度>50μmol/L 时,循环水直接排地沟,同
时启动除盐水泵向凝汽器补水,若 Fe<200μɡ/L 或硬度<50μmol/L 时,则热力系
统进行打压试验;
The boiler water should be discharged to ditch and the condenser should be
refilled with DM water until the Fe concentration is less than 200μɡ/L or the
hardness is less than 50μɡ/L, then the hydraulic test can be carried out.
5.1.2.4 打压试验结束后,取凝结水样分析水质,根据水质情况决定回收或排放;
After the hydraulic test, the condensate water quality should be analyzed to
see if the water quality meet the standard, which can decide the discharging
or reclaiming of the condensate water.
5.1.2.5 若打压后机组备用,则应加氨和联胺。
After the hydraulic pressure test, the unit should standby and, ammonia and
hydrazine should be dosed.
5.2 机组启动阶段化学监督
5.2 Supervision of water-steam quality during the start-up process
5.2.1 机组启动前的化学准备工作
5.2.1 Preparation for start-up
5.2.1.1 联系锅炉补给水处理站储存质量合格、数量足够的化学除盐水。及时调整
补给水处理系统运行工况,以满足用水量,停止的除盐系统应处于备用状态;
The water treatment plant should store sufficient DM water which can meet
the standard; the standby demineralization system should be in good
condition.
5.2.1.2 氨、联胺、磷酸盐溶液箱及闭式循环冷却水箱有 2/3 以上液位。检查各加
药泵处于良好备用状态;
The storage of the ammonia, hydrazine and phosphate solution, and the
closed circulation cooling water tank should be 2/3 of those tanks.
5.2.1.3 联系热控专业做好启动前的化学仪表投入准备工作; the C&I engineer
should check and make sure all the meters in WTP system can be put into
operation.
5.2.1.4 水汽取样装置完好,仪器仪表正常,取样冷却水畅通,开启取样冷却水
管进水总门及进水门、排水总门;
The water-steam sampling device should be in good condition, the cooling
water system for sampling system should be working, all the inlet and
drainage valves should be opened.
5.2.1.5 检查水汽取样装置的各类阀门,高温高压阀、减压阀、仪表进水阀应处于
关闭状态,冷却器两侧的球阀及人工取样阀应处于全开状态;
All the valves of steam-water sampling device should be checked, the
discharge valve and the inlet valve of meters should be closed, the manual
sampling valve and globe valve at the two sides of cooler should be fully
opened.
5.2.1.6 检查水汽取样装置的电源线及输入/输出信号是否正确可靠;
The power for water-steam sampling device and, the input and output signal
should be correct.
5.2.1.7 投运水汽样品集中自动恒温装置;
The temperature controller of steam-water device should be put into
operation.
5.2.1.8 取样点、加药间、仪表分析化验间照明充足;
The lighting condition for the sampling point, dosing room and analysis room
should be in good condition.
5.2.2 锅炉启动时给水质量标准
5.2.2 The water quality standard during start-up
锅炉启动时给水质量标准:应符合下表所示,否则应通知集控换水:
The water quality during start-up should meet the standard below:
硬度 铁 溶氧 二氧化硅
μmol/L μg/L
≤5.0 ≤75 ≤30 ≤80

dissolved
hardness Fe SiO2
oxygen
μmol/L
μg/L
≤5.0 ≤75 ≤30 ≤80
5.2.3 锅炉冷态冲洗时化学监督
Supervision of water-steam quality during boiler cold flush
5.2.3.1 确认水汽取样分析装置备用状态,其它各项准备工作完毕;
The water-steam sampling device should be on standby.
5.2.3.2 小循环建立后,冲洗除氧器人工取样管,取样分析。当 Fe≥1000μg/L 时,
联系集控进行排放式冲洗(由除氧器排地沟)。冲洗至凝结水、除氧水
Fe≤1000μg/L 时,采取循环冲洗方式,回收至凝汽器,对系统在凝汽器和除氧
器之间采取循环清洗;
After the minor circulation is underway, the manual sampling pipe of deaerator
should be flushed then the sampling should be analyzed. When the
concentration of Fe in the sampling is more than 1000μg/L, the flush should
be carried out and the water should be discharged into the ditch until the
concentration of Fe in the condensate water and deaerator water is less than
1000μg/L, then the flush water from deaerator should be reclaimed into
condenser.
5.2.3.3 同时,及时分析除氧器出水硬度及含铁量,直至水质合格。当除氧器出
水无色透明、无杂物,含铁量降至 100~200μg/L 时,凝结水系统、低压给水系
统冲洗结束。小循环结束,机组启动进入大循环;
When the Fe concentration in the flush water from deaerator reach 100-
200μg/L, the minor circulation should be ended, the major circulation should
be started.
5.2.3.4 大循环建立后,除氧器可以上水及通汽除氧。除氧器加温除氧期间,应
及时分析除氧水溶氧;
After the major circulation is underway, the water should be filled into the
deaerator and the steam should be injected to remove the oxygen, in the
whole process, the oxygen analysis should be applied to the deaerator water.
5.2.3.5 检查进入降温减压架的冷却水是否满足工作要求。打开给水高压排污门
至最大位置排污,排水清澈后依次开启取样高压阀、针形减压阀、人工取样门,
关闭排污门。冲洗给水取样管道至出水清澈。然后调节减压阀开度,检查给水人
工取样门处流量是否大于 1500ml/min,而后调至 500~700ml/min;
The cooling water for the sampling device should be supplied then the high
pressure blow down valve on the sampling device should be fully opened until
the discharged water turn clean then the sampling HP valve, needle-shaped
discharge valve and manual sampling valve should be opened in sequence,
then the blow down valve should be closed. The sampling pipe should be
flushed to be clean then the opening of discharge valve should be adjusted to
contain the water flow to be 500-700ml/min.
5.2.3.6 按上述步骤冲洗、调节汽包左右侧炉水取样管。当汽包炉水水样无色透明
无杂物,取样分析给水和炉水含铁量,当炉水 Fe>1000μg/L 时,由汽包经定排
扩容器排地沟。当 Fe<1000μg/L 时,回收至凝汽器;
The sampling pipe for both side of drum should be flushed and adjusted
following the last procedures. When the drum water sampling is clean without
impurity, the sampling should be analyzed for Fe concentration, if the Fe
concentration is more than 1000μg/L, the boiler water should be blown down
to the ditch through IBD flash tank and the boiler water should be reclaimed
into condenser when Fe concentration is less than 1000μg/L.
5.2.3.7 给水泵启动时,应及时启动联胺泵及给水加氨泵,调整 PH 在 9.2~9.6
范围内,维持上限。全面分析给水水质,给水品质合格后,汇报值长,大循环冲
洗结束,锅炉可以点火。
Before starting the feed water pump, the hydrazine transfer pump should be
started to dose the hydrazine into boiler water, the PH should be contained in
the scope from 9.2-9.6. after the boiler water quality meet the standard, the
major circulation should be ended and the boiler should be lit up.
5.2.4 锅炉热态冲洗时的化学监督
Supervision of water-steam quality during boiler hot flush.
5.2.4.1 锅炉点火后,联系集控开启连排、取样、加药一次门,启动磷酸盐泵,向
锅炉加磷酸盐约 30 分钟(视情况,也可由调试定)后停运。
After the light up of boiler, the phosphate should be dosed into boiler water for
30 minutes through phosphate transfer pump.
5.2.4.2 锅炉升温升压期间,接到值长通知,“热态冲洗开始”(汽包压力升至约
3MPa)后,冲洗、调整饱和蒸汽左右侧人工取样门;迅速对炉水及饱和蒸汽取
样进行分析,每 15 分钟分析一次炉水 Fe、PO 4
3-
及饱和蒸汽 Fe 含量。After
light up of boiler, the hot flush should be carried out when the drum pressure
reach to 3Mpa, then the analysis for boiler water and saturated steam
sampling should be carried out every 15 minutes in order to detect the
3-
concentration of Fe, PO 4 in the boiler water and Fe concentration in the
saturated steam.
5.2.4.3 锅炉启动后,应加强排污(连排、定排),使炉水外状尽快澄清。并及时
化验监督炉水 PH、PO43-,如不合格,启动磷酸盐泵向汽包加药,使其在最短
时间内达到合格;
After the light up of boiler, the IBD and CBD should be enhanced to clean the
3-
boiler water; the PH and PO 4 concentration in boiler water should be
detected until the standard is met or the phosphate should be dosed into
drum.
5.2.4.4 当锅炉点火升压至 4~5MPa 时,每半小时冲洗一次水汽取样管,对水
汽取样装置先后进行样品排污和全面投入具备投入条件的集中取样装置;
The water-steam sampling pipe should be flushed every half an hour after the
main steam pressure reach 4-5MPa, then put the concentrated sampling
device into operation.
5.2.4.5 全 面 分 析 炉 水 、 饱 和 蒸 汽 品 质 , 重 复 分 析 , 确 认 合 格 后 ( 炉 水
Fe<200μg/L,饱和蒸汽 Fe<50μg/L ),汇报值长,热态冲洗合格;
The boiler water and saturated steam quality should be analyzed until boiler
water meet the standard (for boiler water, Fe<200μg/L ,for saturated steam
Fe<50μg/L), then the hot flush should be ended.
5.2.4.6 锅炉主蒸汽压力升至 5.9MPa 时,开始洗硅。当炉水含硅量达到下一级
压力级 SiO2 允许含量时,才能继续升压,并按“升压-升负荷-降压(降至比
上一次升压起始值高)-降低炉水浓度(加大锅炉排污,提高给水纯度)-升
压”的循环方式进行洗硅,直至额定压力。炉水 SiO2 含量、蒸汽 SiO2 含量和压力
对应表如下:
Start wash silica when the boiler man steam pressure rises to 5.9MPa. When
silica content in boiler water reaches the corresponding allowable value for
the next pressure stage, pressure rise can proceed. Press”rise pressure—
loading—reduce pressure ( to the point where it is higher than the last
beginning point of pressure rise)—reduce concentration of boiler
water(strengthen boiler blowdown and improve purity of feed water)—rise
pressure”. Use this cycle mode to wash silica until it reaches the rated
pressure. The SiO2 content in boiler water and corresponding pressure is
shown in the following table:
汽 包 压 力
9.81 11.77 13.7
(MPa)
炉 水 SiO2 含 量
2300 1280 450
(μg/L)

Drum pressure(MPa) 9.81 11.77 13.7


SiO2 content in
2300 1280 450
boiler water(μg/L)
锅炉升压过程中,应加强对炉水、蒸汽 SiO2 含量的分析。当炉水、蒸汽 SiO2
含量合格后,应及时联系集控,以便调整锅炉运行工况。
During the boiler pressure rise process, analysis of SiO 2 in boiler water
and steam shall be strengthened. After it has met the requirement, WTP staff
shall inform CCR promptly so that they can adjust the operation condition of
boiler.
5.2.5 汽机冲转前的化学监督
Chemical supervision before turbine rolling
5.2.5.1 热态冲洗合格后,冲洗、调整左右侧过热蒸汽人工取样管;
After hot flush is acceptable, flush and adjust the manual sample pipe for
superheater steam at left and right sides.
5.2.5.2 加强分析炉水、饱和蒸汽、过热蒸汽品质,调整连排开度、定排量,调整
磷酸盐泵加药量;
Strengthen quality analysis of boiler water, saturated steam and superheated
steam. Adjust the open percentage of IBD, CBD and dosing quantity of
phosphate dosing pump.
5.2.5.3 当蒸汽品质符合以下启动标准时,联系集控可进行冲转。此时,仍应加
强蒸汽品质监督,并使其在最短时间内达到正常标准。
If steam quality has met the following startup criteria, WTP operator can
contact CCR operators for rolling. At this time, strengthen supervision of
steam quality and make it reach the normal criteria in the shortest possible
time.
汽机冲转前的蒸汽质量标准
电导率, μs/cm 二氧化硅 铁 铜 钠
(25℃,H+) μg/L
≤1.00 ≤60 ≤50 ≤15 ≤20
Criteria for steam quality before turbine rolling
conductivity, μs/cm SiO2 Fe Cu Na
(25℃,H+) μg/L
≤1.00 ≤60 ≤50 ≤15 ≤20

5.2.6 机组带负荷时的化学监督
5.2.6 Chemical supervision when the unit is loading
5.2.6.1 汽轮机冲转后,及时化验凝结水、疏水品质,至其品质符合回收标准时
方可联系集控回收;
Carry out lab analysis of condensate water and drain water after turbine
rolling. If the quality has reached the criteria for recycle, then WTP operator
can contact CCR operators for recycle.
机组启动时凝结水质量回收标准
Recycle criteria for condensate water during unit startup process
硬度 铁 二氧化硅 铜
外状
μmol/L μg/L
无色透明 ≤10.0 ≤80 ≤80 ≤30

hardness Fe SiO2 Cu
appearance
μmol/L μg/L
Clear ≤10.0 ≤80 ≤80 ≤30

5.2.6.2 汽机带负荷前,应加强对左右侧蒸汽取样化验;
Before turbine is loading, sampling and lab analysis of steam at A and B side
shall be strengthened.
5.2.6.3 联系热控专业,投入在线分析仪表,投入加药自动、水样超温保护自动;
Contact C&I staff to put on-line analysis instrument into service. Place auto
dosing and auto protection of water sampling over-temperature into service.
5.2.6.4 作好机炉启动时的各种记录。
Make recordings during startup of boiler and turbine.

5.3 机组运行阶段的化学监督
5.3 Chemical supervision when unit is under operation
5.3.1 化学监督取样点参数表:
5.3.1 Parameter table of Sampling point for chemical supervision
序 绝对压 温 样品流速(ml/min)M:500;仪表:300
号 样点名称 力 度 SC,C
M PH DO PO43- Na
Mpa ℃ C
0
凝结水泵出口 - - ○ ● ○
1
0 除氧器水箱出
- - ○ ○
2 口
0
省煤器进口 - - ○ ● ○
3
0
炉水左侧 - - ○ ○ ○ ○
4
0
炉水右侧 - - ○ ○ ○ ○
5
0
饱和蒸汽左侧 - - ○ ●
6
0
饱和蒸汽右侧 - - ○ ●
7
0
过热蒸汽左侧 - - ○ ● ○
8
0
过热蒸汽右侧 - ― ○ ● ○
9
1
再热蒸汽入口 - - ○
0
1
高加疏水 - - ○
1
○ 表示有测点 PH PH 计
● 表示 经离 子交 换柱后测
DO 溶氧分析仪
备 量
注 M 人工测量 Na 钠表
S
比电导率仪 CC 阳离子电导率仪
C

NO. Velocity of sample ( ml/min ) M:500;


Absol Te instrument:300
Name of sampling
ute P mp
point
Mpa ℃ SC,C
M PH DO PO43- Na
C
01 CEP outlet - - ○ ● ○
02 Deaerator storage - - ○ ○
tank outlet
03 economizer inlet - - ○ ● ○
04 left side of boiler
- - ○ ○ ○ ○
water
05 right side of boiler
- - ○ ○ ○ ○
water
06 left side of
- - ○ ●
saturated steam
07 right side of
- - ○ ●
saturated steam
08 left side of
superheated - - ○ ● ○
steam
09 right side of
superheated - ― ○ ● ○
steam
10 Reheated steam
- - ○
inlet
11 HPH drain water - - ○
○ indicating presence of
PH PH meter
sensor point
● indicating measurement
after going through ion DO dissolved oxygen analyzer
Note
exchange column
M manual measurement Na Na meter
specific conductivity
SC CC cation conductivity instrument
instrument

5.3.2 机炉运行时的水汽质量标准
5.3.2 Water and steam quality when boiler and turbine is under operation

水样 项目 单位 质量标准 监督周期

硬度 μmol/L ≤1.0 2 小时一次
电导率
凝结水泵
1 (25℃,H+ μs/cm ≤0.3 2 小时一次
出口水

溶解氧 μg/L ≤40 2 小时一次
除氧水箱出
2 溶解氧 μg/L ≤7 2 小时一次

硬度 μmol/L ≤1.0 2 小时一次
电导率

省煤器进口 (25℃,H+ μs/cm ≤0.3 2 小时一次


3
水 )
溶解氧 μg/L ≤7 2 小时一次
PH 9.2~9.6 2 小时一次
联胺 μg/L ≤30 2 小时一次
PH / 9.0~9.7 2 小时一次
磷酸根 mg/L ≤3 2 小时一次
4 炉水 二氧化硅 mg/L ≤0.45 2 小时一次
电导率 μs/cm <35 2 小时一次
氯离子 mg/L ≤1.5 化验班监测
二氧化硅 μg/kg ≤20 2 小时一次
电导率
5 蒸汽
(25℃,H+ μs/cm ≤0.3 2 小时一次

钠 μg/kg ≤5 2 小时一次
铁 μg/kg ≤15 化验班监测
铜 μg/kg ≤3 化验班监测
硬度 μmol/L ≤2.5 化验班监测
6 疏水
铁离子 μg/L ≤50 化验班监测

NO. Water sample item unit criteria supervision cycle


hardness μmol/L ≤1.0 Every 2 hours
conductivity
(25℃,H+ μs/cm ≤0.3 Every 2 hours
1 CEP outlet water

dissolved
μg/L ≤40 Every 2 hours
oxygen
dearator storage dissolved
2 μg/L ≤7 Every 2 hours
tank outlet oxygen
hardness μmol/L ≤1.0 Every 2 hours
conductivity
(25℃,H+ μs/cm ≤0.3 Every 2 hours
economizer inlet
3 )
water Dissolved
μg/L ≤7 Every 2 hours
oxygen
PH 9.2~9.6 Every 2 hours
hydrazine μg/L ≤30 Every 2 hours
4 boiler water PH / 9.0~9.7 Every 2 hours
phosphate mg/L ≤3 Every 2 hours
SiO2 mg/L ≤0.45 Every 2 hours
conductivity μs/cm <35 Every 2 hours
Monitored and
Cl mg/L ≤1.5
measured by lab
SiO2 μg/kg ≤20 Every 2 hours
conductivity
(25℃,H+ μs/cm ≤0.3 Every 2 hours

5 steam Na μg/kg ≤5 Every 2 hours
Monitored and
Fe μg/kg ≤15
measured by lab
Monitored and
Cu μg/kg ≤3
measured by lab
Monitored and
hardness μmol/L ≤2.5
measured by lab
6 Drain water
Monitored and
Fe μg/L ≤50
measured by lab

5.3.3 日常运行管理
5.3.3 Daily operation management
5.3.3.1 加强加药泵的检查和维护。加强取样温度流量的调整。
Strengthen checking and maintenance of dosing pump. Strengthen
adjustment of sampling temperature and flow.
5.3.3.2 机组运行期间,根据水质分析情况,及时调整氨、联胺、磷酸盐的加入量
在保证其含量合格的同时,以维持加药量的下限为好。化学加药应尽量使药品均
匀连续的加入系统。
When the unit is under operation, adjust dosing of ammonia, hydrazine and
phosphate based on water quality. While making sure the contents are
acceptable, the dosing amount shall be maintained at low limit. Chemical
dosing shall make chemicals added to the system in an even and continuous
manner.
5.3.3.3 发现水汽品质不合格时,应查明原因,增加分析次数,加强给水、炉水
校正处理,联系集控调整运行工况,并向主值和值长汇报。
If quality of water and steam is substandard, WTP operator shall find out the
reason and increase the numbers of analysis. Strengthen correction treatment
of feed water and boiler water. Contact CCR operator to adjust operation
conditions and report it to senior operator and shift in charge.
5.3.3.4 机组运行期间,应严密监视凝汽器铜管的泄漏情况。当发现凝结水有硬
度时,应增加分析次数,控制炉水 PH 和磷酸根在合格的范围内,加强排污,
并向主值和值长汇报,及时查漏堵漏。
During the operation period of unit, operator shall monitor closely against
leakage of condenser tubes. If there is hardness in condensate water, then
WTP operator shall increase numbers of analysis and control PH value of
boiler water and phosphate within acceptable range. Strengthen blowdown,
report it to senior operator and shift in charge. Detect leakage and rectify it on
time.
5.3.3.5 当发现给水溶解氧、凝结水溶解氧不合格时,做好运行分析,控制好联
胺含量,同时通知集控调整。
If dissolved oxygen in feed water and condensate water is substandard, WTP
operator shall do operation analysis well and control hydrazine content and
meanwhile inform CCR operator to adjust.
5.3.3.6 根据炉水水质和蒸汽品质,通知锅炉定排和调整连排,做到汽水正常损
失率小于 2%,排污率 0.3~1.0%。底部排污时间 0.5~1 分钟/次。避免排污率过
大影响经济性、排污率过小影响蒸汽品质。
Based on boiler water quality and steam quality, inform boiler operator to
adjust IBD and CBD. The normal loss rate of steam and water shall be less
than 2%, the blowdown rate 0.3%--1.0%. The bottom blowdown time shall be
0.5~1minute per time. Avoid big blowdown rate affecting cost-efficiency and
small one affecting steam quality.
5.3.3.7 锅炉的定期排污,正常情况下每周一、三、五夜班低负荷时进行,如有下
列情况应增加定排次数:
The IBD of boiler shall be done at low load during night shift every Monday,
Wednesday and Friday. If any one of the following situation occurs, the
numbers of IBD shall be increased:
5.3.3.7.1 炉水浓度过高,连排降低慢;
The concentration of boiler water is too high. CBD cannot reduce it in a fast
way.
5.3.3.7.2 炉水浑浊;
Boiler water is muddy.
5.3.3.7.3 给水质量不良;
Feed water quality is substandard.
5.3.3.7.4 锅炉投运初期。
At the beginning stage when boiler is put into service.

Оценить