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CHAPTER 1

The problem

Introduction

Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens

especially the youth. This is because the development of any nation or

community depends basically on the quality of education of such a nation.

It is commonly believed that the basis for any real development must

begin with the development of human resources. It is said that format

education remains the vehicle for socio-economic development and social

mobilization in any society Shittu (2004). A child‟s education is closely

associated to their life chances, income and well-being. Therefore, it is

important to have a pure understanding on what benefits or hinders one‟s

educational attainment. The accountability of training a child always lies in

the hand of the parents. This is corresponding with the common assertion

by sociologist that education can be a tool of cultural change which is

being taught from home is significant to discuss.

Students of any nation constitute the most important section of the

society. Some where it has been said the students are all the pillars of the

nation. Children of today are going to make the future of society so that

they ought to be looked after today in the best way, to make them a useful

member of society. As the students come from different socio-economic

background the very in academic achievements. It is not out of place to

imagine that parental socio-economic background can have possible

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effects on the academic achievement of children in school. Whatsoever

affect the developmental stage of children would perhaps affect their

education or nature to it. One such variable is the parental status. Parental

socioeconomic status is among the commonly mentioned factors that has

strong association with academic performance of students. “Parents of

different occupational classes often have diverse styles of child nurturing,

different means of disciplining their children and different ways of reacting

to their children.

Socio-economic status (SES) is frequently measured as a

combination of education, income, and occupation. It is usually

conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group.

Socio-economic status is characteristically broken into three categories,

high Socio-economic status, middle Socio-economic status and low Socio-

economic status to describe the three areas a family or an individual may

fall into. When placing a family or individual into one of these categories

any or all of the three variables (income, education and occupation) can

be measured. Also, low income and little education have shown to be

strong predictors of a range of physical and mental health problems.

Furthermore, an examination of Socio-economic status as a nonstop

variable discloses inequities in access to and distribution of resources.

Socio-economic status is important to all realms of behavioural and social

science, including research, practice, education, and advocacy. Few

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studies have seriously examined socio-economic status for its influence

on academic achievement and the number of them is even smaller in the

field of foreign language learning.

Hamid (2011) examined the relationships between secondary

school students‟ family socio-economic characteristics and their academic

achievement in English in a rural sub-district in Bangladesh. The results

revealed that the rural students had low levels of academic achievement

in English and within this overall low level of achievement, there were

patterned relationships between the students‟ family income and parental

education and their academic achievement in English. Students who had

higher levels of parental education and family income were more likely to

obtain higher scores on the proficiency test as well as higher grades in

English in the Secondary School Certificate examination.

Davis (1998) conducted a research to examine the

relationship of family demographic factors and some other variables with

academic achievement in college students from single-parent and two-

parent homes, and academic differences between these two groups. The

results of the statistical analysis of this study indicated no relationship

between socio economic status and achievement, and the results also

offered support for the assumption that individuals adapt and compensate

over time to any disadvantages incurred from being raised in a single-

parent home in lower socio economic status environment.

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Philippines, like any other “third world countries”, is suffering from

socio economic crisis which largely effects on education status of the

people. Research indicates that children from low SES household and

communities develop academic skills more slowly compared from higher

SES groups Morgan (2009). Most of the researches and experts believed

that in Philippines the low socio economic status negatively affects the

academic performance of students because due to low socio economic

status their needs and demands remain unfulfilled and that is why they do

not shows better academic performance. According to an article, despite

the annual increase in the budget for basic education, fewer children are

being enrolled because some parents cannot afford sending their child to

school. It was concluded that the higher level of socioeconomic status is

the best indicator which plays a fundamental role in promoting quality of

student‟s achievement.

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Conceptual Framework

This study is based on the idea of Graetz, (1995) study shown that

a significant relationship was found between parental socio economic

status and student‟s academic achievement. It means that total income of

the family is a great factor which plays important role in student‟s

academic achievement.

The relationship between family socio economic status and

academic achievement is referred to in the literature as a socioeconomic

gradient because it is gradual and increases across the range of socio

economic status Adler (2003), or as a socio‐economic gap because it

suggests a gap in academic achievement between students of high and

low socio economic status families. Social economic status may take a

difference in many forms of intellectual development. Students from

educated family and upper class show better performance than the poor

students living in the low area often go to an ordinary school while upper

class students are sent to private institution that offer better opportunities.

Socio Economic Status characteristics associated with academic

performance and intelligence. Itis determined by the level of education,

occupation, and number of the family. These variables though interesting,

tell little about how their effects are mediated to child academic

achievement. It is believed that the level of education determines income

and occupation of the individual. This in turn determines the persons‟

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socio economic status. Socio-economic Status of Parents depend on the

level of indicators and these are the following; Gender, Parents

Educational Attainment, Family Income, Family Expenses, Number of

Siblings. These are some indicators on how to categorize the socio

economic status of the family. Some studies says that those students who

have parents with high level of educational attainment has also the big

chance to have a good and enough financial to support the educational

needs. The higher the educational level is, the bigger the chances to work

with a higher salary. Those students who belongs to low socio economic

status are the one who got low grades or poor in achieving their academic.

Number of the family also can affect the performance of the students, the

bigger the number of the family the bigger the expenses will be. If the

parents have a low level of educational attainment basically they will not

able to apply for a higher level of occupation that would have enough

salary for the family specifically in the educational needs. The indicators

that are mentioned earlier have their different effects on the academic

achievement of the students.

Students from low-SES environments acquire language skills more

slowly, exhibit delayed letter recognition and phonological awareness, and

are at risk for reading difficulties. Low income of parents is a major

hindrance to academic success and development on the parts of the

students. Moreover, research indicates that students from low-SES

develop academic skills more slowly compared to students from higher

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SES groups Morgan, Farkas, Hillemeier, & Maczuga (2009). Students who

belong with low socioeconomic status often lack the financial, social, and

educational supports that lead them to poor performance in school.

The low status students compared with the mid/high status

students are often more depressed and they are concerned about their

financial problems and sometimes they don‟t have enough time for

studying and other academic activities. As such, besides providing the

educational materials and facilities to promote learning and achievement

in academic settings, the socioeconomic status of the students or their

family could be a factor which impacts on their emotional state. Stern

(1963).On the contrary, according to the study of Coley (2002) students

with higher SES backgrounds were more likely to be proficient on tasks of

addition, subtraction, ordinal sequencing, and math word problems than

children with lower SES backgrounds. Students from high SES has the

ability to participate well in school related activities.

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Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Socio-economic Status Academic Achievement of


Students
of Parents

Gender Araling Panlipunan

Parents Educational

Educational Attainment Level

Family Income

Family Expenses

Number of Siblings

Figure 1.Schematic Diagram

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Statement of the Problem

The study under research was specially designed to know the

relationship between parent‟s socio economic status and the student‟s

academic achievement of junior high school of district 1. Specifically, the

following questions were asked:

1. What is the parents‟ socio-economic status of Junior High School

students of Impasugong District?

2. What is the academic achievement of the students in Araling

Panlipunan?

3. What is the relationship between parent‟s socio economic status

and the student‟s academic achievement students of Junior High

School of Impasugong District?

Hypothesis Assumption

There is significant relationship between parent‟s socio-economic

status and theirchildren academic performance .

Delimitation of the Study

This study was conducted to determine the relationship between

parent‟s socio economic status and the academic achievement of junior

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High School students of Impasugong District. The Araling Panlipunan

Grade of the students.

The students who were enrolled this school year 2016-2017 were

the respondents of this study. These Junior High School students were

students from the following schools; Capitan Bayong High School Annex,

Kibenton Integrated School and Impasugong National High School.

Significance of the Study

This paper is designed to explore the relation of parent‟s

socioeconomic status and the academic achievement of students. It will

be useful for students and their parents as it will suggest some remedial

measures for the effective and better academic achievement of students.

Despite these limitations, the results of this study provide some practical

guidelines for education researchers. It is envisaged that the findings of

this study may expose some factors that might be responsible for poor

performance of students‟ in school. The identified areas where

government at different levels could come in to bridge the gap of

educational attainment of children from low and high income earned

background in the society. The importance of achieving the objectives of

education programmed among the common people cannot be over

emphasized.

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For the parents, it may help them understand their responsibilities

in bringing up their children. They become aware of their roles and

obligations in developing their children‟s total personality.

For the students, it will inspire them to study harder especially if their

parents can support and sustain all their need in their studies.

For the administrators, it will serve as their guide on how they will cater

students in school base on the socio economic background of the

students.

Moreover, it will contribute towards a greater knowledge of social

conditions and social change. The institute shall focus on subjects such as

living conditions, quality of life and the life course, as well as on the

services provided by the welfare state.

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Definition of Terms

Academic Achievement. As used in this study academic performance

is the indicator of student‟s progress and failure in the academic

achievement in school.

Average in Academic Achievement. As used in this study refers to

students who perform averagely in class. These students need

assistance to find their interest and builds on them.

Excellent in Academic Achievement. As used in this study refers to

students

who rank high in academic achievement and cover a wide groun

d within a limited period of time.

Father‟s Educational Attainment. As used in this study refers to the

father‟s acquired level of education.

Families Expenses. As used in this study refers to the total of money

that is being spent for the needs of the family.

Father‟s Income. As used in this study refers to the monthly salary of

father.

Father‟s Occupation. As used in this study refers to the source of

income of father.

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Low Socio Economic Status. As used in this study refers to Lower

class people belong to the social class that has the lowest position in

society and the least money a class of people below the middle class.

Mothers‟ Educational Attainment. As used in this study refers to the

mother‟s acquired level of education.

Mothers‟ Occupation. As used in this study refers to the source of

income of mother.

Number of Siblings. As used in this study refers total number of

siblings in the family.

Occupation. Occupation as used in this study refers to the mode of

living of parent. It also describes the source of income of each

respondent.

Parental Socio Economic Status. As used in this study refers to the

widely cited factors that has strong association with academic

performance of students.

Parental Socio Economic Status. As used in this study refers to the

widely cited factors that have strong association with academic

performance of students.

Socio Economic Status. Socioeconomic status (SES) as used in this

study refers to often measured as a combination of education, income

and occupation. It is commonly conceptualized as the social standing

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or class of an individual or group. When viewed through a social class

lens, privilege, power, and control are emphasized.

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CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents the various related literature to give more

meaning and insights on the present study.

The relationship between family socio-economic status and the

academic performance of children‟s is well established in sociological

research. While there is disagreement over how best to measure socio-

economic statues, according to Graetz (1995) students from low

socioeconomic statues families do not perform as well as they potentially

could at school compared to students from high socio-economic statues

families. Socioeconomic status is probably the most widely used

background variable in education research.

There are several important areas that are most commonly linked to

academic performance including student role performance factors, school

factors and family factors. Student‟s role performance is how well an

individual fulfils the role of a student in an educational setting. Sex, race,

school effort and extracurricular activities are all important influences on

student role performance and have been shown to affect test scores.

Johnson and Elder (2000) has revealed that socio-economic statues and

family size are particularly important family factors that affect academic

achievement.

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Tileston (2005) found that home variables have a stronger relationship

to the academic achievement. She conducted the study in order to explore

the relationship of the academic achievement of the students with different

socio-economic variables of parents. Some researchers relating to the

effects of family income, socio-economic status and parental education,

on students, had been conducted in Pakistan, but the researchers found

very few researches on family relations and structure of the family.

Similarly the researchers could found no research in Khyber

Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, finding the relationship between parent‟s socio-

economic status and their children academic performance.

Parents‟ attitudes and support for their children‟s learning influence

performance on literacy tests irrespective of socio-economic status Wells,

(1987). Parental involvement in their child‟s literacy practices positively

affects children‟s academic performance (Fan and Chen, 2001) and is a

more powerful force for academic success than other family background

variables, such as social class, family size and level of parental education

(Flouri andBuchanan, 2004). A characteristic that may affect the value of

parental involvement in student‟s academic achievement is parental

educational level. The literary review on student‟s academic

achievements has reviewed the importance of parents education. Many

studies describe that parents education level plays an important role in the

amount of parent involvement and the most of these research have been

with secondary school students (Sui-chu &

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Williams 1996). Karshen (2003) says that students whose parents are

well educated get higher positions than those whose parents are not

educated. Educated parents help their children in school work activities.

Dave and Dave (1971) found that high achievers belong to homes with

parents higher education level. As a result, the failed students belong to

those who have lower parents education level. Williams (1980) and Teach

man (1987) found that more educated parents create environment that

facilitate learning. They involve themselves in children‟s school activities

and school environment. Okagaki and French (1978) studied that parents

education is a distal indicator indirectly correlated with children education

achievements. Good and Brophy (1997) say that educated parents show

interest in their children‟s academic performances they meet and co-

operate with educational administrators to ensure children seriousness in

their studies. On the other hand Hawkes (1995) says that student

performance do not necessarily depend on parents professional

competency or educational attainments.

Information from literature depicted that children from larger families

are found to do worse than children from smaller families lower down the

birth order do worse than those higher up the birth order (Lacovou, 2001).

According to Adler cited in Uba (1989) first birth or the older child is

usually advantaged by a good deal of attention and warmth during the

early stage on age of life, which he entertains all alone. Observations and

studies have shown that more attention and time are usually accorded the

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first born (Becker, 1980). Parental attention by parents decline as the

number of children increase and later born children perform less well than

their earlier born siblings. Studies carried out in the past on the

relationship achievement and birth order have shown that there were

negative relationships. For example Leoma (1982) on relationship of birth

order and creativity, first born and configuration of oldest and only children

are significantly more creative or verbal test of creativity than later born.

However, Powell and Steelman (1993) and Vanejik and Degraaf (1995)

argued that children‟s attainment depends on input of time and money

from their parents. The more increase of children in a family the less of

both inputs. These inputs are not money alone, but other essential things

like time, attention, resource delusion and so on. However Booth and Kee

(2006) confirmed that children from larger families have lower levels of

education. Research on the effect of siblings, size and position has been

based on a theory of the allocation of parental resources as presented in

Becker (1981) and Spanta and Paulson (1995) confirmed that differences

were found in birth order and family size of adolescent achievement in

academic.

The literature on the causal effects of parental income on educational

outcomes is not as extensive as the literature on parental education.

Blanden and Gregg (2004) review US and UK evidence on the effects of

policy changes which largely focus on improving short-term family

finances (see also Almond and Currie (2010). These include initiatives

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such as variation in welfare-to-work reforms which change the extent of

financial support available, or the Moving to Opportunity (MTO)

experiments in the US, which provided financial support for higher housing

costs associated with moving to more affluent areas2. Confounding factors

create sizable challenges in assessing the impact of income on child

educational attainment. For example welfare reforms may create

exogenous income „ shocks‟ but they also are aimed at increasing

parental labor supply, which may also affect child educational attainment.

A study by Hijazi and Naqvi (2006) found that family income had no

significant impact in determining students‟ achievement. It means students

belonging to more affluent family do not give proper weight to studies.

Ogunshola and Adewale (2012) on their part disclosed that parental

socioeconomic status did not have significance effect on the academic

performance of the students rather health statuses of the students were

identified to have statistical significant effect on the academic performance

of the students.

Annette (2004) observes that families with low socioeconomic status

often lack the financial, social, and educational supports that characterize

families with high socioeconomic status. Poor families also may have

inadequate or limited access to community resources that promote and

support children's development and school readiness. Parents may have

inadequate skills for such activities as reading to and with their children,

and they may lack information about childhood immunizations and

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nutrition. She stated that "low maternal education and minority-language

status are most consistently associated with fewer signs of emerging

literacy and a greater number of difficulties in pre-schoolers." Having

inadequate resources and limited access to available resources can

negatively affect families' decisions regarding their young children's

development and learning. As a result, children from families with low

socioeconomic status are at greater risk of entering kindergarten

unprepared than their peers from families with median or high

socioeconomic status.

It is widely shown that children brought up in less favorable conditions

obtain less education, despite the large financial returns to schooling

Heckman and Masterov (2005). Indeed there is a large correlation

between the education level of parents and their children Björklund and

Salvanes (2011). (However the transmission mechanism behind such

intergenerational correlations has never been made clear. Krueger (2004)

reviewed various contributions supporting the view that financial

constraints significantly impact on educational attainment. However,

Carneiro and Heckman (2004) suggest that current parental income does

not explain child educational choices, but that family fixed effects that

contribute to permanent income, such as parental education levels, have a

much more positive role. This is the central conclusion of Cameron and

Heckman (1998), using US data, and Chevalier and Lanot (2002), using

the UK National Child Development Study data.

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APA ( 2001) describe the relationship of family socioeconomic status to

children's readiness for school, across all socioeconomic groups; parents

face major challenges when it comes to providing optimal care and

education for their children. For families in poverty these challenges can

be formidable. Sometimes, when basic necessities are lacking, parents

must place top priority on housing, food, clothing, and health care.

Educational toys, games, and books may appear to be luxuries, and

parents may not have the time, energy, or knowledge to find innovative

and less-expensive ways to foster young children's development.

According to Ominde (1964) in his study, even in families with above

average income parents often lack the time and energy to invest fully in

their children's preparation for school, and they sometimes face a limited

array of options for high-quality child care both before their children start

school and during the early school years. Kindergarten teachers

throughout the country report that children are increasingly arriving at

school inadequately prepared.

Sirin (2005) concluded that the relation between SES and

academic achievement was the focus of much empirical investigation in

several areas of education research in the 1990s. Recent research

employed more advanced procedures to best examine the relation

between socio economic status and academic achievement. The present

meta-analytic review was designed to assess the magnitude of the relation

21
between socio economic status and academic achievement in this

literature. Further, it was designed to examine how the socio economic

status –achievement relation is moderated by (a) methodological

characteristics, such as the type of socio economic status measure, the

source of socio economic status data, and the unit of analysis; and (b)

student characteristics, such as grade level, minority status, and school

location. Finally, it was designed to determine if there has been any

change in the correlation between socio economic status and

achievement since White‟s 1982 study.

Furthermore, little empirical evidences are found in Ethiopia regarding

the association between parental socio economic status and academic

achievement of their students. As a result, conducting research on such

issues would have a paramount significance in providing insights on the

association between SES of parents and academic performance of

students so as to suggest possible recommendations. The intent of this

study is, therefore, to critically examine the effect of parental educational

level and occupational status on the academic performance of their

children in regional examination. The findings might add inputs in terms of

knowledge on the on-going debate on the relationship between parent‟s

socio-economic status and students.

These different studies are very significant in many ways. Different

conclusions, findings, and different ideas that are stated have impacts in

this present study. Truly, parents socio economic status has effects on the

22
life of their children specifically in education. Children of any nation

constitute the most important section of the society. Some where it has

been said the children are all the pillars of the nation. Children of today are

going to make the future of society so that they ought to be looked after

today in the best way, to make them a useful member of society. As the

children come from different socio-economic background they vary in

academic achievements

23
Chapter 3

Methodology

This chapter discusses the research design, the research locale,

the respondents of the study, the sampling procedure, the research

instrument, the administration of the instrument, the scoring procedure

and the treatment of data. Descriptive statistic method will be used in this

study.

Research Design

This study used a correlational design to address the problem

under study. In other words, it intended to examine significant relationship

of parent‟s socio economic status and the student‟s academic

achievement of junior high school students of Impasug-ong district 1.

The Research Locale

This present study was conducted in 3 different schools of

Impasug-ong district 1. Namely, Impasug-ong National High School main

campus which is located in Poblacion Impasug-ongBukidnon, Capitan

Bayong National High School which is located in Barangay Capitan

Bayongand Kibenton Integrated School, located in Barangay Kibenton.

Except for the Kibenton Integrated School, these two schools teach

students in grades seventh through Senior High School.

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The Respondents

The respondents of this study were the Junior High School

students of Impasug-ong district 1. The students involved were those who

enrolled in school year 2016-2017. There were 848 students enrolled but

only 30% of 848 were able to participate in the study.

Table 1.

Distribution of Respondents

School Enrolment

Impasug-ong National High School 550

Kibenton Integrated School 138

Capitan Bayong National High School 160

Total: 848

Research Instrument

The questionnaire guide was used as the data gathering tool. It is

questionnaire constructed by the researcher patterned from the reading

issued by Ghaemi (1988) on relationship of parent‟s socio economic

status and academic achievement of students. There were three parts of

questionnaire prepared by the researcher. First is the participant‟s

information. Second is the socio economic status of participant‟s parents

and third, the academic achievement of the participants which is the

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average grade in Araling Panlipunan of participants in the previous 3

quarter. Interview questions were also used.

Administration of Instrument

The researcher asked permission to the office of the

superintendent. After the paper has been approved, the researcher

distributed the demographic survey questionnaire and the interview

questionnaire to the respondents which were the junior high school of

Impasug-ong district 1.The questionnaires was filled in 15 minutes by

students and delivered to the researcher.

The Scoring procedure

After obtaining the data from the respondents it will be scored using

scale below.

Table 1.

Average Grade of Students

90-100 Outstanding

85-89 Very Satisfactory

80-84 Satisfactory

75-79 Fairly Satisfactory

74- BELOW Did not meet expectation

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Treatment of Data

The research problem was answered the data was organized,

computed and analysed.

Descriptive statistics such as mean and frequency distribution to

describe the students level of parent‟s socio-economic status.

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Chapter 4

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

The data collected is presented in tabular format for the purpose of

analyzing them to expose the major finding in conformity with the null

hypothesis earlier formulated. The data obtained were statistically

analysed. The demographic data were presented using frequency and

parentage.

Problem 1. The parents’ socio-economic status of Junior High School

students of Impasugong District.

Table 2

Parents‟ Socio- Economic Status

Indicators Frequency(f) Percent(%)

Gender
Male 50 41.32
Female 71 58.68
Total 121 100

Mothers‟ Educational
Attainment
Elementary Level 24 19.83
Elementary Graduate 34 28.10
High School Level 43 35.54
High School Graduate 12 9.92
College Level 1 0.83
College Graduate 7 5.79

Total 121 100

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Table 2, continued

Indicators Frequency(f) Percent(%)

Mothers‟ Occupation
Housewife 79 65.29
Farmer 13 10.74
Teacher 5 4.13
Laborer 17 14.05

Call Center 1 0.83


Government Employee 3 2.48

Total 121 100

Mothers‟ Income
Below 3,000 95 78.51
4,000-6,000 11 9.09
7,000 – 9,000 6 4.96
Above 10,000 9 7.44
Total 121 10

Indicators Frequency(f) Percent(%)

Fathers‟ Educational
Attainment
Elementary Level 38 31.4
Elementary Graduate 32 26.45
High School Level 28 23.14
High School Graduate 9 7.44
College Level 7 5.79
College Graduate 7 5.79

Total 121 100

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Indicators Frequency(f) Percent(%)

Fathers‟ Occupation
House husband 14 11.57
Farmer 72 59.5
Teacher 4 3.31
Laborer 19 15.7
Vendor 1 0.83

Driver 1 0.83
Engineer 1 0.83

Government Employee 2 1.65


Carpenter 1 0.83
Security Guard 1 0.83
Total 121 100

Indicators Frequency(f) Percent(%)

Fathers‟ Income
Below 3,000 53 43.8
4,000-6,000 34 28.1
7,000 – 9,000 5 4.13
Above 10,000 29 24
Total 121 100
_______________________________________________________
Family Expenses
Below 3,000 40 33.06
4,000-6,000 50 41.32
7,000 – 9,000 13 10.74
Above 10,000 18 14.88
Total 121 100

Number of Siblings
1–2 63 52.07
3– 4 55 45.45
5–6 2 1.65
more than 7 1 0.83
Total 121 100

30
Table 2 presents all the parents socio- economic aspects. It was

found out that more than half of the respondents are female ( 58.68%)

. On the other hand, the male ( 41.32%) constitutes only this much.

Moreover, the data revealed that in terms of educational attainment of

their parents, most of their mothers are high school level (35.54%)

while their fathers are elementary level ( 31.4%). Other Parents have

this educational attainment (Elementary graduate mothers-28.10%,

Elementary graduate fathers -26.45%, Elementary level mothers-

19.83%, High school level fathers -23.14%, High school graduate

mothers - 9.92%, High school graduate fathers- 7.44%, College

graduate mothers- 5.79% likewise for fathers‟ educational attainment

as college level and college graduate- 5.79%..

Considering the occupation of their parents, most of the mothers

are plain housewives (65.29%) while their fathers are farmers (

59.50%). Other livelihood carried out by parents to augment the basic

needs of their children are as follows, for mothers , they are also

laborers ( 14.05%) , farmers (10.74%), teacher(4.13%), government

employee ( 2.48%) and work in call center ( 0.83%). For the fathers,

other jobs include labourer ( 14.05%), househusband (11.57%), driver

( 4.96%), teacher( 3.31%) , carpenter ( 1.65%) ,vendor, engineer,

businessman, security guard ( 0.83%). In terms of family income, both

parents have earnings that ranges from 1000-3000 in which there are

95 out of 121 mothers ( 78.51)% while 53 out of 121 fathers earned the

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same (43.8%). However, there are fathers whose income is 10

thousand or more ( 24%) while the mothers earned 4000-6000 ( 9.09

%).

On family expenses, expenditures ranges from 4000-6000 (

41.32%). Other families are spending their income below 3000(

33.06%), above 10,000 (14.88%) and 7000-9000 (10.74%).

These family expenses depends on the size of the family

particularly on the number of children to be taken cared of by the

parents. Most of the families in this locality have 1-2 siblings ( 78.51%),

3-4 ( 45.45%), 5-6 ( 1.65%) and 7 or more( 0.83%).

Based on the data gathered, the occupations of both parents depend

on their educational level. For instance, if both weren‟t able to graduate

even high school there‟s a big possibility that they can‟t have a job which

has good and enough salary for their family. Only few are college

graduate, follows that only few are probably professionals. The tendency

is, they will just have a job which is not even enough for themselves.

Those parents who able to graduate college, attended college level and

even those high school graduates able to find a decent job and have a

basic salary that can manage to afford the needs of their families. This

idea is same with Karshen (2003) that children whose parents are well

educated get higher positions than those whose parents are not educated.

Similar to what Lacovoul (2001) found out that the family who has a bigger

size has also a bigger amount of expenses. Information from literature

32
depicted that children from larger families are found to have low grades

than children from smaller families. Moreover, Johnson and Elder (2000)

has revealed that parents income and family size are particularly important

family factors that affect academic achievement.

Problem 2. Average Grade in Araling Panlipunan


Table 3
Average Grade in Araling Panlipunan for Three (3) Quarters
Grade Scale Description Frequency(f) Percent(%)

90-100 Outstanding 11 9.09


85-89 Very Satisfactory 39 32.23
80-84 Satisfactory 44 36.36
75-79 Fairly Satisfactory 23 19.01
Below 74 Did not meet 4 3.31
Expectations

Total 121 100

Table 3 described the achievement of Junior High School students

in Araling Panlipunan. The data disclosed that the achievement of the

respondents is Satisfactory ( 36.36%) with average grades that ranges

from 80-84. However, there are respondents with Outstanding (9.09%)

achievement, others have achievement labelled as Very Satisfactory

(32.23%), Fairly Satisfactory (19.01) and the least respondents with

achievement description did not meet expectations (3.31%). Based on the

33
data gathered, those who have higher grades or those who belongs to

satisfactory and outstanding in academic achievements are those

students who have their parents which have high income or enough

money to sustain their educational needs. Other way around those who

got low grades were those students who lacks a financial support from

their parents due to financial problem. This idea is same with Dave (1971)

found that high achievers belong to homes with parents higher education

level. As a result, the failed students belong to those who have lower

parents education level. This idea is supported Lareau (2004) which she

stated that having inadequate resources and limited financial to support

educational needs can negatively affect children's development and

learning. As a result, children from families with low socioeconomic status

are at greater risk than their peers from families with median or high

socioeconomic status.

34
Problem 3. Relationship between parent’s socio economic status and the

student’s academic achievement of junior high school students of

Impasugong district 1?

Table 4.

Relationship of Parents‟ Socio-economic Status and Academic

Achievement of Junior High School Students of Impasugong District 1 in

Araling Panlipunan, p<0.05

Parents‟ Socio- r p-value Remarks


Economic Status

Gender -0.024 0.793 Not Significant


Mothers‟ Educational -0.126 0.168 Not significant
Attainment
Mothers‟ Occupation 0.098 0.285 Not Significant
Mothers‟ Income -0.063 0.491 Not Significant
Fathers‟Educational -0.300 0.001 Significant
Attainment
Fathers‟ Occupation -0.235 0.010 Significant
Fathers‟ Income -0.337 0.000 Significant
Families‟ Expenses -0.266 0.003 Significant
Number of Sibllings -0.044 0.632 Not Significant

Relationship of Parents‟ Socio-economic Status and students‟

Academic achievement of students in Araling Panlipunan is shown in

Table 3. The data revealed that it is on fathers‟ socio-economic status like

fathers‟ educational attainment ( r=-0.300, p=0.001), fathers‟ occupation (

r=0.235, p=0.010), fathers‟ income ( r=-0.337, p=0.000), families‟

expenses (r=-0.266, p=0.003) are related to the academic achievement of

Junior High School Students of Impasugong District.. On the other hand

there are parents‟ socio-economic status that are not related or connected

35
with the respondents achievement in Araling Panlipunan. One of this is

the mothers‟ educational attainment (r= -0.126, ;p=0.168), mothers‟

occupation (r= 0.098, p= 0.285), mothers‟ income ( r=-0.063, p=0.491) and

other factors are gender of respondents (r=-0.024, p=0.793) and number

of siblings ( r=-0.044, p=0.632).

There is significant relationship between families expense and students

academic achievement.( r=-0.266 ,p=0.003).

There is no significant relationship between gender and academic

achievement of students. (r=0.024, p=0.793)

There is no significant relationship between mother‟s educational

attainment and student‟s academic achievement. (r=0.126, p=0.168)

There is no significant relationship between mother‟s income and

student‟s academic achievement. (r=0.063 , p=0.491)

There is a significant relationship between father‟s educational attainment

and student‟s academic achievement. (r= 0.300, p=0.001)

There is a significant relationship between father‟s occupation and

student‟s academic achievement. (r=0.235, p=0.010)

There is significant relationship between father‟s income and student‟s

academic achievement. ( r=0.337, p=0.000)

There is no significant relationship between number of siblings and

student‟s academic achievement. ( r=0.044,p=0.632)

The number of studies that investigated the relationship of socio-

economic status and academic achievement is so few that a conclusion

36
cannot be made about the relationship of these variables. The relationship

between parents socio economic status and Araling Panlipunan grades of

students. Some variables has no significant relationship such as the,

gender, mother educational attainment, mother occupation, mother

income and number of siblings on the contrary some variables have their

significant relationship such as, father educational attainment, father

income, father occupation and family expenses.

Based on the data above it was found that there is no significant

relationship between the two variables. The parents socio economic status

doesn‟t give negative impact to the academic achievement of the

students. These variables though interesting, tell little about how their

effects are mediated to child academic achievement. The result of the

study is opposed to the assumptions of its conductors.

37
Chapter 5

Summary, Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusion and

recommendations based on the data gathered.

Summary

The study is about the socio economic status and the academic

achievement of junior high school students in Impasugong district 1. The

study aimed to find out the relationship between parents socio economic

status and academic achievement of junior high school students of

Impasugong district 1. The data were gathered using a demographic

questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire is composed of; gender,

mother educational attainment level, mother income, mother occupation,

father educational level, father income, father occupation, family expenses

and number of siblings.

38
Findings

Problem number 1 : What is the parents‟ socio-economic status of Junior

High School students of Impasugong District?

Based on the analysis the parents socio economic status is 77% of

mother belonged to low socio economic status and 43% of father

belonged to low socio economic status, both ranked the highest. It was

found out that the parents socio economic status are low.

Problem 2: What is the academic achievement of the students in Araling

Panlipunan?

Based on the analysis above 36% of the students belonged to

satisfactory at same time it also ranked the highest. Meaning to say, most

students have their satisfactory grades despite of the socio economic of

their parents.

Problem 3: What is the relationship between parent‟s socio economic

status and the student‟s academic achievement students of junior high

school students of Impasugong District 1.

Based on the analysis above it was found out that in some

variables there are significant relationship. Academic achievement of

students relationship to parents socio economic revealed statistical

significant on some variables; father occupation, father income and father

educational attainment. On the other hand there is no significant

relationship on some variables such as, gender, mother educational

attainment, mother occupation, mother income and family size or number

39
of siblings. But the objective of this study is to find the relationship

between parent‟s socio economic status and academic achievement of

junior high school students of Impasugong district 1. It was concluded that

there is no significant relationship between the two variables with the

remark value of p<0.05.

Conclusions

Problem number 1 : What is the parents‟ socio-economic status of Junior

High School students of Impasugong District?

The conclusion that can be drawn from the problem above is that,

the occupation and income of parents depends on their educational

attainment. Poor families also may have inadequate or limited access to

community resources that promote and support children's academic

achievement.

Problem 2: What is the academic achievement of the students in Araling

Panlipunan?

The conclusion that can be drawn from the problem above is that

parents socio economic doesn‟t affect students academic achievement.

The fact that in this study it was found out that the parents socio economic

status is low but the students grades are satisfactory. It can be conclude

that there is no significant between the two variables.

40
Problem 3: What is the relationship between parent‟s socio economic

status and the student‟s academic achievement students of junior high

school students of Impasugong District 1.

Based on the problem above it can be concluded that there is no

significant relationship was found between parents socio economic status

and student‟s academic achievement. This may be due to the fact that

students don‟t let themselves affected in their academic achievement.

Students who wish to have a good life, have stronger motivations and so

may try to learn and get higher grades.

Recommendations

On the basis of conclusions drawn above, the following

recommendations are hereby proffer;

Problem 1: What is the parents‟ socio-economic status of Junior High

School students of Impasugong District?

Firstly, total family income is very important variable which shows

some good results and influence student‟s achievement, therefore, it is

recommended that government should take some serious initiatives to

provide jobs to people and raising the socio-economic status of people.

Secondly, the parents should re-examine its financial support to student

since such support is viewed as the main contributor towards the student

academic achievement. Educated parents should be involved as resource

41
person. The parents may help by tutoring at home or by planning various

programmers. Provide many encouraging results such as higher

achievement score. In this developing world socio-economic variable has

a big change that has affected student‟s academic performance, so more

researches should be conducted to explore and analyze other factors

which may influence student‟s academic achievement.

Problem 2: What is the academic achievement of the students in Araling

Panlipunan?

Parents should be informed that they can improve the academic

achievement of their children through encouragement, provision of

educational facilities and participation.

Problem 3: What is the relationship between parent‟s socio economic

status and the student‟s academic achievement students of junior high

school students of Impasugong District 1.

It is strongly recommended that unemployment should be

controlled. Poor students should be provided scholarships, free books and

other stationary. In addition, is also recommended that the government

should take steps to raise socio economic status of people living in the

community. It is to help students to achieved more than satisfactory.

Parents involvement and assistance in regard to this must taken action.

42
References

American Psychological Association (2001) Task Force on Socioeconomic

Status. Report of the APA Task Force on Socioeconomic Status.

Washington, DC

Amutabi, M.N. (2003). The 8-4-4 system of education. International

Journal of Educational Development. 23(2003) pp.127-144

Lareau, Annette. (2003). Unequal Childhoods: Race, Class, and Family

Life. University of California Press Government Printer. Ominde, S. H.

Aikens, N. L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading

trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 235-251.

Battle, J., & Lewis, M. (2002). The increasing significance of class: The

relative effects of race and socioeconomic status on academic

achievement. Journal of Poverty, 6 (2), 21-35.

Ghani, M. (2003). The relationship of socioeconomic status and

length/medium of English instruction with individual differences and

English proficiency in Pakistan. Journal of Research, 3.

Hamid, M. O. (2011). Socio-economic characteristics and English

language achievement in Rural Bangladesh. Bangladesh e-Journal of

Sociology, 8 (2), 31-51.

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