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ABSTRACT corresponds to the name of the certification

given by the Wi-Fi alliance, formerly WECA
Wi-Fi, also known as 802.11b, has become the (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance), the
preferred technology for wireless local area group which ensures compatibility between
networking in both business and home hardware devices that use the 802.11 standard.
environments. Even though it was designed Today, due to misuse of the terms (and for
primarily for private applications Wi-Fi is also marketing purposes), the name of the standard is
being deployed in public places to create so often confused with the name of the certification.
called hotspots, where Wi-Fi capable users can A Wi-Fi network, in reality, is a network that
obtain broadband internet access.This new complies with the 802.11 standard.
domain of application could be the major future
market opportunity for Wi-Fi, but in order to Wi-Fi is more like traditional Ethernet networks
take advantage of it,several key challenges, both and requires configuration to set up shared
technical and business related, must be resources, transmit files, and to set up audio
overcome. We outline these challenges and links. it uses the same radio frequency as
discuss appoaches to solutions. Bluetooth, but with higher power output
resulting in a stronger connection. Wi-Fi requires
more set up, but it is better suited for operating
full scale networks because it enables a faster
INTRODUCTION connection, better range from the base station,
and better security than bluetooth.
Wi-Fi, which stands for wireless fidelity, in a
play on the older term Hi-Fi is a wireless
With Wi-Fi, it is possible to create high-speed
networking technology used across the globe.
wireless local area networks, provided that the
Wi-Fi refers to any system that uses the 802.11
computer to be connected is not too far from the
standard, which was developed by the Institute
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers access point. A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a
(IEEE) and released in 1997. The term Wi-Fi, PC, video game console, mobile phone, MP3
first used commercially in August 1999, was player or PDA, can connect to the Internet when
coined by a brand consulting firm called within range of a wireless network connected to
Interbrand Corporation that had been hired by the Internet. In practice, Wi-Fi can be used to
the Alliance to determine a name that was "a provide high-speed connections (11 Mbps or
little catchier than 'IEEE 802.11b Direct greater) to laptop computers, desktop computers,
Sequence'. personal digital assistants (PDAs) and any other
devices located within a radius of several dozen
The IEEE 802.11 specification is an international metres indoors (in general 20m-50m away) or
standard describing the characteristics of a within several hundred metres outdoors.
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). The
name Wi-Fi (short for "Wireless Fidelity", Wi-Fi providers are starting to blanket areas that
sometimes incorrectly shortened to WiFi) have a high concentration of users (like train

stations, airports, and hotels) with wireless
networks. These access areas are called "Hot 3] IEEE 802.11g :-
• It was introduced in 2003
• I has combined features of both
IEEE 802.11 :- standards (a,b)
• The range is 100-150 feet.
IEEE 802.11 is a standard of communication • It has 54 Mbps Speed
between computers and wireless devices. The • It operates at 2.4 GHz radio frequencies
standards were set by IEEE LAN/MAN Standard • It is compatible with ‘b’
committee in 5GHZ and 2.4 GHz public
spectrum bands.
Elements of a WI-FI Network :-
The IEEE 802.11 is consisting of numerous
mechanism and services that interrelate to
present station mobility translucent to the higher 1. Access Point (AP) - The AP is a
layers of the network mass. IEEE 802.11 is a wireless LAN transceiver or “base
combination of wireless LAN. We can use IEEE station” that can connect one or many
802.11 and Wi-Fi often as interchangeably wireless devices simultaneously to the
depends on market demand. It is a basic protocol Internet.
of any high speed wireless network from 1997 to
2008. There are lots of change occurred in it but 2. Wi-Fi cards - They accept the
the basics “high performance" never change. The
wireless signal and relay
frequency of it is from 2.4 GHz to 5 GHz and
information.They can be internal and
range is from 100 meter to 5000 meter. The
external.(e.g PCMCIA Card for Laptop
IEEE 802.11 starts from the need to connect
and PCI Card for Desktop PC)
more than one computer with each other
wirelessly especially where the wire cannot go.
3. Safeguards - Firewalls and anti-virus
Depending upon the development occurred in software protect networks from
IEEE 802.11, there are following types. uninvited users and keep information
Types of IEEE 802.11 :-

1] IEEE 802.11b :- 4. Hotspots - “deploys public access

WLAN networks (e.g., Wi-Fi) and
• It appeared in late 1999. public access control gateway
• It operates at 2.4GHz radio spectrum. functionality”
• Theoretical speed - 11 Mbps - within 30
m Range • Example locations: airports,
• Actual speed - 4-6 Mbps restaurants, hotel rooms, company lobbies,
• The range is 100 -150 feet. conference rooms, apartments
• It is one of the Most popular &Least

2] IEEE 802.11a :-
How Wi – Fi networks work ?
• It was introduced in 2001.
• It operates at 5 GHz . • Basic concept is same as Walkie talkies.
• Theoretical speed – 54Mbps • A Wi-Fi hotspot is created by installing
• Actual speed – 15-20 Mbps an access point to an internet
• The range is 50-75 feet. connection.
• It is More expensive, so less popular. • An access point acts as a base station.
• It is not compatible with 802.11b.

• When Wi-Fi enabled device encounters
a hotspot the device can then connect to
that network wirelessly.
• A single access point can support up to
30 users and can function within a range
of 100 – 150 feet indoors and up to 300
feet outdoors.
• Many access points can be connected to
each other via Ethernet cables to create
a single large network.

Wi-Fi Modes :-
Setting Up Infrastructure Mode :-
Wireless technology has change the way for us
to connect to internet, local and remote Setting up infrastructure mode for wireless
computers, it has enabled the implementation of connectivity is not that hard, all we are require to
imagination beyond the limits. There are two follow number of steps which will do the job.
most common modes by which we connect to We need to make sure that Internet cable is
Wi-Fi for connectivity for accessing internet or plugged in Ethernet port, second step is to
other computer for file sharing etc. configure AP (Access point).
is usually the access panel address. Write this
The most common modes for Wi-Fi connectivity URL at your Internet browser, username and
are as follow: password window will appear, default settings
are usually, admin username and admin
A ] Infrastructure mode password. We name the connection name which
B ] Ad hoc Mode will appear to all wireless devices, then we
enable infrastructure mode and also assign SSID
in the switch/router for it broadcast
A ] Infrastructure Mode:-
Now we scan wireless adaptor to see if any
Infrastructure mode is one of the two methods wireless network is available to connect, when
for connecting to wireless networks with Wi-Fi configured network is appear, click and connect
enabled devices such as laptops, Pda’s I-phone and provide SSID information, here you should
etc. These devices are connected to wireless be able to connect to the network for internet
network with the help of Access point (AP). So, browsing and file sharing.
Also known as “ AP Topology”. Wireless
Access Points are usually routers or switches Advantages of Infrastructure mode :-
which are connected to internet by Ethernet port.
Infrastructure mode provide much more stability,
Wireless Access points are always required for scalability, ease of management and improved
infrastructure mode of wireless networking. It is security. Ad hoc on the other hand does not
necessary to use SSID while configuring AP, this provide security to that level and managing can
SSID should be known to clients for their be difficult incase of network growth.
computers to connect WLAN. SSID is basically Performance suffers as we increase devices as
security key which help prevent un authorized well.
access to WLAN. The Access point is then The only disadvantage associated with
connected to wire network (Internet) to provide infrastructure mode is extra cost to for Access
wireless internet connectivity to clients. Multiple points (routers and switches).Compared to the
access points can be added in the WLAN, this alternative, ad-hoc wireless networks,
increases the reach of infrastructure for infrastructure mode networks offer the advantage
supporting many number of wireless clients. of scalability, centralized security management
and improved reach. The disadvantage of

infrastructure wireless networks is simply the bridge to wire LANs and cannot access internet
additional cost to purchase AP hardware. without installing special gateways.

B ] Ad hoc Mode :- Operational advantages

There is another mode of connectivity available Wi-Fi allows local area networks (LANs) to be
for Wi-Fi connectivity. This mode is known to deployed without wires for client devices,
be ad hoc mode. By using ad hoc mode, devices typically reducing the costs of network
are capable for communicating directly with deployment and expansion. Spaces where cables
each other. No Access point (routers / switches) cannot be run, such as outdoor areas and
is required for communication between devices historical buildings, can host wireless LANs.
and all devices in the range connect in peer to Wireless network adapters are now built into
peer communication mode. most laptops. The price of chipsets for Wi-Fi
continues to drop, making it an economical
Setting up Ad hoc Mode :- networking option included in even more
devices. Wi-Fi has become widespread in
For setting up ad hoc mode, wireless adaptors of corporate infrastructures.
all devices are required to be configured Different competitive brands of access points
manually at ad hoc mode instead of and client network interfaces are inter-operable
infrastructure mode. It is also important to use at a basic level of service. Products designated as
same channel name and configuring all wireless "Wi-Fi Certified" by the Wi-Fi Alliance are
adaptors using same SSID for making backwards compatible. Wi-Fi is a global set of
connection live. standards. Unlike mobile phones, any standard
Wi-Fi device will work anywhere in the world.
Wi-Fi is widely available in more than 220,000
public hotspots and tens of millions of homes
and corporate and university campuses
worldwide. The current version of Wi-Fi
Advantages of Ad hoc network Protected Access encryption (WPA2) is not
Mode:- easily defeated, provided strong passwords are
used. New protocols for Quality of Service
Ad hoc mode networks works fine in small (WMM) make Wi-Fi more suitable for latency-
environment, like building, homes etc. sensitive applications (such as voice and video),
No extra hardware (Access point) is required to and power saving mechanisms (WMM Power
use ad hoc mode, therefore it reduces the cost. Save) improve battery operation.
If devices have wireless network adapters in
them already then that will do the job as far as
building ad hoc networks is concern.
Ad hoc can be useful as back up option for time REACH -
being if network based on infrastructure mode Wi-Fi networks have limited range. A typical
and access points are malfunctioning. wireless router using 802.11b or 802.11g with a
stock antenna might have a range of 32 m (120
ft) indoors and 95 m (300 ft) outdoors. The new
IEEE 802.11n however, can exceed that range by
Limitation of Ad hoc Mode :- more than double.Range also varies with
frequency band. Wi-Fi in the 2.4 GHz frequency
Ad hoc mode is best used for small number of block has slightly better range than Wi-Fi in the
devices which are physically present in close 5 GHz frequency block. Outdoor range with
proximity with each other and as the number of improved (directional) antennas can be several
devices grows performance of network suffers. kilometres or more with line-of-sight. In general,
Disconnections of random device may occur the maximum amount of power that a Wi-Fi
time to time and managing the network can be device can transmit is limited by local
difficult task for administrator. regulations.
There is another limitation associated with ad
hoc mode that is, ad hoc mode networks cannot

Wi-Fi performance decreases roughly The most important now you can play online
quadratically as distance increases at constant radio. Wifi technology system is rather
radiation levels. remarkable, you can download songs, send email
Due to reach requirements for wireless LAN and transfer files expediently at sky-scraping
applications, power consumption is fairly high speed and you can move your computer easily
compared to some other standards. Technologies because your WiFi network has no cable to
such as Bluetooth, which are designed to support disrupt your work so we can say that it is quite
wireless PAN applications, provide a much easy, helpful and most of all expedient.
shorter propagation range of <10m (ref. e.g.
IEEE Std. 802.15.4 section 1.2 scope) and so in 3] Fortress Technology :-
general have a lower power consumption. Other WiFi providing secure wireless solutions
low-power technologies such as ZigBee have support the growth and release of a prototype
fairly long range, but much lower data rate. The mobile ad hoc wireless network for use in the
high power consumption of Wi-Fi makes battery wireless strategic skirmish.
life a concern for mobile devices.
A number of "no new wires" technologies have
been developed to provide alternatives to Wi-Fi
for applications in which Wi-Fi's indoor range is
not adequate and where installing new wires 4] Support an entire age bracket :-
(such as CAT-5) is not possible or cost-effective. WiFi technology has several advantages it
Due to the complex nature of radio propagation support an entire age bracket and create a
at typical Wi-Fi frequencies, particularly the connection between components on the same
effects of signal reflection off of trees and network and have ability to transfer data between
buildings, Wi-Fi signal strength can only be the devices and enable different kind of devices
predicted generally for any given area in relation such as game, MP3 player, PDA’s and much
to a transmitter.This effect does not apply more!
equally to long-range Wi-Fi, since longer links
typically operate from towers that broadcast
above the surrounding foliage
5] It's convenient and every where :-
WiFi is a convenient technology and where the
range station exists you are online during travel
Features of “WiFi” Technology :- you can equip with a Wi-Fi network and set up
shop anyplace. You will automatically connect
with internet if you are near hotspot. These days
1] A new aspect in networking :- WiFi exist every where with all its wonders.
WiFi has brought a new aspect in the ground of
networking. The broadcast of data is completed
via radio waves and the cost of cables for
6] More faster and secure :-
network lying down.Wi-Fi enable a user to get With WiFi you can get high speed of internet
access to internet anywhere in the given location. because it is very fast than DSL and Cable
Now you can make a network in Hotels, connection you can establish a Wifi network in
Libraries, colleges, universities, campus, private small space now you don’t need any professional
institutes, and coffee shops and even on a public installation just connect to a power outlet with an
place to make your business more profitable and Ethernet cord, and start browsing. WiFi security
connect with their client any time. WiFi makes system for Threats makes it more renewable and
waves for business with their highly effective its tool protect your VPN and secure web page.
cable less media. You can easily configure the device to take
better performance. The standard devices,
embedded systems and network security make it
2] Unmatched mobility and more powerful.
elasticity :-
Wi-Fi, is allowing new intensity of connectivity Application :-
without giving up functions. Wi-Fi introduced
various types of utilities such music streamers • Home
that transmit your music to speakers without any • Small Businesses or SOHO
wire you can also play music from the remote • Large Corporations & Campuses
computer or any other attached to the network.

• Health Care 2] www.google.com
• Wireless ISP (WISP)
• Travellers 3] wikipidia

Wi – Fi Security Threats - 4] www.wifitechnology.com

• Wireless technology doesn’t remove
any old security issues, but introduces 5] WI-FI Home Networking
new ones -by Raymond Smith
• Eavesdropping
• Man-in-the-middle attacks
• Denial of Service

Wi – Fi Security
The requirements for Wi-Fi network security
can be broken down into two primary
• Authentication
 User Authentication
 Server Authentication
• Privacy

Authentication :-
Authentication is done with the RADIUS server,
which ”tells” the access point whether access to
controlled ports should be allowed or not
• AP forces the user into an
unauthorized state
• user send an EAP start
• AP return an EAP message
requesting the user’s identity
• Identity send by user is then
forwared to the authentication
server by AP
• Authentication server
authenticate user and return an
accept or reject message back
to the AP
• If accept message is return, the
AP changes the client’s state to
authorized and normal traffic


1] www.wifinotes.com