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1. CONVERSATION :“Call and response” - a performance of voice interaction as an answer

to the first chant.

2. IMPROVISATION - non-scripted ways of singing that allow for sincere conversations. It is a

framework where the artist has freedom in creating the musical mood.

3. THE VOICE AS AN INSTRUMENT - it is the manipulation of a freely controlled piece where

they can change the tone of voice , its tempo, the creation of moods, and even changing
the range and voice power.

4. THE INSTRUMENT AS A VOICE - the instrument serves as a “singer” along with the

1. MARACATU - it is the ceremony of the Coronation of the Black Kings in 1674 in Recife. It
begins with singing from a song leader and with a response in chorus by the subordinates..
Today Maracatu is a combination of music for processional ceremony, theater and dance.

2. BLUES - this is a gloomy folk music of African American origin. ( Artist: Bobby McFerrin )

3. SOUL - this is a kind of music combining the basics of rhythm and blues and gospel music
which was popularized by the African Americans.

4. SPIRITUAL - this kind of music is always with a Christian or religious theme.

5. CALL AND RESPONSE - this is a sequence of two different phrases usually played by two
or more musicians. It is a direct response from the first phrase; it is a commentary


The rhythm and style of Latin American music are influenced by the United States and
other countries in Europe like Spain and Portugal. Latin music is the combination of four
musical elements; musical styles, cultural backgrounds, language, and geography.

1. CUMBIA - it is a type of dance and similar to salsa and uses instruments like accordions,
guitar and percussions.

2. TANGO - this is lively and spirited dance of two people. It is passionate kind of dance that
shows expression and connection , and is performed in a traditional or modern style. It has
a basic pattern of slow-slow, quick quick - slow

3. CHA-CHA - this is a Latin American ballroom dance with the basic pattern of three steps
with a shuffle. It has a fast rhythmic pattern.

4. BOSSANOVA - this is a style of music that was derived from samba, which is an original
Brazilian music. It gives more emphasis on percussion and melody.

5. PASODOBLE - it is Spain’s traditional couple dance . It uses music that is traditionally

played in bull fighting.

6. REGGAE - this is a Jamaican form of music and dance with strong, accented, and
supplementary beats. In 1960s, it was known as the ska and is variation of rhythm and
blues. Bob Marley is the popular artist of this genre.

7. RUMBA - this is a kind of song and a dance that originated from Cuba with a percussive
rhythm and a combination of Cuba’s musical and dance traditions.

8. FOXTROT - it is ballroom dance of two slow steps and two quick steps and is executed
alternately in 4/4 time signature.

• It belongs to a variety of genres distributed to a number of audiences through the music

• Popular music is commonly preferred by a certain group of people.

• Age bracket and location are some of the factors that determine what type of music is
popular among certain people.


1. BALLAD - a ballad is light ; simple narrative poem of folk origin; composed of short
stanzas and adapted for singing. It is simple song, especially one of sentimental or
romantic character, having two or more stanzas all sang to the same melody.

2. ROCK AND ROLL - Rock and roll started with pride in 1950s, the characteristics of which
are simple melodies which accented beats. Rock and roll is considered a combination of
white country music, rhythm and blues, and is of a twelve-bar structure with the music of
guitar, drums, and bass.

Example: “Jail House Rock” performed by the “King of Rock and Roll” Elvis Presley

3. ALTERNATIVE MUSIC - Alternative music started in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It is a

do-it yourself type of music of different musical bands. Its definition refers its distinction

from typical rock music, which is expressed by distorting the guitar sound in a different and

defiant attitude.

Example : “ Smells Like Teen Spirit” performed by Nirvana

4. DISCO MUSIC - the word disco derives from the word “discotheque” which refers to

nightclubs people frequent in the 1960s and 1970s. Disco music is music for dancing or for

encouraging dance. Disco music is usually played and enjoyed in nightclubs where songs

are mixed by DJs.

Example : “Get Down Tonight” performed by KC and the Sunshine Band