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•САНКТПЕТЕРБУРГ•

•МОСКВА•
•КРАСНОДАР•
Y. V. BZHISKAYA

ENGLISH LANGUAGE
FOR MUSICIANS

TEXTBOOK

•SAINTPETERSBURG•
•MOSKOW•
•KRASNODAR•
Ю. В. БЖИСКАЯ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ МУЗЫКАНТОВ

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

•САНКТПЕТЕРБУРГ•
•МОСКВА•
•КРАСНОДАР•
ББК 81.2Англ
Б 58
Бжиская Ю. В.
Б 58 Английский язык для музыкантов: Учебное пособие. —
СПб.: Издательство «Лань»; Издательство «ПЛАНЕТА МУ
ЗЫКИ», 2017. — 344 с.: ил. — (Учебники для вузов. Специ
альная литература).

ISBN 9785811423729 (Издательство «Лань»)


ISBN 9785919383567 (Издательство «ПЛАНЕТА МУЗЫКИ»)

Основная цель предлагаемого пособия — развитие навыков


устной речи, чтения текстов профессиональной направленности,
расширение вокабуляра, что предполагает формирование комму
никативной компетентности специалиста сферы музыки. В учеб
ном пособии представлены различные тексты, способствующие
расширению кругозора обучающихся, формированию навыков
чтения и говорения, профессиональной компетентности. К каждо
му тексту разработаны творческие упражнения, которые предпо
лагают как работу в группе под руководством педагога, так и само
стоятельную работу.
Данное издание адресовано студентам и педагогам музыкаль
ных учебных заведений.
ББК 81.2Англ
Bzhiskaya Y. V.
Б 58 English language for musicians: Textbook. – SaintPeters
burg: Publishing house “Lan”; Publishing house “THE PLANET
OF MUSIC”, 2017. – 344 pages: ill. – (University textbooks.
Books on specialized subjects).

The main goal of the textbook is to develop verbal skills, reading


texts on professional topics, vocabulary expansion that supposes the
formation of the communicative competence of a musician. The text
book includes various texts, promoting the broadening of the stu
dents’ outlook, the formation of reading and speaking skills and pro
fessional competency. Every text is followed by the creative exercises
that are designed both for the work in a group with a teacher and for
selfstudy.
The textbook is intended for students and teachers of music edu
cational institutions.

Рецензенты: Е. В. КРАСНОВА — кандидат филологических наук,


доцент кафедры «Научнотехнический перевод и профессиональ
ная коммуникация» ДГТУ; К. В. ЗАПАДНАЯ — кандидат филоло
гических наук, доцент кафедры «Языкознания и иностранных язы
ков» РФ ФГБОУВО РГУП.

Обложка © Издательство «ПЛАНЕТА МУЗЫКИ», 2017


А. Ю. ЛАПШИН © Ю. В. Бжиская, 2017
© Издательство «ПЛАНЕТА МУЗЫКИ»,
художественное оформление, 2017
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Развитие межкультурных связей России с другими стра


нами на современном этапе в значительной степени обу
словливает изучение английского языка в музыкальных
образовательных учреждениях на новой основе.
Образовательная цель сегодня предполагает изучение
иностранного языка не как лингвистической системы, а
как средства межкультурного общения и инструмента по
знания культуры определенной национальной общности, в
том числе лингвокультуры. В целом, достижение образова
тельной цели осуществляется в аспекте гуманитаризации
музыкального образования, т. е. расширения кругозора
студентов музыкальных специальностей, повышения уров
ня их общей культуры и образованности, а также развития
их мышления, общения и речи.
Специфика коммуникативной направленности представ
ленного курса «Английский язык для музыкантов» состоит в
сочетании профессиональноделовой и социокультурной ори
ентации как двух взаимосвязанных составляющих межкуль
турной коммуникации, как межкультурной коммуникатив
ной компетентности специалистов в музыкальной области.
Социокультурная ориентация предполагает ознакомле
ние обучающихся со значимыми элементами конкретной
культуры, что должно способствовать успешному осущест
влению контактов специалистов сферы музыки с предста
вителями изучаемой культуры. Поэтому в пособие включе
ны такие темы, как «Американская музыка», «Английская
музыка», «Русская музыка», «Театры России», «Культура
6 Английский язык для музыкантов

Ростовского региона», которые позволят студентам из дру


гих регионов ознакомиться с культурным наследием не
только Британии, Америки, но и Донского края. Знакомст
во с определенным объемом страноведческой информации в
объеме представленных тем «РостовнаДону как культур
ный центр юга России», «Россия как одна из культурных
держав мира», «Культурные традиции Британии» оптими
зирует достижение общеобразовательных и воспитательных
целей, повышая уровень общей культуры специалиста му
зыкальной сферы.
Профессиональноделовая ориентация предполагает
приобщение будущего специалиста в области музыки к оте
чественной и зарубежной музыкальной культуре, ознаком
ление его с компонентами профессионального общения.
Важно расширить возможности студентов для достижения
и поддержания определенного уровня профессиональной
компетенции, а также сформировать их готовность к всту
плению в непосредственное иноязычное профессиональное
общение с коллегами — носителями языка. Профессиональ
ноделовая ориентация в обучении межкультурной комму
никации призвана также стимулировать мотивацию сту
дента к овладению иностранным языком. С этой целью были
разработаны такие темы, как: «Мой любимый исполнитель,
композитор», «Мое любимое музыкальное произведение»,
«Музыкальный инструмент, на котором я играю», «Я —
музыкант», «Система музыкального образования».
Основная цель данного курса — представить системати
зированный материал профессионального характера для фор
мирования межкультурной коммуникативной и профессио
нальной компетентностей специалиста музыкальной сферы.
Учебное пособие содержит 13 уроков определенной те
матической направленности, лексикограмматические уп
ражнения к ним творческого характера.
В первом уроке рассматривается такая тема, как «Я —
музыкант», где предложен текст для чтения и задания:
ответьте на вопросы по тексту, дополните предложения,
прочитав текст. Также автор включил ряд грамматических
заданий с целью формирования навыков употребления гла
гола to be, построения различных видов вопросов. Важным
Предисловие 7

является формирование навыков письма, поэтому одно из


заданий гласит: «Напишите письмо родителям о Вашей
жизни и учебе в консерватории, используя следующие сло
ва и выражения. Особого внимания заслуживают задания
на формирование навыка говорения, такие как:
n составьте диалог с сокурсником, обсудив учебу, прове
дение досуга;
n прочитайте текст о том, как стать известным музыкан
том, и выберите предложения, в которых говорится, что
для этого необходимо;
n прочитайте текст о том, как достичь успеха в музыке, и
ответьте на вопросы, аргументируя свой ответ, исполь
зуя информацию из текста.
Во втором уроке автор акцентирует внимание на разви
тии навыков чтения текстов профессиональной направлен
ности с полным пониманием прочитанного, предложив тек
сты о различных музыкальных учебных заведениях, вклю
чив следующие задания к ним:
n дополните предложения из текста, используя следую
щие слова;
n найдите в тексте соответствующие предложения на анг
лийском языке;
n опираясь на прочитанный текст, ответьте на следую
щие вопросы на английском языке;
n прочитайте текст и соотнесите названия абзацев с их
смысловым содержанием;
n прочитайте текст об известном композиторе, выпускни
ке СанктПетербургской консерватории;
n прочитайте текст и скажите, о ком идет речь, заполнив
пропуски;
n прочитайте текст и скажите, о какой консерватории идет
речь;
n выберите один из предлагаемых вариантов согласно
тексту.
В третьем уроке автор предлагает тексты, описывающие
устройство того или иного музыкального инструмента,
включая тексты о первых русских музыкальных инстру
ментах, что способствует расширению кругозора обучаю
щихся, формированию навыков чтения и говорения. К ка
8 Английский язык для музыкантов

ждому тексту прилагается рисунок — изображение инстру


мента с указанием его составляющих частей. Профессио
нальная заинтересованность студента в содержании текста
и возможность высказаться по специальности входят в ме
тодический замысел этого урока. Нижеперечисленные за
дания способствуют формированию профессиональной ком
петентности специалиста мира музыки.
Выберите из предложенных текстов:
n народные инструменты;
n духовые инструменты;
n клавишные инструменты.
Перечислите, на каких инструментах играют в:
n симфоническом оркестре;
n оркестре народных инструментов;
n духовом оркестре.
В четвертый урок автор включил тексты профессиональ
ной направленности о выдающихся деятелях музыкальной
культуры как отечественных, так и из англоязычных стран.
Такие задания, как:
n ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста;
n дополните предложения из текста;
n скажите, к кому из представителей мира музыки отно
сится следующая информация;
n прочитайте текст и заполните спайдаграмму;
способствуют развитию навыков чтения текстов, активиза
ции идиоматики и лексики профессиональной направлен
ности. Одно из творческих заданий к тексту — подпишите
фамилии выдающихся деятелей мира музыки и подготовь
те презентацию об одном из них — влияет на формирование
навыков говорения, которое предполагает как работу в груп
пе под руководством педагога, так и самостоятельную рабо
ту студентов. Именно такое задание способствует формиро
ванию профессиональной компетентности музыкантов.
В пятом уроке подобраны тексты о различных музы
кальных произведениях выдающихся композиторов. Основ
ная цель данного урока — формирование коммуникативной
профессиональной компетентности студентов музыкальных
учебных заведений. На достижение этой цели направлены
следующие задания к текстам:
Предисловие 9

n подготовьте свой рассказ (5–7 предложений) о посещении


одного из балетов, поставленных на музыку известных
композиторов, используя предложенный ниже материал;
n прочитайте сообщения о любимых музыкальных произ
ведениях и добавьте информацию в объеме 5–7 предло
жений;
n расположите предложения так, чтобы получился связ
ный рассказ.
В шестой урок автор включил материал о том, что такое
музыка и составляющие музыки (ритм, тональность, пау
за, скорость и т. д.), что способствует закреплению ранее
полученных знаний по таким предметам, как «Сольфед
жио» и «История музыки».
В седьмом уроке подобраны тексты, раскрывающие ис
торию русской музыки, творчество выдающихся отечест
венных композиторов, чей вклад неоценим в развитии рус
ской национальной музыки. Помимо уже ранее упомяну
тых заданий к текстам, автор разработал следующие:
n соотнесите названия с национальными русскими музы
кальными инструментами, изображенными на картинках;
n выберите из нижеперечисленных вариантов исполните
лей трио «Не томи, родимый» из оперы «Иван Сусанин»;
n распределите, опираясь на данный текст, произведения
по трем основным периодам творчества композитора;
n перечислите все упоминаемые в тексте произведения
других композиторов, затем стрелочкой соедините ком
позитора и его произведение;
n перечислите, какие музыкальные термины (названия
жанров, специфические обороты) встретились вам в тек
сте;
n расположите фрагменты предложений в порядке их
появления в тексте;
n прочитайте текст и заполните спайдаграмму о музы
кальных жанрах, в которых писал композитор;
n прочитайте текст и выпишите названия наиболее ус
пешных произведений композитора, заполнив спайда
грамму;
n найдите соответствующие названия произведений ком
позитора на русском языке, соедините;
10 Английский язык для музыкантов

n прочитайте текст и соотнесите названия абзацев с их


содержанием;
n заполните таблицу, дописав фамилии композиторов,
которые оркестровали незавершенные Бородиным дей
ствия, сцены из оперы «Князь Игорь»;
n расположите названия предложенных арий в соответст
вии с их исполнителем;
n прочитайте текст и скажите, о либретто какой оперы
идет речь;
n внесите верный вариант типа голоса в правой колонке,
соответствующий действующему лицу оперы «Хован
щина»
и т. д.
В восьмом, девятом, десятом и одиннадцатом уроках
автор предлагает тексты как страноведческого характеры,
так и профессиональной направленности, что отвечает по
ставленной цели данного пособия — формирование меж
культурной коммуникативной компетентности специали
ста мира музыки. Для достижения поставленной цели были
подобраны тексты и о географическом положении Брита
нии, и о культурных традициях страны, и о музыкальной
жизни и театральной сфере Соединенного Королевства, а
также о музыкальных учебных заведениях Лондона. К тек
стам разработаны лексикограмматические упражнения
подобного характера, как и в предыдущих уроках.
В двенадцатом уроке представлены тексты о британской
музыке, где с помощью указанных ниже заданий у студен
тов музыкальных учебных заведений формируется меж
культурная коммуникативная компетенция:
n прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы по содержанию
текста;
n прочитайте текст и скажите, какую новую информацию
о британской музыке вы узнали из текста, используя
следующие слова и выражения;
n прочитайте тексты о британских фестивалях и:
– заполните спайдаграмму, вписав названия фестивалей;
– опишите один из фестивалей в пяти предложениях,
опираясь на прочитанный текст;
– переведите текст об известном фестивале в Уэльсе;
– назовите фестиваль, о котором идет речь;
Предисловие 11

n прочитайте тексты и скажите, о каких британских му


зыкальных группах или исполнителях идет речь, вы
брав верный вариант ответа из предложенных ниже;
n прочитайте текст, соотнесите английские предложения
с русскими по содержанию;
n прочитайте текст о национальном музыкальном инст
рументе Британии и добавьте информацию в размере 7–
10 предложений об истории волынки.
В тринадцатом уроке автор подробно останавливается
на рассмотрении такой темы, как «Американская музы
ка». В данном уроке представлены тексты об истории воз
никновения и развития американской музыки, о современ
ных направлениях музыки Соединенных Штатов, о раз
личных музыкальных стилях и жанрах. К каждому тексту
разработаны лексикограмматические упражнения, цель
которых — формирование навыков чтения и говорения:
n прочитайте текст и озаглавьте каждый абзац:
– закончите предложения из текста,
– сопоставьте левую и правую колонки так, чтобы по
лучились словосочетания из текста;
n прочитайте текст:
– и скажите, о каком стиле американской музыки идет
речь, заполнив пропуски в тексте,
– передайте основное содержание текста, выбрав до
10 предложений;
n прочитайте тексты и скажите, о какой из американских
групп, о каком певце идет речь, выбрав правильный
вариант из предложенных ниже;
n заполните пропущенные слова в диалоге и продрамати
зируйте;
n прочитайте тексты и ответьте на вопросы;
n прочитайте текст и сопоставьте названия абзацев с их
содержанием.
С целью закрепления изучаемой лексики по каждой теме
все лексикограмматические упражнения базируются на
ранее предложенном текстовом материале. Итоговое упраж
нение — презентация — носит преимущественно творческий
характер, открывая возможности для индивидуальной рабо
ты каждого обучающегося. В конце пособия прилагается
глоссарий, включающий профессиональную лексику, тес
12 Английский язык для музыкантов

ты и приложения как фонетического, так и грамматическо


го характера.
Благодаря структуре учебного пособия и представленно
му в нем материалу возможно формирование межкультур
ной коммуникативной компетентности специалиста музы
кальной сферы, что является неотъемлемой частью межкуль
турной профессиональной компетентности музыканта на
современном этапе.
Представленное пособие способствует изучению нового
лексикограмматического материала, необходимого для
общения на профессиональные темы, активизации различ
ных видов речевой деятельности и форм речи (устной, пись
менной, монологической, диалогической),что соответству
ет рабочим программам по дисциплине «Иностранный язык
(английский)», «Профессиональное общение на иностран
ном языке», утвержденным учебнометодическими совета
ми музыкальных колледжей, колледжей искусств, инсти
тутов культуры и консерваторий.
Предлагаемое учебное пособие разработано по дисцип
линам «Иностранный язык (английский)», «Профессио
нальное общение на иностранном языке» для студентов:
n музыкальных колледжей по специальностям:
– «Инструментальное исполнительство» (фортепиано,
струнные духовые, народные инструменты),
– «Музыкальное искусство эстрады»,
– «Хореографическое искусство»;
n колледжей искусств по специальностям:
– «Теория музыки»,
– «Социальнокультурная деятельность»;
n институтов культуры по специальностям:
– «Актерское искусство»,
– «Народнохудожественное творчество»;
n консерваторий по специальностям:
– «Инструментальное исполнительство» (фортепиано,
струнные духовые, народные инструменты),
– «Музыковедение»,
– «Музыкальная звукорежиссура».
В учебнике встречаются упражнения, помеченные * (mo
re difficult task).
UNIT 1
I AM A MUSICIAN

I. With your partner discuss the questions (с партне


рами).
1. Who was your first teacher of music?
2. Have you got any difficulties playing your instruments?
Describe it.
3. What compositions are you working on at these days?
4. How many hours do you practice each day?
5. Who are your favorite musicians?
6. How often do you take part in musical contests and
festivals?
7. What kind of music do you prefer listening to? Why?
8. Who is your favorite songwriter and composer? Why?
9. Which song or piece of music do you like most?

II. Take turns, then ask and answer the questions in


exercise I (по очереди).

III. Read and translate the text.


Let me introduce myself. My name is Maria, Masha for
short. My surname is Ivanova. I am ... years old. I was born on
the ... of April in ... . I study at Rostov State Conservatoire
named after Rachmaninov. I am fond of music and I dream to
become one of the greatest musicians in future. My favourite
musical instrument is the trumpet (horn, violin, etc.). I’ve
been playing the trumpet since I was ... years old. As for me,
I prefer Russian music written by Mussorgsky. I know it has
a long and interesting story.
14 Английский язык для музыкантов

RostovonDon is my home city. I love and adore my native


city ... . It is very beautiful, full of parks and nice people.
Sometimes I miss it. I like to return home and spend my free
time with my friends.
On week days I get up early. The alarm clock wakes me up
at half past six. I get up, open the window and do my morning
exercises. Then I go to the bathroom where I brush my teeth,
wash and take a shower. Next I put on my clothes and sit down
to have breakfast. After breakfast I go to the Conservatoire by
bus. It takes me 25 minutes to get there. Our classes begin at
nine sharp. They last 6 or 7 hours. At half past twelve I go to
the canteen and have lunch. Then, I go to the reading room to
study theoretical subjects. I practice playing my instrument
every day. I play in the morning, during the daytime and in
the evening. It takes me 4 or 5 hours a day to train my musical
skills.
Before going to bed I usually read books and listen to music
and watch TV. I hate soapoperas and talkshows. I am more
interested in informative programs, especially about music.
Thus, you can easily guess, that my favourite channel is “Cul
ture”. Music is my life. But also, I go in for sports. I prefer
watching all the sport competitions on TV. My favorite kind of
sports is figure skating. I like basketball, soccer and golf too.
Sometimes, if I have such an opportunity, I visit sport events
in my native town. I am really attracted by them. My hobby
is ... . I like to do it very much, because it gives me a great
pleasure and spiritual relief. I usually go to bed at 12 o’clock
at night. So, I’m very busy on weekdays.
I have a free time only on weekend, when I can read a book,
watch TV or go in for sports. I am also fond of reading. My
favorite author is ... (N. V. Gogol, because his works are full
of humor and they unmask the reality, that existed in the 19th
century) — for example. Among my favorite books are “Dead
souls” and “Revisor”, written by this great writer.
Frankly speaking, I am a merry, an optimistic, a commu
nicative and an easygoing person. I have a lot of friends, who
support me in my troubles. My family supports me in every
difficult moment and they are those, with whom I’ve got used
to share all my problems and secrets.
Unit 1. I am a musucian 15

IV. Complete the sentences with the phrases from the


box: alarm clock, the greatest musician, conservatoire, listen
to music, instrument.
1. I play my ... every day.
2. I study at Rostov State ... named after Rachmaninov.
3. The ... wakes me up at half past six.
4. Before going to bed I read newspapers, books and ...
watch TV.
5. I am going to be the ... in my future life.

V. Complete the sentences so they are true for you.


1. I study at ...
2. I like the music written by ...
3. I like to return home and spend my free time ...
4. I get up, open the window and ...
5. I ... in the morning, in the daytime and in the evening.
6. I ... in for sports.
7. I am ... by them.
8. My hobby ...
9. My favorite books ..., written by this great writer.
10. My ... supports me in every difficult moment.

VI. Underline the correct option.


1. I ... years old. I was born on the ... of April in ...
(am, were)
2. I ... fond of music. (been, am)
3. My favourite musical instrument ... a trumpet. (will
be, is)
4. It ... very beautiful, full of parks and nice people.
(is, are)
5. But I ... interested in informative programs, especially
about music. (am, were)
6. My favorite kinds of sports ... figure skating, basket
ball, soccer, golf. (are, is)
7. I ... a merry, an optimistic, a communicative and an
easygoing girl/fellow. (am, been)
8. My favorite author ... N. V. Gogol. (is, are)
9. I ... your friend. (were, will be)
16 Английский язык для музыкантов

VII. Translate the sentences.


Меня зовут Анна Харина. Я — студентка консервато
рии. Я — пианистка. Мне нравятся многие музыкальные
инструменты — скрипка, виолончель, флейта, арфа. Мой
любимый инструмент — рояль. Любимый инструмент моих
друзей — скрипка. Наши педагоги — одни из великих пиа
нистов и скрипачей.
Они учат слушать нас серьезную музыку. Хорошие сту
денты делают успехи и начинают выполнять (делать) всю
работу без помощи преподавателя. Мы все учим иностран
ный язык в институте. Мы учимся говорить поанглийски
без ошибок. Мы любим нашу консерваторию.

My little brother (учится в) school. He (учится в) first


grade. He (учится) to read and write. I try (учить) my brother
to read and (не делать) mistakes. I am afraid that he (не
делает) great progress. He is rather lazy and doesn’t like
(делать) his homework. I (учусь) at the Art Institute and go
in for sports too. I (учусь) to swim in different styles. So I
(учу) my brother to swim. This is what he (делает) with plea
sure. He (учится) to swim with great enthusiasm and natu
rally (делает) good progress.

VIII. Put general, alternative, tag, special questions to


the text.

WE STUDY AT RSIC
Му friends and I study at the cameramen’s department
of the Cinema Institute. We learn to make films. We study
many subjects. Our professors teach the students how to make
documentary and feature films. We study many theoretical
subjects and we learn to do practical work. We learn to shoot
and cut our films. Our students usually do all the creative and
technical work during the production of their short films. The
teachers criticize our work when we make mistakes and they
are glad when we make progress. We know that the film stu
dios of our country need good filmmakers. We understand it
very well and try hard to master our profession.
Unit 1. I am a musucian 17

IX*. Ask your groupmate about the study at the musical


institutions. Put 1 general, 1 alternative, 1 tag, 1 special
questions.

X. Prepare your story about studies at the musical insti


tutions.

XI. Read a new text. Choose the sentences describing


how to become a famous musician.
Millions of kids dream about becoming a pop star and many
of them form bands, but only a handful will make it to the top.
If you want to hit the big time, you’ll have to work hard and
get the basics right.

SO YOU WANT TO BE A POP STAR


First of all, if you want to make a decent sound, you’ll
need some decent equipment. Buying good quality equipment
will be a waste of money if you don’t look after it. Always keep
an instrument in its case, when you aren’t using it, and don’t
leave equipment near a radiator or in a hot car. You’ll find it
easier to look after equipment properly if you’ve got some
transport, so a good, reliable set of wheels is a must. A van is
best. Of course, just having good equipment won’t make a
good sound. It’s the band members who really make the band.
Here the most important thing is to keep everyone together
and avoid arguments. All the band members must want to play
the same kind of music. Lastly, keep romance out of the band.
You need to put your energy into your music, not into han
dling emotional problems.

XII. Read the text and answer the questions.


Every musician knows the answer.Weekly music lessons,
endless scales and arpeggios, ear training classes, nightly re
hearsals, recitals for friends and family etc. And juries with
faculty members ... it is hard to become a skillful performer.
The secret of success of a good performer is the combination
of hard work, outstanding performance selfconfidence, posi
tive personal impact, communication skills and interpersonal
18 Английский язык для музыкантов

competence. It is true to say that student musicians should


spend more time practicing the instrument than almost any
other activity. Hours of practicing will help a performer to
learn how to interpret a piece of music as the composer envi
sioned it. By playing the instrument day and night a musician
can become a true virtuoso. He or she will also develop his own
signature sound — the one that is unique to him.
When taking up music as a profession a person should
make sure that he or she has a passion for both music and
people. He must cultivate those passions and his awareness of
how to delight the audience. A pianist, a violinist or any other
student musician should not only be a talented person but he
also has to appeal to a listener and evoke the better, better
feelings in his soul. Every performer should bear in mind that
his playing must not only be of an exceptional purity on per
forming level, but he also must be able to communicate di
rectly to the listener and to feel the audience. Moreover, if a
person wants to rich height of proficiency he must take into
consideration the experience of his predecessors. Speaking
about the past experience he should pay tribute to the out
standing performers, who had achieved the worldwide popu
larity and sizes in music.

1. How to achieve success in music?


2. Is it easy to achieve success in music?

XIII. Write a letter to your friend. Put correct words in.


Dear ... !
It was a great pleasure to have a letter from you and to
know that you are well and busy. I’m glad, too, that you are
going to take part in the ..., which, I’m sure, is going to be
much more interesting than it was last time. I hope there re
ally will be a chance to show the ... and you’ll enjoy them.
You ask very kindly about the book I am writing. Well, I
must reply that it will be a modest one ... There will be a lot of
illustrations, and you know, they usually take very much time
to find. But I think it won’t take me more than a month to
finish the ... .
Unit 1. I am a musucian 19

It is possible that I will be a member of a group that is


going to visit the ... this July. There will be a lot of ... there.
It is a pity you won’t be among them. I will never forget our
short time together in the ... . I will never give up the hope
that we may visit it together again some day.
Well, I shall hope to hear from you soon and perhaps to
receive the photographs you promised some time ago.
With best wishes,
Sincerely yours Roger.

XIV. Write a letter to your friend. Try to use the follow


ing words.
Dear mother!
Thank you for your letter.
I’m happy to ... .
I’m arriving on the ... of ... December ... .
Could you tell me about your life?
I would like to know ... .
I’d better finish here.
That’s all.
Best wishes ... . All the best.
UNIT 2
THE SYSTEM
OF MUSICAL EDUCATION

I. Look at the pictures. Guess the names of the con


cervatories.
Unit 2. The system of musical education 21
22 Английский язык для музыкантов
Unit 2. The system of musical education 23

II. Write the names of the conservatories.

III. Read and translate the text.


Conservatoire (also known as a conservatory (name) or
conservatorium (Australian Е.)) is a higher education institu
tion at which people are taught music and theatre, including
playing musical instruments, singing, musical composition, the
history of music and music theory. The name was originated in
France, but also is used in British English. In Latin the word
“conserve” means “to keep”, “to protect”, “to take care of”. In
English “conservatory” means “greenhouse”, — a room with glass
walls and glass roof that is built on the side of the house and used
for sitting in to enjoy the sun and to protect the plants from the
cold weather. Therefore Englishmen gave up the idea of using
“conservatory” in favor of the French word “conservatoire” to
denote musical school. But as you may see over the Internet and
in other original sources American people use the English word
“conservatory”. Now some words of a historical background.
The earliest conservatories were originated in Italy in the six
teenth century as charity schools for orphans and foundlings.
The pupils were provided with food, lodging and were taught
different crafts, including music. Eventually those charity
schools developed into special music schools for promising young
people. The first conservatoire was Conservatoire di Santa Maria
di Loreto in Italy, in Naples. It was founded in 1537. Soon other
conservatories, that are still functioning, were originated in
Rome, Venice and other Italian cities. The end of the eighteenth
24 Английский язык для музыкантов

century saw a striking growth of special music schools in other


countries. The first conservatories in Russia were those of
St. Petersburg (1862) and Moscow (1866). Among the graduates
of St. Petersburg Conservatoire were such outstanding musi
cians as Tchaikovsky, RimskyKorsakov, Asafyev, Prokofiev,
Mravinsky, to name only a few. Among the most world’s famous
music colleges and conservatories there are the Royal Academy
of Music and the Royal College of Music in London, Paris
Conservatoire, Juilliard School in New York, New England
Conservatoire in Boston, Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore,
and the University of Music and Performing Arts in Vienna.

IV. Read the text again and say whether they are true or
false. Correct the false statements.
1. The word “conservatory” means “greenhouse”.
2. The word “conservatoire” is used to denote a higher
music education institution.
3. Englishmen use the French word, meaning musical train
ing establishment.
4. The earliest conservatories were originated in England
in the XVI century.
5. The orphans were taught only music in early charity
schools.
6. Later on charity schools developed into musical schools
for promising people.
7. The end of the XVII century saw a big growth of special
musical schools in Europe.
8. The first Russian conservatoire appeared in Moscow
in 1862.
9. N. A. RimskyKorsakov was among the first graduates
of the St. Petersburg conservatoire.
10. The Royal Academy of Music of London is one of the
world’s most famous bigger musical education institutions.

MOSCOW CONSERVATOIRE
Moscow Conservatoire is one of the oldest and most im
portant higher musical educational institutions. Moscow
Conservatoire was founded in 1866 by the Russian Musical
Unit 2. The system of musical education 25

Society on the initiative of A. G. Rubinstein. It became world


famous thanks to the traditions of musical education estab
lished by P. I. Tchaikovsky, S. I. Taneyev and A. S. Arensky
(composition and theory); N. G. Rubinstein and V. I. Safonov
(piano); F. Laub and I. V. Grzhimali (violin); V. F. Fittsengagen
(cello); and A. D. AleksandrovaKochetova (voice). In 1940 the
Moscow Conservatoire was named after P. I. Tchaikovsky. It
was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1946 and 1966.
The development of the musical education is also associ
ated with the work of such outstanding composers and musi
cians as N. Ia. Miaskovskii, S. S. Prokofiev, Iu. A. Shaporin,
A. N. Aleksandrov, and D. D. Shostakovich (composition);
K. N. Igumnov, A. B. Gol’denveizer, G. G. Neigauz, S. E. Fein
berg, V. V. Sofronitsky, and E. G. Gilel’s (piano); L. M. Tseit
lin, A. I. Iampol’sky, K. G. Mostras, M. B. Poliakin, and
D. F. Oistrakh (violin); A. A. Brandukov, S. M. Kozolupov, and
S. N. Knushevitsky (cello); S. V. Rozanov (clarinet); M. I. Ta
bakov (trumpet); V. N. Tsybin (flute); V. M. Blazhevich (trom
bone); N. G. Raisky, K. N. Dorliak, N. I. Speransky and
M. O. Reizen (voice); M. V. IvanovBoretsky, I. V. Sposobin,
V. E. Ferman, S. S. Skrebkov, R. I. Gruber, S. S. Bogatyrev,
T. N. Livanova, and Iu. V. Keldysh (music theory and his
tory); and P. G. Chesnokov, N. M. Danilin, A. V. Gauk, and
A. V. Sveshnikov (choral and symphonic conducting).
Sveshnikov was the president of the conservatory till 1948.
Moscow Conservatoire has (1973) departments of theory
and composition (including the sections of musicology and
composition), vocal music (sections of choral conducting and
singing), piano and orchestra (sections of stringed instruments,
wind instruments and operatic and symphonic conducting).
There is also a department for the continuing education for
teachers at higher musical educational institutions. The
conservatoire has a graduate division, a teaching assistant
ship program, 26 subdepartments, an opera studio (founded
in 1934), a music school with a regular sevenyear secondary
academic program, a central music school with a tenyear sec
ondary academic program, and a room for the study of folk
music (founded in 1937) under the direction of K. V. Kvitka
26 Английский язык для музыкантов

with more than 20,000 pieces of music. There is a music li


brary, including a lot of taperecordings.
Moscow Conservatoire has trained approximately 7,000
musicians. Many of them have been awarded 578 prizes and
titles in international and domestic competitions. One of them
is the International Tchaikovsky Competition. The competi
tion is named after the Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchai
kovsky and is an active member of the World Federation of
International Music Competitions. It is a classicalmusic com
petition held every four years in Moscow for pianists, violin
ists and cellists between 16 and 30 years of age, and singers
between 19 and 32 years of age. For the XIV competition in
2011, Valery Gergiev was appointed the competition’s chair
man, and Richard Rodzinski, the former president of the Van
Cliburn Foundation, was appointed chair of the working com
mittee. A new voting system was instituted, created by the
mathematician John MacBain, and used by the International
Violin Competition of Indianapolis, the Van Cliburn Interna
tional Piano Competition, and the Cleveland International
Piano Competition. All rules and regulations had also under
gone a complete revision. Emphasis was placed on the composi
tion of the jury, which consisted primarily of wellknown and
respected performing artists. Finally, for all competitions from
2011 forward, the first prize will always be awarded. The XIV
International Tchaikovsky Competition was held in Moscow and
St. Petersburg in 2011, under the auspices of the Russian fed
eral government and its Ministry of Culture. The competition
disciplines were piano, violin, cello, and voice (male singers
and female singers).

V. Read the text and choose the best title to each para
graph.
1. Tchaikovsky’s International Competition.
2. Departments and faculties.
3. The foundation of the conservatoire.
4. Famous composers, musicians of the conservatoire.

VI. Read the text again and ask 2 general, 2 alternative,


2 tag, 2 special questions.
Unit 2. The system of musical education 27

VII. Read the text and put the graduate’s name of the
conservatoire.
Sergei Ivanovich ... was a Russian composer, a pianist, a
teacher of composition, a music theorist ... was born in Vla
dimir, to a cultured and literary family of Russian nobility.
A distant cousin, Alexander ..., was also a composer, whose
daughter, Anna Vyrubova, was highly influential at court.
Alexander was drawn closely to the nationalist school of mu
sic, while Sergei would gravitate toward a more cosmopolitan
outlook. Compositionally, ... and Tchaikovsky differed on how
they felt music theory should function. Tchaikovsky prized
spontaneity in musical creativity. ..., in contrast, thought
musical creativity should be both deliberate and intellectual,
with preliminary theoretical analysis and preparation of the
matic materials. Along with beauty and expressiveness,
... could also show a whimsical streak in his musical nature.
Among ...’s unpublished works are reportedly various paro
dies, including “Quartets of Government Officials”, humor
ous choruses, comic fugues and variations, toy symphonies, a
mock ballet for Tchaikovsky’s birthday.

VIII. Read the text and complete the sentences. Use the
following words: staple, fare, cello, artistic, director, compa
triots, contest, luminaries, member, significant, establish,
disciplines.

THE INTERNATIONAL
TCHAIKOVSKY COMPETITION

The International Tchaikovsky Competition needs no in


troduction. Every professional musician knows that classical
music ... for pianists, violinists, cellists and singers, which
was named after Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky,
and is an active ... of the World Federation of International
Music Competitions. Moreover it is renowned all over the world
as one of the leading opportunities for extraordinary young
musicians to gain international recognition and ... their ca
reers. Its goal is to discover new talents. When it was orga
nized and first held in 1958, it included two disciplines —
28 Английский язык для музыкантов

piano and violin. Gradually the other competition disciplines


were added. Nowadays in Russia, the Competition is one of the
most valuable and ... events in the country’s musical life. Many
gifted musicians come to take part in this brilliant and amaz
ing competition. Let us list the competition winners who have
achieved worldwide recognition. They are our ... and now fa
mous pianists Vladimir Ashkenazy, Mikhail Pletnev, Denis
Matsuev, violinists Viktor Tretyakov, Vladimir Spivakov, a
cellist Natalia Gutman, and singers Evgeny Nesterenko, Elena
Obraztsova and many others. To many of them The Interna
tional Tchaikovsky Competition helped to see new professional
horizons, and become ... in their artistic development. One
must have heard that the International Tchaikovsky Competi
tion is held every four years. Under competition chairmanship
of such ... аs Dmitri Shostakovich and Mstislav Rostropovich,
past jury members have included a lot of legendary names.
The latest 18th Competition was held both in Moscow and
St. Petersburg, in the summer of 2015. It was earned out un
der the auspices of the Russian Federal Government and its
Ministry of Culture. The Competition ... were as usual: piano,
violin, ... and voice (male singers and female singers). Violin
making was included too. For the 14th competition in 2011,
an outstanding Russian conductor, artistic director of the
Mariinsky Theatre, principal conductor of the London Sym
phony Orchestra, and ... of the White Nights Festival in
St. Petersburg, Valery Gergiev was appointed the Chairman
of the Competition.

IX. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. When was the first Tchaikovsky Competition held?
2. What disciplines did it include in the beginning?
3. How many disciplines does the competition include now?
What are they?
4. What is the Competition’s goal?
5. List the winners of the ITС among pianists, violinists,
singers?
6. Where did the competition use to be held?
7. When was the latest competition held?
8. Who patronized the ITC?
Unit 2. The system of musical education 29

9. Who was appointed the Chairman for the 14th Competi


tion?
10. Who was appointed the Chairman for the 14th Compe
tition?

X. Read the text again and say whether they are true or
false. Correct the false statements.

RIMSKYKORSAKOV CONSERVATOIRE
RimskyKorsakov conservatoire is the oldest Russian
higher school of music. The Conservatoire was founded in
1861–1862 by the Russian Musical Society. The first Presi
dent of the Conservatoire in 1862–1867 and 1887–1891 was
A. G. Rubinstein. Rubinstein began his work on establishing a
music educational institution to give all talented people an
opportunity to learn music. Following the example of Euro
pean conservatories, the Russian Conservatoire included a
secondary school and a higher educational establishment. It
took a student ten years to graduate with a degree in music
according to the regulations of 1887, with a six year programme
in the preliminary school and four years in the higher school.
The programme was “to provide training in music in every
field”, including voice, piano performance, composition, or
chestration, and theory and history of music. The student also
studied “choir singing, piano, and history and aesthetics of
music”.
The initial teaching staff of the Conservatoire included
celebrated musicians: Rubinstein (piano, instrumentation,
orchestra class), a Polish composer and a virtuoso violinist
H. Wienyawski (violin, 1862–1878), a Polish virtuoso pia
nist T. Leszeticki (piano, 1862–1878), an Italian opera
singer G. NissenSaloman (1862–1879), a Professor of Ber
lin Conservatoire N. I. Zaremba (piano and theory of compo
sition; President in 1867–1871), a violoncellist K. Y. Davydov
(violoncello, history of music, chamber ensemble, choir, 1862–
1887, President since 1876). In 1867 students presented the
first opera performance “Orpheus” by C. W. Gluck. In the
1870’s, two schools of worldwide importance became firmly
30 Английский язык для музыкантов

established in the Conservatory: RimskyKorsakov school of


composition and Auer school of violin performance. The school
was named after him in 1944.
Also a prominent figure in the history of the Conservatoire
was A. K. Glazunov (President in 1905–1928). In the 1880’s
the number of classes was increased, and the curriculum in
cluded ensemble, choir, theory of music, harmony, polyphony,
theoretical and practical composition, solfeggio, score stud
ies, conducting, history of music, theatre, musical aesthetics,
opera stage production. Classes for pianists and singers were
regular. Best graduates were offered a position on staff of the
Conservatoire.
Over 2,000 musicians graduated from the Conservatoire,
including such famous composers as S. S. Prokofiev, N. Y. Mya
skovsky, A. S. Arensky, A. T. Grechaninov, N. N. Cherepnin,
M. F. Gnesin, and B. V. Asafyev, D. D. Shostakovich, G. V. Svi
ridov, M. V. Yudina, V. V. Sofronitsky, I. A. Braudo, I. V. Ershov.
The Conservatoire established a Music School (later —
RimskyKorsakov Music School) in 1934, and a specialized
music high school in 1936. There are many faculties: the Fac
ulty of History and Theory, the Faculty of Composition, the
Faculty of Conducting, the Orchestra Faculty, the Piano and
Organ Faculty, and the Faculty of Musical Theatre. It has a
unique music library and book depositories, the archival
depository holding manuscripts of great musicians. There
is a museum of the Conservatoire’s history. Since 1923 the
Conservatoire has been managing its own Opera and Ballet
Theatre.

1. The competition was named by Tchaikovsky himself.


2. The ITC includes such disciplines as piano, violin, cello,
voice and violinmaking.
3. Denis Matsuev has never been the winner of the ITC.
4. Valery Gergiev is an acting chairman of the Compe
tition.
5. Viktor Tretyakov and Vladimir Spivakov were compet
ing for the prize in one discipline in the same year contest.
6. The International Tchaikovsky Competition is regarded
as one of the major nets in global music community.
Unit 2. The system of musical education 31

XI. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. What is the name of one of the oldest Russian high
schools of music?
2. Who was the founder of the Conservatoire?
3. Who was the first President of the Conservatoire in
1862?
4. When did the Conservatoire begin to manage its own
Opera and Ballet Theatre?
5. What subjects were included into the programme in
1887?
6. Where was a virtuoso violinist H. Wienyawski from?

XII. Read the text again and complete the sentences.


1. ..., the Russian Conservatoire included a secondary
school and a higher educational establishment.
2. In 1867, students presented the first opera perfor
mance — ...
3. In the 1870’s two schools of worldwide importance be
came firmly established in the Conservatoire: ... (1871–1908;
the school was named after him in 1944) and Auer school of
violin performance (1868–1917).
4. It has ..., the archival depository holding manuscripts
of great musicians and a museum.
5. It took a student ten years to graduate with a degree in
music according to the regulations of 1887, ... and four years
in the higher school.

XIII. Complete the sentences from the box: library,


Conservatoire, prominent, Opera, programme.
The ... was founded in 1861–1862 by the Russian Musical
Society. The first President of the Conservatoire in 1862–
1867 and 1887–1891 was A. G. Rubinstein.
It has a unique music ... and book depositories, the archi
val depository holding manuscripts of great musicians.
It took a student ten years to graduate with a degree in
music according to the regulations of 1887, with a six year ...
in the preliminary school and four years in the higher school.
Also a ... figure in the history of the Conservatoire was
A. K. Glazunov (President in 1905–1928).
32 Английский язык для музыкантов

Since 1923 the Conservatoire has been managing its own ...
and Ballet Theatre.

XIV. Read the text and write the name of Conservatories


graduate.
Georgy Vasilyevich ... (December 16, 1915 — January 5,
1998) was a Soviet neoromantic composer. ... was born in 1915
in the town of Kursk region in a family of Russian ethnicity.
The family moved to Kursk, where ... learned to play his first
instrument — the balalaika — at the elementary school. Learn
ing to play by ear, he demonstrated such a talent and his
ability to be accepted into the local orchestra of Russian folk
instruments. He learned in a music school in 1929, and came
to Leningrad in 1932, where he studied the piano at Leningrad
Central Music College, finishing it in 1936. From 1936 to
1941, ... studied at Leningrad Conservatoire under Peter
Borisovich Ryazanov and Dmitri Shostakovich. This composer
wrote a lot of pieces of music for different TV programs,
which are famous today. This talented person is also known as
a composer of romances.

ROSTOV STATE CONSERVATOIRE


Rostov State Conservatoire (Academy) named after
S. V. Rachmaninov is the largest center of professional musi
cal education, a performing art, a musical science and compos
ing creativity in the south of Russia. It was opened on the first
of September 1967. Our Conservatoire is situated in the center
of the city.
For last 45 years Rostov Conservatoire (Academy) is one
of the most dynamically developing musical high schools of
Russia. Since 2008 Rostov State Conservatoire has been taking
leading positions in a rating of all of 186 academies of Russia.
Graduates of Rostov Conservatoire successfully work today in
the concert organizations and in symphonic orchestras of Rus
sia and more than 20 countries of Europe. They are soloists of
Mariinsky Theatre, of the opera theatres in Russia and the
Rostov musical theatre. Graduates of the Rostov Conservatoire
work and teach the students in conservatories of Russia (Mos
Unit 2. The system of musical education 33

cow, Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk, Tambov, etc.), the Ukraine


(Kiev, Donetsk), Scotland (Glasgow), and also at musical uni
versities of Germany, the Netherlands, the USA and Finland.
Rostov State Conservatoire’s (Academy) trains highly pro
fessional expertmusicians in all fields of music. Young people
devoted to music study here to become professional musicians
and theorists in music. Rostov State Conservatoire offers edu
cation in the following fields of studies: musical performance,
composing, conducting, musicology, courses and training pro
grams for teaching musical disciplines. The form of the edu
cation is fulltime education. Normative period of study is 4 or
5 years. The academic year is divided into two terms. At the
end of each term students are to take exams and credittests in
different subjects. According to the curriculum playing the
piano is obligatory for all the students.
There are two departments at the Conservatoire: the day
time department and the extramural one. There are 8 facul
ties at our Conservatoire. They are: Piano, Musicology and
Composition, Choral Conducting, Folk Instruments, Vocal Sing
ing, Orchestral: string instruments (violin, viola, cello, double
bass, harp) and wind instruments (flute, oboe, clarinet, bas
soon, doublebassoon, trumpet), Variety Art and Jazz, Sound
Engineering.
The Orchestral and the Folk Instruments faculties have
students’ orchestras. The students of Choral Conducting are
singers and conductors of their own choir. The students take
part in different competitions and festivals both in our coun
try and abroad. Some of them make quite a name for them
selves becoming laureates of different competitions. Our
Conservatoire keeps in touch with masters of musical culture.
Our Conservatoire constantly organizes concerts at the con
cert halls of different institutions and among the foreign citi
zens who are guests of RostovonDon.
The Conservatoire is a fourstoried building. There is a
hall with a staircase leading to classrooms, the dean’s office,
laboratories and studios, a cloakroom and a student’s canteen
on the ground floor of the Conservatoire. There is a good library
with a fine selection of musical literature, located on the ground
floor, too. A wellequipped record library and an audio labora
34 Английский язык для музыкантов

tory are at the disposal of our students. The Conservatoire has


two concert halls. Outoftown students are provided with hos
tel accommodations and instruments for practice. The students
of Rostov State Rachmaninov Conservatoire have all opportu
nities to be the greatest musicians.

XV. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. When was our Conservatoire opened?
2. How many faculties are there in Rostov State Con
servatoire?
3. What are the faculties in our Conservatoire?
4. What faculties do the students’ orchestras have?
5. What subject is compulsory for all the students?
6. Is the conservatoire a fourstoried building?
7. What subjects do all students of our conservatoire study?
8. How many halls are there in the Conservatoire?
9. How many terms are there in the academic year?
10. How many departments are there in our Conservatoire?
What are they?
11. Since 2008 Rostov State Conservatoire has taken one
of the leading positions in a rating of all of 186 academies of
Russia, hasn’t it?

XVI. Read the text again and try to find English sen
tences.
1. Молодые люди, посвятившие себя музыке, становят
ся профессиональными музыкантами.
2. Наша консерватория расположена в центре города.
3. В консерватории два концертных зала.
4. Выпускники консерватории сейчас работают в сим
фонических оркестрах и концертных организациях в Рос
сии и в более чем 20 странах Европы.
5. Некоторые из них прославились или стали лауреата
ми различных конкурсов.
6. В консерватории есть 9 факультетов.
7. Она была открыта 1 сентября 1967 г.
8. Для иногородних студентов предоставляются места в
общежитии и инструменты для занятий.
Unit 2. The system of musical education 35

9. С 2008 г. Ростовская консерватория занимает лиди


рующие позиции среди 186 академий России.
10. Период обучения составляет 5 лет.

XVII. Write the names of the orchestras.


36 Английский язык для музыкантов

XVIII. Read the text again and complete the sentences.


1. Rostov State Conservatoire (Academy) named after
S. V. Rachmaninov is the ..., a performing art, a musical sci
ence and composing creativity in the south of Russia.
2. ... takes leading positions in a rating of all of 186 acad
emies of Russia.
3. Graduates of Rostov Conservatoire successfully work to
day in the concert organizations and in symphonic orchestras ...
4. Rostov State Conservatoire offers education in the fol
lowing fields of studies for foreign applicants: ..., courses and
training programs for teaching musical disciplines.
5. ... the Conservatoire: the daytime department and the
extramural one.
6. The Orchestral and the Folk Instruments faculties ...
7. The students take part in different ... both in our coun
try and abroad.
8. ... is a fourstoried building.
9. A good library with a fine selection of musical litera
ture is ...
10. The students of ... have all opportunities to be the great
est musicians.

XIX. Read the text and choose the right variant.


1. For last 45 years Rostov Conservatoire (Academy) is
one of the most dynamically developing musical high schools
of (Russia, The Ukraine, Finland).
2. Rostov State Conservatoire (Academy) trains highly
professional expert(musicians, teachers, doctors) in all fields
of music.
3. They are (soloists, pupils, dancers) of Mariinsky The
atre, of the opera theatres in Russia and the Rostov musical
theatre.
4. According to the curriculum playing the (piano, guitar,
balalaika) is obligatory for all the students.
5. There are (8, 2, 7) faculties at our Conservatoire.
6. The students (of Choral Conducting, Vocal Singing,
Musicology) are singers and conductors of their own choir.
7. Some of them make quite (a name, a dress, a report) for
themselves becoming laureates of different competitions.
Unit 2. The system of musical education 37

8. Our Conservatoire constantly organizes (concerts, par,


ties, festivals) at the concert halls of different institutions and
among the foreign citizens who are guests of RostovonDon.
9. There is (a hall, a swimming pool, a room) with a stair
case leading to classrooms, a dean’s office, laboratories and
studios, a cloakroom and a student’s canteen.
10. (Outoftown, Rostovites, English men) students are
provided with hostel accommodations and instruments for
practice.

XX. Read the text. Make a plan for retelling.

XXI. Make a dialogue, discussing with your friend your


study at Rostov State Conservatoire. Tell him about:
n what subjects you have;
n your musical lessons;
n your faculty.
Ask him about his study.

XXII. Read the text. Give a summary of the text.

ROSTOV PREMIERS
Autumn 2010 the IVth International Festival of Contempo
rary Music “Rostov Premiers” took place in the center of South
ern Russia. It was organized by the Rostov State Rachmaninov
Conservatoire and the Rostov State Regional Philharmonic. It
was carried out under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture
of the Rostov region, and the Rostov Organisation of the Union
of Composers of Russia. Now it is the largest musical forum
outside Moscow and St. Petersburg. As this festival was held
for the fourth time critics called it the traditional event in the
musical life of the Southern region. According to the operative
force behind this project, the Head of the Rostov Conservatoire,
Honoured Artist of Russia, Professor Alexander S. Danilov,
the goal of the festival was to attract the searching listener to
one of the most difficult arts of contemporary classical music.
Compositions of both Rostov, Russian and foreign composers
were played by the best Rostov performing groups: profes
38 Английский язык для музыкантов

sional orchestras, ensembles, and solo performers. One has to


agree, that performance of compositions written by such
prominent composers as K. Penderecki (Poland), J. Corigliano
(the USA), R. Shchedrin (Germany), G. Kancheli (Georgia),
V. Khodosh, A. Kussyakov, M. Fuksman, G. Gontarenko, etc.
set a high level to “Rostov Premiers”. The programme of the
4th International Festival proved the existing creative poten
tial of the Southern capital of Russia also achieved its goal to
attract public attention. This festival was worth seeing and
taking part in.

XXIII. Read the text and write the name of the con
servatoire.
It is one of the oldest musical higher educational institu
tions in Russia, founded in 1912 on the basis of musical school.
It was the third Conservatoire in the country and the first in
the province. The building of the conservatoire was erected in
1902 by an architect Alexander Yulyevich Yagn. Originally in it
the musical school settled down. However in 1912 the building
was reconstructed by an architect Simeon Akimovich Kallistratov.
In 1918 the conservatory was nationalized and received the name

Theater Hall
Unit 2. The system of musical education 39

Big Hall

Small Hall

“state conservatoire”. In 1935 the conservatoire received Leonid


Sobinov’s name. State Conservatoire has three concert halls: Big
hall with a capacity of 469 places. It is one of the most beau
tiful halls of Russia, providing unique acoustics. It is the
40 Английский язык для музыкантов

Concert hall “Theatrical” with a capacity of 216 places. The


Small Hall of conservatoire is equipped with 100 places. It has
a good acoustic.
The students are taught at the following faculties: Per
forming, Theoryperforming, SPO faculty, Theatrical faculty,
Faculty of postgraduate and continuing professional educa
tion. This conservatoire is famous for some teachers such as:
n Arshinova Natalia Sergeyevna — chair of history of mu
sic;
n Brandt Vasily Georgiyevich — trumpet;
n Benditsky Nathan Semyonovich — chair of a special piano;
n Benditsky Simeon Solomonovich — chair of a special piano;
n Brening Arnold Arnoldovich — chair of the theory of music
and composition;
n Vartanova Elena Ivanovna — chair of the theory of music
and composition;
n Voloshko Svetlana Viktorovna — chair of history of music;
n Thrushes Anatoly Nikolayevich — music theory;
n Kozolupov Simeon Matveyevich — violoncello;
n Moralyov Oleg Arkadyevich — chair of the theory of mu
sic and composition;
n Medvedev Mikhail Efimovich — singing;
n Nosyrev Evgeny Romanovich — oboe;
n Gayleagues Marianna Fyodorovna — chair of history of
music;
n Gokhman Elena Vladimirovna — chair of the theory of
music and composition;
n Krasnova Olga Borisovna — chair of history of music;
n Svistunenko Tatyana Anatolyevna — chair of the theory
of music and composition;
n Peasant Anatoly Dmitriyevich — trumpet;
n Skripay Anatoly Aleksandrovich — chair of a special pi
ano under the leadership of professor A. A. Skripaya;
n Sosnovtsev Boris Andreyevich — chair of the theory of
music and composition;
n Taube Rostislav Sergeyevich — chair of the theory of music
and composition;
n Tyutmanov Joseph Alekseyevich — chair of the theory of
music and composition.
Unit 2. The system of musical education 41

There are many Notable Alumni:


n Dovgaleva Nellie Ibragimovna — the national actress of
RSFSR;
n Dudin Dmitri Yakovlevich — the Honored artist of the
Udmurt Republic;
n Evdokimova Anna Valeryevna (Anna T’Kharon’s pseud
onym) — the pianist, the winner of an award of the Queen
of the Netherlands;
n Cool Igor Yakovlevich — the composer, the national actor
of Russia, the national actor of the Ukraine, the honored
worker of arts of the Russian Federation;
n Markin Evgeny Stepanovich — the Honored artist of the
Russian Federation;
n Priests Yury Lazarevich — the opera singer (a drama bari
tone), the theatrical director, the National actor of the
former USSR;
n Skripay Anatoly Aleksandrovich (release of 1968) — the
pianist, the teacher, the professor, the Honored artist of
Russia, the Honored worker of arts of the Russian Fed
eration;
n Smetannikov Leonid Anatolyevich — the national actor of
the former USSR;
n Ustinov Mikhail — the winner of the Award of the Gov
ernment of the Russian Federation of “The Shower of
Russia” for merits in development of national creativity;
n Hanzhova (Serdyuk) Lyudmila Ivanovna — the head of the
State Chorus of the Republic of Dagestan.

XXIV. Make a report about one of the conservatories.


UNIT 3
THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENT,
I PLAY

I. Read the texts about the first Russian instruments.

SVIREL

The svirel is an old folk Russian wind instrument of the


endblown flute type. In ancient times this instrument was
made either of hollow reed or cylindrical wood branches. The
svirel is a simple wooden pipe. On the upper end it has a beak
like whistle device and in the middle of the front side it has
several fingerholes cut out. The wooden pipe is made of buck
thorn, hazel, maple, ash tree, or bird cherry tree. The word
svirel is obviously older than sopel.

Svirel
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 43

GUSLI

The gusli is one of the oldest musical instruments and has


played an important role in the Russian music culture. The
Greek historians Theophylact Simocatta and Theophan were
the first to mention the gusli: the Greeks took Slavonic pris

Gusli

oners and found a musical instrument named the gusli. It was


in the 10th Century AD. The instruments were used by the
wandering Skomorokh musicians and entertainers. The pre
served instruments had between five and nine strings. Gusli is
the oldest Russian multistring plucked instrument. It can be
tuned following: E3–A3–H3–C4–D4–E4–F4–G4–A4. There
are many varieties: shlemovidnye gusli, krylovidnye gusli,
clavichord gusli, zvonchatye gusli.

GUDOK

The gudok, or hudok, is an ancient Eastern Slavic string


musical instrument, played with a bow. The gudok usually had
three strings, two of which tuned in unison and played as a
drone, the third tone a fifth higher. All three strings were in
the same plane at the bridge, so that a bow could make them all
sound simultaneously. Sometimes the gudok also had several
sympathetic strings (up to eight) under the sounding board.
These made the gudok’s sound warm and rich. In the 12th
century the gudok did not have a neck for pressing strings.
44 Английский язык для музыкантов

Gudok

Later in the 14th century some modifications of the gudok had


a real neck for pressing strings.
The player held the gudok on his lap, like a cello, play
ing the gudok while standing and even while dancing. It
was popular among skomorokhs. Russian gudok exists as
a folk instrument for several centuries. This instrument
was used and is used now in some musical plays. Borodin’s
opera “Prince Igor” contains a “Gudok Player’s Song”,
which is an artistic reconstruction of how the gudok might
have sounded.

II. Read the texts and introduce your musical instrument.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A HARP
The harp is a multistring musical instrument which has
the plane of its strings positioned perpendicularly to the
soundboard. Organologically, it is in the general category of
chordophones (stringed instruments) and has its own sub cat
egory (the harps). All harps have a neck, resonator and strings.
Some, known as frame harps, also have a pillar; those without
the pillar are referred to as open harps. Depending on its size,
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 45

which varies, a harp may be played while held in the lap or


while it stands on a table, or on the floor. Harp strings may be
made of nylon, gut, wire or silk. On smaller harps, like the folk
harp, the core string material will typically be the same for all
strings on a given harp. Larger instruments like the modern
concert harp mix string materials to attain their extended
ranges. A person who plays the harp is called a harpist or a
harper. Folk musicians often use the term “harper”, whereas
classical musicians use “harpist”.
Various types of harps are found in Africa, Europe, North
and South America and in Asia. In antiquity, harps and the
closely related lyres were very prominent in nearly all cul
tures. The harp also was predominant with medieval bards,

Harp
46 Английский язык для музыкантов

troubadours and minnesingers throughout the Spanish Em


pire. Harps continued to grow in popularity due to improve
ments in their design and construction through the beginning
of the 20th century.
A number of nonharplike instruments are colloquially
referred to as “harps”. Chordophones like the aeolian harp
(wind harp) and the autoharp (with the piano and harpsichord)
are not harps, but zithers, because their strings are not per
pendicular to their soundboard. Similarly, the many varieties
of harp guitar and harp lute, while chordophones, belong to
the lute family and are not true harps. All forms of the lyre
and kithara are also not harps, but belong to the fourth family
of ancient instruments under the chordophones, the lyres.
The term “harp” has also been applied to many instru
ments which are not chordophones. The vibraphone was (and
is still) sometimes referred to as the “vibraharp”, though it
has no strings and its sound is produced by striking metal
bars. In blues music, the harmonica is often casually referred
to as a “blues harp” or “harp”, but it is a free reed wind
instrument, not a stringed instrument, and is therefore not a
true harp. The Jew’s harp is neither Jewish nor a harp; it is a
plucked idiophone and likewise not a stringed instrument.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A BALALAIKA
The balalaika is a stringed instrument of Russian origin,
with a characteristic triangular body and 3 strings. The balalaika
family of instruments includes, from the highestpitched to the
lowest, the prima balalaika, secunda balalaika, alto balalaika,
bass balalaika and contrabass balalaika. All have threesided
bodies, spruce or fir tops and backs made of from three to nine
wooden sections, and all have three strings. The prima balalaika
is played with the fingers, the secunda and alto either with the
fingers or a plectrum depending on the music being played,
and the basses and contrabasses are played with leather plec
tra. The term first appeared in the Ukrainian language in the
18th century in documents from 1717–1732. It is though that
the term was borrowed in Russian where it first appeared a
poem by V. Maikov “Elysei” in 1771. The instrument was de
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 47

veloped from a 2stringed chor


dophone originally used by Jews
living in the pale in Little Russia.
The most common solo instrument
is the prima, tuned AEE. Six string
balalaikas are also in use. These have
three courses (two strings for each
one on a regular, threestringed in
strument tuned EE–EE–AA). Four
string alto balalaikas are also found
and used in the orchestra of the
Pyatnistky Folk Choir. An impor
tant part of balalaika technique is
the use of the left thumb to fret
notes on the lower string, particu
Balalaika
larly on the prima, where it is used
to form chords. The side of the index finger of the right hand
is used to sound notes on the prima, while a plectrum is used
on the larger sizes. Due to the gigantic size of the contrabass’s
strings, it is not uncommon for the plectrum to be made of a
leather shoe or boot heel. The bass and contrabass balalaika
rest on the ground on a wooden or metal pin drilled into one of
its corners.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A BAYAN
The bayan is a type of a chromatic button accordion devel
oped in Russia in the early 20th century. The word bayan was
taken after the name of the ninth/tenthcentury poet, artist
and musician (the Bayan) who first appeared in a troubadour
poem “The Story of the Igoreve Regiment”.
At first the name was used to refer to the ancestor of the
modern bayan, the Russian harmonica. The instrument was
developed with the addition of bellows, register stops, a left
hand manual which later became standardized to include both
a stradella and freebass (convertor), and a righthand manual
which increased the number of button rows from three to five.
If you look at the Russian concert of bayans, there is a very
obvious difference in the shape of the instrument. The bayan
48 Английский язык для музыкантов

3
5
6

1 2
7

4
8
Bayan:
1 — the righthand keyboard; 2 — the lefthand keyboard; 3 — fur for bayan;
4 — registers (1); 5 — registers (2); 6 — left mechanics; 7 — fingerboard; 8 —
right mechanics.

has the treble keyboard which is mounted moreorless in the


middle — further out — which gives you a more convenient
position for the arm. So the shape of the Russian bayan differs
from other [chromatic button] accordions.
The bayan has spread throughout Europe, expanding from
Russia to Poland and the Eastern Bloc countries, Scandinavia,
France, Spain and Portugal. Today the bayan is slowly making
a foothold even in countries such as Austria, Italy, New Zeal
and and the United States, which traditionally have been ex
clusively devoted to the pianoaccordion.
A person who plays the bayan is called a bayanist. Many
bayanists also composed music for their instrument. Geor
gy Shenderyov (1937–1984) wrote Prelude and Toccata (1959).
Albin Repnikov (b. 1932) wrote Capriccio (1962), Concert
Poem (1966) for bayan and orchestra, and Souvenirs (1974).
Alexander Timoshenko (b. 1942) wrote Russian Pictures Suite
(1969), Sonata (1971) and Russian Suite (1975).

MY INSTRUMENT IS THE NATIONAL


OSETIAN HARMONIC

The national Osetia’s harmonic appeared in the 1st half of


the 20th century. It came from the Russian Empire after merg
ing Osetia with it. Then harmonic evolved a lot. There were
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 49

changes, according to the shape. The timber became richer.


The instrument has the following construction.
Lots of music is written for national harmonic. A huge
part in developing the repetoire of harmonic is played by such
composers as Bulat Gazdanov, Felix Alborov, Kaysyn Merdenov
and others. Nicolay Koboev wrote the concert for harmonic
and symphonic orchestra. The most famous performers are
Bulat Gazdanov, Sima Rivazova, Soslan Dsutsev.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A DOMRA
Domra is a longnecked Russian string instrument of the
lute family with a round body and three or four metal strings.
In 1896 a threestringed version of this instrument was rede
signed and introduced into the orchestra of Russian folk in

Osetian harmonic:
1 — head; 2 — nut; 3 — handle; 4 — sticker; 5 — neckblock, headblock; 6 —
soundboard; 7 — linings; 8 — strings; 9 — bridge; 10 — tailblock; 11 — tail
piece; 12 — armour; 13 — rosette; 14 — lining; 15 — strings; 16 — fret; 17 —
holes; 18 — machine heads, tuning; 19 — staves; 20 — saddle; 21 — buttom;
22 — circlet.
50 Английский язык для музыкантов

struments. A fourstringed version was developed by Moscow


instrument maker, Liubimov, in 1905.
Scholars have come to the conclusion that the term “domra”
actually described a percussive instrument popular in Russia,
and that the discovered instrument was either a variant of the
balalaika or a mandolin.
The threestringed domra is used almost exclusively in
Russia. It is played with a plectrum and often used to play the
lead melody in Russian balalaika ensembles.
When you play the domra, you play with a plectrum and
mostly, you use a tremolo method giving a monotonous endless
tone. There are 5 methods playing the domra: tremolo, glissando,
staccato, pizzicato, flageoletto.
The pizzicato method is known for short tones without the
plectrum made with the help from the right hand thumb.
The glissando method is one of the more rare methods
used. The flageoletto method where you make the overtones
with a slide touch of the string in the points where is divided
in two, three and four equal parts.
The domra piccolo is tuned as follows: 1st string: A in sec
ond octave. — 2nd string: E in second octave. — 3rd string: H in
first octave.
The domra malaya is tuned as follows: 1st string: D in
second octave. — 2nd string: A in first octave. — 3rd string:
E in first octave.
This is one of the most technically flexible instruments in
the orchestra. It plays the same role in the folk orchestra as
the violin in a symphony orchestra. The domra malaya has a
leading position in the orchestra.
The domra alto is tuned as follows: 1st string: D in first
octave. — 2nd string: A in minor octave. — 3rd string: E in
minor octave.
The domra can be used to play passages and variations. Its
function in the orchestra is the voice of broad, melodious themes.
The domra tenor is tuned as follows: 1st string: A in minor
octave. — 2nd string: E in minor octave. — 3rd string: H in
major octave. The domra tenor is an instrument between the
domra alto and the domra bass. Its function in the orchestra is
to handle melodies in the tenor.
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 51

The domra bass is tuned as follows: 1st string: D in minor


octave. — 2nd string: A in major octave. — 3rd string: E in big
octave. This instrument differs from the before mentioned
domras in the way that it uses leather plectrum for the domra
bass.
The domra contrabass exists in two registers: The minor
and the major. The minor is tuned as follows: 1st string: D in
major octave. — 2nd string: A in contra octave. — 3rd string:
E in contra octave.
The major is tuned like this: 1st string: G in major oc
tave. — 2nd string: D in major octave. — 3rd string: A in con
tra octave. The domra contrabass has the same beats as the
balalaika contrabass.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A GUITAR
The guitar is a musical instrument of the chordophone
family. The standard guitar has six strings but four, seven,
eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen and eighteen
string guitars are also available. The three main types of acous
tic guitar are the classical guitar, the steelstring flattop gui
tar, and the archtop guitar.
Guitars are recognized as one of the primary instruments
in flamenco, jazz, blues, country, mariachi, rock music, and
many forms of pop. They can also be a solo classical instru
ment. Guitars may be played acoustically; the tone is produced
by the vibration of the strings which is amplified by the body
of the guitar which acts as a large hollow resonating chamber,
or they may rely on an amplifier that can electronically ma
nipulate tone. Such electric guitars were introduced in the
1930’s, and they have continued to have a profound influence
on popular culture since then.
Traditionally guitars have been constructed of varios woods
and strung with animal gut, or more recently, with either
nylon or steel strings. Guitars are made and repaired by
luthiers.
The modern word, guitar, was adopted into English from
Spanish “guitarra” (German “Gitarre”, French “guitare”),
loaned from the medieval Andalusian Arabic qitara, itself
52 Английский язык для музыкантов
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 53

derived from the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the
earlier Greek word kithara, a descendant of Old Persian sihtar
(Tar means string in Persian). Some types of guitars, which
are themselves related to these European instruments, were
originated in America.
Now look through the construction of the guitar (p. 52).

TYPES OF GUITARS

1. Acoustic guitars.
An acoustic guitar is that uses only acoustic (as opposed to
electronic) means to transmit the strings’ vibrational energy
to the air in order to produce a sound. This typically involves
the use of a sound board and a sound box to amplify the vibra
tions of the string.
The source of sound in an acoustic guitar is the string,
which is plucked with the fingers or with a plectrum. The
string vibrates at a fundamental frequency but also creates
many harmonics at different frequencies. The frequencies
produced depend on string length, mass and tension. The string
causes the soundboard and sound box to vibrate, and as these
have their own resonances at certain frequencies, they am
plify some string harmonics more strongly than others, hence
affecting the timbre produced by the instrument.
2. Renaissance and Baroque guitars.
Renaissance and Baroque guitars are the gracile ances
tors of the modern classical guitar. They are substantially
smaller and more delicate than the classical guitar, and gen
erate a much quieter sound. The strings are paired in courses
as in a modern 12string guitar, but they only have four or
five courses of strings rather than six. They were more often
used as rhythm instruments in ensembles than as solo instru
ments, and can often be seen in that role in early music
performances. Renaissance and Baroque guitars are easily
distinguished because the Renaissance guitar is very plain
and the Baroque guitar is very ornate, with ivory or wood
inlays all over the neck and body, and a papercutout in
verted “wedding cake” inside the hole.
54 Английский язык для музыкантов

3. Classical guitars.
These are typically strung with nylon strings, played in a
seated position and are used to play a diversity of musical
styles including classical music. The classical guitar’s wide,
flat neck allows the musician to play scales, arpeggios and
certain chord forms more easily.
4. Flamenco guitars.
The flamenco guitar is similar to the classical guitar, but
of lighter construction, with a cypress body and spruce top.
It is associated with a more percussive tone. A distinguishing
feature of all flamenco guitars is the tapping plates (gol
peadores) glued to the table, to protect them against the taps
with the fingernails that are an essential feature of the fla
menco style.
5. The modern Tenstring guitar.
The Modern/Yepes 10string guitar adds four strings tuned
in such a way that they can resonate in unison with any of the
12 chromatic notes that can occur on the higher strings.
6. Portuguese guitar.
The Portuguese guitar or Portuguese guitarra (Portu
guese: guitarra portuguesa) is a plucked string instrument
with twelve steel strings, strung in six courses comprising
two strings each. It is one of the few musical instruments to
still use the socalled Preston tuners. It is most notably asso
ciated with fado.
7. Flattop (steelstring) guitars.
Similar to the classical guitar, however, within the varied
sizes of the steelstringed guitar the body size is usually sig
nificantly larger than a classical guitar and it has a narrower,
reinforced neck and stronger structural design. The steel
strings produce a brighter tone, and according to many play
ers, a louder sound. The acoustic guitar is used in many kinds
of music including folk, country, bluegrass, pop, jazz and
blues.
8. Archtop guitars.
These are steelstring instruments in which the top (and
often the back) of the instrument are carved from a solid billet
in a curved rather than a flat shape. The typical archtop
guitar has a large, deep, hollow body whose form is much like
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 55

that of a mandolin or violin family instrument. Nowadays,


most archtops are equipped with magnetic pickups and are
therefore both acoustic and electric. Fhole archtop guitars
were immediately adopted upon their release by both jazz and
country musicians and have remained particularly popular in
jazz music, usually with flatwound strings.
9. SelmerMaccaferri guitars.
SelmerMaccaferri guitars. The Selmer Guitar (often called
a “SelmerMaccaferri” or just “Maccaferri” by anglophones,
as its inventor’s rather than manufacturer’s name was stressed
in the early British advertising) is an unusual acoustic guitar
best known as the favored instrument of Django Reinhardt. It
was produced by Selmer from 1932 to about 1952.
In its archetypal steelstring Jazz/Orchestra form it is
quite an unusuallooking instrument, distinguished by a fairly
large body with squarish bouts, and either a “D”shaped or
longitudinal oval soundhole. The strings pass over a moveable
bridge and are gathered at the tail like a mandolin. The top of
the guitar is gently arched or domed — achieved by bending a
flat piece of wood rather than by the violinstyle carving used
in archtop guitars; the top is also rather thin at about 2 mm.
It has a comparatively wide fretboard (about 47 mm at the nut)
and a snakeshaped slotted headstock. The back and top are
both ladderbraced, which was the norm for French and Italian
steelstring guitars of the time (unlike American guitars, which
frequently employed Xbraced tops by this period).
10. 12strings guitars.
The twelvestring guitar usually has steel strings and is
widely used in folk music, blues and rock and roll. Rather than
having only six strings, the 12string guitar has six courses
made up of two strings each, like a mandolin or lute. The
highest two courses are tuned in unison, while the others are
tuned in octaves. The 12string guitar is also made in electric
forms.
11. Russian guitars.
These are sevenstring acoustic guitars which were com
mon for Russian guitarists throughout the 19th and well into
the 20th centuries. The guitar is traditionally tuned an open G
major.
56 Английский язык для музыкантов

12. Acoustic bass guitars.


The acoustic bass guitar (also called ABG or acoustic bass)
is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to,
though usually somewhat larger than a steelstring acoustic
guitar. Like the traditional electric bass guitar and the double
bass, the acoustic bass guitar commonly has four strings, which
are normally tuned E–A–D–G, an octave below the lowest four
strings of the 6string guitar, which is the same tuning pitch
as an electric bass guitar. Because it can be difficult to hear an
acoustic bass guitar without an amplifier, even in settings
with other acoustic instruments, most acoustic basses have
pickups, either magnetic or piezoelectric or both, so that they
can be amplified with a bass amp.
Traditional music of Mexico features several varieties of
acoustic bass guitars, such as the guitarro´n, a very large,
deepbodied Mexican 6string acoustic bass guitar played in
Mariachi bands, the leo´n, plucked with a pick, and the bajo
sexto, with six pairs of strings.
13. Guitarron.
The guitarro´n mexicano (literally “Mexican large guitar”
in Spanish, the suffix “o´n” denoting “large”) or Mexican
guitarron, is a very large, deepbodied Mexican 6string acous
tic bass played traditionally in mariachi groups. Although
similar to the guitar, it is not a derivative of that instrument,
but was independently developed from the sixteenthcentury
Spanish bajo de uña. It achieves audibility by its great size,
and does not require electric amplification for performances
in small venues. The guitarro´n is fretless with heavy gauge
strings, most commonly nylon for the high three and metal for
the low three. The guitarro´n is usually played by doubling
notes at the octave, a practice facilitated by the standard
guitarro´n tuning A1–D2–G2–C3–E3–A3. Sometimes the high
A is lowered an octave putting it one octave above the low A.
The guitarro´n was the inspiration behind Ernie Ball’s de
velopment of the first modern acoustic bass guitar, released
on the market in 1972.
14. Tenor guitars.
The tenor guitar or fourstring guitar is a slightly smaller,
fourstring relative of the steelstring acoustic guitar or elec
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 57

tric guitar. The instrument in its acoustic form was developed


so that players of the fourstring tenor banjo could double on
the guitar. Later, solidbody electric models were also pro
duced. Tenor guitars are four stringed instruments normally
made in the shape of a guitar, or sometimes with a lutelike
pear shaped body or, more rarely, with a round banjolike
wooden body. They can be acoustic and/or electric and they
can come in the form of flat top, archtop, woodbodied or
metalbodied resonator or solidbodied instruments. Tenor
guitars normally have a scale length (from bridge to nut) of
between 21 and 23 inches.
15. Harp guitars.
The harp guitar (or “harpguitar”) is a guitarbased
stringed instrument with a history of well over two centuries.
While there are several unrelated historical stringed instru
ments that have been referred to as “harpguitar” over the
centuries, its most common definition is a “guitar, in any of
its accepted forms, with any number of additional unstopped
strings that can accommodate individual plucking.” The word
“harp” is used in reference to its harplike unstopped open
strings. A harp guitar must have at least one unfretted string
lying off the main fretboard, typically played as an open string.
This family consists of many varieties of instrument con
figurations. Most readily identified are American harp gui
tars with either hollow arms, double necks or harplike frames
for supporting extra bass strings, and European bass guitars
(or contraguitars). Other harp guitars feature treble or mid
range floating strings, or various combinations of multiple
floating string banks along with a standard guitar neck.
Historically harp guitar players include the great Italian
virtuosi Pasquale Taraffo (1887–1937), Mario Maccaferri, and
Luigi Mozzani. Viennese and French virtuosos who often played
instruments with extra, floating bass strings include Carulli,
Coste, Giuliani, Mertz, Padovec and Sor. Michael Hedges was
known for occasionally using a 1920’s era harp guitar, such as
in his song “Because It’s There”. Andy McKee also plays a harp
guitar in a few of his songs, such as “Into the Ocean”. Don
Alder uses the Harp guitar in songs such as “Sayonara calm”
and “Man from Ladylane” a song dedicated to Stephen Bennett,
58 Английский язык для музыкантов

founder of the Harp Guitar Gathering and one of the top cur
rent day harp guitar players. Antoine Dufour also uses the
instrument occasionally, such as in his song “Paroxysm”. The
early generations of harp guitarists have certainly helped in
inspiring another generation of players. One such active harp
guitarists is Dan La Voie. Very few guitarists would faithfully
stick to one type of instruments for the sake of variety and
also commercial purposes. Dan La Voie has toured as a harp
guitarist for more than a decade and he still writing and per
forming regularly worldwide.
16. Extendedrange guitars.
For well over a century guitars featuring seven, eight,
nine, ten or more strings have been used as a means of minor
ity guitarists increase the range of supply available to the player.
Usually, this is — bass strings that are added. Classical guitars
with an extended range are useful for playing lute repertoire,
some of which was written for lutes with more than six courses.
A typical example — modern 11 sequences archguitar, invented
and played by Peter Blanchette.
17. Guitar battente.
The battente guitar, also called the Renaissance guitar,
is in the shape of an elongated eight and is a bit slimmer than
normal guitars. The side panels are made of narrow strips of
wood (maple or rosewood). The back is rounded and is also
made of wood strips like antique guitars. The top harmonic
panel is almost always made of fir wood. A decoration called
“the rose” is placed around the sound hole. I don’t believe it
has an acoustic function, but its possible that it was used to
conceal the interior of the instrument. The fretboard is at the
same level as the harmonic panel and has no more than twelve
frets. The bridge is mobile, not fixed to the harmonic panel
and holds five pairs of metal strings of equal thickness. It has
inunison tuners that are fixed directly to the rear panel.
There are no lows.
With strings of the same thickness, the musician can tune
the instrument to his/her needs and liking, but usually has the
standard tuning of: E, B, G, D and A (from first to fifth).
Obviously the third and fourth strings (D and A) will be lower
by one tone with respect to the first two (E and B). The third
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 59

string (G) is the heaviest. This is called a crossed tuning and


produces an enormous amount of harmony. Therefore the sound
of the Renaissance guitar blends particulary well with the
human voice.
The largest manufacturer of the Renaissance guitar is in
Bisignano Italy, where many generations of the De Bonis fam
ily have been dedicated to the construction of this instru
ment.
18. Electric guitars.
Electric guitars can have solid, semihollow bodies, and
produce little sound without amplification. Electromagnetic
pickups convert the vibration of the steel strings into signals,
which are fed to an amplifier through a cable or radio trans
mitter. The sound is frequently modified by other electronic
devices or the natural distortion of valves (vacuum tubes) in
the amplifier. There are two main types of pickup, single and
double coil (or humbucker), each of which can be passive or
active. The electric guitar is used extensively in jazz, blues,
and rock and roll.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A VIOLIN
Let me introduce my remarkable instrument — the vio
lin. The violin is sometimes informally called a fiddle. The
word violin comes from the middle latin word “vitula”, mean
ing stringed instrument. The violin, while it has ancient ori
gins, acquired most of its modern characteristics in 16th cen
tury Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the
18th century. The first makers of violins borrowed from three
types of current instruments: rebec, the Renaissance fiddle,
the lira da braccio.
The most famous and the best violins were made by Gasparo
da Salo, Giovanni Paolo Maggini, Stradivari, Guarneri and
Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and
Cremona. The oldest documented violin had four strings, like
the modern violin, constructed in 1555 by Andrea Amati, but
the date is very doubtful.
The earliest stringed instruments were mostly plucked.
Bowed instruments may have originated in the equestrian
60 Английский язык для музыкантов

Violin

cultures of Central Asia, an example being the Kobyz or Kyl


kobyz is an ancient Kazakh string instrument or Mongolian
instrument Morin huur. Turkish and Mongolian horsemen from
Inner Asia were probably the world’s earliest fiddlers. Their
twostringed upright fiddles were strung with horsehair strings,
played with horsehair bows.
The modern European violin evolved from various bowed
stringed instruments which were brought from the Middle
East and Byzantine Empire.
The violin is played by musicians in a wide variety of
musical genres, including Baroque music, classical, jazz, folk
music, poppunk and rock and roll, etc.
Someone who plays the violin is called a violinist or a
fiddler. The violinist produces sound by drawing a bow across
one or more strings, by plucking the strings with either hand,
or by a variety of other techniques.
The parts of a violin are usually made of different types
of wood, although electric violins may not be made of wood at
all, since their sound may not depend on specific acoustic
charactiristics of the instruments construction.
Significant changes occurred in the construction of the
violin in the 18th century, particularly in the length and angle
of the neck, as well as a heavier bass bar. The majority of old
instruments has undergone these modifications, and hence are
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 61

in a significantly different state than when they left the hands


of their makers, doubtless with differences in sound and re
sponse. But these instruments in their present condition set
the standart for perfection in violin craftsmanship and sound
and violin makers all over the world try to come as close to this
ideal as possible.
The violin immediately became very popular both among
street musicians and the nobility, illustrated by the fact that
the French king Charles IX ordered Amati to construct 24 vio
lins for him in 1560. The oldest surviving violin, dated inside,
is from this set, and is known as the Charles IX, made in
Cremona.
The finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the
world is the Gasparo da Salo owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke
of Austria and later, from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole
Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for
his very powerful and beautiful tone, similar to those of a
Guarneri. It is now in the Kustindustrimuseum in Bergen (Nor
way). “The Messiah” or “Le Messie” also known as the “Salabue”
made by Antonio Stradivari in 1716 remains pristine. It is now
located in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford.
To this day, instruments from the socalled Golden Age
of violin making, especially those made by Stradivari and
Guarneri del Gesu, are the most soughtafter instruments by
both collectors and performers. The current record amount
paid for a Stradivari violin was $3,544,000 at an auction on
May 16, 2006. All Stradivarius violins have unique names; the
most expensive Stradivari violin is known as the Hammer,
referring to its first owner, Christian Hammer. It was made
in 1707.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A TROMBONE

The trombone is a wind musical instrument in the brass


family.
The word trombone derives from Italian “tromba” (trum
pet) and one (a suffix meaning “large”), so the name means
“large trumpet”. The most frequently encountered trombones
are the tenor and bass trombones.
62 Английский язык для музыкантов

Trombone was invented in the 15th century, but it also was


known in earlier centuries.
My musical instrument consists of the following parts.

Trombone’s construction:
1 — tuning slide; 2 — mouthpiece; 3 — bell; 4 — water key; 5 — main slide; 6 —
second slide brace; 7 — first slide brace; 8 — slide lock ring.

Trombone has a nice soft timbre, great range and a rich


solo repertoire. It is used in symphonic, wind and jazz bands,
also in ensembles and brass quintet. A person who plays the
trombone is called a trombonist or a trombone player.
Benjamin Britten said of the trombone as: “Not one sinner
played trombone to the Kingdom of Heaven”.
No instrument conveys the emotion better than the trom
bone. I love my instrument!

MY INSTRUMENT IS A TRUMPET

A trumpet is a musical instrument. It is the highest regis


ter in the brass family. Trumpets are among the oldest musical
instruments, dating back to at least 1500 BC. They are played
by blowing air through closed lips, producing a “buzzing” sound
that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside
the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have prima
rily been constructed of brass tubing, usually bent twice into
a rounded oblong shape.
There are several types of a trumpet. The most common is
a transposing instrument pitched in B$ with a tubing length of
about 148 cm. Earlier trumpets did not have valves, but mod
ern instruments generally have either three piston valves or,
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 63

Рис. 27
Construction of trumpets:
1 — mouthpiece; 2 — valves; 3 — bell; 4 — additional crown; 5 — main crown.

more rarely, three rotary valves. Each valve increases the


length of tubing when engaged, thereby lowering the pitch.
A musician who plays the trumpet is called a trumpet player
or a trumpeter.

TYPES OF TRUMPETS

1. Alto trumpet in G or in F, sounding on the perfect fourth


or fifth below the written notes, and is intended for the execu
tion of sounds in the low register. Currently used rarely, and
in the works, which provides for its part, used flugelhorn.

2. The bass trumpet in B, sounding an octave lower than


usual pipes and a large lower Nona written notes. Out of use
in the second half of the XX century, now it is performed on
trombone — an instrument similar to it on the register, tim
bre and structure.
64 Английский язык для музыкантов

3. Piccolo trumpet (small tube), constructed in the late


XIX century, is currently experiencing a new upsurge in con
nection with the renewed interest in early music.

MY MUSICAL INSTRUMENT IS THE HORN

Horn — German. “waldhorn”, “forest horn”, Ital. “corno”,


Eng. “french horn”, Fr. “coro”.
The horn is a brass instrument made of more than 20
feet. The instrument is often informally known as the French
horn, commonly used name for the instrument in the United
States. This is the standard orchestral and concert band in
strument and its valve combinations allow for the produc
tion of every chromatic tone. The use of valves opened up a
great deal more flexibility in playing in different keys.
Around 1815 the use of pistons (later rotary valves) was
introduced.
Early horns were commonly pitched in B$ alto, A, A$, G,
F, E, E$, D, C, and B$ basso. Pitch may also be controlled by the
position of the hand in the bell since the hand is acoustically
beneficial to the horn because it shortens the diameter of the
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 65

Horn. General characteristics:


1 — leadpipe; 2 — adjustable handrest (Ducks foot); 3 — spit valve; 4 — fourth
valve for changing between F and Bflat pitch; 5 — valve levers; 6 — rotary
valves; 7 — slides; 8 — long tubing for F pitch with slide; 9 — general slide; 10 —
short tubing for Bflat pitch with slide; 11 — bellpipe; 12–13 — bell.

bell. The pitch of any note can easily be raised or lowered based
on the hand position in the be A crucial element in playing the
horn deals with the mouthpiece.
A musician who plays the horn is called a horn player
(a hornist). In the mid18th century horn players began to in
sert the right hand into the bell to change the length of the
instrument, adjusting the tuning up to the distance between
two adjacent harmonics depending on how much of the open
ing was covered. This technique, known as handstopping,
credited around 1750.

TYPES OF HORNS

Horns may be classified in single horn, double horn, com


pensating double horn, and triple horn as well as the versatil
ity of detachable bells.
A horn without valves is known as a natural horn, chang
ing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument (simi
66 Английский язык для музыкантов

Single horn Double horn

Triple horn Vienna horn

Natural horn
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I playNatural horn 67

Mellophone Marching horn

Wagner tuba

lar to a bugle). A natural horn has no valves, but can be tuned


to a different key.
The marching horn is quite similar to the mellophone in
shape and appearance, but is pitched in the key.
The Wagner tuba is a rare brass instrument that is essential
ly a horn modified to have a larger bell throat and a vertical bell.

MY INSTRUMENT IS THE OBOE


The oboe is a sopranoranged, double reed musical instru
ment of the woodwind family made from a wooden tube roughly
65 cm (25–1/2 inches) long, with metal keys, a conical bore
and a flared bell. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed
68 Английский язык для музыкантов

Oboe

and vibrating a column of air. The distinctive oboe tone is


versatile, and has been described as “bright”.
In English, prior to 1770, the instrument was called the
hautbois, hoboy, or French hoboy (pronounced “HOEboy”,
borrowed from the French name, a compound word made of
haut [“high, loud”] and bois [“wood, woodwind”]). The spell
ing “oboe” was adopted into English in 1770 from the Italian
oboè, a transliteration in that language’s orthography of the
17th century pronunciation of the French name.
The oboe first appeared in the mid17th century, when it
was called hautbois. This name was also used for its predeces
sor, the shawm, from which the basic form of the hautbois was
derived. Major differences between the two instruments in
clude the division of the hautbois into three sections, or joints
(which are allowed while more precise manufacture), and the
elimination of the pirouette, the wooden ledge below the reed
which allowed players to rest their lips.
The oboe was the main melody instrument in early military
bands, until it was succeeded by the clarinet.The members of
the oboe family from top: heckelphone, bass oboe, coranglais,
oboe d’amore and piccolo oboe. Only coranglais and oboe are
used widely. The others types of the oboe family are used rarely.
Folk versions of the oboe, sometimes equipped with exten
sive keywork, are found throughout Europe. These include the
musette (France) and the Piston oboe and bombarde (Brit
tany), the piffaro and ciaramella (Italy), and the xirimia or
chirimia (Spain). Similar oboelike instruments, mostly be
lieved to derive from Middle Eastern models, are also found
throughout Asia as well as in North Africa.
Today, the oboe is used in classical, traditional, folk, jazz,
rock and pop music.
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 69

MY INSTRUMENT IS THE FLUTE


PICCOLO FLUTE

A flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family.


Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, the flute is an
aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound
from the flow of air across an opening. The flutes are the
earliest known musical instruments. A number of flutes dat
ing to about 43.000 to 35.000 years ago have been found in the
Swabian Alps region of Germany.
The word flute first entered the English language during
the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flo(y)te,
possibly from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt,
or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High
German floite or Dutch fluit. Attempts to trace the word back
to a Latin root have been pronounced “phonologically impos
sible” or “inadmissable”. The first known use of the word flute
was in the 14th century.
The flute produces sound when a stream of air directed
across a hole in the instrument creates a vibration of air at the

Flute

Piccolo flute
70 Английский язык для музыкантов

hole. In its most basic form, a flute can be an open tube which
is blown like a bottle. There are several broad classes of flutes.
With most flutes, the musician blows directly across the edge
of the mouthpiece, with 1/4 of their bottom lip covering the
embouchure hole. However, some flutes, such as the whistle,
gemshorn, flageolet, recorder, tin whistle, tonette, fujara,
and ocarina have a duct that directs the air onto the edge.
Another division is between sideblown (or transverse) flutes,
such as the Western concert flute, piccolo, fife, dizi and
bansuri; and endblown flutes, such as the ney, xiao, kaval,
danso, shakuhachi, Anasazi flute and quena. Flutes may be
open at one or both ends. The ocarina, xun, pan pipes, police
whistle, and bosun’s whistle are closedended. Openended
flutes such as the concert flute and the recorder have more
harmonics, and thus more flexibility for the player, and
brighter timbres.

TYPES OF THE FLUTE


WESTERN CONCERT FLUTE
The Western concert flute, a descendant of the 19th cen
tury German flute, is a transverse flute that is closed at the
top. The size and placement of tone holes, the key mechanism,
and the fingering system used to produce the notes in the
flute’s range were evolved from 1832 to 1847 by Theobald
Boehm, and greatly improved the instrument’s dynamic range
and intonation over those of its predecessors.

Western concert flute

Indian flute
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 71

THE INDIAN FLUTE


The bamboo flute is an important instrument in Indian
classical music, and developed independently of the West
ern flute. The Indian flutes are very simple compared to the
Western counterparts; they are made of bamboo and are
keyless.

CHINESE FLUTE
In China there are many varieties of dizi, or Chinese flute,
with different sizes, structures (with or without a resonance
membrane) and number of holes (from 6 to 11) and intonations
(different keys). Most are made of bamboo, but can come in
wood, jade, bone, and iron.

JAPANESE FLUTE
The Japanese flute, called the fue, encompasses a large
number of musical flutes from Japan, both of the endblown
and transverse varieties.

Chinese flute

Japanese flute

MY INSTRUMENT IS A CLARINET
My instrument is a clarinet. The word clarinet may have
entered the English language via the French clarinette (the
feminine diminutive of Old French clarin or clarion), or from
Provencal clarin, “oboe”. It “is plainly a diminutive of clarino,
the Italian for trumpet”, and the Italian clarinetto is the source
of the name in many other languages.
The clarinet was invented around 1700 in Nuremburg
musical master Johann Christoph Denner. The clarinet is a
type of a woodwind instrument that has a singlereed mouth
72 Английский язык для музыкантов

Clarinet

1 2 3 4 5

6 7

1 — piccolo clarinet; 2 — вasset clari


net; 3 — basset — horn clarinet; 4 —
alto clarinet; 5 — contra — alto clari
net; 6 — bass clarinet; 7 — contra
bass clarinet.
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 73

piece, a straight cylindrical tube with an approximately cylin


drical bore, and a flaring bell.
There are many types of clarinets of differing sizes and
pitches, comprising a large family of instruments.
Clarinet bodies have been made from a variety of materials
including wood, plastic, hard rubber, metal, resin and ivory.
Mouthpieces are generally made of hard rubber, although some
inexpensive mouthpieces may be made of plastic. Other mate
rials such as crystal/glass, wood, ivory, and metal have also
been used. Ligatures are often made out of metal and plated in
nickel, silver or gold. Other ligature materials include wire,
wire mesh, plastic, naugahyde, string, or leather.

1 — clarinet reed, mouthpiece, and liga


ture; 2 — barrel of a B$ soprano clari
net; 3 — upper joint of a Boehm system
Clarinet; 4 — lower Joint of a Boehm
system Clarinet; 5 — bell of a B$ so
prano clarinet.
74 Английский язык для музыкантов

A Boehm system soprano clarinet. All modern clarinets


have similar components.
Today, the clarinet is used in jazz and classical ensembles,
in chamber groups, and as a solo instrument.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A BASSOON

The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed


family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor
clefs, and occasionally the treble. Bassoons are double reed in
struments like the oboe and the English horn. The word bassoon
comes from French “bassoon” and from Italian “bassone”.
The bassoon disassembles into six main pieces, including
the reed, the bell, the bass joint, the boot, the wing joint and
the bocal, a crooked metal tube.
Music historians generally consider the dulcian to be the
forerunner of the modern bassoon. The origins of the dulcian

Bassoon
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 75

are obscure, but by the mid16th century it was available in as


many as eight different sizes, from soprano to great bass.
Otherwise, dulcian technique was rather primitive, with eight
finger holes and two keys, indicating that it could play in only
a limited number of key signatures. The dulcian came to be
known as fagotto in Italy. The baroque bassoon was a newly
invented instrument, rather than a simple modification of the
old dulcian. The dulcian continued to be used well into the 18th
century by Bach and others. Appearing in its modern form in
the 19th century, the bassoon figures prominently in orches
tral, concert band, and chamber music literature.
The bassoon embouchure is a very important aspect of
producing a full, round bassoon tone. The bassoon embou
chure is made by putting one’s lips together as if one were
whistling and then dropping the jaw down as in a yawning
motion. Both sets of teeth should be covered by the lips in
order to protect the reed and control applied pressure. The
reed is then placed in the mouth, forming a seal around the
reed with the lips and facial muscles.

MY INSTRUMENT IS TIMPANI

Timpani or kettledrums are musical instruments of the


percussion family. Timpani derives from the Latin tympanum
(pl. tympana), which is the latinisation of the Greek word
tu´mpanon (tumpanon, pl. tumpana), “a hand drum”. The word
timpani has been widely adopted in the English language, some
English speakers choose to use the word kettledrums.

Timpani
76 Английский язык для музыкантов

Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple


of the classical orchestra by the last third of the 18th century.
The modern timpani evolved in the 18th and 19th centuries
from the simple 12th century membranophone of the Naker to
a complex instrument, consisting of a suspended kettle with a
foot operated clutch, capable of rapid tuning. The instrument
underwent modifications in the 16th and 17th centuries that
led to its incorporation into chamber ensembles. During the
18th and 19th centuries, modifications in its design and con
struction, and rising interest in the symphony orchestra led to
changes not only to the ensemble’s size, but also to composers’
use of specific instruments within the orchestra.
They consist of a skin called a head stretched over a large
bowl traditionally made of copper.
The basic timpani drum consists of a drumhead stretched
across the opening of a bowl typically made of copper. The drum
head is affixed to a hoop (also called a fleshhoop) held onto the
bowl by a counterhoop, which is then held by means of a number
of tuning screws called tension rods placed regularly around the
circumference. Most timpani have six or eight tension rods.
The shape of the bowl contributes to the quality of the drum.
For example, hemispheric bowls produce brighter tones while
parabolic bowls produce darker tones. Another factor that af
fects the timbre of the drum is the quality of the bowl’s surface.
Timpani come in a variety of sizes from about 84 centime
ters (33 inches) in diameter down to piccolo timpani of 30 cen
timeters (12 inches) or less.
The most common type of timpani is the pedal timpani.
The pedal is connected to the tension screws or metal rods
called the spider.

Pedal timpani Timpani sticks


Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 77

They are played by striking the head with a specialized


drum stick called a timpani stick or timpani mallet. Timpani
sticks are used in pairs. They have two components: a shaft
and a head.
Timpani are used in many types of musical ensembles in
cluding concert, marching, and even some rock bands.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A PIANO

The piano is a musical instrument using a keyboard. It is


widely used in classical and jazz music for solo performances,
ensemble use, chamber music and accompaniment, and for
composing and rehearsal.
The piano usually has a protective wooden case surrounding
the soundboard and metal strings. The metal strings are struck
(by internally attached wooden blocks) when the keys are pressed
down. But when the particular key(s) are released by the pianist,
the strings’ vibration will come to a stop, ultimately putting a
stop to the sound made by that key. The note can be prolonged by
the use of the pedals, typically there are two or three ones),
attached at the bottom of the piano near the pianist’s feet.
Some early pianos had shapes and designs that are no longer
in use. The square piano (not truly square, but rectangular)
was cross strung at an extremely acute angle above the ham
mers, with the keyboard set along the long side. Modern up
right and grand pianos attained their present forms by the end
of the 19th century.
In grand pianos, the frame and strings are horizontal,
with the strings extending away from the keyboard. The ac
tion lies beneath the strings, and uses gravity as its means of
return to a state of rest.
Upright pianos, also called vertical pianos, are more com
pact because the frame and strings are vertical. The hammers
move horizontally, and return to their resting position via
springs, which are susceptible to degradation. Upright pianos
with unusually tall frames and long strings are sometimes
called upright grand pianos. Some authors classify modern
pianos according to their height and to modifications of the
action that are necessary to accommodate the height.
78 Английский язык для музыкантов

In 1863, Henri Fourneaux invented the player piano, which


plays itself from a piano roll. In 1954 a German company
exhibited a wireless piano. The wires were replaced by metal
bars of different alloys that replicated the standard wires when
played.
Digital pianos use digital sampling technology to repro
duce the sound of each piano note. Digital pianos can be so
phisticated, with features including working pedals, weighted
keys, multiple voices, and MIDI interfaces.
Almost every modern piano has 52 white keys and 36 black
keys for a total of 88 keys (seven octaves plus a minor third,
from A0 to C8). Many older pianos only have 85 keys (seven
octaves from A0 to A7). Some piano manufacturers extend the
range further in one or both directions.
The toy piano manufacturer Schoenhut started manufac
turing both grands and uprights with only 44 or 49 keys, and
shorter distance between the keyboard and the pedals.
Pianos have pedals. In the 18th century, some pianos used
levers pressed upward by the player’s knee instead of pedals.
Most grand pianos in the US have three pedals: the soft pedal
(una corda), sostenuto, and sustain pedal (from left to right,
respectively), while in Europe, the standard is two pedals: the
soft pedal and the sustain pedal. Most modern upright pianos
also have three pedals: soft pedal, practice pedal and sustain
pedal, though older or cheaper models may lack the practice
pedal. In Europe the standard for upright pianos is two pedals:
the soft and the sustain pedals.
The sostenuto pedal, invented in 1844 by JeanLouis
Boisselot and copied by the Steinway firm in 1874, allowed a
wider range of effects. The sustain pedal (or damper pedal) is
often simply called the pedal. The soft pedal or una corda pedal
is placed leftmost in the row of pedals. In grand pianos it shifts
the entire action/keyboard assembly to the right (a very few
instruments have shifted left) so that the hammers hit two of
the three strings for each note. The effect is to soften the note
as well as change the tone. In uprights this action is not pos
sible; instead the pedal moves the hammers closer to the strings,
allowing the hammers to strike with less kinetic energy. This
produces a slightly softer sound, but no change in timbre.
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 79

Рис. 68
A schematic depiction of the construction of a pianoforte:
1 — frame; 2 — lid, front part; 3 — capo bar; 4 — damper; 5 — lid, back part;
6 — damper mechanism; 7 — sostenuto rail; 8–10 — pedal mechanism, rods;
11 — pedals: right (sustain/damper), middle (sostenuto), left (soft/unacorda);
12 — bridge; 13 — hitch pin; 14 — frame; 15 — sound board; 16 — string.

III. Look at the pictures and fill in the gasps.


80 Английский язык для музыкантов

MY INSTRUMENT IS A HARPSICHORD

A harpsichord is a musical instrument similar to a piano


played by means of a keyboard. It produces sound by plucking
a string when a key is pressed.
“Harpsichord” designates the whole family of similar
plucked keyboard instruments, including the smaller virgin
als, muselar, and spinet.
Generally, the harpsichord has two or more sets of strings,
each of which produces different tone qualities. One set may
sound an octave higher than the others and is called a 4foot
register, whereas a set of strings at normal pitch is called an 8
foot register. In some 20th century harpsichords, a 16foot reg
ister, sounding an octave lower, is added, but this addition was
extremely rare in old harpsichords. Two sets of 8foot strings
may produce distinct tone quality because they are plucked at
different points or with plectra of different material.
The tone of the harpsichord is amplified by a soundboard
placed beneath the horizontal plane of the strings, which pass
over a bridge that is glued to the soundboard and that trans
mits their vibration to it. The plucking mechanism consists of
sets of jacks, thin vertical strips of wood that rest on the far
ends of the keys and pass through a lower fixed guide and an
upper slide, or movable guide; the slide moves a given set of
jacks either slightly toward or slightly away from its set of
strings, depending on whether that set is to be used or unused.
A pivoted tongue at the top of each jack is pierced in its upper
half to take a plectrum of quill or leather and is held upright
by a spring of wire or bristle. A cloth or felt damper completes
the jack; this quiets the string when the key is released and the
plectrum falls beneath the string.
The earliest surviving harpsichords were built in Italy in
the early 16th century. Little is known of the early history of
the harpsichord, but, during the 16th–18th century, it under
went considerable evolution and became one of the most im
portant European instruments. National schools of construc
tion arose, notably in Italy, Flanders, France, England, and
Germany; and highly decorated cases with painted lids became
fashionable. Most of the great Baroque composers played or
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 81
82 Английский язык для музыкантов

wrote for the harpsichord. By the middle of the 18th century


the harpsichord had grown to a normal compass of five full
octaves, three or more sets of strings and jacks, and often two
keyboards. At this time it began to compete with the new piano
forte, which was capable of playing soft or loud according to the
fingers’ pressure on the keys. The harpsichord is incapable of
this dynamic gradation and was overwhelmed in popularity by
the piano. The harpsichord was revived in the late 19th century,
and it continues to evolve — but not necessarily to improve —
in the hands of modern builders and composers.

MY INSTRUMENT IS A CLAVICHORD
The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instru
ment known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance,
Baroque and Classical eras. Historically, it was widely used as
a practice instrument and as an aid to composition, not being
loud enough for larger performances. The clavichord pro
duces sound by striking brass or iron strings with small metal
blades called tangents. Vibrations are transmitted through
the bridge(s) to the soundboard. The name is derived from the
Latin word “clavis”, meaning “key” and chorda meaning “string
musical instrument”.
The clavichord was invented in the early fourteenth cen
tury. The clavichord was very popular from the 16th century to
the 18th century, but mainly flourished in Germanspeaking
lands, Scandinavia. It had fallen out of use by 1850. In the late
1890’s, Arnold Dolmetsch revived clavichord construction,
helped to popularize the instrument. Although most of the
instruments built before the 1730’s were small (four octaves,
four feet long). The latest instruments were built up to seven
feet long with a six octave range. Clavichord was revived in
the 20th century. The right end contains the soundboard, the
bridge, and the tuning pins. The strings run horizontally from
the tuning pins over the bridge to the hitch pins in the left, or
bass, end, where felt strips woven through the strings act as
dampers. A small brass blade, the tangent, stands on each key
just below its string. When the key is depressed, the tangent
strikes the string, dividing it into two parts. It thus both
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 83

Schematic diagram of clavichord mechanism:


A/B — keys; 1A/1B — tangents; 2A/2B — keylevers; 3 — string; 4 — soundboard;
5 — bridgepin, next to tuning peg; 6 — damping felt, next to hitchpin. (Note
that this sketch is a simplification. In the actual instrument, the strings run
perpendicular to the keylevers. In other words, the strings run lengthwise in the
instrument.)

determines the vibrating length of the string and causes it to


sound. The string segment between the tangent and bridge
vibrates, producing a note; the left part is damped. When the
key is released, the tangent falls away from the string, which
is then silenced by the felt.
The usual compass is from 3 1/2 to 5 octaves, with one or
two strings for each note. Tangents of adjacent keys (which
produce notes that are unlikely to be played together) some
times share a pair of strings. Such clavichords are fretted;
those with independent strings for each key are unfretted.
Alone among the forerunners of the piano, the clavichord
can achieve dynamic variation — piano, forte, crescendo, di
minuendo — by the player’s touch alone. It can produce vi
brato, or bebung, if finger pressure on the key is varied. Its
tone is silvery and soft, best suited for intimate music such as
CPE Bach’s keyboard sonatas and fantasias.

IV. Choose one of the given texts:


n folk instruments;
n wind insrtuments.

V. Name the instruments used in:


n Symphony orchestra;
n Orchestra of folk instruments;
n Jazz band.

VI. Read the text and find.


1. English equivalents:
84 Английский язык для музыкантов

n овладевать техникой исполнения (на музыкальном ин


струменте) (А);
n клавесин с двойной клавиатурой (А);
n метод обучения (В);
n подготовительное упражнение, разминка перед основ
ной частью урока (В);
n работать над трудными пассажами (В);
n короткое (музыкальное) произведение (В);
n играть по частям (В).

A. Mrs and Mr Parker lived in a Victorian house next to


ours, and Mr Parker was my piano teacher. He commuted to
Wall Street, where he was a securities analyst, but he had
studied at Juilliard and gave lessons on the side — for the
pleasure of it, not for money. His only students were me and
the church organist, who was learning technique on a double
keyboard harpsichord Mr Parker had built one spring.
B. On Wednesday afternoons, Mr Parker came home on an
early train, and I had my lesson. Mr Parker’s teaching method
never varied. He never scolded or corrected. The first fifteen
minutes were devoted to a warmup in which I could play
anything I liked. Then Mr Parker played the lesson of the
week. His playing was terrifically precise, but his eyes became
dreamy and unfocused. Then I played the same lesson, and
after that we worked on the difficult passages, but basically he
wanted me to hear my mistakes. When we began a new piece,
we played it part by part, taking turns, over and over.
C. After that, we sat in the solarium and discussed the
next week’s lesson. Mr Parker usually played a record and
talked in detail about the composer, his life and times, and the
form. With the exception of Mozart and Schubert, he liked
Baroque music almost exclusively. The lesson of the week was
always Bach, which Mr Parker felt taught elegance and preci
sion. Mrs Parker used to leave us a tray of cookies and lemon
ade, cold in the summer and hot in the winter. When the
cookies were gone, the lesson was over and I left.

2. Choose the sentences describing the main character.


3. Write in order:
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play 85

1) there was a fifteenminute warmup;


2) Mr Parker played a record;
3) Mr Parker played the piece of the week;
4) Jane played anything she liked;
5) Mr Parker talked in detail about a composer’s life;
6) Jane tried to hear her mistakes;
7) Mr Parker discussed the next week’s lesson;
8) Jane played the same piece as Mr Parker;
9) Mr Parker and Jane worked on the difficult parts of
a piece;
10) they ate cookies Mrs Parker used to bring.
UNIT 4
MY FAVOURITE PIECE OF MUSIC

I. Read the text. Name the ballet by Sergei Prokofiev.


Retell the text.
They say, music plays a very important role in our life,
because it calms a man, helps understand everything. Some
times thanks to music we can find the best decision in a diffi
cult situation. So people can not live without music. We know
music is created by composers. There are so many talented,
wellknown musicians, actors and, of course, composers. Among
them there is a famous Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev.
As for me, I will never forget his ballet “The Tale of the
Stone Flower”. “The Tale of the Stone Flower” is the eighth
and the last ballet by Sergei Prokofiev. It is based on the
Russian folk tale by Pavel Bazhov, and is also the last of the
Russian ballet tradition. It was staged in the Mariinsky The
ater. The “Tale of the Stone Flower” was first staged in 1957
at the Kirov opera and ballet theater in St. Peterburg (cur
rently Mariinsky Theater).
It was ages ago but it stands out in my memory quite
vividly. I bought a ticket for a performance of twoacted bal
let. I was in the theatre in time, left my coat in the cloakroom,
bought a programme from the usher to see what the cast was.
Then I found my seat. At seven sharp the lights went down.
After a short overture the curtain rose upon the stage. Felix
Korobov conducted the orchestra. The dancing and the sets of
the ballet were superb. The Stanislavsky and Nemirovich
Danchenko Musical Theater is resuming performances of the
ballet, based on choreography by Yuri Grigirovich. In this
Unit 4. My favourite piece of Music 87

version, the main soloists were Natalya Krapivina, Georgy


Smilevsky, Anton Domashev and Dmitri Romanenko. When
the curtain fell the house burst into applause, the dancers got
many curtain calls and were presented with flowers. I advise
you to visit not only this ballet. You will enjoy.

II. Make a story about your visit to the theater. Use the
following texts.

SWAN LAKE
“Swan Lake” was composed by Pyotr Tchaikovsky in 1875–
1876. The scenario, initially in four acts by Vladimir Begichev
and Vasiliy Geltser was written on Russian folk tales as well as
an ancient German legend, which tells about the story of Odette,
a princess turned into a swan by an evil sorcerer’s curse. The
choreographer of the original production was Juluis Reisinger.
The ballet received its premiere on February 27, 1877, at the
Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow as “Swan Lake”. Most current stag
ings, including this one, are based choreographically and
musically on the 1895 revival of Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov,
first staged for the Imperial Ballet on January 15, 1895, at the
Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg.

THE BAT
The original source for the operetta “The Bat” (Die Fle
dermaus) by Johann Strauss, Jr. was a farce by German play
wright Julius Roderich Benedix “Das Gefängnis” (“The
Prison”). Another source is a French vaudeville play, “Le
reveillon”, by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halevy. However,
the peculiarly French custom of the reveillon (a midnight sup
per party) caused problems, which were solved by the decision
to adapt the play as a libretto for Johann Strauss, with reveillon
replaced by Viennese ball. The operetta premiered on 5 April
1874 at the Theatre an der Wien in Vienna, Austria and has
been the part of the regular operetta repertoire ever since. It
currently appears as number 19 on Opera America’s list of the
20 mostperformed operatic works in North America.
88 Английский язык для музыкантов

THE NUTCRACKER
“The Nutcracker”, one of the best known ballets by Pyotr
Tchaikovsky, is especially popular around Christmas time.
The fairy tale ballet in two acts and three scenes was composed
in 1891–1892, when Alexander Duma’s adaptation of the story
“The Nutcracker and the Mouse King” by E. T. A. Hoffmann
was set to music by Tchaikovsky. Staged by Marius Petipa, the
ballet was commissioned by the director of the Imperial The
atres Ivan Vsevolozhsky in 1891. The composer made a selec
tion among eight more popular music compositions from the
ballet before the ballet’s December 1892 premiere, forming
“The Nutcracker Suite”, Op. 71, intended for concert perfor
mance.
The suite was first performed under the composer’s direc
tion, on March 19, 1892 at an assembly of the St. Petersburg
branch of the Musical Society. The suite became instantly popu
lar, while the complete ballet did not achieve its great popular
ity until the mid1960’s. The current version was directed by
Yuri Grigorovich in 1966.

GISELLE
“Giselle”, a ballet by Adolphe Adam, was first presented
by the Ballet du Theatre de l’Academie Royale de Musique,
Paris, France in 1841. It has two acts and two scenes, with
a libretto by JulesHenri Vernoy de Saint Georges and
Theophile Gautier, originally choreographed by Jean Coralli
and Jules Perrot (the principal Ballerina’s dances). This
choreography derives from the revivals of Marius Petipa
for the Imperial Ballet (1884, 1899, 1903) edited by Yuri
Grigorovich. The ballet’s plot is a love triangle, which in
cludes Count Albert, Giselle, a local girl and Halarion, an
other man in the village who is in love with Giselle. In other
words, it is a tragedy.

III. Read the following texts about musical compositions.


Add some new material.
Unit 4. My favourite piece of Music 89

MY FAVOURITE PIECE OF MUSIC WRITTEN


BY S. V. RACHMANINOV
Sergei Rachmaninov is a Russian composer, a pianist vir
tuoso and a conductor. He synthesized in his music creative
principles of St. Petersburg and Moscow schools of composi
tion as well as the traditions of Western European music and
created his own unique style, subsequently proved to impact
on both the Russian and world music of the XX century. They
say, S. Rachmaninov is the best Russian composer. This is a
brief and objective characterization of Rachmaninov’s style.
My favourite piece written by S. Rachmaninov is Con
certo for Piano and Orchestra No. 2. Second Concerto for
Piano and Orchestra in CMinor, Op. 18, was composed by
Sergei Rachmaninov in 1900. For the first time it was per
formed in Moscow October 27, 1901 by the author with the
orchestra conducted by Siloti. The whole piece lasted 35 min
utes. The failure of the First Symphony in 1897 made
Rachmaninov upset. Within a few years he was in deep
creative crisis. Only at the begining of 1900 S. Rachmaninov
was able to return to active composing.
The Second Concert was the beginning of a new period in
Rachmannov’s work. The Second Concert was one of the most
popular works for piano and was included into the repertoire
of the world’s leading pianists. It was perfomed by Vladimir
Horowitz, Sviatoslav Richter, Arthur Rubinstein, Rosa Ta
markina, Byron Janis, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Nikolai Petrov,
Van Cliburn, Denis Matsuev. I believe that the Concerto for
Piano and Orchestra No. 2 is one of the best works by
S. V. Rachmaninov.

MY FAVOURITE PIECE OF MUSIC WRITTEN


BY ARAM KHACHATURIAN

My favourite piece of music is a ballet “Spartacus” or


“Spartak” by Aram Khachaturian (1903–1978). As far as
I know, Aram Khachaturian was a Soviet Armenian composer.
Sometimes he was called as one of the three “titans” of Soviet
music after Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitri Shostakovich. At the
same time he is considered to be “one of the major musicians”
90 Английский язык для музыкантов

of the 20th century. Khachaturian’s works were often influ


enced by classical European music and Armenian folk mu
sic. Born in Tiflis in 1903, he graduated from Moscow
Conservatorire in 1934. Khachaturian is famous not only for
his ballet “Spartacus” and for the “Sabre Dance” from his
ballet “Gayane”, but for his concert for the violin. His music
is used in films and TV series all over the world.
Khachaturian composed the ballet in 1954, and for this he
was awarded Lenin Prize that year. It was first choreographed
by Leonid Yakobson, in Leningrad 1956. The ballet received
its first staging at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow in 1958,
choreographed by Igor Moiseev. However it was the 1968’s
production, choreographed by Yury Grigorovich, which
achieved the greatest acclaim for the ballet. As far as it was
mentioned, “Spartacus”, the leader of the slaves, was uprising
against the Romans. It remains one of Khachaturian’s best
known works and is prominent within the repertoires of the
Bolshoi Theatre and other ballet companies in Russia. It is
worth seeing.

MY FAVORITE PIECE OF MUSIC WRITTEN


BY BEETHOVEN

Among my favorite works of music is “The Moonlight


Sonata” by Beethoven, who was not only a brilliant composer,
but a lyric poet. He could manage to transmit the sounds which
he felt himself. He did it very skillfully. Listening to his music,
we can feel the deep lyricism, running over “The Moonlight
Sonata”. Gentle music sounds are heard. These sounds seem to
product a coming storm. First, all sounds are quiet. Then they
become stronger and louder. Hearing such sounds, I can imag
ine the darkness of the sky over the sea, a silver moon among
the clouds, a wrathful sea, a storm on the sea, and the thunder
at last. Beethoven wanted to show a struggle between the man’s
clear feelings and the dark forces of the human soul, narrow
mindedness. Music sounds, composed by Beethoven, captivate
our imagination, capture, evoke certain feelings in our soul.
Music is an amazing treasury, enriching us and opening the
door to the world of beauty.
Unit 4. My favourite piece of Music 91

MY FAVORITE PIECE OF MUSIC WRITTEN


BY SHOSTAKOVICH
My favorite work is the Fifth Symphony, written in 1937
by D. Shostakovich. Born on September 25, 1906 in St. Pe
tersburg, he graduated from the Conservatoire in 1923. He
had a significant impact on many of his contemporaries and
followers and his contribution to the music development of the
XX century is widely recognized. Shostakovich’s genre is
symphoning. Among the most popular symphonies are the Fifth
and the Tenth.
The Fifth symphony, written for the orchestra, it was com
posed for: 2 flutes and piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, a bassoon
and a contrabassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, the
tuba, the timpani, the triangle, the xylophone, two harps, the
piano, strings. The composer wrote: “...The theme of my sym
phonies is the personality”. He created it in 1937. The sym
phony was first performed by Leningrad philarmonic orches
tra under the baton of Evgeny Mravinsky. It was a big success.
The symphony is divided in 4 parts (movements): Moderato,
Allegretto, Largo, Allegro non troppo. This composition has a
great artistic value. So, I should advise you to listen to it,
because it is the greatest work and worth listening.

MY FAVORITE PIECE OF MUSIC WRITTEN


BY CHOPIN

My favorite piece of music is Chopin’s “Revolutionary


Etude”. There are many composers, whose compositions gradu
ally win the heart of a listener. There are musical works captur
ing a listener instantly from the first sounds of music. Among
these works are Chopin’s pieces which are bright and memo
rable. His etude is really a great work. The “Revolutionaly
Etude” begins with the dissonance playing by the right hand
after which of an average in the low register. The masterly
equipment here acts not as the purpose, but as means of disclo
sure of an artistic image. Each passage, each impressive detail
works for the poetic idea. It creates the national character of
Polish people. This piece of music is very important not only
for professional musicians but also for all fans of music.
92 Английский язык для музыкантов

MY FAVORITE PIECE OF MUSIC WRITTEN


BY GIUSEPPE VERDI
I like classical music, especially opera. My favourite opera
composer is Giuseppe Verdi, and my favorite opera is “Rigoletto”.
It is widely considered by many to be the first of the operatic
masterpieces of Verdi’s middletolate career. The Italian li
bretto of this opera in three acts was written by Francesco
Maria Piave based on the play “Le roi s’amuse” by Victor Hugo.
Verdi was commissioned to write a new opera when he was
already a wellknown composer. He was given freedom in choos
ing the works he would prefer to set to music. He then asked
Piave (with whom he had already created many works) to exam
ine Hugo’s “Le roi s’amuse”. He later explained: “It is one of the
most important creations of the theatre of all countries and all
ages”. Hugo’s play depicted a king (Francis I of France) as an
immoral and cynical womanizer. Piave and Verdi changed the
plot a little. Due to the high risk of unauthorized copying, Verdi
demanded the maximum secrecy from all his singers and musi
cians. The score was used only a few evenings before the pre
miere. Mirate (the Duke at the premiere) was forced to swear he
would not sing or even whistle the tune of “La donna e mobile”.
On the 11th of March, 1851 the opera was first perfomed in
Venice. The opening was a complete triumph, especially the
dramatic scene. Next morning Duke’s cynical aria “La donna e
mobile” was sung in the streets. In modern times it has become
a staple of the standard operatic repertoire.

MY FAVORITE PIECE OF MUSIC WRITTEN


BY PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY

I like classical music. My favorite composer is Pyotr Ilyich


Tchaikovsky, an outstanding Russian composer. He created a
great deal of wonderful music, including ten operas, three bal
lets, six symphonies, seven large symphonic poems and many
musical works. My favourite opera is “Eugene Onegin”, Op. 24.
The libretto for this opera in three acts (seven scenes) was writ
ten by Konstantin Shilovsky, the composer himself and his
brother Modest. The opera is based on the novel in verse by
Alexander Pushkin. The libretto follows Pushkin’s original,
Unit 4. My favourite piece of Music 93

retaining much of his poetry to which Tchaikovsky added music


of a dramatic nature. The work’s title refers to the protagonist.
The story concerns a selfish hero who lives to regret his blasé
rejection of a young woman’s love and his careless incitement of
a fatal duel with his best friend. The premiere took place on the
17th of March, 1879 at the Maly Theatre. Two years later the
first performance at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow took place
on the 11th of January, 1881. The first performance outside
Russia took place on the 6th of December, 1888 in Prague con
ducted by Tchaikovsky himself. It was sung in Czech. The opera
is wellknown all over the world. It’s always a great success with
the public. The arias from this opera are very famous, for ex
ample, conversations between Tatyana and her nurse, Tatyana
and Onegin, the prince and Onegin or Lensky’s last aria. But my
favourite one is “Chorus of Maidens” in the first act, it reflects
my emotions. I admire this opera, I think it’s perfect.

IV. Write a letter to your friend about visiting the theater.


1. Use the following words and phrases.
Dear friend!
I’m writing to enquire ...
One of the best concerts I have ever seen is ...
The programme included such compositions as ...
The concert was a great success, because ...
As for me, ...
In my opinion, ...
Moreover, ...
However, ...
What is more, ...
For example, ...
I would like to know ...
Could you also ...
I look forward to hearing from you ...
Yours sincerely ...
2. Begin the letter with the sentence.
Last week my friends and I visited a concert of music.
3. Finish the letter with the sentence.
This concert made a great impression on us.
94 Английский язык для музыкантов

CHRIS NORMAN
Norman’s name is mostly unfamiliar to the general public,
but it’s one of those cases of knowing the song but never being
able to remember the artist. Chris Norman is in a similar
league with Chris be Burgh, though the former’s “Lady in
Red” is, instead, “Midnight Lady”. He has released a vast
collection of romantic songs, the overwhelming majority of
which are almost identical to “Midnight Lady” in tune, tempo
and vocal style. But despite the lack of variety, Norman’s
music is actually fairly likeable if you’re into 80’s synthesized
bass beats, highpitched and slightly warbing vocals, and the
obligatory mild guitar solo somewhere in the day. Norman is
also responsible for the karaokebar hit “Living Next Door to
Alice”. The guideline here is if you’re into bands like Modern
Talking, the saccharine disco duo from Germany who gave us
such bopping hits as “Geronimo’s Cadillac”, “Sexy Sexy Lover”
and “You’re My Heart, You’re My Soul”, you’ll love anything
Norman has to offer.

ABBA SHOW

“The Guardian” described the show as something you can


hardly believe in. What was meant by “believe” was the fact
that the band’s singing and dancing is not ABBA, though the
show was organized under the control of the legendary sing
ers. Making money with the help of these four letters has
become very popular in the last 10 years. It is certainly no
secret that millions of Russians love ABBA, so it only makes
sense to deliver Russia the goods. Will the strategy bring real
good dividends? It is hard to say why not. ABBA, a Swedish
band, which rocked the world 30 years ago, was formed with
no special plan but with simple lyrics, pleasant melodies and
female vocals as the main weapon for conquering the interna
tional stage. Their “Money, Money, Money” and “Dancing
Queen” (and 100 other songs) made the whole world stand up
and sing in English. Later, the famous musical “Mamma Mia!”
based on the songs of ABBA, travelled all over the world with
great success. Now here is the show. No doubt it will enjoy
huge success.
Unit 4. My favourite piece of Music 95

DIMA BILAN WINS AT EUROVISION


SONG CONTEST
For the first time in the history of Russia’s participation
in the Eurovision Song Contest, a domestic artist came out top
dog. Until this year, the highest achievement by a Russian
contestant was runnerup. Incidentally, Dima Bilan came in
second place two years previously, which raised doubts that he
would be able to ever win the contest. Surprisingly, Bilan did
exactly that, giving Russia an opportunity to host the contest
next year. But Russia’s way to hosting the event turned out to
be far from rosy. A few months later, officials in Estonia and
Latvia threatened to boycott the contest in Moscow protesting
against Russia’s role in the military conflict in South Ossetia
but later backed down. Eventually, cashstrapped Latvia had
to pull out of the contest, but for different reasons: it appar
ently lacked the necessary funds to pay the participant fee.

THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST


A musical based on a famous love story — what else could
be more successful. “The Beauty and the Beast” has been shown
on Broadway since 1994. Now in Russia, it’s sure to be one of
the brightest moments of the year.
The prince is hidden behind the look of a beast waiting for
his Beauty to come and somehow fall in love with him, but not
with the luxury cottage he lives, of course. Dances, orchestras
and songs were added to in to get a perfect performance at the
end. The final casting took place in Paris where Nataliya
Bistrova (main role in Russian version of “Mamma Mia!”) was
waiting for her prince/beast to be chosen. Igor Bistrov won
this privilege. He worked with “Mamma Mia!” We’ll see what’s
going to happen now.

EUGENE ONEGIN
The opera “Eugene Onegin” by Tchaikovsky, based on the
book, is a part of the standard operatic repertoire. There are
various recordings of it, and it is regularly performed. The
different theatres express their Onegin’s ideas differently, of
96 Английский язык для музыкантов

course. This time the scenes play an important role in this


performance. The opera is staged in a very strained way, co
lumns either turn their black or white side to the audience.
One thing you can easily say about “Onegin” in Stanislavsky
and NemorovichDanchenko Theatre is that it’s experienced.
The performance itself is more than 80 years old, so it has been
renovating during the whole century. Now it’s supposed to be
perfect.

V. Make a story from the following sentences.

PRINCESS OF DEATH “TURANDOT”


One of the most spectacular Italian operas “Turandot” is
full of beautiful, tearjerking melodies, exotic colour and sten
torian singing from all its main characters.
“Turandot” is one of the most spectacular Italian operas
ever written.
Turandot is a Chinese princess with a heart of ice; believ
ing all men to be cruel tyrants.
For May holidays the Bolshoi Theatre is reviving its popu
lar production of Puccini’s “Turandot”.
Staged by a leading opera director Francesca Zambello
from the USA, the production has been popular since its
premiere in 2002.
An adventurous prince Calaf appears on the scene, deter
mined to win the beauty for himself.

VI. Read the texts and find the equivalents.

ALEXANDROV ENSEMBLE
The Russian Army’s Alexandrov singing and dancing en
semble is known internationally as the Red Army Choir. The
country’s biggest military musical group was founded in 1928
by a composer and a choral conductor Alexander Alexandrov,
who wrote the music to the patriotic song “Sacred War”, and
came to prominence during the Soviet Union’s war against the
Nazi Germany. The ensemble repeatedly performed at the front
Unit 4. My favourite piece of Music 97

line to boost the morale of Red Army’s soldiers and after the
end of the war continued to tour both at home and abroad.
These days, the ensemble has just under 200 members —
soloists, a choir, an orchestra, and a dance ensemble. It per
forms a wide range of songs, from Russian folk tunes to church
hymns, opera arias and popular music. While the singing might
be more conventional, the military and traditional dances,
such as the squatting dance, are unique.
In the 1990’s, the ensemble entered international pop cul
ture thanks to performances with the Finnish rock band
Leningrad Cowboys. They did several shows together, one of
which was made into the film “Total Balalaika Show” by direc
tor Aki Kaurismyaki.

АНСАМБЛЬ ИМЕНИ АЛЕКСАНДРОВА


В 1990е годы ансамбль вошел в число международных
благодаря совместным выступлениям с финской рокгруп
пой Leningrad Cowboys. Они вместе показали несколько шоу,
один из которых был в фильме “Total Balalaika Show” ре
жиссера Аки Каурисмяки.
Ансамбль песни и танца Русской армии имени Алексан
дрова широко известен в мире. Ансамбль был основан в
1928 году композитором и хоровым дирижером Алексан
дром Васильевичем Александровым, который написал му
зыку к патриотической песни «Священная война» и полу
чил известность во время войны Советского Союза против
фашистской Германии. Ансамбль неоднократно выступал
на линии фронта, чтобы поднять боевой дух солдат Красной
Армии и после окончания войны продолжал гастролиро
вать как дома, так и за рубежом.
Сегодня ансамбль имеет около 200 артистов, куда вхо
дят солисты, хор, оркестр и танцевальный ансамбль. Ре
пертуар исполнения песен широк, от русских народных
мелодий до церковных песнопений, оперных арий и попу
лярной музыки. Наряду с пением военные и традиционные
танцы являются уникальными.
UNIT 5
MY FAVOURITE
PERFORMER/COMPOSER

I. Read and translate the following texts.

EMIL GILELS

Gilels was born in Odessa, Russian Empire (now part of the


Ukraine) in a Jewish family with no direct musical, but it was
quite musical in amateur way, performing on the piano, and
there was much singing and playing at his home. He began
studying the piano at the age of five under Yakov Tkach, who
was a student of the French pianists Raoul Pugno and Alexander
Villoing.
Gilels made his public debut at the age of 12 in June 1929
with a wellreceived program of Beethoven, Scarlatti, Chopin,
and Shuman. In 1930, Gilels entered Odessa Conservatoire
where he was coached by Berta Reingbald, whom Gilels cred
ited as a formative influence. After completing his training at
Odessa Conservatoire in 1935, Emil Gilels went to Moscow
Conservatoire for master classes under professor Neuhaus
(pupil of Godovsky). In 1936 he entered his first international
competition in Vienna, earning the second place. In 1938
E. E. Gilels was appointed an assistant instructor at Moscow
Conservatoire and became one of its noted professors.
A year later he was awarded the first prize at 1938 Inter
national Festival in Brussels. Following his triumph at Brus
sels, a scheduled American debut at 1939 New York World’s
Fair was aborted because of the outbreak of the Second World
War. In 1945 he formed a chamber music trio with the violin
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer 99

ist Leonid Kogan (his brotherinlaw) and the cellist Mstislav


Rostropovich. Gilels was awarded the Stalin Prize in 1946.
During the World War II Gilels continued teaching and
consertizing extensively throughout the important unoccu
pied cities of Russia and at the front line. After the war his
reputation reached international proportions with his appear
ance in England, Italy, Belgium, France, Sweden, Finland,
Denmark, Austria, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and
other contries. Emil Gilels has become an ambassador of good
will and a representative of the Soviet musical culture.
Gilels had a stable and happy family life. His daughter
Helen was an excellent pianist who graduated from Flier’s
class of Moscow Conservatoire. She played in an ensemble with
her father. After the war, he toured the countries of Eastern
Europe as a soloist. In 1952, he became a professor at Moscow
Conservatoire, where he presided over the competition for
many years.
Gilels made his Salzburg Festival debut in 1969 with a
piano recital of Weber, Prokofiev and Beethoven at the Mo
zarteum. He died unexpectedly during a medical checkup in
Moscow on the 14th October 1985, only a few days before his
69th birthday.

SVYATOSLAV RICHTER
Richter was born in Zhytomyr, the Ukraine. His father,
Teofil Danilovich Richter (1872–1941), was a German pianist,
an organist, and a composer, who studied in Vienna. His mother,
Anna Pavlovna (1892–1963), was from a landowning Russian
family. She used to be a pupil of her future husband. In early
1920’s Richter was interested in music and started studying
piano. His father only gave him basic education in music.
Early in his career, Richter also tried his hand at compos
ing, and it even appeared that he played some of his composi
tions during his audition for Neuhaus. He gave up compositing
shortly after moving to Moscow.
In 1945, Richter met and accompanied in recital the so
prano Nina Dorliak. Richter and Dorliak thereafter remained
partners until his death, although they never married. She
100 Английский язык для музыкантов

accompanied Richter both in his complicated life and career.


In 1949 Richter won the Stalin Prize. He gave his first con
certs outside the Soviet Union in Czechoslovakia in 1950. In
1952, Richter was invited to play Franz Liszt in a film based
on the life of Mikhail Glinka.
On February 18, 1952 Richter made his debut as a conduc
tor when he led the world premiere of Prokofiev’s Symphony
Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in Eminor, with Mstislav
Rostropovich as the soloist.
Richter’s first concerts in the West took place in May
1960, when he was allowed to play in Finland, and on October
15, 1960, in Chicago, where he played Brahms’s Second Piano
Concerto accompanied by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
and Erich Leinsdorf, creating a sensation.
Richter’s last recorded orchestral performance of three
Mozart concerts was in 1994 with Japan Shinsei Symphony
Orchestra conducted by his old friend Rudolf Barshai. Richter’s
last recital was a private gathering in Lübeck, Germany, on
March 30, 1995.
It is hard to list all his brilliant accomplishments; hard to
say which piece he performed best. His works are with epic
heroism and tender lyricism. His characteristic feature as a
superb pianist should be noted: this is his irreproachable aes
thetic taste which never yelds to oversensitivity. Richter’s
vigorous art always enriches the listener, giving him many
pleasures and unforgettable impressions.

LEONID KOGAN
Kogan was born in Dnipropetrovsk, the Ukraine. He was
a son of a photographer who was an amateur violinist. After
showing an early interest and ability for violin playing, his
family moved to Moscow, where he was able to continue his
studies. He studied there with the noted violin pedagogue
Abram Yampolsky. Kogan studied at the Central Music
School in Moscow (1934–1943), then at Moscow Conserva
toire (1943–1948), where he studied as a postgraduate stu
dent (1948–1951).
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer 101

Russian people first heard of Leonid Kogan in 1947 when


he won the first prize at the International Festival in Prague.
In 1951 L. Kogan went to Brussels to participate in the mu
sical competition. Both the jury and the audience acclaimed
him the best violinist there. He was invited to many coun
tries. With each concert tour he became more famous and
added new achievements to his repertoire. Kogan’s playing
showed the harmonious combination of his exceptional virtu
osity with the maturity of his musical thinking. He had no
weak spots: his intonation was faultless, the sound was me
lodious and fullbodied, and his technique is perfect. It is not
due to his talent alone that Leonid Kogan was able to accom
plish so much; was his rare natural gift multiplied by the
daily hard work.
At the age of 17, he became cowinner of the first prize at
the World Youth Festival in Prague. In 1951 Kogan won the
first prize at the Queen Elizabeth Competition in Brussels
with a dazzling performance of Paganini’s first concert. His
official debut happened in 1941, playing Brahm’s Concerto
with the Moscow Philharmonic in the Great Hall of Moscow
Conservatoire.
His international solo tours took him to Paris and London
in 1955, and then South America and the USA in the following
years. Kogan had a repertoire of over 18 concerts and a num
ber of concerts by modern composers. In 1952 Kogan began
teaching at Moscow Conservatoire, and in 1980 he was invited
to teach at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena, Italy.
Kogan was a brilliant and compelling violinist. Kogan was
called an Honoured Artist in 1955 and a People’s Artist of the
USSR in 1964. He received the Lenin Prize in 1965.
Kogan married Elizabeth Gilels (sister of a pianist Emil
Gilels), also a concert violinist. His son, Pavel Kogan, became
a famous violinist and a conductor. His daughter, Nina Kogan,
was a concert pianist and became the accompanist and sonata
partner of her father at an early age.
Kogan died of a heart attack in the city of Mytishchi, while
travelling by train between Moscow and Yaroslavl to a con
cert.
102 Английский язык для музыкантов

HERBERT VON KARAJAN

Herbert von Karajan was born in 1908 in Saltsburg. He


was such a gifted boy that at the age of five he made public
appearances as a pianist and always with a great success.
When he studied at the “Mozarteum” he was advised to
take up the study of conducting. In 1927 Karajan was invited
to work as a conductor first in Austria, than in Germany
where he was one of the youngest conductors. By his thirties
he had moved to Berlin and soon became the chief conductor of
the Berlin Opera.
After the war H. Karajan gained worldwide popularity
and received the name of “The Chief Europe Conductor”. This
extraordinarily talented musician precisely reflected the spirit
of any score. His repertoire ranged from Mozart and Haydn to
modern music by Stravinskiy and Shostakovich. H. Karajan
never allowed himself any superflues jesture. The whole or
chestra is subjected to his will. His talent is great and mature.
This broadminded musician had a wide popularity. His per
formance of Requiem by Verdi in Moscow made a deep impres
sion on Russian audience.

TIMOFEY DOKSHITSER

The wellknown Soviet trumpeter Timofey Dokshitser was


born on December 13, 1921 in the town of Nezhin (the Ukraine)
in the family of a musician. At the age of 10 T. Dokshitser
became an inmate of the military band of the 62nd Cavalry
Regiment in Moscow. The following period of his life up to the
end of the Great Patriotic War was closely connected with the
military bands of the Soviet Army.
His first music teacher was a military conductor A. Tchi
zhov, then he entered the Glasunov musical college. In 1935
being a talented musician Dokshitser was transferred to the
Central Musical School at Moscow Conservatoire. After fin
ishing school he studied at the Gnesin Institute of Music. Those
years Dokshitser used to appeare in various concerts as a so
loisttrumpeter and struck the audience with his beautiful
tone, precise playing and musicianship.
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer 103

In 1957 he won the first prize at the First International


Festival of Youth and Students. In 1954 he became a soloist of
the Bolshoi symphony orchestra. This bright trumpeter was
attracted by the career of a conductor but it didn’t last long
and performing art gained mastery. His true feeling for form
and style, his faultless intonation, richness of tone, the com
plete command of his instrument all these captivated the listen
ers and made a deep impression upon them. Dokshitser’s art is
wellknown both in the Russia and abroad. For his remarkable
achievements he was awarded the title of the Honoured Artist
of the USSR.

ANATOLY SENIN
Anatoly Senin was born in Astrakhan in 1946. He began to
study music at the age of 8 and showed signs of a great talent.
In 1965 Senin successfully graduated from the Astrakhan
College of music and entered Saratov State Conservatoire
named after Sobinov. His teacher was a wellknown musician
Lomako.
Being still a student, A. Senin took part in the AllUnion
Qualification for the International Competition of bayan play
ers in New York. He and Petrov represented the Soviet school
of bayan playing at this most difficult musical competition.
Our performers won the first and second prizes.
In 1970 A. Senin graduated from the Conservatoire with
honours, and began to concertize extensively enriching his
repertoire with many new compositions. At the same time he
started his pedagogical activities and was appointed as a teacher
at Saratov Conservatoire. A little later A. Senin went to the
Gnesin Institute of music to master classes under the famous
musician Kolobkov. In 1973 this talented performer became a
laureate of the Voronezh Competition of folk instrument play
ers. Senin’s repertoire includes original compositions for bayan
by modern composers and music arrangements of the 18th and
the 19th centuries. A. Senin is spoken to be a mature master.
He possesses a peculiar sense for form and style, and always
finds the way to reveal the tonal colours and character of the
composition he performs.
104 Английский язык для музыкантов

FREDERIC CHOPIN
Frederic Chopin, a composer of genius and incomparable
pianist, is one of the greatest poets of the world. His memory
is sacred to the Polish people. This composer is loved and
deeply admired by the Russians. His music acquaints us with
the Polish songs, the Polish dances. Our great Russian com
poser Glinka had a deep admiration for Chopin’s music. His
passionate patriotism, his love for his people, all this capti
vates the heart and mind and makes Chopin lovely music unique
in its depth of feeling and beauty of expression.
Since his early childhood Chopin has been interested in the
music of his native land. At the age of eight he took part in
concerts as a pianist and always with great success. At eleven
composed a “Polonaise for the piano” which he dedicated to his
professor Zhivny, a firstrate teacher.
The Polish composer Elsner, a director of the Conservatoire
at Warsaw, where Chopin studied, understood the depth and
originality of the young man’s talent, gave him the valuable
advice: his criticism of Chopin’s works helped the young com
poser in many ways and strengthened his love for the national
Polish art.
In 1829 Chopin graduated from the Conservatoire and in
1830 he left his native land for Paris — then the centre of the
European musical world. At the moment of his departure his
friends presented him with a silver goblet filled with earth and
said the following words: “Wherever you may be never forget
Poland — your native land”. Chopin never returned to Poland.
But he kept the goblet and always remembered the sacred
words of his friends.
Chopin stayed for 18 years in Paris. He was friendly with
Liszt, Berlioz and Balzac. He came to Paris, being a mature
composer and the author of remarkable works and all his life
long he remained essentially a Polish composer.
He was composing chiefly for the piano but he knew how to
develop the artistic expression of his works to such a point
that they acquired the power of a symphony.
Chopin created elegant miniatures, remarkably expressive
etudes, nocturnes, preludes, waltzes, mazurkas. The music of
the Polish people occupies a prominent part in Chopin’s com
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer 105

positions. This music is powerful, intimate, melodious, and its


dancing rhythm is characteristic of the Polish people. The
source of the national influence on Chopin’s works is mani
fested in his mazurkas. These mazurkas, which he called pic
tures, are indeed pictures from the life of his people.
Chopin introduced a new element into the ancient form of
the polonaise. His polonaises are not only dances of ceremony,
they are full of passionate patriotism, some of them ring
with triumph, others are echoes of the people’s festivals; and
some pulsate with deep sadness, expressing the people’s
sufferings.The melodies of his polonaises are simple,vivacious,
the rhythm is that of march, energetic and clear. His works
are powerful and national.

BENJAMIN BRITTEN
Benjamin Britten, a British composer, pianist and conduc
tor was born in 1913. One of the most important and prolific
contemporary British musicians, he was a pupil of Frank Bridge
and John Ireland, and started to compose at a very early age.
In 1934 he published a Simple Symphony, of which he said in
an introductory note: “...it is entirely based on material from
works which the composer wrote between the ages of nine and
twelve. Since then he has won worldwide reputation as a lead
ing composer, particularly in the field of opera and choral
music.”
He has always shown an interest in young people, and one of
his many contributions to modern music has been the produc
tion of works not only for the young to hear, such as “A Young
Person’s Guide to the Orchestra” in 1946, but in which they can
also take part, such as “Let’s Make an Opera” and “Noye’s
Fludde”. In addition he has produced a number of songs and
canons and a magnificent “Ceremony of Carols”, most of which
are well known to schools and much enjoyed by them.
His music shows no marked influence of other composers,
though some critics see in it an affinity to that of Gustav
Mahler and Igor Stravinsky. His outstanding facility to music
has led to comparisons with the 17th century composer Henry
Purcell.
106 Английский язык для музыкантов

Benjamin Britten has been largely responsible for the


English Opera Group and founded the annual Aldeburg festi
val in 1948. His best opera is “Peter Grimes”. The first perfor
mance of Britten’s “War Requiem” with its setting poems by
Wilfred Owen was a notable event in the world of music.

II. Answer the questions according to texts.


1. When was a composer born?
2. When did he begin to compose/playing musical instru
ments?
3. What his masterpieces/famous performance of pieces
do you know?
4. What kind of music did he prefer to compose/play?
5. What famous musicians collaborated with him?
6. What famous places/developments are named after him?
7. Who was a composer’s/performer’s teacher?
8. Where was the first composer’s/performer’s perfor
mance?
9. Where was the first composer’s/performer’s triumph?

III. Read the texts and say whether the sentences true
or false.
In 1987 he won the first prize at the First International
Festival of Youth and Students.
In 1954 he became a conductor of the Bolshoi symphony
orchestra.
Our musical circles first heard of Leonid Kogan in 1947 when
he won the first prize at the International Festival in Prague.
In 1934 he published a Simple Symphony, of which he said
in an introductory note: “...it is entirely based on material
from works which the composer wrote between the ages of nine
and twelve.
This extraordinarily talented musician precisely reflects
the spirit of any score.
His second music teacher was a military conductor A. Tchi
zhov, then he entered the Glasunov musical college.
His music shows no marked influence of other composers,
though some critics see in it an affinity to that of Gustav
Mahler and Igor Stravinsky.
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer 107

These symphonies, which he called pictures, are indeed


pictures from the life of his people.
In 1927 Karajan was invited to work as a soloist first in
Austria, than in Germany where he was one of the youngest
conductors.
In 1800 A. Senin graduated from the Conservatoire with
honours, and began to concertize extensively enriching his
repertoire with many new compositions.
His music acquaints us with the English songs, the Polish
dances.
In 1973 this talented performer became a laureate of the
Voronezh Competition of folk instrument players.
At the age of 11, he became a cowinner of the first prize
at the World Youth Festival in Prague.
He gave up composition shortly after moving to Moscow.
In 1998 he entered his first international competition in
Vienna, earning the second place.

IV. Read the texts and complete the sentences.


Gilels was born in Odessa, Russian Empire (now part of the
Ukraine) in a Jewish family with no direct musical, ...
Gilels made his public debut at the age of ...
... Emil Gilels went to Moscow Conservatoire to master
classes under professor Neuhaus (pupil of Godovsky).
In 1945 he formed a chamber music trio with the violinist
Leonid Kogan (his brotherinlaw) and the cellist ...
After the war his reputation reached international propor
tions with his appearance in ..., Sweden, Finland, Denmark,
Austria, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and other coun
tries.
Richter was born in ...
... Richter was interested in music and started studying
piano.
He gave up ... after moving to Moscow.
In 1952, Richter was invited to play Franz Liszt in a film
based on the life of ...
... when he hold the world premiere of Prokofiev’s Sym
phonyConcerto for Cello and Orchestra in Eminor, with
Mstislav Rostropovich as the soloist.
108 Английский язык для музыкантов

It is hard to list all his ...; hard to say which piece he


performs best.
Richter’s vigorous art always enriches the listener, ...

V. Read the following sentences and say to which text


they belong to.
1. This man is a very famous musical critic.
2. This man writes modern music and organizes the or
chestra for young people.
3. This man has changed worldwide for perfect sound and
incredibly huge repertoire.
4. This man, being a student, won the first prize of New
York music competition.
5. This man expresses his patriotism in music.
6. This man is a wellknown soloist with beautiful deep
sound.

VI. Match the sentences.


1. Georgi Vasilyevich Sviridov is the greatest Russian com
poser of the 20th century.
2. He was born near Kursk in 1915.
3. Georgi Vasilyevich was fond of Music since childhood.
4. His mother sang him beautiful Russian songs and taught
him to play the piano.
5. He began composing at the age of nine.
6. In 1932 he moved to Leningrad.
7. He graduated from the conservatoire in 1941.
8. His teacher was D. D. Shostakovich.
9. Sviridov has been creating wonderful music.
10. In his music he used folk melodies for the description
of Russian nature.
11. Georg Vasilyevich has created magic music on the verses
of the greatest Russian poets: A. Pushkin, F. Tutchev, A. Block
and S. Esenin.
12. Our native land, Russian nature, Russian poets gave
him inspiration on composing the music that touches everybody’s
heart.
13. It was in Suzdal in a wooden church, here, where musical
illustrations to A. S. Pushkin’s story “Snowstorm” were created.
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer 109

14. The music by Sviridov belongs to the highest achieve


ments of Russian culture.

1. Свиридов переехал в Ленинград.


2. Однажды в Суздале он посетил деревянную церковь, и
здесь, на этом месте, он сочинил музыку к повести А. C. Пуш
кина «Метель».
3. В 1941 г. он закончил консерваторию.
4. Наша родная земля, русская природа, русские поэты
вдохновили его на создание музыки, которая трогает серд
це каждого человека.
5. Георгий Васильевич Свиридов — великий русский
композитор ХХ в.
6. Свиридов создавал удивительную музыку.
7. В девять лет он начал сочинять музыку.
8. Георгий Васильевич с детства любил музыку.
9. В своих произведениях он использовал для описания
народные мелодии.
10. Музыка Свиридова принадлежит к величайшим дос
тижениям российской культуры.
11. Он родился под Курском в 1915 году.
12. Георгий Васильевич создал волшебную музыку на
стихи великих русских поэтов — А. C. Пушкина, Ф. Тют
чева, А. Блока, С. Есенина.
13. Мать пела ему красивые русские песни и учила его
играть на пианино.
14. Его учителем был Д. Д. Шостакович.

VII. Read the text and express your own opinion on Sergei
Prokofiev’s music.
It was a year ago that I watched Sergei Eisenstein’s classic
film “Alexander Nevsky”, but I had known about it for over
thirty years. Long before I became the film enthusiast, I fell
in love with classical music. One of my favorite composers is
Sergei Prokofiev. Prokofiev’s score for “Alexander Nevsky”
is the greatest ever provided for any film. There is no other
film where the musical score is so much an equal partner to the
film images. This film is as much a visual setting for a piece
of music as a film with a musical score. The finest point about
110 Английский язык для музыкантов

Alexander Nevsky is the successful integration of masterful


images with great music. Prokofiev was thrilled when he was
asked by Eisenstein to compose music for “Alexander Nevsky”.
Both of these great artists had long admired each other’s work
and they were happy to work on the film together. Eisenstein
provided Prokofiev with film scenes as quickly as each one was
completed. Prokofiev then drafted setting, which the two men
discussed, and then Prokofiev made adjustments as required.
For some scenes, Eisenstein edited the film to fit music already
composed by Prokofiev, especially in parts of the great battle on
the ice. As you watch and listen to this film, note how Prokofiev
uses musical themes and contrasting styles to highlight the
great clash between the Russians and the Teutons. When the
Russians are on screen, we hear mainly warm and pleasing
melodies and Russian folk melodies. When the Teutons appear,
the music is dominated by dark, harsh tones and rhythms.
Prokofiev’s beautiful choral and orchestral music make this
film among the finest ever. It is brilliant music and a large part
of the success of this film. The partnership between Eisenstein
and Prokofiev on “Alexander Nevsky” was the beginning of a
long and successful relationship between these two geniuses.

VIII. Read the text about British composers. Fill in the


spidergram.

VIRGINAL MUSIC COMPOSERS

William Byrd (1542–1623) dominated the firstgeneration


English keyboard composers. He was not only an organist at
the Chapel Royal, but also a lyric poet expert at writing de
scriptive music, such as “The Bells”. Byrd’s talents as a musi
cian had many facets, one of which, an ability to compose
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer 111

superb choral music, earned him the title of the English


Palestrina. Thomas Tallis (1505–1585), coorganist at the
Chapel Royal, and William Blitheman (d. 1591) belong to
Byrd’s generation. Perhaps the most famous names in the
English virginal school are counted among the secondgenera
tion composers: Peter Philips, John Bull, and Giles Farnaby.
Philips’s own compositions are a synthesis of the severity of
the ricercar, the chromaticism of the madrigal school, and the
ornamental Une typical of Italian music. John Bull (1562–
1628), onetime organist at the Chapel Royal, left England for
religious reasons. He lived in Brussels, then Antwerp. A master
of contrapuntal devices, yet endowed with innate musical sen
sitivity, Bull exercised the full range of his skill and talent to
create virginal music. He excelled in the variation, and his
reputation in this field is well substantiated by the thirty
variations on the theme of Walsingham, in which he subjects
the melody and its framework to most keyboard devices known
at the time. Giles Farnaby (1560–1640), a more spontaneous
composer than either Philips or Bull, endowed his music with
a grace and verve that make it seem to the twentiethcentury
ear more “modern” than the music of his contemporaries. The
outstanding spokesman for the thirdgeneration composers
was Orlando Gibbons (1583–1625), court virginalist and a
musician sincerely respected by his colleagues. Gibbons pos
sessed a competent technical apparatus, but his keyboard works
often appear somewhat rigid and artificial.

IX. Read the text about American composers and add


some new information.
1. Add a list of American compositions.
2. Put 1 general, 1 alternative, 1 tag and 1 special ques
tions.
3. Make a report about one of the American contemporary
composer.

Milton Babbitt (b. 1916) — American composer and math


ematician. His compositions developed from the twelvetone
system of Schoenberg and Webern, later employing electronic
devices such as synthesizers and tape. He is an author of ar
112 Английский язык для музыкантов

ticles and monographs on Bartok, Varèse, and Schoenberg.


One of the most influential composers and teachers in the USA
since World War II.
John Cage (b. 1912) is an American composer, a pianist,
and a writer. Studied with Henry Cowell and Arnold Schoen
berg. In 1938 he invented the “prepared piano”. Study of ori
ental philosophies led to his utilization of “chance” in his music,
as in “Music of Changes” (1951). In 1952 he produced his first
piece involving tape, “Imaginary Landscape No. 5”, and in the
same year came “4¢33” in which the performer makes no sound.
He also used a wide range of electronical and visual tech
niques.
Morton Feldman (b. 1926) is an American composer. His
music was influenced by the theories and ideas of John Cage
and Earle Brown. He has used indeterminacy and graphic no
tation in his music since “Projections” (1950–1951).
Earle Brown (b. 1926) is an American composer, worked
with Cage in New York (1952–1955) on a project for music for
magnetic tape. He was influenced by visual arts. His “Twenty
Five Pages” (1953) for 1–25 pianofortes uses “openform” and
spacetime notation, e. g. pitches and durations are specified
but, clefs being absent, the pages can be played either way up.
The score consists of 25 pages to be arranged in any order. In
openform composition, the ordering and combination of the
writtenout material is left to the choice of the performer or
conductor.

X. Read the text and write a letter, using underlined


words from the text.
I would like to tell you about my favorite composer. I like
all styles of his music, but more of them I like jazz. My favor
ite composer is George Gershwin, a famous American com
poser and pianist. He is one of the creators of symphojazz
style and jazz opera. The golden age of his activity was consid
ered with golden age of jazz music. The composer considered
jazz as folk music. Gershwin was born in New York in 1899, in
Russian family. The parents didn’t see his talent. His brother
played the piano and little George fell in love with music. He
got lessons of music from different teachers, but he studied
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer 113

along a lot. These lessons made him a great improvisator. At


the age of sixteen he began to work in the music shop. He was
playing the piano popular melodies from morning to evening.
He began to invent own music. He composed with his brother.
Most of these songs became popular. At the age of eighteen
Gershwin had a debut on Broadway. Gershwin became the
most famous composer of the USA and Europe. He wrote
music for forty performances and musical comedies. He
dreamt to create a large form of music. But he didn’t have
musical education. However, Stravinsky and Shoenberg taught
him composition and musicology. Gershwin wrote “Rhapsody
in Blue” in 1924. It is the first best Gershwin’s composition.
Gershwin worked for the cinema with pleasure too. He wrote
music for films and theatre. “Porgy and Bess” is a visit card
of the composer.
UNIT 6
WHAT IS MUSIC?

I. Read the verses about music. Say what the author com
pares the music to?

MUSIC

Music is a door,
An escape to a different world,
A world you make and control in your mind.
Music is a hero,
One to cheer your spirits when you are down.
Music is an enemy,
Sometimes the lyrics bring you down.
Music is your personality,
Expressed through song.
The music player,
Is you, the one holding it all together.
Music is an awakening to the real world.
Its lyrics are real and true.
Music is a best friend,
One to give advice when you need it.
Music is what you think of it.
Its stars off empty and colorless,
And escalates to something more,
Your own world.
Cecilia Perner
Unit 6. What is Music? 115

SONNET
Music to hear, why hear’st thou music sadly?
Sweets with sweets war not, joy delights in joy.
Why lov’st thou that which thou receiv’st not gladly,
Or else receiv’st with pleasure thine annoy?
If the true concord of well tuned sounds,
By unions married, do offend thine ear,
They do but sweetly chide thee who confounds
In singleness the parts that thou should’st bear.
Mark how one string, sweet husband to another,
Strikes each in each by mutual ordering;
Resembling sire, and child, and happy mother,
Who all in one, one pleasing note do sing,
Whose speechless song, being many, seeming one,
Sings this to thee, “Thou single wilt prove none”.
William Shakespeare

II. Read the text and air your own point of you about music.
Can we imagine the world without music? No! It accompa
nies us during our lifespan. Music! It has existed since the
beginning of mankind. The development of music has been
going on simultaneously with the development of mankind. It
has been said that music already existed more than 40,000
years ago. Scientists suppose that music originated from sing
ing and that human voice was the first instrument. In the
ancient civilizations, such as Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, Pal
estine, China, India, Greece, Rome, it achieved its high level
of development. The word “music” originates from the Greek
word “muse”. So were named daughters of the greatest pagan
God Zeus. They patronized science and arts. Music is a combi
nation of many sounds. They are short and long, weak and
strong. Music reflects people’s mood and emotions. Some people
are fond of music. There are numerous folk groups in our
country. It is interesting to listen to their music and songs.
Some people are interested in music very much. Children can
learn at music schools if they are capable and fond of music.
They study there for seven years. Some people are fond of
classical music, but young people prefer modern music. If you
116 Английский язык для музыкантов

want to listen to modern music you can attend the music halls
and the concerts of popular groups and singers. Both classical
and modern music are popular.

III. Read and translate the text, give the title of each
paragraph.
The Greeks used letters of the alphabet to represent musi
cal tones. They grouped these tones in tetrachords. By combin
ing these tetrachords in various ways the Greeks created groups
of tones called modes. Modes were the forerunners of modern
major and minor scales. Greek thinkers worked out music
theories more thoroughly than any other ancient peoples.
Pythagoras, a Greek who lived in the 500’s B. C., thought that
music and mathematics provided keys to the secrets of the
world. He believed that the planets produced different tones in
harmony, so that the Universe itself songs. This belief shows
the importance of music in Greek worship, as well as in dance
and drama. The poets of ancient Greece and Rome recited their
poetic works to the accompaniment of music. In the theatre of
the ancient world, choruses, and dances were performed to the
accompaniment of musical instruments. The greatest tragedi
ans of the ancient world such as Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles
were not only dramatists but also musicians. Aristophanes wrote
political comedies in the genre of musical comedy. He is consid
ered to be a forefather of operetta. Orpheus, the legendary
hero of Greek mythology, could charm people, animals, rivers,
winds by music. The example of the ancient Sparta state, where
warriors were brought up in the strict physical and war sys
tem, where music was a compulsory subject for all men up to
30 years old, plays a great role, especially in our time.
In Egypt, during the 4000’s B. C., people clapped disks and
sticks together, jingled metal roils and sang songs. Later, in
the great temples of the gods, priests trained choirs in singing
ritual music. Court musicians sang, played reed pipes and
stringed instruments such as lyres, lutes, and several types of
harps, wind and percussion instruments. Military bands used
trumpets and drums.
In Babylonia, court musicians played ornate instruments.
The lyres of that time were probably made at Ur in the 2600’s
Unit 6. What is Music? 117

B. C. They were covered with gold and shell. The people of


Bible lands sang Hebrew songs and chants, such as the Psalms.
The Bible mentions harps, drums, trumpets, cymbals, and other
instruments. The music in Solomon’s temple at Jerusalem in
the 900’s B. C. probably included trumpets and choral singing
to the accompaniment of stringed instruments.
The early Chinese believed that music had magic powers,
as well as the power to please, because they thought it re
flected the order in the Universe. Chinese music used a
pentatonic scale. Chinese musicians played the zither, various
flutes, and percussion instruments. In India musical tradi
tions go back to the 1200’s B. C. The people believed that
music was directly related to the fundamental process of hu
man life. They had developed religious music in ancient times,
and worked out music theories by about 300 B. C. Indian com
posers followed a complicated set of formulas called ragas.
Ragas set the emotional mood and even the philosophic mean
ing of the performance.

IV. Read the text and answer the questions.

STYLE AND GENRE IN MUSIC


Musical style is a circle of musical images and means of
their embodiment in music that reflects the system of musical
thinking of epoch, national culture, or composer. Speaking
about musical style, we mean the contents of a musical work
and the peculiarities of its musical language. Different types
of musical works, characterized by different characterisric
features and formed in the process of musical development,
are called musical genres. Gradually typical tempos, meters,
rhythmic groups, melodic turns, accompaniment forms, and
textures were crystallized in certain genres. In the folk music
initial three genres were being formed during a long period of
time. They are: song, dance, and march. Such modern genres
as opera, oratorio, symphony, concerto, etc., appeared in the
new socialhistorical conditions. In the course of time some
ancient genres disappeared, some greatly changed. Modern
complex genres have absorbed features of the song, dance and
118 Английский язык для музыкантов

march. To understand the contents of a musical work it is


necessary to determine its genre, to analyze the epoch, in
which it was composed, to pay attention to the peculiarities of
national culture and individual style of the composer.

1. What is musical style?


2. What are musical genres?

V. Read the texts and find the answers to the questions


from the texts.

WHAT IS SILENCE?
It is known that music consists of combination of sounding
and silence. Let’s speak about silence. One would think that we
could do nothing with it. But it appears that such point of view
is wrong. It is possible to organize silence giving it a certain
time of duration. Especially it becomes apparent in music, where
it is organized by duration. In music silence has its own specific
musical term — rest. What is it? It is a certain, specifically
organized, kind of silence. Rests have their own system of rest
values, which is absolutely identical to those of note values.
And it is possible to operate with them in the way we do with
sounds. As rests are inseparable elements of music they play
their specific role in it. They help to build and at the same time
to differentiate musical structures. The whole architectonical
structure of the musical composition is impossible without
rests. Besides, rests demand different means of performing
crescendo, diminuendo, and culmination. The most dramatic
moments of music can be expressed either with real sounds or
rests. Rests can give music the feeling of tension or something
that is developed after silence or to enforce musical idea.

WHAT IS TONE?
Music is discrete like everything around us. Any musical
tone has its beginning, end, and its own exact duration. There
is a strict hierarchy of tone duration. It is seen on the scheme
given the theory of music duration of the tone is defined as
Unit 6. What is Music? 119

note value. So the note value is the time necessary for playing
the given note. The goal of the note value is to organize the
music, giving it the exact meter rhythmic shape in the process
of its development. In British and American English note val
ues are named differently.

WHAT IS RHYTHM?
The rhythm is one of the major resources of music. Any
musical melody cannot exist without rhythm. The rhythm
organizes music while moving it along and creates certain
moods. There are such varieties of rhythms as a simple rhythm,
a complex rhythm, a dotted rhythm, a call and response rhythm
pattern, and polyrhythm. Simple rhythms are mostly used in
classical music. Complex and dotted rhythms are mostly used
in pop and jazz. The main feature of AfroAmerican music is
call and response rhythmic pattern.

WHAT IS POLYRHYTHM?
Now several words about polyrhythm. Polyrhythm is some
thing of the polymeter, but instead of different meters there are
different rhythms in the voices of the same musical composi
tion. We know that in musical practice notes are organized into
rhythmic groups. Groupment of notes in such groups may be of
two kinds: even or odd. If we change one groupment of notes for
another one but don’t change their total values, which are equal
and unchanged, then we’ll have new kinds of groupment:
n duplet — дуоль;
n triplet — триоль;
n quadruple — квартоль;
n quintuplet — квинтоль;
n sextuplet or sextolet — секстоль;
n septulet or septolet or septimole — септоль.

WHAT IS TEMPO?
It is known that each musical composition has its own rate
of speed. The term used to indicate the rate of speed of the
120 Английский язык для музыкантов

musical composition is tempo. It is defined as the rate of speed


of expanding sounding material of the musical composition in
the process of its performing. Tempo depends upon content,
character, and genre of music. For more precise definition
metronome markings are used: Largo, Larghetto, Adagio,
Andante, Moderato, Allegro, Presto, with corresponding fig
ure markings. More recently, however, some composers have
preferred to indicate tempo in the language of their own coun
try. English composers do it in this way.
n Largo — very slow;
n Adagio — slow;
n Andante — moderately slow;
n Allegretto — moderately fast;
n Allegro — fast;
n Presto — very fast.

VI. Read the texts and fill in the spidergrams.

CHORDS

An accord which consists of three or more tones and is


perceived as an independent tone complex is called a chord.
Phonism in chords increases to such degree that qualitatively
new sounding is created. In musical practice a great number of
chords of various constructions are used. The simplest and
mostly spread are chords of third construction. Notwithstand
ing location of chord tones on the staff these tones can always
construct the chord built on thirds through some octave tran
sition. If the tones of the chord are built one over another in
the order of their pitch lever going upward, then such chords
are built in the elementary form. The lowest tone of the chord
is called a basic (or root) tone or unison. Other tones create a
Unit 6. What is Music? 121

third, fifth, seventh and so on. They have their name, desig
nation and are called chord tones. The number of tones in the
chord determines the kind of the chord. The chord which of
three tones and is built on thirds is called a triad. The chord
consisting of four tones and built on thirds is called a seventh
chord or the chord of the seventh. These are two kinds of
chords: block chords and broken chords. In the block chords all
the pitches are played simultaneously and the broken chords —
successively. Performing chords one after another is called a
chord progression.

VII. Read the text again and answer the questions ac
cording to the text.
1. What is a chord?
2. What kind of difference is there between accord and
chord?
3. Upon what does the name and designation of the chord
depend?

VIII. Read the text and try to explain the musical termi
nology.
There are plenty of arts. But music is a specific kind of
art which develops in the process of time. This peculiarity
demands specific laws of creating music and its experienc
ing. The major role in this process plays specific time used in
music.
Each musical composition has its own pulsation depend
ing upon precisely even intervals of time. The time unit of
this pulsation is called a beat. So the beat is a precise pulsa
tile time interval precisely repeated throughout the musical
composition. Some beats are strong, some — weak. The orga
nization of beats into groups of two is called duple meter;
into groups of three — triple meter; into groups of four —
quadruple meter.
In the notation, meter is designated by meter (or time)
signature which is fraction. The numerator of fraction in
dicates the number of beats in each measure and the de
nominator indicates beat value. The value of the beat may
be represented by a crotchet or some other values. The group
122 Английский язык для музыкантов

of beats is called a bar (including bar lines) or measure


(excluding bar lines).
As a rule all voices of the musical composition are written
in the same meter. But sometimes voices of the musical com
position may be written in different meters. Such phenom
enon is called polymeter. So polymeter is defined as combina
tion of different meters that sound simultaneously in the same
musical composition.
A meter (or time) signature always appears at the right of
the key signatures. In a piece of music marked 4/4 the com
poser shows that four crotchets should receive one beat each.
One measure of 4/4 may have a semibreve worth four beats or
eight quavers worth half a beat or two crotchets and a minim
or some other combination totalling four beats.
A given time unit may vary widely in its clocktime dura
tion. If a beat of a crotchet lasts a long time such as 1 1/2
seconds, the tempo (speed) is very slow. But if it lasts a short
time, such as 1/2 second, the tempo is fast.
Mind, that the term “time signature” is more characteris
tic of British English and the term “meter signature” — more
of American English.

IX. Read and translate the text.

TEXTURE
Music has melody and harmony. They can be put together
in a variety of ways. The way they are used separately or
together is called texture. There can be such kinds of textures
as: Monophonic texture — melody alone, Polyphonic texture —
several melodies together, Homophonic texture — melody
with harmony, Mixed texture — several melodies together
plus harmony. In the melody and counterpoint, musical
complex and texture run together. In the harmonic com
plex, texture can be different. For example chords can be
used as block chords or broken chords. Broken chords are
harmonic figuration. Chordal complex can be enhanced with
nonchordal tones that are second hither or lower than
chordal ones. These nonchordal tones belong to the melodic
Unit 6. What is Music? 123

figuration. They enhance music with second intonations.


Passing tones, auxiliary tones, prolonger tones, and preced
ing tones belong to the nonchordal one.
Fill in the spidergramme:

X. Read and translate the text. Put 5 special questions to


the text. Fill in the spidergramme.

CLEFS

It’s impossible to read notes without clef. We won’t be able


to decode them for the lack of starting point. Only the musical
clef has the power of fastening the exact pitch of tone to the
note which serves as the starting point for decoding other
notes. So clef is defined as a sign which shows a definite pitch
of the definite tone of the definite octave. A clef gives us an
opportunity to use various ranges or registers of voices or
instruments in the most convenient way without writing a
great number of additional lines above or below the staff. The
ranges of some instruments demand using several clefs. This
refers, to such instruments as piano, viola, violoncello, organ,
accordion, bandura, some instruments of brass family. Nowa
days only three clefts are used: Gclef, Fclef and Cclef.
First of all let’s speak about the Cclef. The clef of C was
mostly used in the period of development of polyvoiced vocal
124 Английский язык для музыкантов

choral music in the 15–16th centuries. It got its name from


voices used for notating vocal parts. One must remember, that
the Cclef always indicates the note C of the first octave. If it’s
placed on the first line of the staff it’s called soprano or des
cant (lat. “discantus”) clef; on the second line — a mezzo
soprano clef; on the third line — an alto clef; on the fourth
one — a tenor clef; on the fifth one — a baritone clef. Now we
shall speak about the Gclef. In contrast to the Cclef the Gclef
is written only on the second line of the staff and indicates the
note G of the first octave. At the same time it can be called
either a violin or treble clef. And at last the Fclef. It indicates
the note F of the small octave and it is written on the fourth
line of the staff. It can also be called a bass clef.

XI. Read the texts about different styles of music and ...
1. Make order among the texts:
а) ...; b) ...; c) ...; d) ...; e) ...; f) ...; g) ...; h) ...
2. Explain the underlined sentences from the texts.
Impressionism is a trend in art of the last third of the 19th
and early 20th centuries. Impressionism was originated in
France. Later, in the 80–90’s, the idea of impressionism and
a part of creative methods found the expression in French
music. Two composers — Debussy and Ravel — represented
impressionism in music. Pioneering of musical impressionism
is considered to be Debussy, who enriched all aspects — melody,
harmony, orchestration. His pioneering experiments inspired
the remarkable Russian composers. Debussy wrote many pi
ano and vocal miniatures, several pieces for chamber en
sembles, three ballets, a lyrical opera “Pelléas et Mélisande”.
The spiritualized picture of nature with amazing, visible con
creteness was handed in his orchestral pieces “Prelude”, “Noc
turnes” (“Clouds”, “Festivities” and “Sirens”), three sketches:
“The Sea”, the cycle “Iberia” (three sketches of nature and life
of southern Spain), as well as piano miniatures “Island of
Happiness”, “Moonlight”, “Gardens in the Rain” and others.
A later era is reflected in the work of Maurice Ravel (1875–
1937). Listening to his works you can hear the music melodies
from tragic enthusiasm to sarcastic irony. But in his compo
sitional style typical musical impressionism is also found. In
Unit 6. What is Music? 125

the best piano pieces by Ravel whimsical sounds dominated.


Throughout his life the composer developed the theme of his
beloved Spain. This is reflected in “Rapsodie Espagnole” for
orchestra, comic operas: “The Spanish Hour”, “Bolero”. Ravel
gave much attention to such a genre as dance music.
Renaissance is a time of transition of European culture
from the Middle Ages to modern times (approx. 1400–1600,
in Italy in the 14th century). Culture is characterized by the
release of the power of the church, freethinking and personal
liberation. Model reflection of the real world in the Renais
sance becomes an art of antiquity. At the same time the art of
the Renaissance was based on creativity. Both of these trends
were significant for the ballet, beginning to emerge. Elements
of the ballet appeared in Italy in the synthetic spectacle accom
panying festivities: parades, masquerades in Italy, and later
in France. Such shows were held in the courts. These included
traditional dances and performed household fans, but over
time the organization of such representations gained profes
sionalism. In contrast to the literature, painting, sculpture,
architecture Renaissance is not marked by outstanding achieve
ments of ballet. But at that time the first steps were made to
the emergence of it as a special kind of art.
In music, modernism is a philosophical and aesthetic
stance underlying the period of change and development in
musical language that occurred around the turn of the 20th
century, a period of diverse reactions in challenging and rein
terpreting older categories of music, innovations that lead to
new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic,
sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic
worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of
modernism in the arts of that time. The word is associated
with “innovation”. Its leading feature is a “linguistic plural
ity”, meaning that no one music genre has ever assumed a
dominant position. Inherent within musical modernism is the
conviction that music is not a static phenomenon defined by
timeless truths and classical principles, but rather something
which is intrinsically historical and developmental. Examples
include the celebration of Arnold Schoenberg’s rejection of
tonality in chromatic posttonal and twelvetone works and
126 Английский язык для музыкантов

Igor Stravinsky’s move away from metrical rhythm. Tarasti


defines musical modernism directly in terms of “the dissolu
tion of the traditional tonality and transformation of tonal
language’s foundations, searching for new models in atonalism,
polytonalism or other forms of altered tonality”, which took
place around the turn of the century.
Barocco music is a style of European classical music in the
period from about 1600 to 1750. The Baroque era follows the
Renaissance and Classicism previous eras. The main in this
music was an expression of emotion. Barocco music is a riot
and ecstasy, in contrast to the confidence and independence of
the Renaissance. This is the period in which the increased
complexity of harmony along with an emphasis on the con
trast. The opera came to the place of recitative aria, and in
church music contrasts soloists, chorus and orchestra were
brought to a high level. In the Baroque instrumental music
appeared sonata, suite, and concerto grosso (big concert), as in
the music of Vivaldi, Bach, Handel. Instrumental forms, sound
ing in the Baroque era, were concerto grosso, fugue, suite,
sonata, partita, symphony, fantasy, toccata, prelude and vo
cal forms such as opera, oratorio, passion, mass, cantata, carol.
Tools used in Barocco music were strings (lute, violin, viola,
cello, double bass), brass (trumpet, French horn, flute). In the
early Barocco period there was no tonal areas. They were cre
ated in the late Barocco period. Barocco music has increased
the size, scope and complexity of the musical performance. It
is full of decorations and virtuoso techniques. Baroque music
was the result of the search for new modes of expression.
Romanticism was a reaction to the Enlightenment. Its ap
pearance was due to different reasons. The most important of
them was a disappointment in the outcome of French Revolu
tion. The life of musical Romanticism in Europe is much
longer. Musical Romanticism emerged as a trend in the be
ginning of the 19th century and developed in close connection
with the various trends in literature, painting and theater.
The initial stage of musical romanticism presented works by
F. Schubert, E. T. A. Hoffmann, K. Weber, N. Paganini,
G. Rossini; the works of Chopin, Schumann, Mendelssohn,
Berlioz, Liszt, Wagner, G. Verdi. Late stage of Romanticism
Unit 6. What is Music? 127

extended to the end of the 19th century. As the main problems


of romantic music extended the problem of personality, and in
a new light in its conflict with the world. A Romantic hero is
always alone. The theme of loneliness is the most popular of all
romantic art. It is associated with the idea of a creative per
sonality: a man is alone, while he is an outstanding, talented
person. In romantic music a deep interest to human is ex
pressed in the predominance of personal taste. For example,
many of Schumann’s piano works are connected with the his
tory of his love for Clara Wieck. The autobiographical nature
of his operas, Wagner strongly emphasized. Music of roman
tic composers was the theme of science fiction. For the first
time music tried to embody fabulously fantastic images. The
characteristic of musical romantic interest was in folk art.
Like Romantic poets who through folklore enriched and up
dated the literary language, the musicians applied the na
tional folklore — folk songs, ballads, epics.
Expressionism in music was the most radical expression of
composers of Viennese School: primarily from its founder
Arnold Schoenberg and his disciples Alban Berg and Anton
Webern. It was the sharp opposition to Romanticism and re
fined aesthetic schools in the beginning of the 20th century.
This group of composers with young Paul Hindemith had its
own position. Schoenberg and his school held a special place in
Western music, making it the most extremist branch. The
rejection of evil and inhumanity paradoxically were united in
their art with insularity, conscious isolation. In 20’s years of
the last century the most important examples of musical ex
pressionism were: monodrama “Waiting”, Five Pieces for Or
chestra and the song cycle “Pierrot Lunaire” of Schoenberg, as
well as the “Symphony”. Schoenberg’s pupil Alban Berg created
an expressionistic work — the opera “Wozzeck”, marked by the
spirit of social criticism. It was the highest achievement of
musical expressionism. The origins of Expressionism in music
are: Wagner’s opera “Tristan and Isolde”, the later sympho
nies of Mahler, some works by Richard Strauss. Expression
ism most acutely expressed human conflict with reality. In
some cases, it led to an exacerbation of the tragic expression,
in others — to the artistic Utopia that seemed spiritual values.
128 Английский язык для музыкантов

This conflict led to the radical artistic decisions in explosive


traditions.
Neoclassicism is a direction in music of the 20–30’s in
the 20th century. It became one of the manifestations of anti
romantic movement. It received a complete expression in the
works of Stravinsky, Hindemith and A. Casella. Composers of
this trend accessed to different genres of music, largescale
crisis of romantic. Symphony led to a revival of the genre
historically preceded it (suite, concerto grosso, polyphonic,
cycles), reducing the role of sonata form in the sonatasym
phony. Cycle evident appealed to a different types of struc
tures (e. g., in concert form): instead of stable double, triple
the orchestra often used instrumental orchestra. The destruc
tion of the classical tone (homophonic) harmony led to the
strengthening of polyphonic principles’ development, the use
of baroque’s forms in music due to the fact that its represen
tatives appealed primarily to the revival of muses.
In the age of classicism something has changed dramati
cally in the orchestra. There was no more need for the harpsi
chord or the organ as a major musical instruments, such wind
instruments as the clarinet, the flute, the trumpet, etc. The
new composition of the orchestra has led to a symphony — the
most important type of music, according to the standard of
three rates — rapid start, slow middle and end of the fast. One
of the first composers who used symphony format was the son
of J. S. Bach — Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. The new string
quartet appeared consisting of two violins, the viola and the
cello. The most important works of the classical period were
solo sonatas created for any solo instrument, but primarily for
the piano. Like a symphony, a sonata became a way of combin
ing a plurality of different types of instrumental music in one
type. The most striking classical composers were great Aus
trians — Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Haydn created a fantastic choral, operatic, orchestral and in
strumental music, but his greatest achievement were the sym
phonies, which he wrote more than one hundred. At the end of
the eighteenth century another star of classical music was
Ludwig van Beethoven, the composer who started composing
music in the classical style, inherited from Haydn and Mozart,
Unit 6. What is Music? 129

but eventually outgrew it and literally split the classic style,


marking the dawn of a new era, known as the Romantic period
in music.

XII. Read and dramatize the dialogue.


— Will you turn off radio set? I’m tired of this terrible
sort of music!
— It’s not so terrible as you think. It’s just modern. Shall
I try another program?
— All right, will you try the program of classical music? It
is quieter, more harmonizing.
— Shall we listen to Mozart?
— I know the older a composer is, the more you like his
music.
— Right you are. The youngest are not always the best.
But look! Isn’t it wonderful?
— I’ll be very sorry when this concert is over.

XIII. Read the text and...


А. Find English equivalents:
n быть увлеченным (чемл.), вовлеченным (во чтол.);
n возрастать, усиливаться;
n начать, организовывать (предприятие);
n поднимать;
n собираться, встречаться.
B. Copy out all irregular verbs in Past Simple.
C. Quess which music the main characters play?
Buddy was on his way out of the school when he heard
music that was coming from the gym. He pushed open the door
and saw the twines. Jason was playing a bass, while Mike was
playing an electric guitar. It was a slow blues tune. They were
good and Buddy watched in admiration wishing he had his
guitar with him and could join in. The twines were so caught
up in the music that they didn’t notice him until they had
finished. When they saw him, Jason turned away and started
playing music to himself but Mike smiled and waved him over.
“It was great”, — Buddy said. — “It made me want to
join in”.
“Hey, you don’t play keyboards, do you?” — Mike asked.
130 Английский язык для музыкантов

“No. Rhythm guitar”.


“Pity. We’re looking for someone on keyboards and drums.
We had a group down in Plymouth and this guy played great
synthesizer. We want to start something up here, but we’ll
never find anyone as good”.
“Yeah, well — anyway...” — Buddy said, beginning to move
towards the door.
“Hey”, — Mike called. — “Bring your gear in on Mon
day — we can have a try”.
They met up in the gym at four on the Monday and sat
around talking for a while, all slightly nervous at the idea of
starting. Mike told him about the group they’d had in Ply
mouth. They’d done some gigs in pubs and youth clubs, play
ing all kinds of music from modern pop to soul and even a bit
of heavy metal.
“Records, gigs — I just don’t want anything else”, Jason
went on. “Come on. Let’s stop talking and play something”.
The session started quietly. Buddy let the twines choose the
songs and, since they were all new to him, he felt nervous.
Then Jason decided to sing. The first song he chose was one
that Buddy knew so at last he felt confident and could let the
rhythm control him. Jason had sung quite well but Buddy
knew he could do better.
“Let’s try a bit faster”, — he said.
By the time they were halfway through, the music lifted off
and Buddy couldn’t stand will. He danced and roared his way to
the end of verse and when he glanced round he saw that Jason
was playing with his eyes closed, completely lost in the beat.
Mike picked up a metal finger — piece and started a guitar solo
that echoed the way Buddy had been singing. The solo rose up
to an end and Buddy started another verse and chorus, inspired
by the push that the guitar sound had given him. When the song
finished, there was that second or so of silence that always
seemed to happen when a song went well — as if it took a mo
ment to come back to earth. Then Jason began to laugh.
“Whooo! Hey, that was super. Boy, you can really sing.
Can’t he, Mike?”
“That was fantastic”, — he said, shaking his head as if he
couldn’t believe it. “Wow, you really rock!”
Unit 6. What is Music? 131

XIV. Translate the text into English.

МУЗЫКА И ПРИРОДА
Человек и природа — это вечная тема искусства. Музы
ка, как и другие формы искусства, отражает мир вокруг
нас. Музыка передает движение, ритмы жизни и голоса
природы: шум ветра, голоса птиц, шум моря. Композиторы
XVIII в. идеализируют природу, изображают ее величие и
человека наедине с природой. Некоторые сонаты и симфо
нии Бетховена принадлежат к этому типу музыкальных
пейзажей: солнечная, светлая и поэтическая соната «Авро
ра», выразительная и эмоциональная «Пасторальная сим
фония» и др. Некоторые композиторы наполняют свои му
зыкальные пейзажи философским смыслом о вечном круго
вороте жизни (как, например, «Времена года» Гайдна). Среди
русских композиторов РимскийКорсаков является блестя
щим пейзажистом. Его излюбленная тема — море. Для изо
бражения моря он использует прием монотонного повторе
ния темы. В опере «Садко» композитор использует музы
кальный пейзаж как эмоциональный фон для действия.
UNIT 7
RUSSIAN MUSIC

I. Read and translate the text.


Music of Russia denotes music produced in Russia or by
the Russians. Russia is a large and culturally diverse country,
with many ethnic groups, each with their own locally devel
oped music. Russian music also includes significant contribu
tions from ethnic groups. Russian music includes a variety of
styles: from ritual folk song to the sacred music of the Russian
Orthodox Church, and also included the legacy of several promi
nent of the 19th century. It is classical and romantic music.
The most popular kind of instruments in medieval Russia were
string instruments, such as the gusli or the gudok.
Russia was a late starter in developing a native tradition of
classical music due to the proscription by the Orthodox Church
against secular music. Beginning in the reign of Ivan the Fourth,
the Imperial Court invited Western. Peter the First saw Euro
pean music as a mark of civilization and a way of westernizing
the country. A craze for Italian opera at the Court during the
reigns of Empresses Elisabeth and Catherine also helped spread
interest in Western music among the aristocracy.
The focus on European music meant that Russian compos
ers had to write in Western style if they wanted their compo
sitions to be performed. Some composers were able to travel
abroad for training, usually to Italy and learned to compose
vocal and instrumental works in the Italian Classical tradition
popular in the day.
The first great Russian composer to exploit native Russian
music traditions was Mikhail Glinka (1804–1857), who com
Unit 7. Russian Music 133

posed the early Russian language operas “Ivan Susanin” and


“Ruslan and Lyudmila”. They were neither the first operas in
the Russian language nor the first written by Russian. They
gained fame for relying on distinctively Russian tunes and
themes.
Russian folk music became the primary source for the
younger generation composers. A group that called itself “The
Five”, headed by Balakirev (1837–1910) including Rimsky
Korsakov (1844–1908), Mussorgsky (1839–1881), Borodin
(1833–1887) and César Cui (1835–1918), proclaimed its pur
pose to compose and popularize Russian national traditions in
classical music. Among “The Five’s” most notable composi
tions were the operas “The Snow Maiden” (Snegurochka),
“Sadko”, “Boris Godunov”, “Prince Igor”, “Khovanshchina”,
and a symphonic suite “Scheherazade”. Many of the works by
Glinka and other composers of “The Five” were based on the
Russian history, folk tales and literature, and are regarded as
masterpieces of romantic nationalism in music.
This period also saw the foundation of the Russian Musical
Society (RMS) in 1859, led by composerpianists Anton (1829–
1894) and Nikolai Rubinstein (1835–1881). The RMS founded
Russia’s first Conservatories in St. Petersburg and in Mos
cow: the former trained the great Russian composer Peter
Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), best known for the ballets
like “Swan Lake”, “Sleeping Beauty”, and “The Nutcracker”.
He remains Russia’s bestknown composer outside Russia.
Easily the most famous successor in his style is Sergei Rach
maninov (1873–1943), who studied at the Moscow Conserva
tory (where Tchaikovsky himself taught).
The late 19th and early 20th century saw the third wave of
Russian classics: Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971), Alexander
Scryabin (1872–1915), Sergei Prokofiev (1891–1953) and
Dmitri Shostakovich (1906–1975). They were experimental in
style and musical language. Some of them emigrated after the
Russian Revolution, though Prokofiev eventually returned
and contributed to Soviet music as well. In the late 19th to
early 20th centuries, the socalled “romantic songs” became
very popular. The greatest and most popular singers of the
“romances” usually sang in operas at the same time. The most
134 Английский язык для музыкантов

popular was Fyodor Chalyapin. Singers usually composed music


and wrote the lyrics, as did Alexander Vertinsky, Konstantin
Sokolsky, Pyotr Leshchenko.
Jazz was introduced to Soviet audiences by Valentin Pa
rnakh in the 1920’s. The singer Leonid Utyosov and the film
score composer Isaak Dunayevsky helped its popularity, espe
cially with the popular comedy movie “Jolly Fellows”. Film
soundtracks produced a significant part of popular Russian
(Soviet) songs of the time, as well as of orchestral and experi
mental music jazz.
After the Russian Revolution, Russian music changed
dramatically. New trends in music (like music based on syn
thetic chords) were proposed by enthusiastic clubs such as
Association for Contemporary Music. The representatives of
classical music were Prokofiev, Shostakovich and Aram
Khachaturian. A wave of younger Soviet composers, such as
Georgy Sviridov, Alfred Schnittke, and Sofia Gubaidulina took
the forefront. In the 1930’s, music was to be contained within
certain boundaries of content and innovation. The Union of
Soviet Composers was established in 1932 and became the major
regulatory body for Soviet music.
The 1960’s and 1970’s saw the beginning of modern Rus
sian pop and rock music. It started with the wave of VIA’s
(vocalinstrumental ensemble), a specific sort of music bands
performing radiofriendly pop, rock and folk, composed by
members of the Union of Composers. That period of music also
saw individual pop stars such as Valery Leontiev, Sofia Rotaru,
Alla Pugacheva, Yuri Antonov. Many of them remain popular
to this day. They were the mainstream of Soviet music media,
headliners of festivals such as “Song of the Year”, “Sopot”,
and “Golden Orpheus”. Rock music came to former Soviet
Union in the late 1960’s and many rock bands arose during
late 1970’s: “Mashina Vremeni”, “Aquarium”, “Autograph”.
The “golden age” of Russian rock is widely considered to have
been the 1980’s. The rock music scene has gradually evolved
from the united movement into several different subgenres
similar to those found in the West. There’s youth pop rock and
alternative rock (“Mumiy Troll”, “Zemfira”, “Splean”, “Bi2”,
“Zveri”). There’s punk rock, ska and grunge (“Korol i Shut”,
Unit 7. Russian Music 135

“Pilot”, “Leningrad”, “Distemper”, “Elisium”). The heavy


metal scene has grown substantially, with new bands playing
power and progressive metal (“Catharsis”, “Epidemia”, “Sha
dow Host”, “Mechanical Poet”), and pagan metal (“Arkona”,
“Butterfly Temple”, “Temnozor”). Rock music media has be
come prevalent in modern Russia.
We must mention about “Bardic” or “authors’ song” at the
early 1960’s. It can be compared to the American folk revival
movement of the 60’s, with their simple singleguitar arrange
ments and poetical lyrics. We know bards like Vladimir Vy
sotsky, Bulat Okudzhava, Alexander Galich and others. The
largest festival of bard music is “Grushinsky Festival”, held
annually since 1968. A specific Russian kind of music is la
belled as “Russian Chanson” (appeared in the 1980’s). Its
main artists include Mikhail Krug, Mikhail Shufutinsky, and
Alexander Rosenbaum. Electronic music in modern Russia is
underdeveloped in comparison to other genres.
Russian pop music is well developed. “Eurovision 2008”
winner Dima Bilan, Philipp Kirkorov, Vitas and Alsou are
among famous artists. Early 2000’s saw a boom of musicals in
Russia: “NotreDame de Paris”, “NordOst”, “Roméo et Juli
ette”, “We Will Rock”. They were constantly performed in
Moscow theatres at that time. The popularity of musicals was
hampered by the 2002 Moscow theater hostage crisis and only
revived at the end of the decade.

II. Read the text again. Try to find the sentence as a title
to each paragraph.

III. Complete the sentences from the text.


1. Electronic music in modern Russia is ...
2. ... the united movement into several different subgenres
similar to those found in the West.
3. ... was introduced to Soviet audiences by ... in the 1920’s.
4. The most popular kind of instruments in medieval Rus
sia were string instruments, such as ...
5. The first great Russian composer to exploit native Rus
sian music traditions into the realm of Secular music was ...,
who composed the early Russian language operas ...
136 Английский язык для музыкантов

6. The late 19th and early 20th century saw the third wave
of Russian classics: ...
7. Rock music came to Soviet Union ... and many rock bands
arose during late 1970’s: ...
8. Peter the First saw European music as ...
9. The representatives of classical music were ...
10. ... saw the beginning of modern Russian pop and rock
music.

IV. Name all the styles of Russian music. Make a report


about one of the styles.

V. Read and translate the third paragraph from the text.

ETHNIC RUSSIAN MUSIC


Ethnic Russian music specifically deals with the folk music
traditions of the ethnic Russian people. It does not include the
various forms of art music, which in Russia often contains
folk melodies and folk elements.
1. The performance and promulgation of ethnic music in
Russia has a long tradition. Initially it was intertwined with
various forms of art music, however, in the late 19th century
it began to take on a life of its own such as the folk choir
movement led by Mitrofan Pyatnitsky and the Russian folk
instrument movement pioneered by Vasily Andreyev. In former
Soviet Russia, folk music was categorized as being democratic
(of the people) or proletarian (of the working class) as opposed
to art music, which was often regarded as being bourgeois.
After the revolution, along with proletarian “mass music”
(music for the proletarian masses) it received a significant
support from the state. In Post World War folkloric music
continued to have a widespread support among the population,
inside and outside of Russia. In the 1960’s folk music in Rus
sia continued to receive a significant state support and was
often seen as the antithesis of Western pop music. The fact
that numerous folkloric ensembles, invited for foreign tours,
raised the prestige of the folk performer to that of academic
musicians today.
Unit 7. Russian Music 137

2. This music is closely tied in with the village life and


traditions. It was usually not performed by music profession
als. In recent times, with the move to literacy and technology
there has been a marked decline in authentic folk perfor
mance practice. Festivals, competitions and the work of
ethnomusicologists have made attempts at preserving what
has survived. In recent times there has been a movement by
musicologists to study and reproduce authentic folk music in
an authentic performance style on the concert stage. This
movement in Russia is spearheaded by members of the Faculty
of folk music at the Moscow Conservatory under the direction
of Dmitri Pokrovsky.
This category includes music by groups led by music pro
fessionals who take authentic musical material, refine it, and
perform it in a manner suitable for the musically tastes of
educated Western audiences. The category includes many of
the regional folkloric ensembles and dance companies popular
in the Russian Federation such as the Kuban Cossack Choir.
Often these folkloric ensembles specialize in collecting and
maintaining the folk music traditions of the area of their ori
gins which they service. They perform in stylized stage cos
tumes based on the authentic costume designs used in the
village but modified for stage use.
3. It includes music composed by professional composers
in a folkloric manner. 60–80% of contemporary Russian folk
music marketed to the West is not “authentic” and can be
loosely labeled as “fakeloric”. Much music of the Russian folk
instrument orchestras can also be categorized in this group as
it is based on academic music traditions and playing tech
niques only taking a folk element.
4. Authentic Russian folk music is primarily vocal. Rus
sian folk song was an integral part of daily life in the village.
It was sung from morning to night and reflected the four
seasons and significant events in a villager’s life. Authentic
village singing differs from academic singing styles. It is usu
ally done using just the chest register and is often called “white
sound” or “white” voice. It is often described as controlled
screaming or shouting. Female chest register singers only have
a low diapason from an octave to 12 notes. Chest register sing
138 Английский язык для музыкантов

ing has evolved into a style used by many of the Folk Choirs in
Russia and neighbouring countries. It was first pioneered by
Pyatnitsky and Ukrainian folk choir directered by Demutsky
in the early 1900’s.
5. Instrumental music for a long period was suppressed in
Russia. All musical instruments were banned in the 17th cen
tury under the influence of views in Russian Orthodox Church.
As a result instrumental music traditions disappeared in Rus
sia for many years. In late 19th century Vasily Andreyev took
up the balalaika in his performances for French tourists to
St. Petersburg. This music became popular and Andreyev or
ganized a club of balalaika players. This club grew into an
orchestra, which in time grew into a movement. From a simple
unsophisticated three stringed instrument this movement led
to the development and implementation of many other Rus
sian folk instruments. The Russian folk instrument move
ment had its resonance in the cultures of other ethnic groups
within Russia. Thus folk instrument orchestras appeared in
Belarus, the Ukraine, Bulgaria, Moldavia, and Romania.

VI. Read the text and put 5 alternative questions.

VII. Summarize the text.

VIII. Match the names of the musical instruments from


the box with the pictures.
Gusli zvonchatye, domra, gusli clavishnye, svirel, gudok,
bryolka, vladimirsky rojok, balalaika.
Unit 7. Russian Music 139

IX. Make up a dialogue discussing with your friend one


of the Russian folk instruments. Ask him about his favorite
instruments.

X. Describe your favorite folk instrument.

МILY BALAKIREV
Mily Alekseyevich Balakirev was born in 1837 in N. Novgorod.
He was a Russian pianist, conductor and composer known today
primarily for his work promoting musical nationalism. He
began his career as a pivotal figure.
140 Английский язык для музыкантов

For several years, Balakirev was the only professional in


the group “The Five”. He inspired them with his musical
beliefs, which continued to underlie their thinking long after
he left the group in 1871, and encouraged their composi
tional efforts. While his methods could be dictatorial, his
influence resulted in several works which established these
composers’ reputations individually and as a group. He also
took part in creation of such Tchaikovsky’s masterpieces as:
the fantasyoverture “Romeo and Juliet” and the “Manfred
Symphony”.
In 1864 Balakirev started writing an opera the “Firebird”
based on the folk legend but abandoned the project due to
the lack of a suitable libretto. In 1866 Balakirev’s “Collec
tion of Russian Folksongs” was published. In August 1869
he began the original version of “Islamey”, which was fin
ished a month later. N. Rubinstein premiered the “oriental
fantasy”, which Balakirev considered a sketch for his sym
phonic poem “Tamara”.
As a composer, Balakirev finished his major work many
years after he having started it. He began his First Symphony
in 1864 but completed it in 1897. The exception to this was his
“oriental fantasy”, his “Islamey” for solo piano, which he com
posed quickly and it remains popular among virtuosos. Musi
cal ideas, associated with RimskyKorsakov or Borodin, origi
nated in Balakirev’s compositions, which Balakirev played at
informal gatherings of “The Five”.
After Balakirev completed his courses in the late autumn
of 1885, Ulybyshev took him to St. Petersburg, where he met
Glinka. Balakirev made his debut in a university concert in
February 1856, playing the completed from his First Piano
Concerto. A month later the concert was performed in front of
the Tsar. In 1889 he had 12 published songs.
M. Balakirev also intermittently spent time editing Glin
ka’s works for publication. He travelled to Prague in 1866 to
arrange the production of Glinka’s operas there. The Prague
production of “A Life for the Tsar” under the direction of
B. Smetana horrified Balakirev. During this visit Balakirev
sketched and partly orchestrated an Overture on Czech Themes.
This work was performed on May 1867 at Free School concert
Unit 7. Russian Music 141

in Moscow. M. Balakirev encouraged N. RimskyKorsarov and


A. Borodin to complete their first symphonies, whose premieres
he conducted in Decemder 1865 and January 1869 respec
tively.
In 1876 Balakirev slowly began reemerging into the music
world after his nervous breakdown. Stasov wrote to Rimsky
Korsakov in July that Balakirev was busy composing his sym
phonic poem “Tamara”. He did not wish to see any of his old
musical circle and talk about music. Unlike his earlier days,
when he played works in progress at gatherings of The Five,
Balakirev composed in isolation. He was aware that younger
composers now considered his compositional style oldfash
ioned. He was ignored by the younger generation of Russian
composers, except Glazunov.
Balakirev died on May 29, 1910.

I. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. When and where was Balakirev born?
2. When did he begin his First Symphony?
3. Which famous professional group was created by Ba
lakirev?
4. The Prague production of “A Life for the Tsar” under
the direction of B. Smetana horrified Balakirev, did not it?
5. Where and when did Balakirev meet Glinka?
6. What works of Balakirev do you know?
7. When did Balakirev complete his courses?
8. When did he travel to Prague?
9. What year did Balakirev have 12 published songs?
10. M. Balakirev encouraged N. RimskyKorsarov and
A. Borodin to complete their first symphonies, whose premieres
he conducted in Decemder 1865 and January 1869 respec
tively, did not he?
11. Whom did Balakirev encourage to complete their first
symphonies?
12. When was Balakirev‘s Collection of Russian Folksongs
published?

II. Read the text again and write down some sentences
describing two periods of Balakirev’s life.
142 Английский язык для музыкантов

MILY BALAKIREV
The first Period of life The second Period of life

III. Read the text and write down all Balakirev’s compo
sitions.
IV. Complete the sentences from the text.
1. ... was born in 1837 in N. Novgorod.
2. As a composer ... after having started it.
3. In ..., Balakirev considered writing ... but abandoned
the project due to the lack of a suitable libretto.
4. ... a pivotal figure, extending the fusion of traditional
folk music practical begun by ...
5. ... Balakirev composed in isolation.
6. ... version of “Islamey” in August 1869, ... later.
7. The Prague production of “A Life for the Tsar” ...
8. ..., when ... “The Five”, ... in isolation.
9. He began his First ... in 1897.
10. Balakirev died in ...
V. Read the text again and put a tick (v) if the sentence
is true or cross (x) if it is false.
1. The First Symphony was composed in 1854 but com
pleted in 1857.
2. He was a Russian pianist, a conductor and a composer
known today primarily for his work promoting musical na
tionalism.
3. Balakirev made his debut in a university concert in
February 1856.
4. In 1859 he had 20 published songs.
5. While his methods could be dictatorial, the results of
his influence were several works which established these com
posers’ reputations individually and as a group.
6. In 1864, Balakirev considered writing an opera the
“Firebird” based on the folk legend but abandoned the project
due to the lack of a suitable libretto.
7. This was the concert for which, in his review, B. Smetana
coined phrase “Moguchaya kuchka” to describe “The Five”.

VI. Read and translate the text into Russian.


Unit 7. Russian Music 143

“TAMARA”

Balakirev cultivated the orientalism of Glinka’s opera


“Ruslan and Lyudmila”, making it a more consistent style. It
appears in the Georgian Songs of 1861: “Islamey” and “Tamara”.
This style comprises two trends: a langorous vein of slow,
sinuous melody which ornamentation and slowmoving har
monic progressions, contrasted with a more ecstatic vein
marked by a perpetuum mobile at a fast tempo and rapid me
lodic contours over a slowermoving harmonic changes. On
one hand, this style evoked the mystery of the distant, exotic
contact. On the other hand, it could be used to refer to recently
colonized areas of the Russian Empire. “Tamara” is consid
ered to be Balakirev’s greatest work. Originally he intended to
write a lezginca modelled after Glinka. However, later he was
inspired by the poetry of Mikhail Lermontov about Tamara.
Lermontov’s poem inspired the composer to write the song.
The narration employs a wide musical range, with the com
poser supplying great subtlety within a satisfying structure.

MIKHAIL GLINKA
I. Read and translate the text.
Mikhail Glinka was born in the village of Novospasskoye.
The only music he heard in his childhood was the sounds of the
church bells and folk songs of passing peasant choirs. “Music
is my soul” — he wrote many years later. While his governess
was teaching him Russian, German, French, and Geography,
he also got a perfect command of the piano and the violin. At
the age of 13 Glinka was sent to St. Petersburg to study at
school. He had a chance to have three piano lessons from John
Field, the Irish composer of nocturnes, who spent some time in
St. Petersburg. Then, he continued his piano lessons with
Charles Meyer, and began composing.
In 1830 by a physician’s recommendation, Glinka decided
to travel to Italy. There, Glinka took classes at the conserva
tory with Francesco Basili. Although he spent his three years in
Italy listening to singers of the day, romancing women with his
music, and meeting many famous people including Mendelssohn
144 Английский язык для музыкантов

and Berlioz, he realized that he is destined to return to Russia


to write in a Russian manner and do for Russian music what
Donizetti and Bellini had done for Italian music. His way home
took him through the Alps, and he stopped for a while in Vienna,
where he heard the music of Franz Liszt, for the first time. He
stayed for another five months in Berlin, during that time he
studied composition under “Siegfried Dehn”. A Capriccio on
Russian themes for piano duet and an unfinished Symphony on
two Russian themes were important products of this period.
“A Life for the Tsar” was the first of Glinka’s two great
operas. It was originally entitled “Ivan Susanin”. Set in 1612,
it tells the story of the Russian peasant and patriotic hero Ivan
Susanin who sacrificed his life for the Tsar by leading a group
of Polish soldiers hunting him. It was a great success at its
premiere on December 9, 1836, under the direction of Catterino
Cavos, who had written an opera on the same subject in Italy.
Although the music is still more Italian than Russian, Glinka
showed superb handling of the recitative which binds the whole
work.
The plot of “Ruslan and Lyudmila” is based on the poem by
Alexander Pushkin. Consequently the opera is a dramatic
muddle. Glinka’s music is higher than in “A Life for the Tsar”.
He used a descending wholetonescale in the famous overture.
There is much of Italian coloratura, and Act 3 contains several
routine ballet numbers, but his great achievement in this op
era lies in his use of folk melody which becomes thoroughly
infused into the musical argument.
Glinka made a new direction in the development of Rus
sian music. Russian musical culture derives in Russia from
Europian one, and for the first time specifically when Russian
music began to appear, based on the European music culture,
in the operas of the composer Mikhail Glinka. Different his
torical events are often used in music, but for the first time
they were shown in history.
Glinka’s orchestral works have been fairly popular in con
certs and recordings. Besides the wellknown overtures to the
operas his major orchestral works include the symphonic poem
“Kamarinskaya” (1848), based on Russian folk tunes, and two
Spanish works: “A Night in Madrid” (1848, 1851) and “Aragon
Unit 7. Russian Music 145

Jota” (1845). Glinka also composed a number of art songs,


piano pieces, and chamber music.
In 1884 Mitrofan Belyayev founded the “Glinka Prize”, which
was awarded annually. In the first years the winners were
Alexander Borodin, Mily Balakirev, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky,
Nikolai RimskyKorsakov, Cesar Cui and Anatoly Lyadov.

II. Answer the questions using the information from the


text above.
1. Which opera was premiered on Desember 9, 1836?
2. What year was the “Glinka Prize” established in?
3. Who established the “Glinka Prize”?
4. Who is the author of the poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila”?
5. What year is mentioned in the opera “Ivan Susanin”?
6. What is another name of the opera “Ivan Susanin”?
7. What events are shown in this opera?
8. What other works belong to Glinka?
9. Which of them are performed by the orchestra?
10. Do you know any other songs, written by Glinka?

III. Read the text again and complete the sentences.


1. Mikhail Glinka was born ...
2. Glinka also composed many artsongs, ...
3. In 1884 Mitrofan Belyayev founded the “Glinka Prize” ...
4. Besides the wellknown overtures to the operas, his major
orchestral works include the symphonic poem ...
5. The plot of “Ruslan and Lyudmila” is based ...
6. The only music he heard in his childhood ...
7. There Glinka took lessons at the conservatory ...
8. A Capriccio on Russian themes for piano duet ...

IV. Match the characters from Glinka’s work with.


Ivan Susanin bass
Antonida baritone
Lyudmila bass
Ruslan without words
Svyatozar soprano
Chernomor soprano
Vanya contralto
146 Английский язык для музыкантов

V. Choose the correct singers from the opera “Ivan


Susanin”.
1. Antonida, Sobinin, Vanya.
2. Susanin, Vanya, Sobinin.
3. Antonida, Vanya, Susanin.
4. Susanin, Sobinin, Antonida.

VI. Choose Glinka’s works among the following ones.


1. “Aragon Jota”.
2. “WaltzFantasy”.
3. “Do Not Tempt Me Needlessly”.
4. “Titular Counselor”.

VII. Which compositions didn’t the composer write?


1. “Tail Song”.
2. “Amid the Din of the Ball”.
3. “Lark”.
4. “I Remember the Wonderful Moment”.

VIII. Did the composer write his music on the verses by?
1. A. Pushkin
2. M. Lermontov
3. N. Kukolnik
4. A. Blok
5. E. Baratynsky

IX. Read the text and translate.

SYMPHONIC OVERTURE BY GLINKA “ARAGON JOTA”

In 1840, Glinka spent several months in Paris. There he


composed Spanish Overture No. 1, but the greatest popularity
it received as “Aragon Jota”. The first performance took place
on March 15, 1850. “Aragon Jota” opens with a slow introduc
tion, full of restrained power and grandeur, with fanfare,
alternating fortissimo and undercurrent of quiet sounds.
In the main section (allegro), firstly, there are light pizzi
cato strings and harp tweaks; secondly, more rich and full
Unit 7. Russian Music 147

sounds are bright, cheerful theme infantry. It replaces expres


sive melodic music in the woodwinds. Both themes are alter
nated in a bright bloom orchestral colors, preparing the emer
gence of another topic — elegant and graceful melodies with a
touch of playfulness, reminiscent of folk tune on the mando
lin. In the future, all threads are becoming more anxious,
tense. Their development leads to the music drama, even harsh.
One of the motives infantry, is repeated in the low register on
the background of the entry fanfare, acquiring menacing char
acter. With the rumble of timpani snatches of dance arise.
Topic “infantry” is becoming more clear outlines, and here
again it shines in full splendor. The stormy and unrestrained
dance absorbs all in its vortex. All themes tonally close to
gether, in the joyous rush flow. Majestic, triumphant tutti
completes the picture of folk entertainment.

RIMSKYKORSAKOV

I. Read the text and translate the first and the third
paragraphs.
Of all the great Russian nationalist composers of the lat
ter part of the 19th century, Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky
Korsakov (March 18, 1844 — June 21, 1908) stands second
only to Mily Balakirev in his practical influence on the music
created and preserved in that period. Insofar as his own music
is concerned, while some pieces have remained immensely
popular, the bulk of his achievement is rarely heard today.
It was Balakirev who awoke in RimskyKorsakov the am
bition to become a composer, approving of his tentative
sketches for a symphony.
He himself was only too aware of his own shortcomings, and
his orchestral works at this time tended to be quite short — the
Overture on Russian Themes (1866) was given a successful per
formance in the same year, while 1867’s “Sadko”, taken over
from Mussorgsky who had abandoned an earlier attempt to set
the subject to music, was a short and brilliant exposition of
memorable melodies, showing real flair in the orchestration —
a talent for which he would later become world famous. His
Second Symphony, subtitled “Antar”, was completed in 1868.
148 Английский язык для музыкантов

At this time he began to realize his dreams of returning


to his first musical love — opera. While having holiday
with Borodin on his country estate, he resumed work on
“Pskovitianka” (The Maid of Pskov). As he recalled: “The
picture of the impending trip to the dreary interior of Russia
instantly brought an access of indefinable love for Russian
folk life, for its past in general and for Pskovitianka in par
ticular”. The opera engaged his attention intermittently for
the next three years, while he also embarked on his second
musical career — arranging and orchestrating the works of
other composers. The recently deceased Darghomyzhsky had
entrusted the completion of his almost finished opera “The
Stone Guest” to Cui and RimskyKorsakov; Nicolai did the
orchestration, thus, beginning a career as a collaborator in
the works of his deceased colleagues. In 1871, in an extraor
dinary development, the “amateur” RimskyKorsakov was
offered the position of Professor of Composition and Instru
mentation as well as leader of the St. Petersburg Conservatoire
orchestra.
By this time RimskyKorsakov, now fully at ease with his
own musical knowledge and techniques, had renewed his mis
sion to bring more nationalistic traits into his music. These
are very noticeable in the two operas which appeared next,
“May Night” (1878) and “The Snow Maiden”, both of which
dealt with specifically Russian themes and used old modes,
folklike melodies and nationalistic rhythms and scoring.
Without RimskyKorsakov’s reworking at “Boris” for ex
ample, the opera would not have achieved its status as a na
tional treasure by the turn of the century. Equally, it was
RimskyKorsakov who made the first orchestral version of the
piano work “Pictures at an Exhibition”, bringing it to the
attention at concertgoers worldwide.
Obviosly, all this work on other people’s music slowed
RimskyKorsakov’s own output considerably, and only by tak
ing a break from his careful orchestration of “Prince Igor”
during a summer holiday he completed his sketches for “Ca
priccio Espagnole”, one of his most sparkling and delightful
concert pieces. It is perhaps worth speculating whether the
sublime melodies and scoring of the manuscripts had a sub
Unit 7. Russian Music 149

liminal effect on the “editor” who was also a great composer.


The following year the suite “Scheherazade” (musically illus
trating characters and stories from the “Arabian Nights”) and
the buoyant Russian Easter Overture were included.
This peak in his middle years was achieved — as he himself
commented — “without Wagner’s influence”. But Wagner’s
influence was so great when RimskyKorsakov became involved
in the production of “Der Ring des Nibelungen” in St. Pe
tersburg. “Der Ring des Nibelungen” made little impact on the
audiences at the time, but RimskyKorsakov was impressed by
the size and shape of the Wagnerian orchestra and used this in
his next opera, “Mlada”, although he also incorporated the
more exotic musical and dramatic devices he had witnessed in
the Hungarian and Algerian cafes in Paris during the Univer
sal Exhibition of that summer.
RimskyKorsakov had retired, but in the spring of 1894
his musical muse returned, and he began working on “Christ
mas Eve”, the first of a series of operas which would monopo
lize his creative interest until his death. This first manifesta
tion was successfully premiered in 1895. With Pyotr Ilyich
Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky and Borodin RimskyKorsakov was
unchallenged as the leading living Russian composer, and used
his position both to promote his own operas and to forward the
career of those composers in whose talents he firmly believed,
such as Glazunov. Buoyed by the relative ease of his composi
tion of “Christmas Eve”, RimskyKorsakov next plunged into
the legend of “Sadko”, completing an opera on it in 1896. It is
in many ways his most accomplished opera and was very popu
lar during his lifetime. After this, there was seldom a period
when he was not devising, or working upon, his next opera,
with “The Tsar’s Bride” and “Mozart and Salieri” both com
pleted before the end of the decade. With the opening of the
new century “The Tale of Tsar Saltan” was produced privately
in St. Petersburg.
Later he was working at such operas as “Pan Voyevoda”
(1903), “Kastchei”, “The Immortal” (1902), the dramatic pro
logue “Vera Sheloga” (starring the great bass Chaliapin), the
mystical and extraordinary opera “The Legend of the Invisible
City of Kitezh” (1905), and “The Golden Cockerel” all ap
150 Английский язык для музыкантов

peared. During these years RimskyKorsakov was keeping a


high public profile, culminating in open discord with the
St. Petersburg Conservatoire, when students in 1905 rebelled
against what they saw as an oppressive and conservative mu
sical autocracy. The forthright RimskyKorsakov could not
help but publicly agree with the students. As a result, his
own works were banned from performance in St. Petersburg
and the school’s classes were suspended indefinitely; instead
RimskyKorsakov’s students studied with him at his house.
He was to remain at the hub of St. Petersburg and Moscow
musical affairs until his death three years later from a pro
gressive throat and lung disease.

II. Answer the questions using the information from the


text above.
1. Who did the first orchestration of “Pictures at an Exhi
bition”?
2. What Mussorgsky’s opera was orchestrated by Rimsky
Korsakov?
3. Do you know the title name of the Second Symphony?
4. What opera was written by influence of Wagner?
5. What is the most mystical and extraordinary piece by
RimskyKorsakov, based on the legend?
6. Who awoke in RimskyKorsakov the ambition to be
come a composer?
7. What bequeathed Darghomyzhsky to RimskyKorsakov?
8. What composers did RimskyKorsakov promote?
9. What was a “second musical career” of RimskyKor
sakov?
10. What job was offered by RimskyKorsakov at the
Conservatoire?

III. Read the text again and complete the sentences.


1. ... for a symphony.
2. On his return to ... for its successful premiere under
Balakirev’s baton in 1865.
3. These are very noticeable in the two operas which appeared
next, ... with specifically Russian themes and used old modes,
folklike melodies and nationalistic rhythms and scoring.
Unit 7. Russian Music 151

4. “The Ring” made little impact on the audiences at the


time, ... he had witnessed in the Hungarian and Algerian
cafes in Paris during the Universal Exhibition of that sum
mer.
5. The recently deceased ... “The Stone Guest” to Cui and
RimskyKorsakov; Nicolai did the orchestration, thus begin
ning a career as a collaborator in the works of his deceased
colleagues.
6. During these years RimskyKorsakov kept a high public
profile, ... rebelled against what they saw as an oppressive and
conservative musical autocracy.
7. The ... could not help but publicly agree with the stu
dents.
8. With Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky and Borodin
all dead, RimskyKorsakov was ... .
9. Buoyed by the relative ease of his composition of ... of
“Sadko”, completing an opera on it in 1896.
10. With the opening of the new сentury ... .

IV. Fill in the spidergram.

V. Write out all compositions, mentioned in the text,


written by:
1. Mussorgsky.
2. Darghomyzhsky.
3. Borodin.
4. Wagner.

VI. Read the text and find music terms as many as possible.
152 Английский язык для музыкантов

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VII. Order the following sentences according to the text.
VIII. Read and translate one of the composer’s works.

SADKO

It could be said that “Sadko”, like RimskyKorsakov’s other


folkloreinspired operas, demonstrates the inherent univer
sality of Russian music. Moreover, in comparison to other
Russian nationalist and orientalist operas, there is a paucity
of diatonic music in “Sadko”. Major and minor keys and func
tional harmonic patterns are hard to find. In the fantastic
Unit 7. Russian Music 153

scenes, such patterns comprise the exotic pages of the score,


while the modal and octatonic passages comprise the familiar,
humdrum ones.
The second unusual feature is the musical depiction of the
motion of the waters, the rhythmic and metric patterns that
represent both the rising and falling waves of Lake Ilmen and
the strengthening and weakening currents of the sea. In
“Sadko”, the relationship between the surface and depth of
different bodies of water becomes an emblem of the relation
ship between subject and object, mind and matter, dream and
reality. The last chorus begins in mercantile praise of the
resolution of the conflict between Sadko and the Novgorod
boyars and Sadko’s reunion with Lyubava but ends in panthe
istic praise of nature. RimskyKorsakov acknowledged that
Sadko was not conceived as a historical chronicle and, in his
preface to the score, identified the anachronisms in his repre
sentation of Medieval Novgorod. Sadko demonstrates that
history — like nationality — consists of commercialized, manu
factured tales.
As a glittering overview of the Russian musical traditions,
the opera encompasses centuries of history. RimskyKorsa
kov’s message, however, is that artistic styles and genres do
not appear and disappear over the course of time as much as
they are combined and contained within each other, the past
and future overlaying the present. “Sadko” proves to be as
much an opera history lesson as an operatic one.

CESAR CUI
I. Read and translate the text.
Cesar Antonovich Cui (1835–1918) was a Russian com
poser and a music critic. He is known as a member of “The
Five”, a group of Russian composers under the leadership of
Mily Balakirev dedicated to the production of a specifically
Russian type of music.
Despite his achievements as a professional military aca
demic, Cui is best known in the West for his “other” life in
music. As a boy in Vilnius he received piano lessons, studied
Chopin’s works, and began composing little pieces at fourteen
154 Английский язык для музыкантов

years of age. In few months he was sent to St. Petersburg. But


earlier he managed to have some lessons in music theory with the
Polish composer Stanislaw Moniuszko. Cui’s musical direction
changed in 1856, when he met Mily Balakirev and began to be
more seriously involved with music. His public “debut” as a com
poser occurred in 1859 with the performance of his orchestral
Scherzo, Op. 1, under the baton of Anton Rubinstein. In 1869 the
first public performance of an opera by Cui took place, but it did
not ultimately have success. Cui’s more successful stage works
during his lifetime were the oneact comic opera “The Mandarin’s
Son” (publicly premiered in 1878), the threeact “Prisoner of the
Caucasus” (1883), based on Pushkin, and the oneact “Mademoi
selle Fifi” (1903), based on Guy de Maupassant.
Cui’s activities in musical life included also membership
on the opera selection committee at the Mariinsky Theatre,
ended in 1883. During 1896–1904 he was a director of the
St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Musical Society. In the
late 1880’s and early 1890’s several foreign musical societies
honored Cui. In 1896 the Belgian Royal Academy of Litera
ture and Art made him its member.
He began publishing his musical reviews in “St. Petersburg
Vedomosti”, expressing disdain for music before Beethoven
(such as Mozart) and his advocacy of originality in music.
Sarcasm was a regular feature of his feuilletons. Cui’s pri
mary goal as a critic was to promote the music of contempo
rary Russian composers, especially the works of his now bet
terknown comembers of “The Five”. He admired Wagner’s
aspirations concerning music drama, but did not agree with
the composer’s methods to achieve them (such as the leitmotif
system and the predominance of the orchestra).
Cui composed in almost all genres of his time, with the dis
tinct exceptions of the symphony and the symphonic poem (un
like his compatriots Balakirev, Borodin, Mussorgsky and Rimsky
Korsakov). They include a few vocal duets and many songs for
children. Several of his songs are available also in versions with
a great number of orchestral accompaniment, including his “Bo
lero”, Op. 17. Some of his most famous art songs include “The
Statue at Tsarskoye Selo” and “The Burnt Letter”, both based on
poems by Cui’s most valued poet, Alexander Pushkin. Cui wrote
Unit 7. Russian Music 155

many works for piano and for chamber groups (including three
string quartets), numerous choruses, and several orchestral
works. The vast majority of Cui’s vocal music is based on Rus
sian texts. Many other passages in his music reflect the stylis
tic curiosities associated with Russian art music of the 19th
century, such as whole tone scales and certain harmonic de
vices. Nevertheless, his style is more often compared to Robert
Schumann and to French composers such as Gounod than to
Mikhail Glinka or to Cui’s Russian contemporaries.

II. Answer the following questions, using the informa


tion above the text.
1. What French opera was written by Cesar Cui?
2. What years was he a director of the St. Petersburg
branch of the Russian Musical Society?
3. How did Cui’s musical direction change?
4. In what newspaper did Cesar Cui begin publishing mu
sical reviews?
5. What year was Cui’s public debut as a composer?
6. Who was the Cui’s teacher in music theory?
7. What year did Cui meet Balakirev and begin to be more
seriously involved in music?
8. What society was Cui a member?
9. Where did he receive his first piano lessons?
10. Cui wrote many works for piano and for chamber groups
(including three string quartets), numerous choruses, and
several orchestral works, didn’t he?

III. Fill in the spidergram. Write all genres of Cui’s cre


ativity.
156 Английский язык для музыкантов

IV. Match the names of the compositions.


1. «Капитанская дочка» “Feast of Famine”
2. «Снежный богатырь» “The Prisoner of the Caucasus”
3. «Красная шапочка» “The Mandarin’s Son”
4. «Кот в сапогах» “Snow Knight”
5. «Иванушкадурачoк» “The Captain’s Daughter”
6. «Сын Мандарина» “Little Red Riding Hood”
7. «Кавказский пленник» “Puss in Boots”
8. «Пир во время чумы» “Ivan the Fool”

V. Read the text again and write out all the sentences,
describing composer’s music genres.

VI. Fill in the spidergram.

VII. Read and translate the text.

THE PRISONER OF THE CAUCASUS

“The Prisoner of the Caucasus” is the opera in three


acts, composed by Cesar Cui. The libretto is credited to
Viktor Aleksandrovich Krylov and based on Pushkin’s poem
“The Prisoner of the Caucasus”. The opera was staged by a
choreographer Charles Didelot. At first, the opera was com
posed in three versions. It consisted of only two acts, but its
orchestration was less of charming. Meanwhile the over
ture, orchestrated by Mily Balakirev, could be heard in con
Unit 7. Russian Music 157

certs. Many years later Cui decided to revise the twoact


work. During 1881–1882 he added a new middle act (Act II)
and another dance to Act III. This version constituted the
score for the Russian premiere. “The Prisoner of the Cau
casus” was premiered on February 4, 1883 (Old Style) at the
Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg under the conduc
torship of Eduard Napravnik. This opera became the most
widely performed of the composer’s fulllength operas. The
opera has never been staged outside of Imperial Russia has
fallen out of the repertoire in Russia after the composer’s
death.

ALEXANDER PORFIRYEVICH BORODIN


I. Read and translate the text.
Alexander Borodin (November, 12 1833 — February 27,
1887) was a Russian romantic composer, a doctor and a chem
ist. He was a member of the group of composers called “The
Five”, who were dedicated to producing a specifically Russian
kind of art music. He is best known for his symphonies, his two
string quartets, a symphonic poem “In the Steppes of Central
Asia” and his opera “Prince Igor”. Borodin met Mily Balakirev
in 1862 and he began taking lessons on composition from him.
In 1863 it was a great event in composer’s life: he married
Ekaterina Protopopova, a pianist, and had one daughter. While
being under Balakirev’s tutelage in composition he began his
Symphony No. 1 in Eflat major, performed in 1869 under
Balakirev conducting. That same year Borodin started on his
Symphony No. 2 in Bminor, which was not particularly suc
cessful at its premiere in 1877 under Eduard Napravnik, but
with some minor reorchestration received a successful per
formance in 1879 by the Free Music School under Rimsky
Korsakov’s direction. In 1880 he composed the popular sym
phonic poem “In the Steppes of Central Asia”. Two years later
he began composing a third symphony, but it left unfinished.
Two movements of it were later completed and orchestrated by
Glazunov.
158 Английский язык для музыкантов

In 1868 Borodin became distracted from initial work on


the second symphony with preoccupation with the opera “Prince
Igor”, which is his most significant work and one of the most
important historical Russian operas. It contains the “Polovtsian
Dances”, often performed as a standalone concert work form
ing which is probably Borodin’s bestknown composition.
Borodin left the opera and a few other works incomplete.
“Prince Igor” was later completed by RimskyKorsakov and
Glazunov.
No other member of the Balakirev’s circle identified him
self so openly with absolute music as Borodin did in his two
string quartets and numerous earlier chamber compositions.
He was an enthusiastic chamber music player. This early pe
riod included among other chamber works, such as a string
sextet and a piano quintet. As for the thematic structure and
instrumental texture he based his musical pieces on those of
Felix Mendelssohn.
In 1875 Borodin started his First String Quartet, much to
the displeasure of Modest Mussorgsky and Vladimir Stasov, in
which his strong lyricism is represented. The First Quartet is
rich in changes of mood. The Second Quartet “Nocturne” fol
lowed in 1881. It has a more uniform atmosphere and expres
sion. Borodin’s fame was reached outside the Russian Empire
thanks to Franz Liszt, who arranged a performance of the
Symphony No. 1 in Germany in 1880, and by the Comtesse de
MercyArgenteau in Belgium and France. His music is noted
for its strong lyricism and rich harmonies. Along with some
influences from Western composers, as a member of “The
Five” his music had also an undeniably Russian flavor. His
passionate music and unusual harmonies proved to have a
lasting influence on the younger French composers Debussy
and Ravel.
The evocative characteristics of Borodin’s music made
possible the adaptation of his compositions in 1953: musical
“Kismet” by Robert Wright and George Forrest. Borodin’s
music is full of romantic charm and enticing melody, and
much of it also rings with the pageantry and landscape of old
Russia: old churches, richly decorated icons and the vastness
of the land.
Unit 7. Russian Music 159

II. Answer the questions, using the information from the


text.
1. What was a Russian romantic composer?
2. Which Borodin’s compositions do you know?
3. What is the most popular piece by Borodin, based on a
saga?
4. Who completed “Prince Igor” when the composer died?
5. What does the opera contain?
6. Borodin’s passionate music and unusual harmonies
proved to have a lasting influence on younger French compos
ers. Who are they?
7. Do you perform any Borodin’s compositions?
8. When did Borodin begin his Simphony No. 3?
9. What is “The Five” famous for?
10. When did Borodin start his First String Quartet?

III. Read the text and match the titles with the para
graphs.
1. Opera.
2. Musical legacy.
3. Characteristics of Borodin’s music.
4. Chamber music.
5. Some facts about Borodin.

IV. Read and translate the extract.


“Prince Igor” is the most significant work and one of the
most important historical Russian operas. “Prince Igor” is the
opera in four movements with a prologue, written and com
posed by Alexander Borodin. It contains the “Polovtsian
Dances”. It is often performed as a standalone concert work.
The composer adapted the libretto from the East Slavic epic
“The Tale of Igor’s Campaign”, which recounts the campaign
of Russian prince Igor Svyatoslavich against the invading
tribes in 1185. He also incorporated material drawn from two
medieval Kievan chronicles. The opera was left unfinished
upon the composer’s death in 1887 and was edited and com
pleted by Nikolai RimskyKorsakov and Alexander Glazunov.
It was first performed in St. Petersburg in 1890.
160 Английский язык для музыкантов

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Unit 7. Russian Music 161

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162 Английский язык для музыкантов

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1
MODEST MUSSORGSKY
I. Read and translate the text.
Modest Mussorgsky was born in 1839 in a wellknown noble
Russian family. At the age of six, his mother, a trained pianist
herself, began teaching him the piano. Just three years later
young Mussorgsky was already able to perform a John Field
concerto and works by Franz Liszt for his family and friends.
His further musical education was at St. Peter’s School in
St. Petersburg, at the age of twelve Mussorgsky published his
first piano piece entitled “Polka”. The publication of it was
paid by his father.
In 1857 his fellow officer Ceasar Cui made Mussorgsky
acquainted with the composers Alexander Darghomyzhsky and
Unit 7. Russian Music 163

Mily Balakirev. He studied composition under Balakirev, includ


ing piano sonatas and symphonies of Ludwig van Beethoven. At
that time Mussorgsky’s own compositions were leaning more
towards the foreign models: his fourhand piano sonata (1860)
and “Intermezzo in Modo Classic” for piano solo were composed
as Europeansounding pieces. Soon Mussorgsky freed himself
from the influences of Balakirev and became involved in a pro
duction of “A Life for the Tsar”, an opera by Mikhail Glinka. He
also worked at two original compositions: from 1858–1861 he
was writing “Oedipus in Athens” and from 1863–1866 he com
posed “Salammbo”, based on the novel by Gustave Flaubert.
From 1870–1872 he worked on the opera “Boris Godunov”,
based on a poem by Alexander Pushkin. The first version was
rejected by the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre because of its lack
of any “prima donna” role. At that time Mussorgsky was a
roommate of Nikolai RimskyKorsakov, who helped to make
changes that even exceeded those requested by the Mariinsky
Theatre. “Boris Godunov” was premiered in 1874, but after
official criticism of Mussorgsky’s music, it received only a
dozen of performances. He split from the nationalistic circle
of Balakirev and was in depression after the death of his friend,
the artist Viktor Hartmann. In memory of Hartmann he wrote
the piano suite “Pictures at an Exhibition”, a musical inter
pretation of Hartmann’s pictures, which inspired Mussorgsky
to break some old rules of piano playing.
Mussorgsky’s later works, “Songs and Dances of Death” and
the opera “Khovanshchina”, were sparks of a genius in an ailing
body. The music impressed his friends and his superiors at the
government office, where he was allowed to go on concert tours.
He toured and concertized with a singer Darya Leonova. Modest
Mussorgsky died on March 28, 1881 in St. Petersburg.

II. Answer the questions, using the information from the


text.
1. Who was the composer’s first music teacher?
2. What is the first piece written by Mussorgsky?
3. Under whose leadership did Mussorgsky study composi
tion including the piano sonatas and symphonies of Ludwig
van Beethoven?
164 Английский язык для музыкантов

4. Who were Mussorgsky’s friends?


5. What are the most famous operas by Mussorgsky?
6. Who made changes in opera “Boris Godunov”?
7. What are the most famous musical compositions writ
ten by Mussorgsky?
8. What are Mussorgsky’s later works?
9. Do you like music by Mussorgsky? Why?

III. Read the text and name the opera.


From 1870–1872 he worked on ..., an opera based on a
poem by Alexander Pushkin. The first version was rejected by
the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre because of its lack of any
“prima donna” role. At that time Mussorgsky was a roommate
of Nikolai RimskyKorsakov, who helped to make changes that
even exceeded those requested by the Mariinsky Theatre.

IV. Read and translate the text.


“Khovanshchina” is the opera in 5 movements, composed
by Modest Mussorgsky. The work was written between 1872
and 1880 in St. Petersburg. The composer wrote the libretto
based on historical sources. The opera was unfinished and
unperformed when the composer died in 1881.
Like Mussorgsky’s earlier “Boris Godunov”, “Khovan
shchina” deals with an episode from Russian history, first
brought to the composer’s attention by his friend Vladimir
Stasov. It concerns the rebellion of Prince Ivan Khovansky,
the Old Believers, and the Streltsy against Peter the Great,
who was attempting to institute Westernizing reforms in
Russia. Although the setting of the opera is the Moscow Upris
ing of 1682, its main themes are the struggle between progres
sive and reactionary political factions during the minority of
Tsar Peter the Great and the passing of old Muscovy before
Peter’s westernizing reforms. It received its first performance
in the RimskyKorsakov edition in 1886.
Nikolai RimskyKorsakov completed, revised, and scored
“Khovanshchina” in 1881–1882. Because of his extensive cuts
and “recomposition”, Dmitri Shostakovich revised the opera
in 1959 based on Mussorgsky’s vocal score. Shostakovich’s
version, in Pavel Lamm’s edition, was first presented on the
Unit 7. Russian Music 165

25th of November 1960 at the Kirov Theater, conducted by


Sergei Yeltsin with sets designed by Fedorovsky. Now Sho
stakovich’s version is usually performed.
In 1913 Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel made their
own arrangement at Sergei Diaghilev’s request. That year it
was presented in London at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane. It
was produced in New York for the first time in 1931.

V. Fill in the box.

12345 6278459
45

123456789
47 9
47 6
7 7 67267 7
123456742637 9
47 37 47 7
1234567
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VI. Fill in the spidergram.
166 Английский язык для музыкантов

VII. Match the names of the compositions.


“Songs and Dances of Death” «Женитьба»
“Boris Godunov” «Ночь на Лысой горе»
“Fair at Sorochyntsi” «Песни и пляски смерти»
“Pictures at an Exhibition” Вокальный цикл «Детская»
“Nursery” «Сорочинская ярмарка»
“Sunless” «Хованщина»
“Khovanshchina” «Борис Годунов»
“Night on Bald Mountain” Вокальный цикл «Без Солнца»
“Marriage” «Картинки с выставки»

ANATOLY LYADOV
I. Read and translate the text.
Anatoly Konstantinovich Lyadov (1855–1914) was a Rus
sian composer, a teacher and a conductor. Lyadov was born in
St. Petersburg in the family of Russian musicians. He was
taught informally by his father Konstantin Lyadov from 1860
to 1868, and then in 1870 he entered St. Petersburg Con
servatoire to study the piano and the violin.
He soon gave up his instrumental study to concentrate on
counterpoint and fugue, although he remained a fine pianist.
His natural musical talent was highly estimated by, among oth
ers, Modest Mussorgsky. During the 1870’s he was associated
with the group of composers known as “The Five”. He entered
the composition classes of Nikolai RimskyKorsakov, but was
expelled for absenteeism in 1876. In 1878 he was readmitted to
these classes to help him complete his graduation in composi
tion. He was teaching at St. Petersburg Conservatoire from
1878. He was a variable and brilliant instructor.
While Lyadov’s technical facility was highly regarded by
his contemporaries, his unreliability stood in the way of his
advancement. His published compositions are relatively few
in number according to his natural indolence and a certain
selfcritical lack of confidence. Many of his works are varia
tions on or arrangements of preexisting material (for ex
ample his “Russian Folksongs”, Op. 58). He composed a large
number of piano miniatures, waltzes, mazurkas, preludes,
intermezzo; two major forms: Variations on a Polish Folk
Unit 7. Russian Music 167

Theme, Ор. 51, and Variations on a Theme by Glinka, Ор. 35,


Four Miniatures, Oр. 64 — “Grimaces”, “Twilight”, “Tempta
tion”, “Memories”.
Like many of his contemporaries, Lyadov was drawn to
intensely Russian subjects. Much of his music is program
matic. For example, his poems are “Baba Yaga”, Op. 56,
“Kikimora”, Op. 63; “The Enchanted Lake”, Op. 62. These short
tone poems probably are his most popular works. In his later
compositions he experimented with extended tonality, like his
younger contemporary Alexander Scriabin.
It is mentioned that Lyadov never completed a largescale
work. However, many of his miniatures have their place in the
repertory. In 1905 Lyadov began working on a new ballet score,
but when the work failed to progress, he shifted years to work
on an opera instead. Lyadov never finished the opera, but
sections of the work found realization in the short tone poems
“Kikimora” and “The Enchanted Lake”.
In 1909 Sergei Dyaghilev commissioned Lyadov to orches
trate a number for the Chopin based ballet “Les Sylphides”,
and on the 4th of September that year wrote to the composer
asking for a new ballet score for the 1910 season of his ballets;
despite the muchrepeated story that Lyadov was slow to start
composing the work which eventually became “The Firebird”.

II. Answer the questions, using the information from the


text.
1. Where was Anatoly Lyadov born?
2. Who was the first teacher of Lyadov?
3. He was a variable and brilliant instructor, was not he?
4. Was he informally taught by his father Konstantin
Lyadov — a conductor?
5. What were the relationships between the composers of
“The Five”?
6. Why was Lyadov expelled from the composition classes
of Nikolai RimskyKorsakov?
7. What genre did the composer prefer to work in?
8. In 1905 Lyadov began working on a new ballet score, did
not he?
9. Which three symphonic poems were written by Lyadov?
168 Английский язык для музыкантов

10. What can you say about Lyadov’s music works and his
creativeness?
11. What Lyadov’s work do you like most of all?
12. Could you name Lyadov’s favorite composers, influ
enced on his musical career?

III. Read the sentences and say whether they are true or
false. Use the following word combinations: I agree ...; I don’t
agree ...; in my opinion ...; to my mind ...
1. Lyadov was born in a family of musicians.
2. He composed a large number of orchestrate miniatures.
3. Lyadov taught at Moscow conservatoire.
4. Lyadov never completed a largescale work.
5. Lyadov was a member of “The Five”.
6. Lyadov finished the score for the ballet “The Firebird”.

IV. Fill in the spidergram.

V. Match the names of the compositions.


1. “The Enchanted Lake”.
2. “Music Box”.
3. “Little Waltz”.
4. “Marionettes”.
5. “On the Lawn”.
6. “Three Small Pieces”.
7. “Scherzo for Orchestra”.
8. “Temptation”.
9. “Reminiscence”.
10. “Novelty”.
Unit 7. Russian Music 169

1. «На лужайке».
2. «Волшебное озеро».
3. «Воспоминание».
4. «Маленький вальс».
5. «Три маленькие пьесы».
6. «Музыкальная табакерка».
7. «Марионетки».
8. «Искушение».
9. «Новелла».
10. «Скерцо для оркестра».

VI. Read and translate the text.

“SPILLIKINS”

The first Lyadov’s cycle consists of fourteen miniature


pieces based on the same musical material. While listening
you see the contrast of individual pieces. It is lightly painted
in cheerful colors. This is the first of all No. 1 ostinato rhyth
mic background, characterizing with rotating motive. The
middle part is an elegant waltz. The waltz occurs in some other
compositions of the cycle, acquiring sometimes lyrical color
(for example, No. 3). For some pieces there is a characteristic
high mobility, motor, sometimes with a touch of playful hu
mor and the cheerful fervent aspiration (No. 4, 12, 13). The
second part of “Spillikins” is pronounced with the national
character of Russian intonation. This is No. 5 (Bmoll), whose
initial melody is inspired by the theme “Walking” from “Pic
tures at an Exhibition” by Mussorgsky and No. 6 (Emoll),
remembering of epic images of Borodin and Mussorgsky.

PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY

I. Read and translate the text.


Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer whose
works included symphonies, concertos, operas, ballets, cham
ber music, and a choral setting of the Russian Orthodox. He
was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting
impression internationally, which he bolstered with appear
170 Английский язык для музыкантов

ances as a guest conductor later in his career in Europe and the


United States.
Tchaikovsky took piano lessons from the age of five.
A precocious pupil, he could read music as adeptly as his
teacher. Tchaikovsky also continued his piano studies through
Franz Becker, an instrument manufacturer who made occa
sional visits to school.
In 1861 Tchaikovsky attended classes on music theory taught
by Nikolai Zaremba at the Mikhailovsky Palace (now the Rus
sian Museum) in St. Petersburg. These classes were organized
by the Russian Musical Society (RMS), founded in 1859 by the
Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna and a pianist and a composer
Anton Rubinstein. Tchaikovsky enrolled the Conservatoire as
the part of its premiere class but held on to his Ministry post
until the following year. From 1862 to 1865 he studied har
mony and counterpoint with Zaremba. Rubinstein, the direc
tor and the founder of the Conservatoire, taught instrumenta
tion and composition.
After graduating from the Conservatoire, Tchaikovsky
briefly considered a return to public service. Rubinstein’s
brother Nikolai offered him the post of Professor of Music
Theory at the soontoopen. He was further heartened by news
of the first public performance of one of his works, his “Char
acteristic Dances”, conducted by Johann Strauss II at a con
cert in Pavlovsk Park on September 11, 1865.
From 1867 to 1878 Tchaikovsky was combining his profes
sorial duties with music criticism while continuing to com
pose. This exposed him to a range of contemporary music and
afforded him the opportunity to travel abroad.
While ambivalent about much of “The Five’s” music,
Tchaikovsky remained friends with most of its members. De
spite his collaboration with Balakirev, Tchaikovsky made con
siderable efforts to ensure his musical independence from
the group as well as from the conservative faction at the
St. Petersburg Conservatoire.
Tchaikovsky began to compose operas. His first, “The
Voyevoda”, based on a play by Alexander Ostrovsky, was
premiered in 1869. The composer became dissatisfied with it
and, having reused parts of it in later works, destroyed the
Unit 7. Russian Music 171

manuscript.The first Tchaikovsky opera to survive intact, “The


Oprichnik”, was premiered in 1874. During its composition,
he fell out with Ostrovsky. The author of the play “The
Oprichnik”, Ivan Lazhechnikov died in 1869. Tchaikovsky
decided to write the libretto himself. The last of the early
operas “Vakula the Smith” (Op. 14) was composed in the sec
ond half of 1874. Other works of this period include the Varia
tions on a Rococo Theme for cello and orchestra, the Second
and Fourth Symphonies, the ballet “Swan Lake” and the opera
“Eugene Onegin”.
Despite his disdain for public life, Tchaikovsky was par
ticipating in it both as a consequence of his increasing celeb
rity and because he felt it his duty to promote Russian music.
He helped support his former pupil Sergei Taneyev, who was
now a director of Moscow Conservatoire. Tchaikovsky also
served as a director of the Moscow branch of the Russian
Musical Society during the 1889–1890 season. In this post, he
invited many international celebrities to conduct, including
Johannes Brahms, Antonín Dvor%ák and Jules Massenet, al
though not all of them accepted. Tchaikovsky also promoted
Russian music as a conductor. In January 1887 he substituted
at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow at short notice for perfor
mances of his opera “Cherevichki”. Within a year of the
“Cherevichki” performances, Tchaikovsky was in considerable
demand throughout Europe and Russia, which helped him
overcome lifelong stage fright and boosted his selfassurance.
In 1892, Tchaikovsky was voted as a member of the Académie
des BeauxArts in France, only the second Russian person to be
honored so (the first was sculptor Mark Antokolsky). The fol
lowing year, the University of Cambridge in England awarded
Tchaikovsky an Honorary Doctor of Music degree.
On October 28, 1893 Tchaikovsky conducted the premiere
of his Sixth Symphony, “The Pathetic” in St. Petersburg. Nine
days later Tchaikovsky died there at the age of 53.

II. Answer the questions, using the information from the


text.
1. What school did he finish before entering the con
servatoire?
172 Английский язык для музыкантов

2. What position did Rubinstein offer Tchaikovsky after


graduating from the conservatoire?
3. What is the first play written by Tchaikovsky?
4. Who was Tchaikovsky’s student?
5. Tchaikovsky worked as director of the Moscow branch
of the Russian Musical Society in 1889–1890. During this
period he invited Russian international celebrities. Who were
they?
6. What are the most famous operas and ballets by Tchai
kovsky?
7. Which degree did Tchaikovsky get at Cambridge Uni
versity in England?
8. What piece of music was conducted by Tchaikovsky?
9. Do you perform Tchaikovsky’s compositions?

III. Fill in the spidergram.

IV. Complete the sentences.


1. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer whose
works included ... and a choral setting of the Russian Ortho
dox Divine Liturgy. He was the first Russian composer whose
music ..., which he bolstered with appearances as a guest con
ductor later in his career in Europe and the United States.
2. In 1861, Tchaikovsky attended classes in music theory
taught by ... (now the Russian Museum) in St. Petersburg.
3. From 1867 to 1878, Tchaikovsky ... . This exposed him
to a range of contemporary music and ...
4. Despite his collaboration with Balakirev, Tchaikovsky ...
as well as from the conservative faction at the St. Petersburg
Conservatoire.
Unit 7. Russian Music 173

5. Tchaikovsky began to compose operas. His first ..., was


premiered in 1869.
6. Despite his disdain for public life, Tchaikovsky now
participated in it both as a consequence of his increasing celeb
rity and because he ... . He helped support his former pupil
Sergei Taneyev ... .
7. On October 28, 1893 Tchaikovsky ..., “The Pathetic” in
St. Petersburg.

V. Match English and Russian titles of the music compo


sitions.
“The Sleeping Beauty” «Евгений Онегин»
“The Nutcracker” «Орлеанская дева»
“Cherevichki” «Спящая красавица»
“The Enchantress” «Лебединое озеро»
“Vakula the Smith” «Чародейка»
“Swan Lake” «Щелкунчик»
“The Queen of Spades” «Воевода»
“The Maid of Orleans” «Пиковая дама»
“The Voyevoda” « Кузнец Вакула»
“Eugene Onegin” «Черевички»

VI. Read the text and name the opera.


The libretto, based on ..., was to have been set to music by
Alexander Serov. With Serov’s death, the libretto was opened
to a competition with a guarantee that the winning entry would
be premiered by the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre. Tchaikovsky
was declared the winner, but at the 1876 premiere the opera
enjoyed only a lukewarm reception. After Tchaikovsky’s death,
RimskyKorsakov wrote an opera based on the same story,
“Christmas Eve”.

VII. Read and translate the text.


“Eugene Onegin” is an opera in 3 movements (7 scenes),
composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. The libretto, organised
by the composer Konstantin Shilovsky, very closely follows
certain passages from Alexander Pushkin’s novel in verse, re
taining much of his poetry. Shilovsky contributed M. Triquet’s
verses in Act 2, Scene 1, while Tchaikovsky wrote the words
174 Английский язык для музыкантов

for Lensky’s arioso in Act 1, Scene 1, and almost all of Prince


Gremin’s aria in Act 3, Scene 1. “Eugene Onegin” is a well
known example of a lyric opera, to which Tchaikovsky added
music of dramatic nature. The story concerns a selfish hero
who lives to regret a young woman’s love and his careless
incitement of a fatal duel with his best friend.
The opera was first performed in Moscow in 1879. There
are several recordings of it, and it is regularly performed. In
May 1877, the opera singer Yelizaveta Lavrovskaya spoke to
Tchaikovsky about creating an opera based on the plot of
Pushkin’s verse novel “Eugene Onegin”. According to his
memoirs, at first this idea seemed wild to the composer.
Tchaikovsky felt that the novel wasn’t properly strong in plot
which was rather banal — a dandy rejects a young country
girl, she successfully grows into a worldly woman, he tries to
seduce her but it is too late. The strength of the novel resided
in its character development and social commentary, as well as
in the beauty of its literary delivery. Soon after a sleepless
night, Tchaikovsky came to embrace the idea. He was soon
growing excited about the suggestion and created the sce
narios in one night before starting the composition of the
music.
Tchaikovsky, with the assistance of Konstantin Shi
lovsky, used original verses from Pushkin’s novel and chose
scenes that involved the emotional world and fortunes of
his heroes, calling the opera “lyrical scenes”. The opera is
episodic. There is no continuous story, just selected high
lights of Onegin’s life. Since the original story was so well
known, Tchaikovsky knew his audience could easily fill in
any details that he omitted. A similar treatment is found in
Puccini’s “La Bohème”. The composer had finished the op
era in January 1878.
In 1885 the Tsar requested a new production of “Eu
gene Onegin” to be staged at the Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre
in St. Petersburg. By having the opera staged there and
not at the Mariinsky Theatre, he served notice that Tchai
kovsky’s music was replacing Italian opera as the official
imperial art.
Unit 7. Russian Music 175

VIII. Fill in the box.

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1

NIKOLAI MYASKOVSKY
I. Read and translate the text.
Myaskovsky was born in Novogeorgiyevsk. After his mo
ther’s death the boy was brought up by his father’s sister,
Yelikonida Konstantinovna Myaskovskaya, who had been a
singer at the St. Petersburg Opera. The family moved to
St. Petersburg. Though he learned playing the piano and the
violin, he was discouraged from pursuing a musical career,
and entered the military one. However, a performance of
Tchaikovsky’s “Pathetic Symphony” conducted by Arthur
Nikisch in 1896 made him decide to become a composer. In
1902 he took some private lessons with Reinhold Glière. In
1906 he became a student of Anatoly Lyadov and Nikolai
RimskyKorsakov. Myaskovsky was the eldest student in his
class but soon made friends with the youngest, Sergei Pro
kofiev, and they remained friends throughout the life.
Prokofiev and Myaskovsky worked together at the Con
servatoire on one work, a lost symphony, parts of which were
later scavenged to provide material for the slow movement of
Prokofiev’s Piano Sonata No. 4. They both later produced
works using materials from this period — in Prokofiev’s case
the Third and Fourth Piano Sonatas. At this time Myaskovsky
wrote his Tenth String Quartet and the Fifth and Sixth Piano
176 Английский язык для музыкантов

Sonatas. It was a great influence on Myaskovsky’s by Tchai


kovsky in the first of his symphonies and Alexander Scriabin,
whose influence was seen in Myaskovsky’s First Piano Sonatа
and his Symphony No. 3.
After graduating from the Conservatoire in 1911, Mya
skovsky was taught in St. Petersburg, where he also developed
a supplementary career as a musical critic. He was one of the
most intelligent and supportive advocates in Russia for the
music of Igor Stravinsky. In the 1920’s and 1930’s Myaskovsky
was the leading composer in the former USSR dedicated himself
to developing traditional, sonatabased forms. He wrote no op
eras. Though in 1918 he planned one, based on Dostoyevsky’s
novel “The Idiot”, with a libretto by Pierre Souvtchinsky. At
last he composed 27 symphonies, three concertos and works in
other orchestral genres, 13 string quartets, 9 piano sonatas as
well as many miniatures and vocal works. Myaskovsky was one
of the leaders of the Association for Contemporary Music. Nev
ertheless, in the 1920’s and 1930’s Myaskovsky’s symphonies
were quite frequently played in Western Europe and the USA.
As a Professor of Composition at Moscow Conservatoire
from 1921 until his death, Myaskovsky made an important
influence on his pupils. Young Shostakovich was said to study
with him. Among his students there were such composers as
Aram Khachaturian, Dmitri Kabalevsky, Vissarion Shebalin,
Rodion Shchedrin, German Galynin, Andrei Eshpai, Alexander
Lokshin, Boris Tchaikovsky, and Evgeny Golubev. Myaskovsky
was awarded with the Stalin Prize five times. No other com
poser was awarded this prize so often.

II. Answer the questions, using the information from the


text.
1. What instruments did Myaskovsky learn to play?
2. What event made him decide to become a composer?
3. Who were his teachers at the Conservatoire?
4. Who were the students of Myaskovsky?
5. Who was a friend of Myaskovsky at the Conservatoire
among young composers?
6. How many times was Myaskovsky awarded with the
Stalin Prize?
Unit 7. Russian Music 177

7. What year was Myaskovsky a Professor of Composition


at Moscow Conservatoire?
8. How many symphonies did he compose?
9. How many operas did he create?
10. What famous works of Myaskovsky do you know?

III. Match the titles with the extracts.


1. Myaskovsky’s musical compositions in the 1920’s and
1930’s.
2. The most famous pupil of Myaskovsky.
3. Some facts about Myaskovsky.
4. Comembership with Prokofiev.

IV. Write down all compositions, awarded with Stalin


Prizes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

V. Write the most famous Myaskovsky’s compositions.

VI. Read the sentences and say whether they are true or
false. Use the word combinations: I agree ...; I don’t agree ...;
in my opinion ...; to my mind ...
1. Myaskovsky was born in a family of musicians.
2. After graduating from the Conservatoire, Myaskovsky
was taught in St. Petersburg.
3. Among his students there were such composers as Aram
Khachaturian, Dmitri Kabalevsky, Vissarion Shebalin, Rodion
178 Английский язык для музыкантов

Shchedrin, German Galynin, Andrei Eshpai, Alexander Lok


shin, Boris Tchaikovsky, and Evgeny Golubev.
4. Myaskovsky was one of the member in “The Five”.
5. Prokofiev and Myaskovsky worked together at the con
servatory.
6. Myaskovsky never wrote an opera.

VII. Read the text and put 5 special questions.

MIASKOVSKY AND PROKOFIEV

Nikolai Miaskovsky entered the St. Petersburg Conser


vatoire at the age of 25. There he met a fifteenyearold stu
dent, who was to become his devoted friend. That student very
often asked questions such as: “How many ts should I write
in the word symphonietta?” I write one, but I think I ought
to write two. “Or: “What Beethoven’s sonata should I choose
for studying?” Nikolai answered: “If you are writing a
symphonietta, you ought to write two ts; and you ought not
to ask me what sonata you should choose, take any, they are
all wonderful”.
When Miaskovsky at the age of 30 finished the class in
composition nobody thought that he was to become not only
the firstclass composer but the firstclass teacher at the Mos
cow Conservatoire.
Sergei Prokofiev, that very student who wrote one t in the
word symphonietta, finished his class at the age of 18, but he
had to stay at the Conservatoire for another 5 years to study
conducting and pianoplaying. When he got the first prize for
pianoplaying at the final exam nobody thought that he was to
become a world famous composer.

VIII. Read and translate the text.

SYMPHONY NO. 6

The Symphony No. 6 in Eflat minor (Op. 23) by Nikolai


Myaskovsky was composed between 1921 and 1923. It is the
largest and most ambitious of his 27 symphonies, planned
Unit 7. Russian Music 179

on a Mahlerian scale, and uses a chorus in the finale. It has


been described as ’probably the most significant Russian
symphony between Tchaikovsky’s Pathetic and the Fourth
Symphony of Shostakovich. The premiere took place at the
Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow on May 4, 1924, conducted by
Nikolai Golovanov and was a notable success. Critics used
to describe the work as an attempt to portray the develop
ment of the Soviet state. The harsh, emphatically descend
ing chordal theme with which the symphony begins appar
ently arose in the composer’s mind. Lopatinsky’s songs were
still current among Parisian workers: these would find their
way into the symphony’s finale.

VLADIMIR VASILYEVICH STASOV

I. Read and translate the text.


The music and art critic was born in a prominent upper
class family (his father was a noted architect). Vladimir Stasov
finished the elite St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence in
1843 and he also studied piano. He worked in various civil
organizations. Later he was appointed the secretary to Prince
Anatoly N. Demidov in 1851 and spent almost three years in
the West, mostly in Florence.
In music Stasov argued about folk songs that were uniquely
Russian and did not rely on the structure of Western music. It
is no surprise that many of the musicians that Stasov sup
ported came from the provinces where folk songs had a greater
presence at the time and the devotion to Western style was not
influential. With the publication of his monograph on Mikhail
Glinka in 1847, which stressed the composer’s originality in
using folk tunes, Stasov began to advocate Russianness in
music. Then he championed young, independent composers —
M. Balakirev, A. Borodin, C. Cui, M. Mussorgsky, and N. Rim
skyKorsakov. They all were selftaught and created a dis
tinctly Russian school of music. Under the direction of Mily
Balakirev, these five composers explored new spheres of mu
sic composition and subsequently drew praise and scorn from
musicians across Russia. Stasov supported these composers
with polemical publications and contributed significantly to
180 Английский язык для музыкантов

their creative work, suggesting topics, supplying historical


documentation, and commenting on compositions. It was
Stasov suggested “The Five” with his strong, unabashed faith
in the abilities of these composers. He was especially close to
Mussorgsky, whose genius he was the first to recognize.
Stasov had a greater influence on Mussorgsky than on
any of the other composers of “The Five”. Stasov supported
Mussorgsky in many ways beyond simply writing reviews or
promotions of his work. Mussorgsky’s health and mental sta
bility fluctuated over the years because of their friendship,
Stasov repeatedly provided financial assistance and physical
necessities for Mussorgsky as well as moral support of his
efforts. It is frightening to wonder if Mussorgsky could have
accomplished much without Stasov’s faithful support. Their
friendship lasted until Mussorgsky’s tragically early death in
1881. Stasov continued to memorialize the composer in essays
and letters for years afterwards for writing music that was
truly Russian.

II. Answer the questions, using the information from the


text.
1. When and where was Stasov born?
2. Where and what did Stasov learn?
3. What composers did he support?
4. What a monograph did Stasov publish and what year?
5. Who was his close friend?
6. Who worked for the Prince’s Demidov Secretary?
7. Who led “The Five”?
8. Who had a great influence on the composers of “The
Five”?

III. Complete the sentences.


1. He worked in various ...
2. Stasov supported these composers ...
3. Their friendship lasted ...
4. The music and art critic was ...
5. Stasov had a greater influence ...
6. Mussorgsky’s health and mental stability ...
Unit 7. Russian Music 181

IV. Read the sentences and say whether they are true or
false. Use the followihg word combinations: I agree ...; I don’t
agree ...; in my opinion ...; to my mind ...
1. Stasov had a greater influence on Balakirev than on the
other composers in “The Five”.
2. It was Stasov who created “The Five”.
3. Borodin repeatedly provided financial assistance and
physical necessities for Musorgsky.
4. He was especially close to Mussorgsky, whose genius he
was the first to recognize.
5. Stasov did not support these composers with polemical
publications and contributed significantly to their creative
work.

V. Read and translate the text.

THE MATERIALS FOR BIOGRAPHY


OF ALEXANDER SERGEYEVICH DARGHOMYZHSKY

Our public still knows little detail about the life of Dar
ghomyzhsky, although he belonged to the most significant
composers. Now this gap is disappeared. I have a lot of impor
tant documents that tell us about the personality of Dar
ghomyzhsky. They give us the opportunity to evaluate this
person from different sides. He was unrecognized for a very
long time and now the time has come. The edition “Russian
Olden Time” was received last year from an old friend of
Darghomyzhsky Vladimir G. CastriotaScanderbeg all letters,
which were written from 1843 to 1857. I received an invita
tion from the editor to parse these letters, which didn’t have
the year, month and day and I did this work with pleasure. In
addition to these letters I found others. Some of them were
Mussorgsky’s ones, who for many years was a friend with
Darghomyzhsky and corresponded with him. Most of these
letters were from his sister. Thanks to her, I will restore the
autobiography of Darghomyzhsky truly complete. In addition,
I will add back my memories about him from 1855 to 1869. It
was the most active period of Darghomyzhsky’s musical activ
ity and flourishing of this extraordinary personality.
UNIT 8
RUSSIA AS THE FAMOUS
CULTURAL STATE IN THE WORLD

I. Read and translate the text.


Russia, known as the Russian Federation, is a country in
the northern Eurasia. As for the political system, Russia is a
federal republic. The legislative body of the country is State
Duma and the executive body is a Council of Ministers, headed
by Prime Minister. President is the head of the state and the
government. He is elected every six years.
From the northwest to the southeast, Russia shares bor
ders on Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Po
land (both via Kaliningrad State), Belarusia, the Ukraine,
Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and
North Korea. It also has maritime borders on Japan by the
Okhotsk Sea, and the USA state of Alaska across the Bering
Strait. Russia is the largest country in the world, covering
more than oneeighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area.
Russia is also the world’s ninth most populous nation. Its
population is over 143 million people. Russia spans nine time
zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and
landforms.
Russia is the largest country in the world. Its total area is
17,075,400 square kilometers. There are 23 UNESCO World
Heritage Sites in Russia, 40 UNESCO biosphere reserves,
40 national parks and 101 nature reserves. Russia has a wide
natural resource base, including major deposits of timber,
petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources.
The Ural Mountains, rich in mineral resources, form a north
south range that divides Europe and Asia.
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 183

Russia has thousands of rivers. The largest and most promi


nent of Russia’s body of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world’s
deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake.
Baikal alone contains over onefifth of the world’s fresh sur
face water. Other large lakes are Ladoga and Onega, two of the
largest lakes in Europe. Russia is second only to Brazil in
volume of the total renewable water resources. Among 100,000
rivers, the Volga is the most famous, not only that it is the
longest river in Europe, but also because of its major role in
the Russian history. Siberian rivers the Ob, the Yenisey, the
Lena and the Amur are among the very longest rivers in the
world.
There are four seasons — winter and summer; spring and
autumn. But they are different in Russia. The coldest month
is January (February on the coastline), the warmest usually
is July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter
temperatures get colder both from the south to the north and
from the west to the east. Summers can be quite hot even in
Siberia. The continental interiors are the driest areas. From
the north to the south East European Plain, also known as
Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra, conifer
ous forest (taiga), mixed and broadleaf forests, grassland
(steppe), and semidesert (fringing the Caspian Sea). Russia
has the world’s largest forest reserves, known as “the lungs
of Europe”. Siberia supports a similar sequence of taiga.
415 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book
of the Russian Federation.
The nation’s history began with East Slavs, who emerged
as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th
centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite
and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus’ arose in the
9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the
Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and
Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next mil
lennium. By the 18th century the nation had greatly expanded
through conquest, annexation and exploration to become the
Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in his
tory, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in the North
America.
184 Английский язык для музыкантов

After the Great October Revolution Russian Soviet Fed


erative Socialist Republic became the largest state in the world.
During the 30’s years of the 20th century Russia was trans
formed from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial
powerhouse in a short time. Our country played a decisive role
in the victory of the World War II. The Soviet era saw some of
the most significant technological achievements of the 20th
century, including the world’s first human spaceflight in the
60’s. Russia was among the first countries to introduce radio
and television in the world.
Nowadays Russia is famous for different achievements
in all fields and spheres of our life. It is also connected
with sport. It was, is and will be one of the most important
parts of people’s essence and the existence. Russian ath
letes have always been in the top three for the number of
gold medals collected during Summer Olympics. Russian
gymnasts, trackandfield athletes, weight lifters, wres
tlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biath
letes, speed skaters and figure skaters are among the best
in the world. The 1980 Summer Olympics Games were held
in Moscow while the 2014 Winter Olympics Games were
hosted in Sochi.
State symbols of Russia include Byzantine doubleheaded
eagle, combined with St. George of Moscow in Russian coat
of arms. Russian flag dates from the late Tsardom of Russia
period. Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet An
them though not the lyrics. The hammer and the sickle are
still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architec
tural decorations. Red Banner is honored, especially the
Banner of Victory of 1945. The Matryoshka doll is a recog
nizable symbol of Russia while the towers of Moscow Krem
lin and Saint Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow are main Russia’s
architectural masterpieces. Cheburashka is a mascot of Rus
sian national Olympic team. The chamomile is a national
flower, while the birch is a national tree. Russian bear is an
animal symbol and a national personification of Russia,
though this image has a Western origin. Russian national
personification is Mother Russia, sometimes called Mother
land or Fatherland.
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 185

II. Answer the questions, using the information from the


text.
1. When did the nation’s history begin? How many coun
tries does Russia border on?
2. What climate conditions are there in different parts of
Russia? What lake is the deepest in Russia?
3. The chamomile is a national flower, while the birch is a
national tree, is not it?
4. What are the names of the longest rivers in the country?
5. What mountains divide Russia into two parts?
6. Which mineral resources is Russia rich in?
7. Russian gymnasts, trackandfield athletes, weight lif
ters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country ski
ers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters are among the
best in the world, aren’t they?
8. What are the national symbols of the Russian Federa
tion?
9. What kind of state is Russia?
10. Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide
range of environments and sceneries, doesn’t it?
11. Ladoga and Onega are two of the largest lakes in Eu
rope, aren’t they?
12. What are state symbols of Russia?
13. What are the most significant technological achieve
ments of the 20th century?
14. When and where were the 1980 Summer Olympic Games
held?
15. Siberian rivers the Ob, the Yenisey, the Lena and the
Amur are among the very longest rivers in the world, are not
they?

III. Find English equivalents in the text.


1. С точки зрения политической системы, Россия — это
федеративная республика.
2. В период шестидесятых годов были достигнуты зна
чительные технологические достижения XX столетия, сре
ди которых первый в мире полет человека в космос.
3. Россия занимает девятое место в мире по численно
сти населения.
186 Английский язык для музыкантов

4. Самый крупный водный источник пресной воды —


это озеро Байкал с чистой, прозрачной водой.
5. К XVIII веку Россия становится третьей крупной импе
рией в истории человечества, охватывая территорию от Поль
ши в Европейской части до Аляски в Северной Америке.
6. Самый характерный символ России — это матрешка.
7. В 1980 году в Москве проходили летние Олимпийские
игры, в 2014 году в Сочи — зимние Олимпийские игры.
8. Занимая большую часть суши, Россия считается са
мой большой по площади страной на земле.
9. Среди 100 000 рек России самая крупная — это река
Волга, не только потому, что она самая длинная река в
Европе, но еще и потому, что ее роль неотделима от истории
России.
10. Среди животных символом России является мед
ведь, образ которого непосредственно связан с западными
странами.
11. Государственным символом России является двух
главый орел.
12. В период 30х годов XX столетия Россия преврати
лась из страны аграрной в страну крупной индустриальной
державы.
13. Россию по праву называют «легкими Европы», по
скольку страна имеет огромные лесные запасы.
14. Глава государства и правительства — это президент,
избираемый каждые шесть лет.
15. Часто Россию называют “Родинамать”, отчизна.

IV. Complete the sentences.


1. ... Russia shares borders on Norway, Finland, Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad State),
Belarussia, the Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan,
China, Mongolia, and North Korea.
2. There are 23 UNESCO ... 40 national parks and 101 na
ture reserves.
3. The largest and most prominent of Russia’s bodies of
fresh water is ...
4. The Siberian rivers the Ob, the Yenisey, the Lena and
the Amur are ...
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 187

5. The nation’s history began with East Slavs, ...


6. In 988 ... that defined Russian culture for the next
millennium.
7. ..., which was the third largest empire in history, stretch
ing from Poland in Europe to Alaska in the North America.
8. The 1980 Summer Olympics ...
9. The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms ...
10. ... and Saint Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow are main
Russia’s masterpieces. Russian bear ... have accepted it only
fairly recently.

V. Make up sentences.
1. Federation, the, Russian, President, is, by, the, headed.
2. State, the, multiparty, has, system.
3. Country, in, is, the, Russia, world, the, largest.
4. Is, also, world’s, ninth, nation, the, with, 143, million,
populous, people, most, Russia.
5. Matryoshka, Russia, is, a, recognizable, symbol, of, the,
doll.
6. Include, Byzantine, doubleheaded, symbol, the, State,
of, eagle, Russia.
7. Of, fresh, Lake, the, Russia’s, prominent, bodies, of,
most, Baikal, largest, and, is, water.
8. Personification, Russia, the, is, an, animal, symbol,
national, and, a, Russian, of, bear.
9. Usually, is, warmest, January, month, the, coldest, the,
is, July.
10. Ural, resources, rich, Mountains, the, in, mineral, are.

VI. Read the words with the intonation: territory; offi


cial climate; report; federal; symbol; region; cultural; indus
trial; resources; continental; legislative; minister.

VII. Complete the sentences. Use the words from the box:
total area; borders on; is rich in; consists of; international
cooperation; the official language; is situated; is headed by;
a constitutional republic; cultural and industrial center; is
washed by.
1. France ... Germany and Denmark.
188 Английский язык для музыкантов

2. The Russian Federation is ... and it ... the President.


3. They speak Spanish in Brazil. It’s ... of the country.
4. Canada is a very big country. Its ... is about eleven mil
lion square kilometers.
5. The western part of the country ... numerous plains and
forests.
6. Brazil ... oil, gas and coal.
7. The island ... the Pacific Ocean.
8. The House of Parliament ... in the center of London.
9. My native town is a ... of Siberia.
10. The most important direction of the foreign policy is
that of ...

VIII. Put 5 special and 5 tag questions to the text.

IX. Write a letter to your penfriend about Russia. Use


the following phrases.
Dear friend!
I’m writing to enquire ...
I would like to tell you about ...
I’m pleased to ...
As for me ...
In my opinion ...
Moreover ...
However ...
What is more ...
For example ...
I would like to know ...
Could you also ...
I look forward to hearing from you ...
I’m sorry, I have to finish ...
Yours sincerely ...

THEATERS OF RUSSIA
I. Look at the pictures. Write the names of the famous
theaters.
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 189
190 Английский язык для музыкантов
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 191

II. Fill in the box.

THE BOLSHOI THEATRE


The Bolshoi Theatre is a Russian historic theatre, designed
by the architect Joseph Bove. The theatre’s original name was
the Imperial Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow. The company was
founded on March 17, 1776 by Prince Pyotr Vasilyevich Urusov
and Michael Maddox. Initially, it held performances in a pri
vate home. On December 30, 1780 it began producing plays
192 Английский язык для музыкантов

and operas, thus establishing what was to become the Bolshoi


Theatre. On 7 December 1919 the house was renamed as the
State Academic Bolshoi Theatre. The main building of the the
atre, rebuilt and renovated several times during its history, is
a landmark of Moscow and Russia. On October 28, 2011 the
Bolshoi was reopened after an extensive sixyear renovation.
The Bolshoi Ballet and Bolshoi Opera are among the oldest
and most renowned ballet and opera companies in the world. It
is the world’s biggest ballet company. The Bolshoi has been
associated with а ballet. Tchaikovsky’s ballet “Swan Lake”
premiered at the theatre on March 4, 1877. Other staples of
the Bolshoi repertoire include Tchaikovsky’s “The Sleeping
Beauty” and “The Nutcracker”, Adam’s “Giselle”, Prokofiev’s
“Romeo and Juliet”, and Khachaturian’s “Spartacus”. The
theatre is the parent company of The Bolshoi Ballet Academy,
a worldfamous leading school of ballet. It has a branch at the
Bolshoi Theatre School in Joinville, Brazil.
The opera company specializes in the classics of Russian
opera such as Mussorgsky’s “Boris Godunov”, Glinka’s “A Life
for the Tsar”, and RimskyKorsakov’s “The Tsar’s Bride”, as
well as the operas of Tchaikovsky. Many operas by western
composers are also performed, especially works of Italian com
posers such as Rossini, Verdi and Puccini. Until the mid1990’s,
most foreign operas were sung in Russian, but Italian and
other languages have been heard more frequently on the Bolshoi
stage in recent years. Some operas, such as Borodin’s “Prince
Igor”, include extensive ballet sequences. Many productions
of classic Russian opera are performed with singers: Leonid
Sobinov, Antonina Nezhdanova, Ksenia Dzerzhinskaya and
other outstanding opera singers have performed at the Bolshoi.
The Bolshoi has been the site of many historic premieres
including Tchaikovsky’s “The Voyevoda and Mazeppa”, Rach
maninov’s “Aleko” and “Francesca da Rimini”. On Decem
ber 16, 1888 the premiere of “Boris Godunov” by Modest
Mussorgsky took place. The premiere of Nikolai Rimsky
Korsakov’s opera “The Maid of Pskov” with Feodor Chaliapin
singing the role of Ivan the Terrible. On May 4, 1919 the first
symphony concert was given by the theatre orchestra, conducted
by Sergei Koussevitzky. In 1935 Moscow premiere of Dmitri
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 193

Shostakovich’s opera “Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District”


took place. It normally introduces two to four new ballets or
operas productions each season and puts a similar number on
hold. The Bolshoi Theatre is famous throughout the world.

I. Read the sentences and say whether they are true or


false.
1. The opera company specializes in the classics of Italian
opera such as Mussorgsky’s “Boris Godunov”, Glinka’s “A Life
for the Tsar”, and RimskyKorsakov’s “The Tsar’s Bride”, as
well as the operas by Tchaikovsky.
2. Initially, it held performances in a private home.
3. On April 20, 1780 it began producing plays and operas,
in such a way establishing what was to become the Bolshoi
Theatre.
4. The Bolshoi Theatre is a historic theatre in Rostov,
Russia, designed by the architect Joseph Bove. The Bolshoi
has been associated with а ballet.
5. Tchaikovsky’s ballet “Swan Lake” was premiered at the
theatre on March 4, 1877.
6. Many operas by western composers are also performed,
especially works of Italian composers such as Rossini, Verdi,
and Puccini.
7. The company was founded on March 17, 1991 by Prince
Pyotr Vasilyevich Urusov and Michael Maddox.
8. The Bolshoi Theatre is famous only in Russia.
9. On December 7, 1919, the house was renamed as the
State Academic Bolshoi Theatre.

II. Summarize the text.

III. Retell the text. Use the words from the box: a historic
theatre, performances, the Bolshoi Ballet and Bolshoi Opera,
the opera company, productions of classic Russian opera, the
Bolshoi repertoire, opera singers, historic premieres.

IV. Fill in the name of the famous singer.


In 1900 the popular bariton of the Bolshoi Theatre ... de
cided to leave the stage. One of the last operas, in which the old
194 Английский язык для музыкантов

singer took part was “The Demon” by A. Rubinstein. ... had to


sing the part of the Demon. His success grew from scene to
scene. Then the culmination point came: the singer had to sing
the famous air “Don’t cry, my child ...” This air is one of the
most difficult airs for all singers. The public sat still: “Will he
be able to take the upper note at the end of the air?” ... began
the air. His voice was strong and rich. The people waited ... .
Suddenly before the air was over, before the singer was to take
the famous note, there was a storm of applause and shouts:
“Bravo, bravo, ... !” The singer had to stop singing. All the
house was shouting — the orchestra, the public, the chorus
and the soloists. The Moscow public couldn’t let its idol sing
that risky note.

V. Write a letter to your friend about visiting the the


ater. Use the following words.
Dear friend!
I’m writing to enquire ...
One of the best plays I have ever seen is ...
The program included such compositions as ...
The play was a great success, because ...
As for me, ...
In my opinion, ...
Moreover, ...
However, ...
What is more, ...
For example, ...
I would like to know ...
Could you also ...
I look forward to hearing from you ...
Yours sincerely ...

I’d like to share with you my impressions of the Bolshoi


Theatre. There are a lot of popular theatres in Mocow, as for
example “Taganka”, “Lenkom”, “Sovremennik”, Moskow Art
Theatre, Maly Theatre. But among the theatres the Bolshoi
occupies, of course, a special place.
The Bolshoi Theatre is a beautiful building with columns
in front. It is situated in the centre of Moscow on Teatralnaya
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 195

Square. This theatre is world famous for its dancers and sing
ers and also for the brilliant staging and setting.
At last my friend managed to get tickets for the evening
performance of the ballet “Spartacus” by Aram Khachaturian.
I was happy to find out that the famous dancers performed
the leading parts. Our seats in the 7th row were extremely
good. As we occupied them the orchestra began tuning up and
I looked through the program. Then the lights went down
and after a short overture the curtain rose upon the scene.
The dancing and the setting of the ballet were superb.
I had never seen anything more wonderful. When the last
curtain went down there was a storm of applause. The danc
ers were presented with large bouquets of flowers. In one
word, the performance was a great success.

VI. Order the sentences to make up a story.


1. “Sovremennik” tried to restore an image of the old Mkhat
house, its art and ethical ideals in the practice.
2. In 1961 its first building on Mayakovsky Square was
transferred to the theater.
3. Long time the art director of the theater there was
Oleg Nikolayevich Efremov who graduated from Mkhat stu
dio in 1949.
4. The Moscow theater “Sovremennik” was founded by a
group of young actors in 1956.
5. Performances were played on the stages of recreation
centers and the clubs, twice a month on the Moscow Art The
atre branch scene.
6. On April 15, 1956 the group of graduates of Moscow Art
Theatre School studio played the performance according to
Rozov’s play “Eternally live”.
7. Young actors created a new studio of Art Theater —
“Studio of young actors”.
8. In 2003 the eightstory cultural and business complex
“Boulevard Ring” was decent to the theater.
9. Oleg Efremov, Galina Volchek, Igor Kvasha, Lilia
Tolmachyova, Evgeny Yevstigneyev, Oleg Tabakov, Victor
Sergachyov were founders of theater. The early program of
“Sovremennik” was the Soviet option of neorealism.
196 Английский язык для музыкантов

10. Till 1961 the theater had no its own building.


11. In 1958 it was officially declared “Sovremennik’s”
theater studio creation.
12. The present building of “Sovremennik” theater is in
Chistoprudny Boulevard, built in style of neoclassicism with
modern elements.
13. In 2011 the Department of culture of Moscow planned
the theater’s reconstruction.

VII. Make a report about the theater.

TOVSTONOGOV’S BOLSHOI
DRAMA THEATER

Tovstonogov’s Bolshoi Drama Theater, formerly known


as Gorky Bolshoi Drama, often referred to as the Bolshoi Drama
Theater, is a theater in ... , that is considered as one of the
best Russian theaters. The theater is named after its long
time director Georgy Tovstonogov. The theater is also encoun
tered in literature as the Great Drama Theater or Great Dra
matic Theater of ... . The founders of the theater were Maxim
Gorky, Maria Andreyeva, Alexander Block and Anatoly Luna
charsky. Already by 1914, before the October Revolution, an
actress Maria Andreyeva participated in a theater initiative,
including an actor Yury Yuryev, with the aim of returning to
the “classics”. In 1918 Yuryev staged some works in ... . The
theater was organized in 1918 by the order of Maria An
dreyeva. The original name of the theater was Osobaya
Drammaticheskaya Truppa (Special Drama Company). The
theater was organized by merging the Theater of Tragedy led
by Yury Yuryev and the Theater of Art Drama led by Andrei
Lavrentyev. During the first year of its operation the theater
performed on the stage of the Great Hall of the ... Con
servatoire. The chief director of the theater was Andrei
Lavrentyev. The first performance of the new theater was
Friedrich Schiller’s “Don Carlos” on February 15, 1919. In
1920 the theater moved to the building, at 65 Fontanka Em
bankment, of the former Suvorin Theatre also known as Maly
Imperial Drama Theater. The main actors of that period were
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 197

Yury Yuryev and Nikolai Monakhov. Many brilliant painters


worked for the theater including Alexandre Benois, Mstislav
Dobuzhinsky, Vladimir Shuko, Nikolai Akimov; among the
composers working with the theater were Boris Asafyev and
Yuri Shaporin. The theater produced mostly classical Romantic
Dramas like: “Don Carlos” (1919), “Othello” (1920), “King Lear”
(1920), “Twelfth Night” (1921), “The Robbers” (1919), etc. Since
mid of the 1920’s the theater has added to its repertoire plays
of German expressionists including “Gas” by Georg Kaiser,
“Virgin Forest” by Ernst Toller. Georgy Tovstonogov was the
first who returned Fyodor Dostoyevsky into Soviet theater, by
his productions of “The Idiot” (1957).
In January 1919, the government sponsored the staging
of Nikolai Gogol’s “The Government Inspector”, “The Three
Sisters” (1965) and “Uncle Vanya” (1982) by Anton Chekhov,
“Merchants” (1966) by Maxim Gorky, “Once again about
Love” (1964) by Edvard Radzinsky, “Henry IV” (1969) by
William Shakespeare, “Revisor” by Nikolai Gogol (1972),
and many others. The prominent members of his troupe
included Alisa Freindlich, Zinaida Sharko, Lyudmila Maka
rova, Tatiana Doronina, Svetlana Kryuchkova, Kirill Lav
rov, Innokenty Smoktunovsky, Pavel Luspekaev, Yefim
Kopelyan, Sergei Yursky, Vladislav Strezhelchik, Еvgeny
Lebedev and Oleg Basilashvili. In 1989, a prominent actor
of the theater, Kirill Lavrov was unanimously elected the
Artistic Director. He managed to preserve the artistic tra
dition established by Tovstonogov, and to rename BDT af
ter Tovstonogov in 1993. It is one of the most famous the
atres in Russia.

I. Read the text. Fill in the name of the city where the
theater is.

II. Find English equivalents in the text.


1. Театр был основан в 1918 году Марией Андреевой.
2. Он сумел продолжить творческую традицию Товсто
ногова.
3. Ведущими актерами этого периода были Юрий Юрь
ев и Николай Монахов.
198 Английский язык для музыкантов

4. В театре были постановки большинства классических


романтических драм.
5. 15 февраля 1919 года состоялась премьера постанов
ки пьесы Фридриха Шиллера «Дон Карлос».
6. Известными актерами труппы были Алиса Фрейн
длих, Зинаида Шарко, Людмила Макарова.
7. В январе 1919 года состоялась постановка пьесы Ни
колая Гоголя «Статский советник».
8. Театр был назван в честь художественного руководи
теля Георгия Товстоногова.
9. В 1920 году театр переехал в здание на Фонтанке.
10. В 1918 году Юрьев начал работать в Ленинграде.

III. Fill in the spidergram.

IV. Put 5 general questions to the text.

V. Find all the examples of Passive Voice in the text.

A NEW THEATRE WAS BORN

In 1898 Stanislavsky and NemirovichDanchenko decided


to found a new theatre. They had a company of their own so
they invited the young inexperienced actors. Stanislavsky
and NemirovichDanchenko took the tragedy “Tsar Fyodor
Ioanovich” by Aleksei Tolstoy for the first performance.
They preferred to stage this play because they wanted to
show the historical truth on the stage. The directors wanted
to convey the authentic atmosphere of old patrichal Russian
of the 16th century. They did not want any traditional set. So
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 199

the artist Simov went to old Russian towns Jaroslavl and


Rostov. There he made sketches of old cathedrals, costumes
and furniture.
The rehearsals began in June 1898 and lasted till October.
On the 14th of October 1898 the new Moscow theatre opened.
The unknown but promising actor Ivan Moskvin performed
the part of Tsar Fyodor, the young actress Olga Knipper played
the role of Tsar Fyodor’s wife Irina. Stanislavsky played the
part and Simov designed the costumes and the sets.
The new theatre with its progressive ideas, its new style of
acting and direction had an electrifying effect and the perfor
mance made a great impression on the Moscow public. The
public liked the acting, the sets and the authentic atmosphere
of the performance very much. Soon almost all the Moscow
newspapers wrote excellent reviews on the performance, they
wrote that a new unique theatre was born. The name of this
theatre was the Moscow Art Theatre.

I. Read the text and answer the following questions.


1. When did Stanislavsky and NemirovichDanchenko
found the Art Theatre in Moscow?
2. Why did they invite young actors?
3. What play did they choose for the first performance?
4. Why did they prefer this play?
5. Why did the set designer Simov go to Jaroslavl and
Rostov?
6. When did the rehearsals begin?
7. How long did the rehearsals last?
8. Who performed the main part?
9. What can you say about the acting style and the atmo
sphere of the first performance of the new theatre?
10. What was the reaction of the public and press?

II. Choose the best headline for each paragraph.


1. A great success.
2. The rehearsals.
3. A new director.
4. A new theater.
5. Visiting the theater.
200 Английский язык для музыкантов

III. Translate a new text. Give a summary.


The Moscow Academic Musical Theater of K. S. Stanislav
sky and V. I. NemirovichDanchenko is one of the leading
musical theaters of Russia. Its ninetyyear history is a chain
of brilliant opera and ballet statements, many of which are the
gold fund of the Russian theater. Names of opera and ballet
soloists of theater of last years and those who steps on its stage
today — are widely known not only in Russia, but also is far
beyond its limits.
The Musical theater of K. S. Stanislavsky and V. I. Ne
mirovichDanchenko united opera theaters of two legendary
reformers of theatrics of Konstantin Sergeyevich Stanislavsky
and Vladimir Ivanovich NemirovichDanchenko. They aspired
that opera performances were so live and substantial as per
formances drama. In 1939 the ballet troupe of the Quiz was a
part of the theater of NemirovichDanchenko. The troupe re
ceived the first name in honor of Art Theater and was called
“The Moscow Art ballet”.
Here outstanding directors Leonid Baratov and Lev Mi
khaylov, outstanding ballet masters Vladimir Burmeyster,
Dmitri Bryantsev, wellknown conductors S. Samosud, B. Khay
kin, D. Kitayenko, E. Kolobov worked. Today the opera troupe
of the theater is headed by the national actor of Russia
Alexander Titel, the national actor of Russia Igor Zelensky
directs the ballet.
In 2006 the grandiose reconstruction of the historical build
ing of the theater on Bolshaya Dmitrovka came to the end.
Now the Musical theater of K. S. Stanislavsky and V. I. Nemiro
vichDanchenko is not only one of the most beautiful theatres
in Moscow, but also one of the most technically equipped.
In recent years premieres of Musical Theater were unani
mously recognized as the most considerable events of the
Moscow Theater life. It was a special interest for: the opera
performances “So All Women Arrive” (the conductor — V. Go
relik, the director — A. Titel), “Eugene Onegin” (the conduc
tor — F. Korobov, the director — A. Titel, the artist — D. Bo
rovsky), the RussianFrench project “Pelleas and Melizanda”
(the conductor — Mark Minkovski, the director — Olivier Pi),
a world premiere of the opera of V. Kobekin “Hamlet (Danish)
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 201

(Russian) comedy” on a small scene of the theater (the conduc


tor — F. Korobov, the director — A. Titel), “Lucia di Lammer
moor” G. Donizetti (the conductor — V. Gorelik, the direc
tor — A. Shapiro, the artist — A. Freybergs); ballets “Tea”
directed by John Neumeier. Such a ballet as “A Stone Flower”
became the first meeting of troupe with Yury Grigorovich. All
these performances became owners of the Russian and inter
national theatrical awards, highly appreciated by Russian and
foreign criticism and loved by the audience. Opera and ballet
performances of the theater repeatedly and with huge success
were shown in the different countries of the world: the United
States, Germany, Italy, South Korea, Japan, Great Britain,
the Netherlands, etc. Musical theater is the initiator and the
organizer of a number of international festivals of modern
choreography, including the “Dance in Version Festival”,
wchich is the largest in Russia, the annual participant of the
international project “European Days of the Opera”.

IV. Read the text and write down the sentences in Past
Perfect, Past Perfect Contuniuos.
Looking for new ways Stanislavsky (1863–1938), an out
standing Soviet actor, stagedirector and theorist, who was
constantly looking for new ways of scenic expressiveness, he
strove to sum up the experience of the best stage masters of
the Russian and the wold theatre. Stanislavsky’s conceptions
were greatly influenced by Shchepkin (1788–1863) who has
been called the father of Russian realism, and by the plays of
Anton Chekhov. Under Shchepkin’s and Chekhov’s influence,
Stanislavsky strove to create an authentic atmosphere in the
theatre. The Stanislavsky System fought against overacting,
cliches and mannerism. Before Stanislavsky, drama schools
throughout in the world had been teaching only the physical
elements of an actor’s training: ballet, dancing, speech, dic
tion. There had been no inner acting technique. Stanislavsky
developed a technique which helped actors to build the inner
world of the person portrayed on the stage. Stanislavsky’s
demand for truth and simplicity didn’t mean only an external
presentation of naturalness. He believed in realism rather than
in naturalism. Stanislavsky’s “art of adaptation” concerned
202 Английский язык для музыкантов

everything from the actor’s makeup to the inner identifica


tion with the characters. Stanislavsky fought against dilettan
tism in the theater. He believed that the theatre became the
form of art only through professionalism. The Stanislavsky
System has placed an outstanding role in the development of the
20th century theater. With the System’s terminology — super
objective logic of actions, subtext, temporhythm, method of
physical actions, and so on — a common theatrical language
has been created. All over the world actors, directors, and
teachers of acting follow his method. However, one has to
remember that the Stanislavsky method is not dogmatic. The
great innovator didn’t look upon his method as an end in itself.
“Create your own method”, he used to say to his actors. “Don’t
depend on mine. But keep breaking traditions”. Vakhtangov
(1883–1922) was Stanislavsky’s greatest pupil. He was an
inspired artist, who left his own mark on all his creations.
If Stanislavsky was reforming the theatre for 40 years,
Vakhtangov’s creative life lasted only five though very fruit
ful years. His achievement was a product of his understanding
of Stanislavsky’s system.

V. Put 5 alternative questions to the text.

THE PENZA REGIONAL DRAMA THEATER NAMED


AFTER A. V. LUNACHARSKY

I. Read the text and fill in the following words: “Young


Guard”, first theatrical season, I. M. Dolgoruky, the turntable,
a performance “Auditor”, A. N. Afinogenov’s “Mashenka”.
The Penza Regional Drama Theater named after A. V. Lu
nacharsky is one of the oldest theaters in Russia, located in
Penza.
The ... in the history of Penza was opened on November 24,
1793 by the comedy “Deceiver”. During that time the theatre
had only 100 seats in the auditorium. The creation of the the
ater belongs to the Penza vice governor ... . And Alexander
Kanin, Ivan Slonov and Stepan Muratov were at the Penza
Theater, and they lived in Saratov where worked at a scene of
the Saratov drama theater. In 1928 the theater was recon
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 203

structed, and on a scene ... was installed. The repertoire of the


theater during those years included the plays by Maxim Gorky,
Nikolai Pogodin, Vsevolod Vishnevsky. The actresses P. Kir
sanova, N. Kostyurina, N. Paramonova, K. Angarskaya were
on the scene. In the period of the Great Patriotic War at the
theater there were plays of modern writers: ... , L. Leonov’s
“Invasion”, “The Russian People”, “Wait For Me”, “And There
Will Be” of K. Simonov, and also works by A. N. Ostrovsky,
A. P. Chekhov, A. S. Griboyedov. The subject of military years
was fixed in repertoire for a long time. One of the first the
theater dramatized A. Fadeyev’s novel ... . The new building
of the theater was opened on March 5, 2010 by ... according to
N. V. Gogol’s comedy directed by the national actor of the
Russian Federation V. R. Belyakovich. The small scene was
opened on April 21, 2010 by a performance “Don’t abandon
me” ... according to A. Dudarev’s play.

II. Make up a dialogue with your groupmate about visit


ing the theater. Use the following words: an outstanding
event in the cultural life; The Theatre opened its doors; The
first performance staged at the Theatre; It was produced by;
Many outstanding actors; worked on the stage of; the creative
work of the producers; The repertoire of the Theatre; plays by
Russian and foreign playwriters; the Theatre opened its sea
son with premieres; theatrical forums; musical plays, com
edies, psychological dramas fairytale productions; theatre
schools; The actors enjoyed considerable popularity; a young
and talented producer; the chief manager of the Theatre; a
new rehearsal; to stage performances; a great contribution; a
splendid hall, with super acoustics; The leading parts; Art
Lovers; The Puppet Theatre is closely connected with; The
repertoire of the Theatre; The first performance; a group of
puppet actors.

III. Make up dialogues. Use any of the situations.


1. Booking a ticket to the Theatre (row, the stalls, the gal
lery, the pit, the balcony, a box, to prefer, these seats will do).
2. Going to the Theatre (to wear, to look nice, to keep
somebody waiting, hurry up, I’d rather, to hire a taxi, to be
204 Английский язык для музыкантов

held up, needn’t, at one’s disposal, to read up the poster, to be


on, to be north, to praise, in my opinion, an excellent idea, to
be in demand, to choose, to prefer, to look forward to...).
3. Impressions of a play (expressive, cast, to be impressed,
a plot, to be familiar).

“NEW WAVE” A WIPE OUT

The latest “Novaya Volna” (“New Wave”) song contest pro


duced little besides proof that the local pop scene is all at sea.
The song contest “Novaya Volna”, which came to a close in
the Latvian seaside resort town Jurmala on July 29, brought
further proof that the “official” Russian pop scene is stagnat
ing and has nothing new or interesting to offer audiences.
“Novaya Volna”, launched in 2001 by Soviet/Russian pop
scene heavyweights Igor Krutoi and Raimonds Pauls, aimed to
promote a new talent, to some extent being a successor to a
similar late1980’s contest held in the same town. However,
the recent edition only shows that the domestic music industry
isn’t going anywhere, and there’s a similar situation in other
former Soviet republics.
True, over the last 25 years, the Russian pop scene has
come a long way. In the late 1980’s, the likes of “Mirazh” and
“Laskovy Mai” were outright ridiculous, but their stab at “lo
calizing” Westernstyle disco standards was at least some
thing new, and that’s why thousands of fans embraced that
silly material. It took more than 10 years for the Russian music
industry to catch up with international quality standards. And
the international success of the fakelesbian act “t. A. T. u.”
in the early 2000’s basically proved that the catching up was
complete.
But where to go next? Today, domestic pop singers have
much more elaborate styles, the arrangements of their songs
have become more sophisticated, and their videos look consid
erably better than in the 1990’s. Even their stage names have
become more complicated: the Russian singer who won the
main prize at “Novaya Volna” goes by the name Niloo, spelled
with English characters, while some 15 years ago it could have
been some Masha Mashina.
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state in the world 205

Still, Niloo’s tracks are far from impressive: standard


melodies hardly discernible from scores of other pop tunes.
Ridiculous lyrics: “Let me know if you are near, the meaning
of the words doesn’t matter if it is not love.” Right, the mean
ing of words, the meaning of any pop lyrics doesn’t really
matter as long as there is some feeling, some emotion put into
it, which audiences — even stupid and poorly educated — could
relate to. With Niloo and dozens of other newcomers on the
domestic pop scene, this is not the case. They just sing the
lyrics given them by their producers. Some of them can sing,
some of them can’t, but just about all of them sound phony.
Some of them are goodlooking and attract enough teenage
girls and boys to become “new stars” for one season before
being reduced to entertaining drunken office employees at
corporate parties for the rest of their careers.
A lot has been said about the dinosaurs of Russian “popsa”
holding on to their careers forever and not wanting to step
down, and I have also joined that chorus on a few occasions.
But when those veteran pop stars argue that the newcomers
aren’t better at all, they are basically right. And while the old
guard — disregarding how bad and ridiculous some of them
are — have some degree of originality, the newer generation
of pop singers looking up to them apparently has none.
However, times are changing. Throughout the 1990’s and
the first half of the 2000’s, the only way for a young artist to
have a break was through one of the few established produc
ers, who would take them to mainstream television channels,
radio and contests like “Novaya Volna”.
But now, you can shoot a homespun video, upload it to
YouTube — and you could wake up famous one morning. And
it has happened quite a lot lately. So, while some young artists
will continue to stick to mainstream television and contests
like Novaya Volna as a launch pad for their careers, I hope that
more and more will try other approaches.
(Moscow News, 2014)

I. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. Who are the creators of the festival “Novaya Volna”
(“New Wave”)?
206 Английский язык для музыкантов

2. What is the purpose of this international festival?


3. How many years took the Russian music industry to be
at the level of international quality?
4. Who won the main prize at the last festival “Novaya
Volna”?
5. What kind of impression on the audience made the cre
ativity of Niloo?
6. How would you rate the level of newcomers’ skill to the
pop scene?
7. How can you become famous in one morning?
8. What do veterans of pop culture say about newcomers?
9. Where was the last festival “Novaya Volna”?
10. What do you think about this festival?

II. Give the summary of the text.

III. Make a report about any famous music festival.


UNIT 9
CULTURAL TRADITIONS
OF RUSSIA

I. Read the following texts and answer the questions.


1. What would you tell your foreign friends about Russian
traditions?
It is a wellknown fact that most Russians are usually keen
supporters of traditions. Russian people keep up a lot of folk
traditions. These are all kinds of traditions based on Chris
tianity: Christmas and Easter. A wellknown Easter tradition
is famous for painting eggs with bright colours. It is to sym
bolize springtime and life.
My favourite Russian folk tradition is Maslenitsa, or Pan
cake Week. Firstly, I am really fond of Russian folk tradi
tions, and Maslenitsa week is full of traditional Russian festi
val activities: masquerades, snowball fights, sledding and
sleigh rides. Secondly, it is a chance to taste traditional Rus
sian food which we don’t very often cook nowadays, as we got
used to buy readymade food in supermarkets. The essential
element of Maslenitsa celebration is Russian pancakes, made
of butter, eggs and milk. They are usually eaten with sour
cream or caviar.
2. What is important for the development of Russian cul
ture in Siberia?
First of all, Siberia is also known as a place of exile. After
the Decembrist Uprising of 1825, officers were arrested and
imprisoned in Peter and Paul fortress in St. Petersburg. Some
were executed, but 120 of them were sent to Siberia. It was
that the Decembrists were highly educated and talented writ
ers, scientists, artists, teachers and professionals. After their
208 Английский язык для музыкантов

release some chose to remain in Siberia and contributed to the


development of cultural and educational institutions. For more
on the influence of the Decembrists there were writers in Si
beria.
One of Russian writers from the Soviet period was Vasily
Shukshin (born in 1929, died in 1974). He was born in the
Altai mountain region, in the village of Srostki. Shukshin was
one of Russia’s most famous writers in the 1950’s–1970’s. His
“Stories from a Siberian Village” are an example of how he was
trapped between his peasant village upbringing and his work
in Moscow. He produced movies (and also acted in them) which
are some of the greatest Russian artistic movies from the
Soviet period. He was one of the few Russian creative artists
during the period of heavy censorship who never gave up his
inner freedom.

II. Read the texts and name the holidays.


1. Winter holidays began with ... . Boys and girls walked
around the village and in every yard clicked Kolyada. Songs,
played at the same time in different parts of Russia, were
called differently: Christmas carols, Ovsen or grapes. Owners
of the house wanted good things of life and demanded compen
sation. Songs were addressed to the whole family (all over the
yard), or separately the host or hostess. There were special
songs for a guy, the groom and the girlbride. The song told
about the arrival Kolyada or Ovsen. Kolyada and Ovsen are
mythological characters of songs. They should bring farmers
a bountiful harvest and domestic happiness.
2. The ... is one of the public holidays. It is a favourite day
for many people. One should buy a Christmas tree and deco
rate it. There is much delicious food on the Russian table.
People dress beautiful clothes and meet a new year. On the 1st
of January people get presents. They are under the Christmas
tree.
3. ... is celebrated on May 9. Flowers are laid on wartime
graves, veterans come out into the streets wearing their mili
tary orders and medals. Parades are oraganized on this day.
4. One of the most admirable holidays is ... . People see
off winter. It is celebrated during the last week before the
Unit 9. Cultural traditions of Russia 209

Lent. ... is celebrated during the whole week: noisy, reckless,


funny. During this time people visit their friends, bake pan
cakes. Each day of the week is celebrated. On Monday people
meet the pancake week. On Tuesday there are folk tunes. On
Wednesday all people are invited to taste pancakes during
the fair. On Thursday people usually sledge. On Friday there
is an entertainment. On Saturday there are organized meet
ings on the squares. Sunday is called “the day of pardon”.
There are Carnival feasts with indispensable pancakes, to
bogganing, riding on threes. The carnival is attended by people
of all ages, but especially the main role is played by children.
Once upon a time kids were sent with pancakes when they
jumped on horseback and shouted: Goodbye, winter snotty!
Come, summer red! Plow, harrow! I’m going to plow! Finally,
on the last day of the festival children sometimes ran through
the village from house to house and demand pancakes for spe
cial songs. They showed the hostess doll Pancake, which prom
ised harvest.

III. Read the text and title each paragraph.

IV. Read the text again and translate the third passage.

V. Read the text again and give a summary.


Krasnodar Krai is recognized as one of the largest cul
tural centers of Russia. The regional target program “Cul
ture of Kuban” is developed and is successfully realized. Much
attention in the Program is paid to support activity of cul
tural institutions, arts and cinematographies, to technical
and technological equipment of the state organizations of
culture, commemoration of memorials, cinematography de
velopment. In Krasnodar Krai there are musical schools and
colleges, art and choreographic schools, school of arts and
culture colleges. Pupils and students of educational institu
tions of culture and art are scholars of Federal agency on
culture and cinematography of the Ministry of Culture of the
Russian Federation.
Every year about four hundred holidays, festivals, fo
rums are spent: Cultural actions “The Moscow Art Theatre in
210 Английский язык для музыкантов

Kuban”, the festivals “Kuban Musical Spring”, “Golden


Apple”, “Kinotavr”, “Kinoshok”, “The Singing Russia”, a
festival of Slavic culture, “The Kuban Open Spaces”, “The
Southern Stars of Kuban”, “The Kuban Kazachok”, “Blue
Eyed Anapa”. As you know, Sochi was the capital of the
Winter Olympic Games of 2014. It was the greatest event of
Kuban culture.
Annually theaters carry out 30–35 new statements. The
Krasnodar State Academic Drama Theater was founded in
January 1920 as “the first Soviet drama theater named after
Lunacharsky”. Originally it settled down in the building of
Winter Theatre (nowadays the Krasnodar Philharmonic hall)
since — in the new building on the square of October Revolu
tion with big and chamber halls. In 1980 the theater was
awarded the awards of the Red Banner. In repertoire of the
Krasnodar Ballet Theater of Yury Grigorovich there are 14 per
formances of Russian and world musical classics. The theater
participates in festivals of arts of Europe, America, the coun
tries of Asia. The first mention of the Krasnodar Regional
Puppet Theater belongs to April 1939. In the spirit of the
times it was called as “The Krasnodar traveling collective
farm and statefarm puppet theater”. S. Marshak stood at the
origins of creation of the first theater in Kuban for children.
Among the concert organizations there is the State Academic
Kuban Cossack chorus. The collective became the winner of
the AllRussian competitions of the state national choruses
twice, the winner of numerous international competitions and
festivals. It was awarded with the order Friendship of the
People, the State award of T. G. Shevchenko of the Republic of
the Ukraine.
The Krasnodar philharmonic hall was created on May 10,
1939. Such masters of the arts appeared on the stage of the
Krasnodar philharmonic hall as Lyudmila Zykina, Iosif Kobzon,
Boris Shtokolov, Zurab Sotkilava, Nikolai Petrov, Anna Ne
trebko, Valery Gergiev. Today the Krasnodar philharmonic hall
is one of the largest concert organizations in the South of
Russia, possessing rich creative potential, and enriched with
achievements of modern concert practice, carries on the best
traditions of the Russian philharmonic business.
Unit 9. Cultural traditions of Russia 211

CULTURE OF ROSTOV REGION

I. Read the text bellow and answer the following ques


tions.
Our region is rich in cultural traditions. There are many
outstanding figures in literature, art, science and technology,
medicine whose life and work were associated with Rostov and
Taganrog, Azov and Novocherkassk, Cherkassk and some other
cities and towns in the Don region. Here Mussorgsky gave
concerts, and the great Russian actor Mikhail Shchepkin
played, the writers Vera Panova, Mikhail Sholokhov created
their best works. Among honored Rostovites are an outstand
ing Russian doctor N. Bogoraz, a great sculptor Ye. Vuchetich,
an Armenian writer M. Nalbandian, a composer M. Gnesin, a
radio inventor A. Popov and a physiologist I. Pavlov, a gallant
ataman of Don cossacks S. Razin.
The history of our city and some other towns of our region
can be traced in the names of its avenues and squares, in its
monuments and streets. One of the streets in Rostov is named
after Anton Chekhov, a famous Russian writer, he was famous
not only in our region. We are proud that his life is closely
connected with our region. Chekhov was born in Taganrog on
the sea of Azov in 1860. In 1887 after graduating from Mos
cow University Chekhov came back to Taganrog. The journey
about our native Don region gave him the material for writing
the story “The Steppe”. At the age of 44 he died. Chekhov’s
work is immortal. On his initiative there was erected a monu
ment to Peter the Great on a high steep shore of the sea of
Azov in Taganrog. Many places in Taganrog are connected
with the name of an outstanding Russian writer A. P. Chekhov
among them the Chekhov memorial museum — a small house,
where in 1860 he was born. The Chekhov literary museum was
founded in the 30’s. The Taganrog Drama Theatre was given
the name of Chekhov in 1944.
Nikolai Bogoraz is a pride of Russian medicine. Bogoraz
was born in Taganrog but educated at St. Petersburg military
academy of medicine. He worked in Rostov more than 28 years
and has operated hundreds of people brilliantly. This coura
geous doctor wrote numerous scientific works and was the
212 Английский язык для музыкантов

first who offered and inculcated into medical practice the new
method of treatment of the stomach ulcer. He lived long and
happy life and died in 1952.
The names of Alexander Popov and Ivan Pavlov are asso
ciated with Rostov too. In 1901 the great Russian scientist, an
inventor of Radio, A. Popov worked in our river port. In order
of deepening the Don delta Popov was invited to Rostov to
build the civil radio stations in the port. These radio stations
played a great role for the river traffic, giving the informa
tion about the level of water in the river. The radio stations
facilitated the normal work of the Rostov port, which became
a major trading centre at the end of the 19th and the beginning
of the 20th century. The great Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov
lived in Rostov in 1881 and 1887.
Vera Panova, a famous Russian writer, was born in
Rostov in 1905. Her books are wellknown not only in Rostov
region but also all over the country. She depicted the life of
our countrymen and their original speech in her books. She
began her literary career just in Rostov, working with
Pogodin and A. Fadyeev. Her main and favourite occupa
tion has become journalism for many years. For 17 years
Vera Panova has worked in the editorial board of the news
paper “Trudovoi Don”.
Rostov has the partnership relations with many countries.
The partner relations between Rostov and 8 cities abroad be
gan in 1950’s and are developing till the present day. The first
partnership between Greek town Volos and Rostov began in
1955 in connection with the earthquake in Volos, our authori
ties came to the aid of the people affected by the disaster. The
authorities of Volos expressed the gratitude for the aid and
expressed their desire to fasten friendly relations between
our cities. One of the streets in Rostov was named after Volos
and one of the streets in Volos was named after Rostov. There
are close relations between Rostov and the American city
Mobil. These relations began in 1986 when the American
Mobil writer visited Rostov. It was exactly he, who expressed
the idea of the partnership of Rostov and Mobil. Every year
delegations from Mobil visit our city. The warmest friend
ship connects Rostovites with the Bulgarian city Pleven. Del
Unit 9. Cultural traditions of Russia 213

egations of twin cities visit each other every year. There is


Pleven square and Pleven park in Zapadny district of Rostov.
Partner relations between Rostov and Dortmund were estab
lished in 1977. Our chamber choir and folk ensemble “Kalinka”
took part in the days of Dortmund in Rostov. Many complex
activities were held in 1987, among them a TVbridge between
two cities, which has become the first in the history between
Russia and Germany. In 1984 during the days of Dortmund in
Rostov there was opened a square named after our partner
Dortmund. In 1981 the delegation from Le Man, the French
city, visited Rostov.
According to the cultural life of our region, it must be
mentioned about cultural exchanges. Cultural exchanges be
tween our country and foreign states are wide and fruitful.
These connections make a large contribution to greater under
standing and trust among nations. The days of Polish, Ruma
nian, Indian, Korean, French culture are regularly held in our
country. We want to see vast cultural exchanges among artists
and film makers, musicians and actors of all countries, which
stand for the ideas of peace and progress. One of the examples
of Cultural Exchanges took place in November 2007 at the
Conservatoire. The name of the conference was “Music and
Musician of the Changing Postsoviet Area”. The Conference
lasted for 7 days. The guests from the Ukraine, Russia, Ger
many, took part in the conference. They made the reports and
shared opinions in questions on the problem on contemporary
musicology. The professors of the Conservatoire took part in
the Conference. The Conference was devoted to the fortieth
anniversary of the Conservatoire. The festival was also held.
The concerts were almost every evening at the Conservatoire,
the Philarmonia and Rostov State Musical Theatre. The stu
dents and the professors of the Conservatoire as well as the
guests from Russia and different countries took part in the
festival. The Scottish delegation came to Rostov to take part
in the festival. They were the students and the professors of
the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama. They took
part in the final concert numbering in a students’ symphony
orchestra and the professors of the Academy gave the master
classes in tuba playing and opera singing. The cooperation
214 Английский язык для музыкантов

between RCAMD and the Conservatoire will develop, involv


ing Scottish opera and Rostov State Musical Theatre.

I. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. Our region is rich in cultural traditions, isn’t it?
2. What outstanding figures in literature, art, science and
technology, medicine life and work in the Don region do you know?
3. Where was a monument to Peter the Great erected?
4. What is Nikolai Bogoraz?
5. What role for the river traffic played Popov’s radio
station?
6. Did Vera Panova begin her literary career in Rostov or
Taganrog?
7. Rostov hasn’t the partnership relations with many coun
tries, has it?
8. When were partner relations between Rostov and Dort
mund established?
9. Cultural exchanges between our country and foreign
states are wide and fruitful, aren’t they?
10. Where were the concerts held in Rostov?

II. Read the text again and title each passage.

III. Look at the pictures and match them with the cities
mentioned in the text.
Unit 9. Cultural traditions of Russia 215

IV. Put 5 alternative questions to the text.

V. Find all the examples of Passive Voice in the text.


216 Английский язык для музыкантов

VI. Read the text. Name all outstanding figures men


tioned in the text.
1. She was a Russian Soviet writer, a winner of three Stalin
Prizes.This writer was born on the 7 (20)th March 1905 in
RostovonDon. When her daughter was six years old, her
father Fyodor was drowned in the Don. At the beginning of
1920 at the age of seventeen the writer worked as the editor of
the newspaper of Rostov “Trudovoi Don”. Journalism for many
years became her main profession. In the years of 1926–1927
she led a regular department feuilleton in the newspaper “So
viet South”. Short, witty, just hitting and target articles and
notes, signed by a pseudonym Vera Veltman, appeared. In
pursuit of bureaucrats, bureaucrats and petty tyrants, syco
phants, selfrighteous middle class, she was able to find a
specific, precise strokes, suddenly grasping nature. She had a
close interest to children’s editions of Rostov — the newspa
per “Lenin’s Grandchildren” in the magazines “Bonfire” and
“Horn”. In 1937 she left Rostov. Together with the children and
her mother for a few years she lived in the Ukraine in the village
Shishaki, Poltava region. Then she travelled to Leningrad and
Moscow in search of literary fame. Before the war, two of her
plays — “Elijah Kosogor” (1939) and “In the old Moscow”
(1940) were awarded prizes at national competitions of play
wrights. She walked over to his chief literary intentions, gath
ering experience and knowledge for writing. Molotov com
pleted the first major works writteh by her: the first edition of
the novel “Evdokia” (“Family Pyrozhkov”, 1944), the novel
“Satellites” (1946), the play “Snowstorm” (“Prisoners of War”,
1942). Already a wellknown writer, in 1946 she moved to
Leningrad. There were her decades of intense, rich work and
active participation in social and literary life of the country.
The writer died on March 3, 1973 and was buried in the cem
etery in Komarovo near Leningrad.
2. The Russian actor, one of the founders of the Russian
school of acting was born November 6 (17), 1788. From 1799
to 1801 he studied at the Shchepkin Sudzhansky national
school. During his studies in 1800 he played his first role in a
comedy. In the years of 1801–1802 he played at a home theater
of Count Wolkenstein. While studying in Kursk at folk school
Unit 9. Cultural traditions of Russia 217

(1801 to 1803), he was a prompter in Kursk City Theater and


rewrote the lyrics of roles for actors. In 1805 he played into
the professional scene in the role of Andrew, a postman. In
1816, the troupe played in Kharkiv (southwest Russian
Empire). In 1818 he became a theater actor in Poltava, the
head of which was a writer Kotlyarevsky, and took a leading
position in the company. For him Kotlyarevsky wrote the
role in the play “Natalka Poltavka” and “Moskalcharmer”.
After the collapse of the theater in 1821 he had to return to
the company, acting in the Tula Theater. In the provincial
theaters the actor had to fulfill a variety of roles, including
women Erem in the greenhorns “D. I. Fonvizin”, “Baba Yaga”
in a comic opera of the same name, in the productions of
various genres. The greatest success brought him everyday
and lyrical comedy roles, including the role of a “crossdress
ing”, requiring external and internal transformations. He
had a comic repertoire in the 1830’s, when at the Maly The
ater put “Woe from Wit” by Alexander Griboyedov and “The
Government Inspector” by Nikolai Gogol. They create multi
faceted actor, convex images Famusov and the Mayor. This
famous actor was a friend of Alexander Ostrovsky, Alexander
Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Alexander Herzen, N. A. Nekrasov,
T. N. Granovsky, V. G. Belinsky, I. S. Turgenev. Especially for
the actor Belinsky wrote the play “Fiftyyearold Uncle, or a
Strange Disease”, Turgenev — play “Freeloader” and Moshkina
role in the play “The Bachelor”, A. I. Herzen, T. N. Granovsky
and E. F. Korsch translate for him the play by F. Messinger
“The New Way to Pay Old Debts”, N. J. Ketcher — “Henry IV”
and “Comedy of Errors” by Shakespeare.
3. The Russian physicist and a Professor, an inventor, a
State Councilor (1901), Honorary electrical engineer was born
on March 4, 1859. At the age of 10 he was sent to Dalmatovskoye
religious school where his elder brother Raphael taught Latin,
and he studied from 1869 to 1871 years there. In 1873 he
entered the seminary in Perm. After graduating from general
education classes of Perm Theological Seminary (1877), a young
man successfully passed the entrance examinations for the
Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St. Petersburg Univer
sity. Years of teaching at the university were not easy to him.
218 Английский язык для музыкантов

Funds were not enough, and he was forced to look for jobs as
an electrician in the office, “Electrical Engineering”. During
these years a young scientist was attracted with more experi
mental research in the field of electricity, and he worked as
a teacher of physics, mathematics and electrical engineering
in Kronstadt, where there was a wellequipped physics labo
ratory. In 1890 he received an invitation to a teaching posi
tion in Technical Physics. During this period all his free time
was dedicated to physical experiments, mainly the study of
electromagnetic waves. In 1899 he was awarded the title of
Honorary Electrical Engineer. Since 1901 he became a Pro
fessor of the Electrical Engineering Institute. This famous
person died suddenly on December 31, on May 7 of 1945 be
came a Day of Radio. In 1995, UNESCO held on this day a
solemn meeting dedicated to the centennial of the invention
of radio.

VII. Read the text again and complete the sentences.


1. Our region ... traditions.
2. There are many outstanding figures in literature, art,
science and technology, medicine whose life and work were
associated with Rostov and ... in the Don region.
3. ... city and some other towns of our region can be traced
in the names of its avenues and squares, in its monuments and
streets.
4. One of the streets in Rostov is named after ... , he was
famous not only in our region.
5. ... Chekhov came back to Taganrog and was depressed
by the spiritual poverty of the narrowminded people.
6. Many places in Taganrog are connected with the name
of an outstanding ... among them the Chekhov memorial mu
seum — a small house, where in 1860 Chekhov was born.
7. ... is a pride of Russian medicine.
8. He has worked in Rostov for 28 years and has operated
hundreds of ...
9. The warmest friendship connects Rostovites with the ...
10. Many complex activities were held in 1987, among them
a TVbridge between two cities, ... in the history between Russia
and Germany.
Unit 9. Cultural traditions of Russia 219

VIII. Look at the pictures and name the famous figures


on them.

IX. Look at the pictures and describe one of them.

X. Read the texts and say a new material about the fa
mous figures.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov is an outstanding Russian
writer, a recognized classic of world literature, a doctor by
profession, an Honorary member of the Imperial Academy of
Sciences (1900–1902). He was one of the most famous play
wrights in the world. His works have been translated into
more than 100 languages. His plays “The Seagull”, “Three
Sisters” and “The Cherry Orchard” for over a hundred years
were staged in many theaters of the world. At high school he
received his first literary nickname “Chekhonte”. In 1879 he
finished the gymnasium in Taganrog and moved to Moscow,
220 Английский язык для музыкантов

entering the Medical Faculty of the Moscow University. Since


1882 he had already helped physicians at the hospital admis
sion of patients. In 1884 Chekhov completed a course in the
University and began working as the district doctor. In De
cember of 1879, as a firstyear student, Chekhov wrote “Drag
onfly”. It was his debut in printing. Chekhov wrote short sto
ries, satires, humorous pieces. In 1882 Chekhov produced the
first collection of short stories. In 1884 he published a collec
tion of his short stories — “Tales of Melpomene” (signed
A. Chekhonte). During 1885–1886 years he was the author of
short, mostly humorous stories. At that time he wrote the story
a day. In the spring of 1886 he received a letter from the famous
Russian writer Dmitri Grigorovich, where he criticized Chekhov
for the fact that he spent his talent on “melochishki”. From
1890 to 1892, having returned to Moscow from a trip around
Sakhalin, Chekhov worked on the book “Sakhalin Island”, sto
ries “The Grasshopper”, “Duel”, “Room Number 6”, and also
met with writers V. G. Korolenko, D. V. Grigorovich, V. Gilya
rovsky, P. Boborykin, D. S. Merezhkovsky, V. I. Nemirovich
Danchenko, famous actors A. P. Lenski and A. I. Yuzhin, an
artist I. Levitan.
Later the writer travelled extensively in Europe. Chekhov
lived in his own house near Yalta only some years. His wife,
the actress Olga Knipper, formed in 1898 Moscow Art Theater
named after Stanislavsky. During the first elections to the
Academy of Sciences Department of Pushkin in 1900, Chekhov
was elected to the list of his academics. In 1904 Chekhov went
to a resort in Germany. Because of the sharp exacerbation of
the disease with which he was unable to cope, the writer died
on July 2 (15), 1904 in Badenweiler, Germany.
Mikhail Sholokhov was born May 11, 1905 in Vyoshen
skaya in Rostov region. In 1910 the family left the farm
Kruzhilin. In 1914 a boy studied one year in Moscow gymna
sium. From 1915 to 1918 Mikhail was at high school in
Voronezh. In 1920 the family moved to the village Karginskaya,
where Mikhail became the clerk of the Village of the Revolu
tionary Committee. In 1920–1921, he lived with his family in
the village Karghinskaya. On August 31, 1922 M. A. Sholokhov
was arrested and was in the town under investigation. He was
Unit 9. Cultural traditions of Russia 221

given one year of hard labor in prison for juveniles and sent
to Bolshevo (near Moscow). Later he worked as a loader, a
worker. Sholokhov took part in the work of the literary group
“The Young Guard”. His last days he lived in his house in
Vyoshenskaya (today a museum). He was fond of hunting and
fishing.

XI. Read the text and say about Cossack’s Customs and
Traditions, using the following words: customs and tradi
tions, an arrow, rode horseback, shot from the bow, marched
outside the town, a general battle, to elect the Army Ataman.

COSSACK’S CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS


Here are some Cossack’s customs and traditions. Cossacks
were very inventive. It seemed they could survive anywhere.
As soon as a Cossack was born, an arrow was put “on his
tooth”. On the seventh day a baby was baptized, and on the 40th
day he was clothed into a little mail and a little saber was
hitched to his side, after which his father returned him back
to his mother with the words “here is a Cossack to you”. When
a baby had his teeth cut through, he was brought to the church
on horseback. Three year children already rode horseback in
the yard, and five year ones raced on horseback in the streets,
shot from the bow and “played war”. At times all the kids of
Cherkassk marched outside the town, separated there into two
equal groups and conducted a general battle. The art of horse
riding and sharp shooting, adroitness and coordination of ac
tions were transferred from father to son. In spring Don Cos
sacks usually gathered in their main town Cherkassk to elect
the Army Ataman and his deputies.
U N I T 10
ROSTOVONDON
IS THE CULTURAL CENTER
OF THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA
RostovonDon is a port city and the administrative center
of Rostov State and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
It lies on the Don River, 32 kilometers (20 miles) from the Sea
of Azov.
Rostov was founded in 1749 as a customs house by edict
of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in
order to control trade with Turkey. 12 years later a fortress
named after St. D. Rostovsky was built on the right bank of
the Don River. The fortress was of great strategic impor
tance during RussianTurkish wars. It was never seized by
the enemy. Some years later the fortress lost its strategic
importance but it gave the name to the city, Rostov got its
official name on the 29th of August 1797. Thanks to its good
geographical position the city grew rapidly. In the 19th cen
tury the Rostov port became the major exporter of Russian
grain. By the end of the 19th century the city had become a
centre of castironfoundry, cellulose and tobacco industries.
After the construction of the railway which linked Rostov
with the major industrial centres of Russia, the Ukraine and
the Caucasus, Rostov turned into the major industrial centre
in the South of the country.
In 1779, a new settlement appeared not far from the place
where the fortress was. It was an Armenian town Nakhichevan.
Two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928,
two towns were combined. The former town seaborder was
beneath the Teatralnaya Square, the central square of Rostov
onDon nowadays.
Unit 10. Rostov,on,Don is the cultural center of the South of Russia 223

During the World War II German forces occupied Rostov


onDon twice. The town had a strategic importance as a rail
way junction and a river port. With the construction of the
VolgaDon Ship Canal in 1952, RostovonDon became a port
of five seas: the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea,
the White Sea, and the Baltic Sea.
Nowadays, RostovonDon has the experienced economic
growth. Numerous startup companies have established head
quarters in the city. The city is being transformed into a mod
ern, industrial and technologyrich hub. For instance, Rostov
onDon is a center for helicopter and farm machinery manu
facturing. RostovonDon is a major transport center. It is
often called the “gateway to the Caucasus”. The Rostov Metro
is under development.
Rostov’s streets are wide and treelined. The main street is
Bolshaya Sadovaya, where there are a lot of offices, cinemas,
hotels, shops. There are many squares and green parks in
Rostov. Rostov has greately improved in appearance. Many
new tall buildings have been built there. Rostov is a scientific
and cultural centre in the South of our country. There are
many universities and institutes,
some research institutes, over 120
schools and many colleges.
Our region has an emblem. The
Emblem of the Don region was in
troduced in July 1878. The flag of
the AllGreat Don Army was in
troduced in May 1918 on the “Circ The Emblem
of the Don region
le of the Don Saving”. Its three
lengthwise stripes of blue, yellow and red of equal width rep
resent three indigenous populations of the Don region: the
Don Cossacks (blue), Kalmyks (yellow) and the Russian peas
ants (red).
The most conspicuous architectural feature of the central
part is the Cathedral of Virgin’s Nativity (1850–1860), de
signed by Konstantin Thon. There are four theatres in Rostov.
The Puppet Theatre, the Musical Theatre, the Young Specta
tors’ Theatre, the Drama Theatre named afer M. Gorky, where
M. Bushnow, the national artist of the former USSR, worked.
224 Английский язык для музыкантов

The small collections of the Art Gallery and the Museum of


Arts include some works by Repin, Surikov, Perov, Levitan,
Aivazovsky as well as of modern Rostov artists. There are also
seven stadiums, the Palace of Sports, the Circus, the Zoo, the
Botanical garden and a lot of parks in RostovonDon.
According to the cultural life of our city, we can name
the authors of Rostov region: Anton Chekhov, Mikhail
Sholokhov, Vitaly Zakrutkin, etc. After visiting Rostov in
1831, Pushkin published his poem “The Don”. The monu
ment to Pushkin on Pushkin Boulevard is dedicated to these
events. Maxim Gorky worked as a docker in RostovonDon
port in his youth. Vera Panova (1905–1973) was a writer of
the Soviet era.
One of the favorite place to have a rest is our embankment
with a modern fountain on it. All Rostovites spend a lot of
time during holidays, on weekend. Our citizens are very proud
of their city and invite everybody to the Southern capital of
Russia. Welcome to RostovonDon!

I. Read the text and answer the following questions.


1. When was a fortress named after St. D. Rostovsky built?
2. What sea is the nearest to the city?
3. How many colors are in the Emblem of Don region and
what are they?
4. Which of the most famous figures of Rostov do you
know?
5. What is the name of the main street of Rostov?
6. Which seas are the waterways of Rostov?
7. What are the most important industries in Rostov?

II. Read the text again and find equivalent sentences.


1. Крепость имела большое стратегическое значение
после русскотурецких войн.
2. После посещения Ростова Пушкин опубликовал по
эму «Дон».
3. Ростов превратился в важнейший индустриальный
центр юга страны.
4. Одно из любимых мест отдыха — набережная с фон
таном.
Unit 10. Rostov,on,Don is the cultural center of the South of Russia 225

5. Наш регион имеет эмблему.


6. Небольшие коллекции Художественной галереи и
Музея искусств содержат работы Репина, Сурикова и пр.
7. Ростовские улицы хорошо озеленены.
8. Ростов — это важный транспортный центр.
9. В 1779 году, неподалеку от места, где была крепость,
возникло новое поселение.
10. В XIX веке ростовский порт стал важнейшим экс
портером росийского зерна.

III. Name all the sights in the pictures. Describe one of


them.
226 Английский язык для музыкантов

IV. Write a letter to your penfriend about one of the


sights. Use the following words.
Dear friend!
I’m writing to enquire ...
One of the best plays I have ever seen is ...
The program included such compositions as ...
The play was a great success, because ...
As for me, ...
In my opinion, ...
Moreover, ...
However, ...
What is more, ...
For example, ...
I would like to know ...
Could you also ...
I look forward to hearing from you ...
Yours sincerely ...

V. Read the following text about one of the sights. Name it.
It’s a very interesting memorial complex, which dates back
to the 80’s years of the 18th century. At that time there was a
monastery which played a great role in the enlightenment of
the Armenian population of the Don region and in strengthen
ing of the RussianArmenian connections. In 1790 the print
ing house was opened on the territory of the monastery and it
was an event not only in the life of the Armenians but the
Russians as well. Nowadays it is a church and the Museum of
RussianArmenian Friendship.

THE ROSTOV DRAMA THEATRE

The first theatre in Rostov made of stone, was built by


Asmolov in 1883 on Taganrogsky Avenue (Budenovsky), not
far from the present day House of Officers.
The construction of the Rostov Theatre of Drama was an
outstanding event in the cultural life of our city. It was
built in 1934–1935 on the waste land separating Rostov and
Nakhichevan.The design of the theatre building was drawn
up by wellknown Soviet architects. The majestic building
Unit 10. Rostov,on,Don is the cultural center of the South of Russia 227

was created out of metal, concrete and glass in the form of a


tractor and impressed everybody with its beauty and grandi
osity. The super edifice is set off by the picturesque greenery
of Theatre Square. At the time it was built, it was the largest
Theatre in Europe. It is recognized in all the architecture
books of the world as one of the greatest architectural styles
of the 30’s.
The Theatre opened its doors in November of 1935. The
first performance staged at the Theatre was “The Optimistic
Tragedy” by Vs. Vishnevsky. It was produced by A. Tairov.
Many outstanding actors of the Soviet Theatre and Cinema
worked on the stage of our Drama Theatre in the 30’s. It is
here that the Rostovites applauded to the art of M. Shchepkin
and V. Maretskaya, N. Mordvinov, P. Loboda, and G. Leondor.
The audience watched the creative work of the producers
N. Sinelnikov, A. Tairov, and Yu. Zavadsky.
Nowadays there are a lot of new plays on the stage of the
theatre. The repertoire of the modern Theatre of Drama in
cludes plays by Russian and foreign playwriters. You can see
as modern performances as classical ones.The play of the ac
tors is wonderful. Every year the theatre celebrates its new
theatrical season.

THE PUPPET THEATRE

On a quiet university bystreet, there is a small building


containing the Puppet Theatre. We are proud of it because it
gives enjoyment to our children and teenagers. At the end of
the 1920’s, a group of puppet actors performed at the theatre
for the young audience. The actors enjoyed considerable popu
larity with the audience and in 1938 the Theatre became inde
pendent. The first performance staged at the Theatre was a
“Brave Tailor”, by Brothers Grimm.
The repertoire of the Theatre includes works by A. Push
kin, L. Tolstoy, M. SaltykovShchedrin, Charles Perrault
and others. The tradition of the Theatre is to find a way to
entertain the audience of different ages. The Theatre stages
performances for children telling about the main values of
life. The Theatre pays attention to the soul of a child to
228 Английский язык для музыкантов

bring a sensivity from the child to all the living things on


the Earth. The Puppet Theatre is closely connected with
Pleven Puppet Theatre and Studio of the Higher Institute
of the Theatre Art in Sofia, Bulguria. In 2013 the theatre
marked its 75th anniversary.

THE YOUTH THEATRE

The Youth Theatre is located in that part of Rostov which


belonged to the town of Nakhichevan in the 19th century. It
was built in 1889 by the architect N. N. Durbakh as the Rostov
Young Spectators’ Theatre.
In 1885 the Society of Dramatic Art Lovers addressed the
town Duma with the request to build such a theatre. The first
performance in the new theatre was by Leo Tolstoy. The lead
ing parts were played by actors Sinelnikov, BlumentalTama
rin, Petrovsky and others. The Theatre was built with great
love, with a splendid hall, with super acoustics, which gave the
audience the opportunity to see the stage from different parts
of the hall. The Gala rooms and corridors were adorned with
double bronze candle sticks. Later the curtain and the scenery
were decorated with the paintings of Don artist J. J. Kruglov.
He also painted the portraits of W. Shakespare, N. Gogol,
A. Ostrovsky, G. Verdi, M. I. Glinka, P. I. Tchaikovsky on the
walls of the foyer. The facade of the Theatre was built in the
Renaissance style.
Our theatre is comparatively young, of course, as it opened
its doors on Febrary 23, 1964. The first performance “Chapa
lyonok” was staged by the former producer of the prewar
theatre J. Gab. The performance was very sincere and lively.
In 1985 the chief manager of the Theatre became V. Chigishev,
a young and talented producer. He staged many preformances
for youth and the greatest success was the rockdrama “Dogs”.
In 1989 “Dogs” was shown to French and German spectators at
the International Festival and enjoyed considerable popular
ity. For 30 years of its existence, the Theatre has staged more
than 170 performances. The group concists of 30 actors gradu
ated from the best theatre schools in the country.
Unit 10. Rostov,on,Don is the cultural center of the South of Russia 229

The Youth Theatre is often touring over the country and


participates in the international festivals in France, Germany,
Mexico, Poland and Turkey. In 1993 the Theatre organaized
the Rostov International Manifest Festival to which the most
outstanding performances of different countries of the world
were invited. The theatrical forums were held in Rostov in
1989 and 1991. The Theatre has several musical plays, com
edies, psychological dramas and fairytale productions in its
repertoire.

THE ROSTOV STATE MUSICAL THEATRE

The Rostov State Musical Theatre was originally founded


in 1930 as an operetta company. It has changed its resi
dence and now is situated in the very centre of the city in
Bolshaya Sadovaya Street. Nowadays it is a wellequipped
opera house in the South of Russia, and its white marble,
grandpiano shaped building is a home to young opera and
ballet companies. It is a repertoire theatre. It means that its
resident company presents works from a specified reper
toire, usually in rotation. The opera and ballet company
specializes in classics of Russian and foreign composers.
Among the most famous repertoire works are operas “Ma
dame Butterfly” by Puccini, “Carmen” by Bizet, “The Bride”
by RimskyKorsakov, “Eugene Onegin” by Tchaikovsky,
“Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District” by Shostakovich,
“La Traviata” by Verdi, and ballets “Giselle” by Adam, “The
Nutcracker” and “Swan Lake” by Tchaikovsky, “Hamlet” to
music by Dmitri Shostakovich, etc. It was nominated for
the Russian theatre festival “The Golden Mask” more than
once. The Rostov State Musical Theatre is admired by both
Rostovites and guests of the city.

I. Answer the following questions, using the information


from the texts.
1. When was the first theatre built in Rostov?
2. How many theatres are there in our city?
3. When was the Drama Theatre built?
230 Английский язык для музыкантов

4. When was the performance staged in the theatre of


Young Spectators’?
5. When was the Musical Theatre opened?
6. What was the first performance staged at the Puppet
Theatre?
7. Where is the Puppet Theatre situated?
8. Do you know any talented actors from Rostov Theatres?

II. Work in pairs. Put 5 special questions according to


the texts.

III. Read the texts again and complete the sentences.


1. ... made of stone, was built by Asmolov in 1883 on
Taganrogsky Avenue.
2. It was built in 1934–1935 on the ... Rostov and Na
khichevan.
3. The majestic building was created out of metal, con
crete and glass in the form of a tractor and impressed ...
4. ... it was the largest Theatre in Europe.
5. It is here that the Rostovites applauded to ...
6. These performances were staged by producers ... and
brought in new methodics and styles.
7. ... is to find a way to entertain an audience of different
ages.
8. ... is located in that part of Rostov which belonged to the
town of Nakhichevan in the 19th century.

IV. Read the sentences and say whether they are true or
false. Use the following words: I agree, I don’t agree, it seems
to me, I think, it is quite right.
1. Our Drama Theatre is older than the Young Spectators’
Theatre.
2. All the theatres of Rostov are situated on the territory
of Nakhichevan.
3. Most of the actors of the Drama Theatre came to it after
the Young Spectators’ Theatre.
4. The buildings of the Drama Theatre, the Youth Theatre
and the Puppet are built in the same style.
Unit 10. Rostov,on,Don is the cultural center of the South of Russia 231

5. The building of the Youth Theatre has a great architec


tural value.
6. The producer and manager of the Youth Theatre is
J. Gab.
7. The Drama Theatre organized the International Mani
fest Festival in 1993.
8. The Puppet Theatre shows only plays for little children.
9. The Puppet Theatre is supervised by V. Chigishev.
10. It is connected with Pleven Puppet Theatre.

V. Write a letter to your friend. Use the information


from the text.

A VISIT ТО THE THEATRE

Last night I went to the theatre with my girlfriend. It


was difficult tо buy tickets because there was a long queue
at the boxoffice. But we were lucky. We got the tickets
15 minutes before the show began. We went in, left our
coats in the cloakroom and entered the hall. The house was
packed. We took our seats in the 16th row. During the
interval I went to the buffet and bought some chocolate for
my companion. The play made a great impression on both
of us. After the performance I saw my friend home. It was
late when I came back home. I went to bed after midnight.
This morning I woke up late and ran to the institute without
breakfast.

VI. Read and translate the text.

VII. Read the text again and give a summary.

ABOUT “CARMEN” PERFORMANCE

Yesterday I visited the Rostov State Musical Theatre. It


was an evening performance of the most famous Bizet’s opera
“Carmen”. We bought two tickets beforehand, our seats were
on the ground floor.
232 Английский язык для музыкантов

We came to the theatre before the beginning of the perfor


mance. As soon as we entered the theatre we left our coats in
the cloakroom and asked the usher where our seats were.
When we came into the hall the orchestra was tuning the
instruments. The pit, the stalls, the dresscircle and the gal
lery were full of people. As usual, the most expensive seats are
in the stalls, the boxes and the circles. And the cheapest ones
are in the gallery. I was amazed that there were no boxes in our
theatre. The seats on the ground floor of that auditorium were
separated from the stage by the orchestrapit.
When three bells rang the spectators took their seats and
the lights went down. The conductor appeared and the over
ture began. And we were all ears. After the overture the cur
tain went up. We forgot about everything around us — it was
only music that existed there. We took delight at listening to
charming sounds of the voices and instruments. The specta
tors were excited with the opera, because the singers acted
true to life and sang very well. We enjoyed the famous “Flower
Song”, “Toreador’s Song”, “Habanera” and other amazing and
expressive music. And certainly the scenery should be men
tioned. The sets were beautiful, unusual, superb, and even
luxurious. They showed the square near the factory in the
first act, an inn in the second one, mountains in the third and
the square of Seville on the day of the bull fight in the forth
act. We were also surprised when a real donkey went on the
stage in the third act. I was afraid that there would be an ox in
the forth one, but there wasn’t an ox, there was only a horse.
Escamillo was riding a horse while singing his area.
When the curtain fell the house burst into applause. Dur
ing the interval we went to the foyer and discussed the acting.
Some of the spectators went to the refreshment room to drink
a cup of tea or coffee. At the end of the performance the
singers got many curtain calls and where presented with flow
ers. The performance was a great success with the public. And
I think I will never forget that evening, because I listened to
the greatest opera in a superb performance.

VIII. Look at the picture and make a report about the


theater.
Unit 10. Rostov,on,Don is the cultural center of the South of Russia 233
U N I T 11
GREAT BRITAIN AS ONE
OF THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
WITH ITS CULTURAL TRADITIONS

Britain is the largest island in Europe. It consists of En


gland, Scotland and Wales. The smaller island is called Ire
land.
Many centuries ago England, Wales, Scotland and Ire
land were separate kingdoms. Wales was conquered in the
13th century. At the beginning of the 18th century England
and Scotland were united. Ireland continued to struggle for
its selfgovernment. Only after the First World War Southern
Ireland became a republic. Northern Ireland, where many
English people live, forms the part of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The area of the United Kingdom is about 224 thousand
square kilometers, its population is about 65 million. The
climate of Great Britain is rather mild but very damp. There
is much rain and fog in winter. The summers are never very
hot. Spring is the best season in England. The most impor
tant cities and ports in Great Britain are London, Liverpool,
Manchester, Southampton and Glasgow. Water transport is
highly developed in Britain. There are many rivers in the
country but they are not very long. Many rivers are joined
by means of canals, so people can travel by water from one
end of the Island to the other. The rivers in England never
freeze. The largest city and port in Great Britain is London,
the capital of the United Kingdom. Great Britain is an indus
trial country. Shipbuilding, motorbuilding, cottonmanufac
turing and mining are the leading branches of the English
industry.
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 235

Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. The English


government consists of two Houses of Parliament: the House
of Lords and the House of Commons. The head of the country
is the King or the Queen. There are three main political parties
in England now, they are: the Conservative party, the Labour
party (the party in power) and the Liberal party.

I. Read the text and answer the following questions.


1. Britain is the largest island in Europe, isn’t it?
2. What climate is in Great Britain?
3. What are the main political parties in England?
4. Can you name the longest river of Great Britain?
5. Which mineral resources is England rich in?
6. When was the United Kingdom formed?
7. What kind of state is Britain?
8. There are many rivers in the country but they are not
very long, aren’t they?
9. What city is the capital of the United Kingdom?
10. What is the total area of the United Kingdom?

II. Complete the sentences.


1. Only after the First ...
2. ... highly developed in Britain.
3. The climate of Great Britain is ...
4. The summers are ...
5. The head of the country ...
6. The rivers ...
7. Shipbuilding, ... branches of the English industry.
8. Many centuries ago England, Wales, ... were separate
kingdoms.
9. Northern Ireland, ... of Great Britain and Northern Ire
land.
10. The ... is London, the ... United Kingdom.

III. Read the texts and answer the questions.


1. Where did the stones come from?
2. How big are they?
3. What is strange about midsummer’s day?
236 Английский язык для музыкантов

4. When did William build the Tower?


5. Why is the history of the White Tower bloody?
6. Why are the ravens important?
7. How high was Hadrian’s Wall?
8. Why did the Romans build it?
9. What can you visit today?
10. When did Westminster Palace become the English
Parliament?
11. What was the plan in 1605?
12. What do people do on the 5th of November?

1. Stonehenge is a Bronze Age monument from about


2000 BC. The standing stones came from Wales — over 320 ki
lometers away! They stand up to seven meters high in a circle.
About 90 meters away from the circle there is another stone
and on midsummer’s day the sun rises exactly over it. But why
did the ancient Britons build Stonehenge?
2. William the Conqueror began building the Tower of
London after the Norman invasion in 1066. It stands next to
Tower Bridge. The tower in the centre is called the White
Tower. It has got a bloody history. They executed many people
there, including Anne Boleyn, the wife of Henry VIII. Some
ravens live in the Tower. According to the legend, when the
birds escape, the monarchy will end. Today, you can visit the
Tower and see the Crown Jewels.
3. Hadrian’s Wall ran across the north of Britain between
England and Scotland. It was originally five metres high. The
Roman emperor, Hadrian, began the wall in 120 AD to protect
the province of Britannia from the tribes of the North. The
Roman army finally abandoned it in 383 AD. There were many
small castles and towers in the wall and soldiers could send
messages quickly when there was an attack. Today there are
some museums next to the wall — they show things the Ro
mans left behind.
4. The Houses of Parliament are in Westminster of Lon
don. King Canute built a royal palace here in the first half of
the eleventh century and there were meetings of the English
Parliament here from the thirteenth century. In 1605, some
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 237

young Catholic men decided to destroy the Houses of Parlia


ment and kill the Protestant King James I. They got some
gunpowder and put it in a cellar under Westminster Palace.
But the King discovered the plan and on the 5th of November,
he sent some soldiers to the building. They found only one
man, Guy Fawkes, and they executed him. Nowadays in Brit
ain, on the 5th of November, people build bonfires and have
fireworks.

IV. Make up a dialogue, discussing with your friend trav


eling to the UK. Tell him what attractions you would visit.
Ask him about his visiting the UK.

V. Write the names of the parts of the UK.


238 Английский язык для музыкантов

EMBLEMS

VI. Read the texts. Say whether the following sentences


true or false.
1. Holyrood house is a royal palace.
2. The Royal Museum is a science museum.
3. George Street is a good place to buy clothes.
4. Celtic and Rangers are from Edinburgh.
5. You can ski in Edinburgh.
6. Edinburgh has got good nightlife.

1. What old buildings are there?


Edinburgh Castle and Holyrood house Palace are very fa
mous. The palace is closed when the Queen comes to Edinburgh.
2. Is there a good art gallery in Edinburgh?
Yes, there is. The National Gallery of Scotland has got
paintings by El Greco, Titian, Botticelli, Van Dyck, Monet and
Cezanne. There is also the National Gallery of Modern Art.
3. Is there a science museum?
No, there isn’t. But there is an interesting “Science Zone”
in the Royal Museum.
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 239

4. Are there good shops in Edinburgh?


Yes, there are. There are excellent clothes shops in Princes
Street and George Street. Jenners is a famous department
store. There are souvenir shops in the Royal Mile. There are
also two big shopping centres.++
5. How many football teams are there?
There are two football teams, “Hearts” and “Hibs”, but
there aren’t any worldfamous teams. The two famous teams,
“Celtic” and “Rangers”, are from Glasgow.
6. Are there places to swim or ski?
There are sport centres with good swimming pools. There
iisn’t a ski resort near the city but there is an artificial ski slope!
7. What is the nightlife like?
Fantastic! Visit “Rocking Horse” or “Liquid Room” for
brilliant music and dancing. And there is the famous “Edin
burgh Festival”, the cultural event of the year. In August,
Edinburgh is one big party with great music, theatre and
films!

VII. Choose any British city to visit. Add some new ma
terial about it.
Liverpool. The city is the birthplace of “The Beatles” and
the Beatles Museum is worth visiting. There is also a fantastic
modern cathedral. Take a boat trip on the River Mersey.
Salisbury has a beautiful medieval cathedral. It is near
Stonehenge, a huge monument from the Stone Age.
StratforduponAvon is famous as the birthplace of Sha
kespeare. See a play at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre next to
the River Avon.
York is a beautiful old city. Walk around the city walls or
go into the magnificent medieval cathedral. The Railway
Museum and the Viking Museum are great places to visit.
Snowdonia (“Eyri” in Welsh) is a beautiful area of coast
and mountains in North Wales. It is ideal for outdoor activi
ties like sailing, climbing, trekking or canoeing.
The Highlands of Scotland is a wild and romantic area.
Visit the lovely Isle of Skye or go up Britain’s highest moun
tain, Ben Nevis (1344 m). Look for the monster in Loch Ness
or go skiing in the Cairngorm Mountains.
240 Английский язык для музыкантов

Cambridge. This old town is on the River Cam. It is famous


for its old university and there are a lot of beautiful old build
ings, for example, Kings College and Trinity College.

VIII. Match the following sentences with the plot of the


text.
1. Martha doesn’t want to spend her holidays in Italy.
2. Martha lives in a place in central England.
3. In Dorset all seasons of the year are the same.
4. Lyme Regis is a place with a lot of attractions for young
people.
5. Tourists from abroad come to Lyme Regis in summer
only.
6. Martha’s holidays are often quite busy.
7. Martha loves looking at the sea.

Many people like going on holiday to places like Italy or


Spain, but Martha prefers to stay at home. She lives with her
parents and two little brothers in Lyme Regis in England.
Lyme Regis is a town in Dorset in the southwest of England.
Dorset is a special place in England because it is never very
cold. In winter it is rainy and often quite windy, but it is
almost never below zero. Spring, summer and autumn can be
very nice: it doesn’t rain very often and it is sunny most of the
time. There are even some palm trees in nearby Devon!
Martha likes Lyme Regis because it is a beautiful seaside
town. Young people have many things to do there: in summer,
they can go swimming, surfing or even diving, and in winter
they can play sports in clubs. The town is not very big but it
has got a special atmosphere. It is a historic place with some
monuments from Roman times. It is also famous because some
authors write about it in their novels, and there are also films
about it. Lyme Regis is always full of tourists from England
and abroad. Martha loves spending her holidays there but she
doesn’t relax all the time. In summer, when there are many
visitors, she works as a waitress in a seaside restaurant. In
this place she can watch her favourite scenery all the time.

IX. Read the text and put the verbs in a correct form.
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 241

ROBIN HOOD
At the and of the 12th century, England (1) (had) a good
king. His name (2) (be) Richard the Lion Heart. But when the
king (3) (leave) the country for the Crusades, his brother
John Lackland (4) (take) the throne. It was a bad time for
honest and hardworking people. John (5) (order) the people
of England to pay very high taxes. He also (6) (become) a keen
hunter and (7) (want) the forest only for himself. At that
time, there was a boy named Robin who (8) (live) in Lockley
near Nottingham. The Sheriff of Nottingham was a cruel
man and a friend of King John’s. When Robin Hood grew up,
he (9) (begin) his private war against the sheriff. With his
group of friends, he (10) (steal) the sheriff’s tax money and
(11) (give) it to the poor. Once Robin (12) (go) hunting for
deer in the king’s forest. In the forest, he (13) (kill) a guard
in a fight. He had to run and hide. “Sherwood Forest!” he
thought. That’s where I (14) (hide). And that’s the beginning
of Robin Hood’s story.

LONDON

London, one of the world’s biggest cities, is situated upon


both banks of the River Thames, about forty miles from the
sea. It is a capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, the seat of the government, a great indus
trial and cultural centre and one of Britain’s most important
cities.
London is a very old city, it was founded in 45 AD, so it is
practically two thousand years old. Greater London has a popu
lation of about 9 million and an area of 620 square miles.
London has four parts: the City of London, the West End,
the East End and Westminster.
The City of London is the oldest part of the capital and the
business centre. It contains the Bank of England and big banks
and business offices. There is also the Mansion House, the
official residence of the Lord Mayor of London.
The West End, which is in the centre, includes most of the
big shops, restaurants, hotels, museums, art galleries, the
atres and concert halls. This district is for rich people. There
242 Английский язык для музыкантов

are also many sights there. They are, for example, the Tower
and St. Paul’s Cathedral. The Tower is 900 years old. It was
the first royal residence, then a prison. Now it is a museum.
St. Paul’s Cathedral is one of the finest historical buildings in
London which was built on the boundary of the 17th–18th cen
turies.
Another interesting place is Westminster, one of the old
est parts of the capital. The Houses of Parliament, the govern
ment and administrative buildings are here. In one of the
towers of the Houses of Parliament, the Clock Tower, there is
the famous Big Ben, the clock which came into service in 1859.
Near the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey, a very
beautiful church built over 900 years ago. In the Abbey there
are the tombs of many great statesmen, scientists and writers
and also the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, a memorial to the
British soldiers died in the First World War.
To the east of Westminster is the East End, which in
cludes the poorer districts, the industrial centre and London
Docks.
There are many nice squares in the capital. Trafalgar
Square is one of them. It is in the centre of the West End.
There is the Nelson’s Column, rising a monument to Admiral
Nelson for his victories in the war against Napoleon in the
middle of the square. On the other side of the square you can
see the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery.
To the west of Trafalgar Square is the Mall, at the other
end of which is Buckingham Palace, the official residence of
the Queen. This is a beautiful building standing in large gar
dens. The changing of the guard in front of the palace several
times a day is watched by hundreds of people.
So, one can say that the City of London is the money of the
capital, the West End is the goods of London, the East End is
the hands of London and Westminster is the administration of
London.

I. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. What is the total area of London?
2. Can you name the most famous square in London?
3. What part of London is famous for many museums?
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 243

4. What is the central part of London?


5. When was London founded?
6. What kind of city is London?
7. What are the parts of London?

II. Complete the sentences.


1. On the other side of the ... Gallery and the National
Portrait Gallery.
2. London ... parts: the City of London, ..., the East End
and Westminster.
3. ... is Westminster Abbey, a very beautiful church built
over 900 years ago.
4. The changing ... of the palace several times a day is ...
of people.
5. Trafalgar Square is ...
6. St. Paul’s Cathedral is one of the ... in London which
was built on the boundary of the 17th–18th centuries.
7. The City of London is the oldest part of ... centre.
8. ... residence, then a prison.
9. London is ..., it was founded in 45 AD, so it is ... years
old.
10. This is ... in large gardens.

III. Find suitable equivalents in the text.


1. Рядом с домом парламента находится великолепная
церковь, построенная более 900 лет назад, — это Вестмин
стерское аббатство.
2. Говорят, что «Сити» — это деньги Лондона, «Вес
тэнд» — это товары, «Истэнд» — это руки Лондона.
3. Лондон расположен на обоих берегах реки Темзы, в
40 милях от моря.
4. К востоку от Вестминстерского аббатства находитс
«Истэнд».
5. Национальная галерея расположена на одной из сто
рон Трафальгарской площади.
6. В Лондоне много достопримечательностей.
7. Самая старая часть столицы — это «Сити» Лондона,
которая считается бизнесцентром.
244 Английский язык для музыкантов

IV. Make up a dialogue with your groupmate about the


sights of London. Use the following information.
BBC Television Centre: “A different place to visit! Watch
people make a television programme. See celebrities when you
walk around the building. Tube: White City”.
Royal Botanic Gardens: “A large park with a famous col
lection of 40,000 beautiful plants. Brilliant places to walk and
an excellent cafe. A good day out! Tube: Kew Gardens.
Buckingham Palace: The London home of the British
Royal family is open from the end of July until the middle
of September. Entrance is expensive but there are a lot of
things to see and there is a good souvenir shop. Tube: Green
Park.
Somerset House: A magnificent building in the centre of
London. It has excellent art galleries, a restaurant and cafe,
and you can go iceskating in the winter! Entrance is free.
Tube: Covent Garden.

V. Make up a dialogue with your groupmate, discussing


his travelling to London. Tell him what you are going to
visit. Ask him about his visiting.

VI. Look at the pictures. Name all the sights of London.


Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 245
246 Английский язык для музыкантов

VII. Choose any of the sightseeings, depicted in the pic


tures and describe it in English.

VIII. Read the text and...


1. Fill in the gaps with the names of the sightseeings of
London.
2. Describe any sightseeing of London.
3. Write down all the sentences in Passive Voice.

If you stand in Trafalgar Square with your back to Nelsons


Column, you will see a wide horizontal front in a classical style.
It is ... . It has been in this building since 1838 which was built
as ... to house the collection of Old Masters Paintings (38 paint
ings) offered to the nation by an English Private collector, Sir
George Beamount. Today the picture galleries of ... exhibit
works of all the European schools of painting, which existed
between the 13th and 19th centuries. The most famous works
among them are “Venus and Cupid” by Diego Velazquez, “Ado
ration of the Shepherds” by Nicolas Poussin, “A Woman Bath
ing” by Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt, “Lord Heathfiel”
by Joshua Reynolds, “Mrs Siddons” by Thomas Gainsborough
and many others. In 1897 the Tate Gallery was opened to house
the modern British paintings. Most of ... collections of British
paintings were transferred to the Tate, and only a small collec
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 247

tion of a few masterpieces is now exhibited at the Trafalgar


Square. Thus, the Tate Gallery exhibits a number of interest
ing collections of British and foreign modern painting and also
modern sculpture. The collection of Turner’s paintings at the
Tate includes about 300 oils and 19,000 watercolours and draw
ings. He was the most traditional artist of his time as well as
the most original: traditional in his devotion to the Old Mas
ters and original in his creation of new styles. It is said that he
prepared the way for the Impressionists. The modern collec
tion includes the paintings of Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso,
Mark Chagall, and Salvador Dali, Francis Bacon and Graham
Sutherland, Peter Blake and Richard Hamilton, the chief pio
neers of pop art Great Britain. Henry Moore is a famous Brit
ish sculptor whose works are exhibited at the Tate too.

IX. Answer the following questions, using the informa


tion from the text.
1. When was it founded?
2. What degree do all undergraduates take?
3. Is there a museum?
4. What exhibitions does it have?
5. What does the Royal Academy of Music publish every
year?
6. What did an Academy celebrate in February–March
2006?

ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC

A conservatoire in London is the Royal Academy of Music,


founded by Lord Burghersh in 1822. The French harpist and
composer Nicolas Bochsa played a role in its foundation. It is
known as Britain’s oldest degreegranting music school. It
received a Royal Charter by King George IV in 1830. The Royal
Academy of Music offers training from infant level (Junior
Academy), with the senior Academy awarding the LRAM di
ploma, B. Mus and higher degrees to Ph. D. All undergradu
ates take the degree of B. Mus. Most students are classical per
formers: strings, piano, vocal studies including opera, brass,
woodwind, conducting and choral conducting, composition,
248 Английский язык для музыкантов

percussion, harp, organ, accor


dion, guitar. There are also de
partments for musical theatre per
formance and jazz.
The Academy is proud to have
students from over 50 countries.
The Academy has an established
relationship with King’s College
London, particularly the Depart
ment of Music, whose students re
ceive instrumental tuition at the
Academy. There is a Junior Acad
emy for pupils under the age of 18.
It takes place every Saturday.
Academy’s students perform
regularly in the Academy’s con
cert venues, nationally and inter
nationally. For many years, the
Academy celebrates the creative
work of a living composer with a
festival in the presence of the com
poser. Previous composer festi
vals at the Academy have been
devoted to the work of famous
conductors, British and American film composers. In Febru
ary–March 2006, an Academy festival celebrated the violin
virtuoso Niccolò Paganini, who first visited London in 1831.
That festival included a recital by Academy Professor Maxim
Vengerov. He performed on Paganini’s favorite violin. Acad
emy instrumentalists and musical theatre students have also
performed in a series of concerts.The students and ensembles
of the Royal Academy of Music perform in other contests
around London including King’s Palace, St. Marylebone Par
ish Church and the South Bank Centre.
The Academy has a public museum, including a major col
lection of Cremonese stringed instruments dated between 1650
and 1740, a selection of historical English pianos from 1790 to
1850, original manuscripts by Purcell, Mendelssohn, Liszt,
Brahms, Sullivan and Vaughan Williams.
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 249

Every year the Royal Academy of Music publishes a list of


persons to be awarded one of the Royal Academy’s honorary
awards. The persons who made a significant contribution to
the music profession are awarded. Honorary Fellowship of the
Royal Academy of Music (Hon FRAM) is awarded by the Gov
erning Body of the Academy. As a full member of the Univer
sity of London, the Academy can nominate people to the Uni
versity of London Honorary Doctor degree (Hon DMus). The
Royal Academy of Music manages the Royal Academy of Music
Bach Prize (sponsored by the Kohn Foundation), a music award
to musicians or scholars who have made an important contri
bution to the music of Johann Sebastian Bach.

X. Give a summary of the text. Use the following words:


the Royal Academy of Music, a full member of the Univer
sity of London, a music award to musicians or scholars, an
important contribution to the music, original manuscripts,
famous conductors, instrumental tuition, a major collection
of Cremonese stringed instruments, a selection of historical
English pianos.

XI. Put 5 general questions to the text.

XII. Make a report about any London musician.

XIII. Read the text and fill in the spidergramme.

PERFORMING GROUPS

London is remarkable for its four major symphony orches


tras, the London Symphony (founded in 1904), London Phil
harmonic (1932), Philharmonia (1945), and Royal Philhar
250 Английский язык для музыкантов

monic (1946). The London Philharmonic and Royal Philhar


monic are the result of the activities of Sir Thomas Beecham
(1879–1961). The BBC Symphony (1930) is based in London
and gives public concerts. There are several excellent sym
phony orchestras outside London, including the Royal Liver
pool Philharmonic (1840), and the Halle Orchestra of Man
chester (1858).
Chamber orchestras became an important part of London
musical life through such groups as the London Chamber Or
chestra (1921) and the Boyd Neel Orchestra (1932). The tradi
tion they began has been carried on by several excellent newer
ones, including the Academy of St. MartinintheFields (1959),
the English Chamber Orchestra (1960), the London Sinfonietta
(1968), which specializes in 20th century music.

THEATRES IN SHAKESPEARE’S TIME


I. Answer the following questions, using the information
from the text.
1. What were theatres like when Shakespeare was creating
his masterpieces?
2. What was the shape of the theatres?
3. What spectators filled the pit?
4. Where were the aristocrats sitting during the perfor
mance?
5. Why did an iron fence surround the pit?
6. What was the scenery like?
7. How did they announce the beginning and the end of the
play?
8. What modern theatres can you name that have no cur
tain and don’t use any scenery?

At the time when Shakespeare (1564–1616) was creating


his masterpieces the theatres in which they were staged had
little in common with the theatres of today. They were usually
round in shape, had high walls and no roof. The stage was part
of the pit so that the actors could speak in a natural voice.
During the performance poor spectators watched it from the
pit while the aristocrats sat on the stage just where the action
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 251

of the play was taking place. An iron fence surrounded the pit.
It protected the spectators in the boxes when wild beasts some
times took part in the performance. The scenery was unusual
too. They used simple boards with such inscriptions as “This is
the moon”, “Here is the castle of Elsinore”, etc. A trumpeter
announced the beginning and the end of a play. The stage had
no curtain and when a character died, the other actors carried
him off the stage.

II. Read the text again and fill in the spidergramme.

British is now one of world’s major theatres centres. Many


actors and actresses are known all over the world. They are
Dame Peggy Ashcroft, Glenda Jackson, Laurence Olivier, John
Gielgud and others. Drama is so popular with people of all ages
that there are several thousand amateur dramatic societies.
Now Britain has about 300 professional theatres. Some of them
are privately owned. The tickets are not hard to get, but they
are very expensive. Regular seasons of opera and ballet are
given at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in London. The
National Theatre stages modern and classical plays, the Royal
Shakespeare Company produces plays mainly by Shakespeare
and his contemporaries when it performs in Stratford Globe,
Playhouse, about which you have at least one theatre.There are
many theatres and theatre companies for young people: the
National Youth Theatre and the Young Vic Company in London,
the Scottish Youth Theatre in Edinburgh. The National Youth
Theatre, which stages classical plays mainly by Shakespeare
and modern plays about youth, was on tour in Russian in 1989.
The theatregoers warmly received the production of Thomas
252 Английский язык для музыкантов

Stearns Eliot’s play “Murder in the Cathedral”. Many famous


English actors started their careers in the National Youth The
atre. Among them Timothy Dalton, the actor who did the part
of Rochester in Jane Eyre shown on TV in our country.

THE ROYAL OPERA HOUSE


I. Answer the following questions, using the information
from the text.
1. When was this theatre opened?
2. Who produced many Operas and Ballets on the stage of
the theatre?
3. When did the Theatre Royal burn down?
4. Who designed the first Theatre?
5. It was a little smaller than the first Theatre, wasn’t it?
6. When was the theatre reconstructed?
7. What was added to the theatre?
8. When was the Royal Opera House opened?
9. The Second Theatre had its foundation on December 31,
1808, didn’t it?
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 253

10. What do you know about the tragedy of 1856?


11. The Royal Opera House in Covent Garden was opened
as the Royal Italian Opera House on the 15th of May 1858,
wasn’t it?

A visit to this vast Opera House is very interesting not


only for Londoners. If you are interested in Theatre architec
ture, let’s visit it. It really is the finest Theatre in the country.
But it has its own history.
According to the history the First Theatre was opened as
the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden on the 7th of December
1732. This was the “Patent Theatre” as granted to Sir William
Devenant by Charles II. The Theatre was designed by James
Shepherd. The interior was decorated by the Italian Artist,
Amiconi. It is true, that Handel arrived in 1734 and produced
many Operas and Ballets on the stage of the theatre. David
Garrick also appeared in 1746. Later the Theatre was recon
structed in 1784. In 1788 the first production of the Panto
mime “Alladin” was performed here. On the 20th of September
1808 the Theatre Royal burnt down, taking Handel’s own Organ
and many of his manuscripts.
The Second Theatre had its foundation on December 31,
1808, the same year that the first Theatre had burnt down. It
was designed by the architect Robert Smirke. As we know
Robert Smirke also designed the main structure and the fa
cade of the British Museum, the building now known as Canada
House and many other prominent London’s buildings. It was a
little smaller than the first Theatre. The new Theatre was
opened on the 18th of September 1809 with a production of
Shakespeare’s “Macbeth”. The Theatre was reconstructed in
1847 and reopened on the 6th of April that year as the Royal
Italian Opera House. But the tragedy struck on the 5th of
March 1856 when the Theatre was again destroyed.
The Royal Opera House in Covent Garden was opened as
the Royal Italian Opera House on the 15th of May 1858. The
present building is actually the third theatre to have been
constructed since 1732.
The Theatre was extended in 1933 to house new dressing
rooms and offices.The auditorium was completely restored
254 Английский язык для музыкантов

and looks absolutely fantastic, like walking into a brand new


Victorian Theatre. The stalls were reraked to accommodate
the new stage, and the stage itself and fly tower were com
pletely demolished and rebuilt. A new box office was added,
along with a cafe, a restaurant and shops. And a new rehearsal
space is large enough to house complete sets. Welcome to the
Royal Opera House!

II. Read and translate the text. Name the theater.


The idea for this Theatre was given by Oswald Stoll in 1902
to house this vast new Theatre. The London theatre was opened
on the 24th December of 1904.The great architect of this the
atre was Frank Matcham. The auditorium was built on four
levels: Stalls, Dress Circle, Grand Tier and Balcony. There was
no place for Pit. Nowadays the Pit is used to refer to the
orchestra pit. The stage of this theatre was also a vast one. It
had three concentric rings which could all be operated inde
pendently and in both directions. This was the first revolve of
its kind to be fitted into British Theatre. The Theatre was a
total failure and closed down completely only two years after
opening in 1906 and remained closed until December of 1907
when it was reopened and at last became successful. The the
atre ran successfully as a Variety Theatre from 1907 until
1931 where nearly all the great Variety stars appeared at one
time or another. But in April of 1931 the Theatre ended its
Variety career and became a legitimate Theatre with a produc
tion of musicals. And so it went on at the theatre and there
were many Pantomimes. Pantomimes began in 1936 with
“Cinderella” and would continue regularly until 1946. In 1947
the musical “Annie Get Your Gun” was staged. There then
followed a long run of major American hits. In 1963 the The
atre was converted for a cinema. In 1968 it was fully restored,
redecorated. The Sadler’s Wells Opera Company could move in
1968 with a production of “Don Giovanni”. This was such a
successful venture that Sadler’s Wells stayed in the Theatre
putting on an opera after an opera and a ballet from all over
the world. In 1973 the company became known as The English
National Opera Company (ENO).
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 255

THE PRINCE OF WALES THEATRE


I. Read the sentences and make a story about the theater.
1. The Prince’s Theatre, with a capacity of 1,062, was
designed by the prolific Theatre Architect C. J. Phipps as part
of a development which also included a Hotel and a Restau
rant.
2. Alfred Esdaile wrote a piece about the new and old Prince
of Wales Theatres.
3. In 1963 the Theatre was completely redecorated and two
years later the Proscenium stage and Orchestra Pit were re
modeled.
4. A great many productions were subsequently staged at
the Theatre.
5. The scheme of the auditory comprises: stalls of eight
rows and a spacious pit on the street level; balcony of six rows
on the first floor; first circle of six rows on the second floor,
and gallery on the third floor.
6. The theatre has been built for Mr. Bruce by Mr. Phipps,
the wellknown architect of many playhouses, and both he and
the spirited manager Mr. Edgar Bruce.
256 Английский язык для музыкантов

7. The most notable of which were “Funny Girl”, starring


Barbara Streisand in 1966, “Sweet Charity” in 1967, “Prom
ises Promises” in 1969, which ran for two years, “The Three
penny Opera” in 1972 with Vanessa Redgrave, Diana Quick,
and Barbara Windsor, “The Plumber’s Progress” in 1976 with
Harry Secombe and Simon Callow, “Underneath the Arches”
in 1982, which became the longest run at the Theatre for
13 years and was about the famous comedy.
8. The theatre stands upon a plot of land bounded by Cov
entrystreet, Oxendonstreet, Whitcombstreet, and Whit
combcourt, and has entrances from each of these four streets,
the principal one being at the corner of Coventry and Oxendon
streets.
9. In July of 2003 the Prince of Wales closed its doors.
10. The stage is divided from the auditory by a solid brick
wall carried up to a considerable height, separating both roofs.
11. The Prince of Wales Theatre is actually the second
Theatre built at the late 19th century.
12. These reviews were an attempt at an English version of
the well known French “Folies Bergeres” and continued at the
Theatre until the Musical Comedy “Present Arms” was staged
in May 1940.
13. By the 1st of November 2008 the Theatre had clocked
up 4000 performances.
14. In 1932 a new period began at the Prince of Wales
when Charles Clore took a control of the Theatre and began
putting on lavish revues.
15. There are three fine doorways opening into a circular
vestibule, affording entrance to the stalls, balcony, and pri
vate boxes. Three other entrances to the firstcircle, the pit,
and the gallery, and a separate entrance to the Royal box, are
in the Oxendonstreet facade.
16. The new theatre is larger than an old one. There are
1500 roomy seats.
17. The Prince’s Theatre was opened on the 18th of Janu
ary 1884 with a production of the Comedy “The Palace of
Truth” by W. S. Gilbert.
18. The floor of the vestibule and the staircase are con
structed of marble. The foyer for the balcony has an arcade of
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries 257

circularheaded windows on the street side, and this design is


repeated on the opposite and flank wails.
19. The foundation stone for the new Prince Of Wales
Theatre was laid by Gracie Fields on the 17th of June 1937.
20. The floor is made of beautiful stone with marble mosaic.
21. The ceiling is richly ornamented. Together with the
walls it is decorated in ivory white and gold.
22. The Theatre was reopened by Prince Charles, the Prince
of Wales, on the 10th of June 2004.
23. And by 1919 the Prince of Wales Theatre had become
the home for many famous names such as Gertrude Lawrence,
Jack Buchanan, Beatrice Lillie and Jessie Matthews perform
ing in them.
24. The new Prince of Wales Theatre was opened on the
27th of October 1937 with a production of the Review “Les
Folies de Paris et Londres”.
25. The visitors to the stalls have a foyer of on the lower
level.
26. In 1936 the well known Cinema and Theatre Architect,
Robert Cromie, was brought in to design a new Theatre to be
built on the same site.
27. On the 16th of January 1937 the last production at the
original Prince of Wales Theatre, a revue called “Encore Les
Dames”, came to an end and the Theatre closed its doors for
the final time.
28. A small fountain is at the end of the foyer.
29. Shortly after this the Theatre became home to reviews
and variety again with many of the shows produced in the style
of the earlier 1930’s “Folies Bergere” productions.
30. This continued until the play “The World of Susic
Wong” was staged in November of 1959 and ran for two years
until August 1961.
U N I T 12
BRITISH MUSIC

I. Answer the questions, using the information from the


text.
1. Are the people living on the British Isles very fond of
music?
2. What have you known about the Promenade concerts?
3. What kinds of English music do you know?

The people living on the British Isles are very fond of


music. It is quite natural that concerts of the leading sym
phony orchestras, numerous folk groups and pop music are
very popular. The Promenade concerts are probably the most
famous. They were first held in 1840 in the Queen’s Hall, and
later were directed by Sir Henry Wood. They still continue
today in the Royal Albert Hall. They take place every night for
about three months in the summer, and the programmes in
clude new and contemporary works, as well as classics. Among
them are symphonies and other pieces of music composed by
Benjamin Britten, the famous English musician. Concerts are
rarely given outofdoors today except for concerts by brass
bands and military bands that play in the parks and at seaside
resorts during the summer. Usually, there is a short winter
season lasting for about a fortnight. The audience may either
listen to the music from a seat or from the “promenade”, where
they can stand or sit down on the floor.
Folk music is still very much alive. There are many folk
groups. Their harmony singing and good humour win them
friends everywhere. Rock and pop music is extremely popu
Unit 12. British Music 259

lar, especially among younger people. In the 60’s and 70’s


groups such as “The Beatles”, “The Rolling Stones”, “The
Who”, “Led Zeppelin” and “Pink Floyd” became very popular
and successful.

II. Read the text and...


А. Title each extract.
B. Answer the following questions.
1. When did Henry Purcell write his best work?
2. Who was well known as the most poetic composer born
in Britain?
3. What national English instrument is used in a sym
phony orchestra?
4. What period of Britain history did folk songs and dances
come to occupy a special place in the works of composers?
5. Which composer combined in his art the features of
works by Brams, Strauss and Verdi?
6. What famous personality named his works by Queen
Elizabethan?
7. What British composer died unrecognized as an artist?
8. Did German people listen to British music, visiting
England?
9. Who was one of the most prominent composers of the
Renaissance Britain?
10. What music glorified Dunstuble?
11. Name all music styles

1. England is world famous for its literature, painting


(particularly for its watercolours), for its theatre, but not for
its great composers. Now why is this so?
Germans would have insisted if asked that the English are
not musical people, that England is the land that cares little
for music. But this is not true. In fact the 16th century and
early 17th witnessed Germans visiting England to listen to
music. Even back in the 15th century Dunstuble enjoyed a
European reputation for his church music, and nearly two
centuries later Dowlands songs and aires for the lute were
widely printed and performed abroad. Speaking of the music
in England of the 17th century we should consider not merely
260 Английский язык для музыкантов

the splendid quality of Purcell’s best work but the amount of


music, of all kinds, and most of it performed, that he produced
during his short life (1659–1695). This means that the de
mand for music was great, at least at Court and in London.
2. In the 18th and 19th centuries England may have been very
backward indeed in the creation of symphonies and concertos,
but a nation so eagerly vocal — the existing tradition of English
choral singing should be mentioned here — can hardly be de
scribed as being pathetically unmusical. And if London, after
Handel, produced no great music, it could heartily welcome such
music, and if necessary, as the record shows, was ready to com
mission work from famous composers, when they were left ig
nored by their own Central Europe, because in England there
were certainly persons anything but indifferent to music.
Besides, it is quite explainable why the 18th century pro
duced no great composers. The 18th century delighted in the
theatre and entertainment in general. The main entertain
ment was ballad opera, which usually offered as much spoken
dialogue as it did songs and dances.
3. As to the composers of the 19th century, we should re
member that the musical climate of Victorian England was
unfavourable to bold and daring composition. The first impor
tant British composer in two hundred years that is, since the
death of Purcell — was Sir Edward Elgar (1857–1934). Elgar
loved England, its past, its people, its countryside and he re
sponded to its need for a national artist. By inclination he was
a natural musician of great invention. “It is my idea”, he said,
“that music is in the air all around us, the world is full of it and
it is important that you should take as much of it as you wish”.
What he took was not always distinguished, but he managed to
transform it into something that shone with all the brilliancy
of the postromantic orchestra.
His music is full of sound and movement. It comes from an
eclectic late 19th century style. Elgar borrowed elements from
Brahms, Strauss, and even from Verdi, but it is stamped with
British personality all the same. “He might have been a great
composer if he had not been such a perfect gentleman”, one of
his admirers wrote. Nevertheless Elgar served his country
well and England will long remember him.
Unit 12. British Music 261

4. Frederik Delius (1862–1934) comes next. He found it


essential that music should be the expression of a poetic and
emotional nature, and indeed Delius’s music reminds us of the
English landscape and its seasons: the freshness of spring, the
shortlived brilliancy of summer, the sadness of autumn. He
was regarded as the most poetic composer born in England.
Delius was lucky to find an ideal interpreter in Sir Thomas
Beecham. It was due to this dynamic conductor that Delius’s
music became popular in Great Britain. Sir Thomas Beecham
organized that festival Delius might have died unrecognized
as an artist.
5. The English renaissance in music was heralded by an
awakening of interest in the native song and dance. Out of this
interest came a generation of composers. The most important
figure among them was Ralph Vaugham Williams (1872–
1958) — the representative of English music on the interna
tional scene. He suggested that a composer in England should
draw inspiration from life around him. “Have we not all about
us forms of musical expression which we can take and purify
and bring into line with the greatest art? Why should not the
musician build national monuments like the painter, the writer
or the architect?” He was in the first place a melodist. His love
of folk tunes was part of an essentially melodic approach to
music. His natural expression was diatonic, with strong lean
ings toward modal harmony and counterpoint. He favoured
old forms — the passacalia, fugue and concerto grosso, also
the Elizabethan fantasia with its flowing counterpoint. He
held the attention of the world due to his superb command of
the grand form.
6. Speaking of today’s music it should be mentioned that
now there are a great many composers hard at work and what
they are doing is very promising.

MUSIC OF THE UNITED KINGDOM


I. Read and translate the text.
Music from the United Kingdom has achieved a great in
ternational popularity since the 1960’s, when a wave of Brit
ish musicians helped to popularize rock and roll. Since then,
262 Английский язык для музыкантов

the UK has produced numerous popular performers in far


ranging fields from heavy metal to folkrock and drum and
bass. It underwent a renaissance in the ancient forms of folk
music.
There are four parts of the United Kingdom, each with its
own diverse and distinctive folk music forms — England, Scot
land, Wales and Northern Ireland. There is much variety in
music between the different regions of England. Of all the
regions of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (and its
neighbor, the Republic of Ireland) has the most vibrant folk
traditions. Traditional bands including instruments like fiddles
have remained throughout the centuries even as analogues in
Britain died out. Traditional music includes a wide array of
traditional dances and songs, many of which have had a major
impact on British popular music. Scottish folk music includes
many kinds of songs, including ballads and laments, sung by
a single singer with accompaniment by bagpipes, fiddles or
harps. Traditional dances include waltzes, reels, and jigs.
Alongside the other areas of the United Kingdom, Scotland
underwent a roots revival in the 1960’s. CathyAnn McPhee
and Jeannie Robertson were the heroes of this revival. Wales
is a Celtic country that features folk music played at commu
nal dances and music festivals. Having long been subordinate
to English culture, Welsh musicians in the late 20th century
had to reconstruct traditional music when a roots revival be
gan. This revival began in the late 1970’s and achieved some
mainstream success in the UK in the 1980’s.
Beginning in the 16th century, printed broadside ballads
were the first genre of British popular music. Those were
lyrics transcribed and eventually printed (after the invention
of the printing press). They meant to be sung to some well
known tune. They were popular until the early 20th century,
when a combination of newspapers and recording technology
made them obsolete. After the industrial revolution, bars that
provided musical entertainment arose. Those bars were called
music halls. Popular songs and professional songwriters were
in great demand.
In the 1950’s most of the world listened to American rock
and roll, especially the countryrock. Most countries soon de
Unit 12. British Music 263

veloped their own rock traditions. It was the United Kingdom


that evolved its own distinctive scene. British musicians made
American traditions into distinctively British ones such as
Skiffle and Trad jazz. Eventually they added influences from
English, Scottish and Irish folk music. By the middle of the
1960’s, British musicians evolved Britishstyle rock, R&B and
blues. Highlyevolved forms of rock like heavy metal and pro
gressive rock were developing into fullfledged genres of Brit
ish popular music. British music in the 1960’s also saw the
roots revival of folk music.
In the 1970’s, the United Kingdom saw the intense diver
sification in both popular and folk music. Heavy metal evolved
and progressive rock grew extremely popular. It included “pro
gressive” elements in the form of obtuse lyrics, classicaltinged
music and longplaying suites. Pink Floyd, Genesis and King
Crimson are notable examples of this movement. The reaction
against progressive rock was swift, as this genre was per
ceived as needlessly obscure and inaccessible. A new genera
tion of British youth hated progressive rock and the sounds of
heavy metal. They were called punks, and their music was
loud, angry, rebellious punk rock. Punk became wellknown
but it was shortlived. Its lyrics attacked the pillars of Brit
ish society, such as the monarchy. The 1970’s saw tremen
dous changes in folk music as well. It was the development of
folkrock fusions and powerful singersongwriter traditions
and the evolution of popular forms of folkbased music from
the United Kingdom’s Jamaican and Indian immigrant com
munities.
In the 1980’s new genres appeared. They took stylistic
elements of punk and added new approaches and influences.
The first of these developments was New Wave music which
featured atmospheric accompaniment to dreamy, otherworldly
vocals. New Wave was very popular in the early 1980’s. Other,
less mainstream genres of punk developed underground. These
included a number of alternative rock subgenres such as Gothic
rock and psychedelic music. The 1980’s also saw tremendous
diversification and modernisation of the sounds of Jamaican
and Indian immigrants. House and allied genres like techno
music evolved out of electronic music scene in the 1970’s in
264 Английский язык для музыкантов

the USA. They began to grow popular as a part of club culture


in the 1980’s in the UK.
Two genres that remained mostly underground through
out the 1980’s burst into the mainstream around the middle
of the decade. Britpop was a fusion of all the alternative
rock stylings of the previous two decades, with a special
focus on neopsychedelic music. It began to dominate the
charts. In late 1980’s/early 1990’s American acidhouse
and Detroit techno music evolved in the UK. British musi
cians pioneered multiple genres of electronic musical ex
pression. In the early 21st century British pop scene re
vealed a number of pop groups which combined Britpop
with experimental electronic music. That fusion of rock,
hip hop, and other genres is performed in the British popu
lar music scene.

II. Read the text and make the headlines with the para
graphs.
1. The intense diversification in both popular and folk
music.
2. Music between the different regions of England.
3. Influence of the American music.
4. The first genre of British popular music.
5. Alternative rock subgenres.
6. Introduction.
7. Experimental electronic music.

III. Read the text again and say what new facts about
British music you’ve found in the text, report them, using
the useful language: a great international popularity, numer
ous popular performers, the most vibrant folk traditions, com
munal dances and music festivals, heavy metal and progres
sive rock, the development of folkrock fusions, powerful
singersongwriter traditions, genres of punk, multiple genres
of electronic musical expression.

IV. Read the text on British festivals, then...


А. Fill in the spidergramme with the names of the fes
tivals.
Unit 12. British Music 265

Music festivals have constituted a flourishing tradition in


England since the 18th century, and they are at present almost
innumerable. The Three Choirs Festival, begun around 1715
and almost certainly one of the oldest in Europe, represents
the traditional type of choral festivals, of which several others
also survive. Its site alternates among the homes of its choirs,
Hereford, Gloucester, and Worcester. Among older English
festivals, that at Haslemere was founded by Dolmetsch in 1925
to feature early music, and the Glyndebourne Festival, founded
in 1934, early achieved and maintains an international repu
tation for its production of operas as integrated dramatic
works.
Many British festivals began after the World War II. They
include the Alderburgh Festival (1948), long dominated by
the personality of its founder, Benjamin Britten; the Bath
Festival (1948), since 1959 similarly associated with Yehudi
Menuhin; the English Bach Festival (1963); and the Tilford
Bach Festival (1952) and others. A festival of sorts and a long
central feature of London summers are the Henry Wood Prom
enade Concerts (“Proms”) (1895), mostly given at the Royal
Albert Hall.

B. Read the text and describe one of the festivals, using


the information from the text.
Nowadays there are many Festivals of Music and Drama in
Great Britain. The number of festivals take place in Britain
every summer. One of them is the Bath Festival. In June when
the city is the most beautiful the festival attracts some of the
finest musicians in the world to Bath, as well as thousands
of visitors from Britain and abroad. The festival presents
266 Английский язык для музыкантов

a programme of orchestral and choral concerts, song and in


strumental recitals and chamber music, so well suited to the
beautiful 18th century halls of Bath. The range of music is
wide and includes young performers. But the festival is not all
music. The programme usually includes lectures and exhibi
tions, sometimes ballet, opera, drama, films, as well as tours
of Bath.
There is the Chichester Theatre Festival. The latest festi
val town to join the list is Chichester, which has earned a great
deal of prestige by building, in record time, a large theatre
holding over one thousand five hundred people. Here is held
each year a theatre festival in which many stars from London
stage are eager to participate. The first season scored a con
siderable success. The repertoire consisted of an old English
comedy, a sixteenth century tragedy and a production of
Chekhov’s “Uncle Vanya” in which every part was taken by a
top star. But the chief interest of the Chichester Festival is
the new theatre itself, which has an apron stage. Most of you
know that the apron stage, which was common in Shakespeare’s
day, progects out into the auditorium. With an apron stage
there is no prosenium arch, or stage sets of the kind we are
used to in the modern theatre. This calls for the use of an
entirely different technique on the part both of the players,
who have their audience on three sides of them instead of just
in front, and the producer. The players must make proper use
of their voices.

C. Read and translate the text about Welsh festivals.


No country in the world has a greater love of music and
poetry than the people of Wales. Today, Eisteddfod is held at
scores of places throughout Wales, particularly from May to
early November. The habit of holding similar events dates back
to early history and there are records of competitions for Welsh
poets and musicians in the twelfth century. The Eisteddfod
sprang from the Gorsedd, or National Assembly of Bards. It
was held occasionally up to 1819, but since then has become an
annual event for the encouragement of Welsh literature and
music and the preservation of the Welsh language and ancient
national customs. The Royal National Eisteddfod of Wales is
Unit 12. British Music 267

held annually early in August, in North and South Wales al


ternately, its actual venue varying from year to year. It at
tracts Welsh people from all over the world. The programme
includes male and mixed choirs, brassband concerts, many
children’s events, drama, arts and crafts and, of course, the
ceremony of the Crowning of the Bard. Next in importance is
the great Llangollen International Music Eisteddfod, held early
in July and attended by competitors from many countries, all
wearing their picturesque and often colourful national cos
tumes. It is an event probably without parallel anywhere in the
world. There are at least twentyfive other major Eisteddfods
from May to November.

D. Read the text and guess the name of the festival.


It is particularly held from May to early November. It has
become an annual event for the encouragement of Welsh lit
erature and music and the preservation of the Welsh language
and ancient national customs. The programme includes male
and mixed choirs, brassband concerts, many children’s events,
drama, arts and crafts and, of course, the ceremony of the
Crowning of the Bard.
It is a good thing that the Edinburgh Festival hits the
Scottish Capital outside term time. The programmes always
include some of the finest chamber music ensemble and solo
ists in the world. There are plenty of matinees; evening con
certs, opera, drama and ballet performances usually take
place. In recent years, about 90,000 people have flocked into
Edinburgh every year during the three weeks at the end of
August and early September.

V. Read the following text, translate them and fill in the


right variant from the box: “Motorhead Motorizer”, “The
Verve Forth”, “The Kooks Konk”, Rihanna.
1. It happens very seldom that new releases by old heavy
metal bands are of any interest to a reviewer. But ..., a British
band formed in 1975 by the bassist, the singer and the songwriter
Lemmy, may be one of the few notable exceptions. Led by Lemmy,
the sole constant member of the band was one of the originators
of “speed” and “thrash” metal, survived the commercial success
268 Английский язык для музыкантов

of the early 1987’s, which brought it to the UK Top 40 chart and


has now released its nineteenth studio album. What was consid
ered semiunderground back in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s,
has now become a part of the mainstream, which the first ever
Grammy, awarded to the band in 2005, testifies. Meanwhile,
the essence of ... music has not changed much over the 30 years
of the band’s history, and although lyrically, a few new themes
might have been added to those from the 1970’s, all the other
components are almost intact.
2. “Forth” is actually the fourth studio album by ..., a
British rock band formed in Wigan, Greater Manchester back
in 1989. Just like triphoppers “Portishead” who earlier this
year released “Third”, the band chose not to think much about
the title of the new album. Back in the nineties, ... was
considered by many to be one of the most promising British
bands of the time, often mentioned alongside Oasis, one of
the most popular bands of the “Brit pop” wave. But after
albums, both commercially successful and critically ac
claimed, ... broke up, citing creative struggles between band
members as the reason. The band’s original lineup reunited
in June 2007 and embarked on a tour in late 2007 and later
recorded “Forth”. People are mostly skeptical about come
backs of this kind, but ... one must be an exception, as “Forth”
is a Solid rock record.
3. The British band ..., which has been around for only
four years, is apparently doing quite well. Both of the Brighton
based band’s albums were commercially successful. The band’s
2006 debut albums Inside in Inside. Out peaked at No. 2 the
UK Albums Chart, and the recent followup, Konk, peaked at
No. 1, as the band keeps riding the wave of guitar rock revival.
The band currently consists of guitarist and lead vocalist Luke
Pritchard, a lead guitarist and a backup vocalist Hugh Har
ris, a drummer Paul Garred and a temporary bassist Dan Lo
gan, who replaced Max Rafferty earlier this year. When it
comes to contemporary rock bands, it would consider original
ity as a factor: everything that new bands could come up with
has already been written, played and sung before. But ... sound
is quite fresh, and their sophomore effort does contain a few
good tracks, namely, “Gap”, “Stormy Weather” and “Sway”.
Unit 12. British Music 269

4. When “Umbrella” — the most successful single in the


UK since “Wet” came out with their “Love is All Around”, and
in fact the most successful single of the 21st century, which is
no small feat — was released, ... had barely turned 19. Consid
ering the fact that she’s been well known since 2005, no matter
what you think of the pop industry, you have to give the girl
some credit. Born in Barbados, ... realized that she had a ton
of potential pretty early. When she was 15, she was intro
duced to Evan Rogers, a well — known music producer. Rogers
was impressed by the girl, and helped a few songs she could
then send off to some recording companies. Her lucky chance
came when a copy of her recordings made its way to Jayz, who
then signed her to her to Def Jam Records, with whom she still
works. It didn’t take long to gather enough material for an
entire album, and Music of the Sun — her debut — was re
leased in August 2005. The songs that were subsequently re
leased gained enormous popularity, with the first reaching
No. 2 on the US Billboard Hot 100, the most important chart
in the country, and with the second getting to No. 36 in the US
and to No. 11 in the UK. Her latest album, “Good Girl Gone
Bad”, earned her 4 Grammy Awards, and she is hoping to start
working on a new album soon.
Moscow News, 2014

VI. Read the text and match the English sentences with
the Russian ones.
Fans of Irish music should be jubilant, as Comhaltas
Ceoltoiri Eireann — a wellknown cultural movement set up to
promote Irish traditional music internationally — is bringing
to Moscow several winners of the annual All Ireland amateur
contest, Fleadh Cheoil Naheireann.
The show, hosted by legendary Irish tenor Sean O’Se, fea
tures AllIreland Senior Champions such as an accordionist
Padraig King and a bagpipe player Martino Vacca, as well as
Gearoid Keane, a concertina performer, and a flutist Siobhan
Ni Chonarain.
The Irish musicians are to be joined on stage by Russian
enthusiasts of Irish culture, including the band Slua Si which
has an established presence on the domestic ethno scene, Kirill
270 Английский язык для музыкантов

Raskolenko, a violinist who made it to the finals of AllIre


land this year, bagpipe and flute players Anatoly Isayev and
Vladimir Lazerson, and the dance groups Tin Thistle and
Craicers.

Ирландские музыканты присоединятся на сцене к рос


сийским любителям ирландской культуры, в том числе
группа «Слуа Си», которая официально признана в Ирлан
дии, Кирилл Раколенко, скрипач, который дошел до фина
ла фестиваля «Вся Ирландия» в этом году, играющие на
волынке флейтисты Анатолий Исаев и Владимир Лазерсон,
и танцевальные группы «Тин Трисл» и «Крейсер».
Шоу, организованное легендарным ирландским тено
ром Шон Осе, включает выступление легендарных музы
кантов Ирландии, таких как аккордеонист Патрик Кинг и
музыкант, играющий на волынке, Мартино Васса, а также
Джероиза Кин — концертнный исполнитель и флейтист
Шивона Ни Чонарайн.
Любители ирландской музыки, должно быть, ликова
ли, когда известное культурное движение «Комхалтос Се
олторси Айран» с целью продвижения ирландской тради
ционной музыки на международном уровне привозило в
Москву нескольких победителей ежегодного любительско
го конкурса «Флед Чойл Нахерайн» в Ирландии.

VII. Read the text and use the verbs in Past Simple.

THE BEATLES
In the 1950’s, in Liverpool, England, a young boy called
Ivan Vaughan introduced John Lennon to Paul McCartney. At
the same time, George Harrison’s mum (1) b...t him a guitar.
And that’s when the famous rock group The Beatles (2) b...n.
Lennon and McCartney’s songs (3) w...e fantastic and “The
Beatles” (4) b...e the number one group in the world by 1964.
They (5) w...t to the USA and Americans loved their songs,
too. The end (6) с...e in January 1969 — the last time the
Beatles played together. John Lennon (7) m...e Yoko Ono and
he did not want to play with the group after that.
Unit 12. British Music 271

VIII. Make up a dialogue with your groupmate, discuss


ing one of the British styles of music. Tell him about what
you like/don’t like. Ask him about his favorite British styles
of music.

IX. Read the text about the musical instrument — the


bagpipe. Add some new material.
Bagpipes are a class of musical instrument, aerophones,
using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the
form of a bag. Though the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe
and Irish uilleann pipes have the greatest international vis
ibility, bagpipes have been played for centuries throughout
large parts of Europe, the Caucasus, around the Persian Gulf

Bagpipe:
1 — ring cap; 2 — combing; 3 — ferrule; 4 — mount; 5 — cord & tassle; 6 — bag
cover; 7 — pipe chanter; 8 — pipe chanter sole; 9 — blowpipe; 10 — mouthpiece.
272 Английский язык для музыкантов

and in Northern Africa. The term bagpipe is equally correct in


the singular or plural, although in the English language, pip
ers most commonly talk of “the pipes”, “a set of pipes” or
“a stand of pipes”.
A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a
bag, a chanter, and, usually, at least one drone. Most bagpipes
have more than one drone (and, sometimes, more than one
chanter) in various combinations, held in place in stocks —
sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag.
Bagpipes began to appear with frequency in European art
in the mid13th century. Actual examples of bagpipes from the
18th century are extremely rare. Bagpipes varied hugely
throughout Europe, and even within individual regions. Bag
pipes are frequently used during funerals and memorials, es
pecially among military and police forces in the United King
dom, Ireland, and the Commonwealth realms, as well as occa
sionally in the US. Bagpipes have often been used in various
films depicting moments from Scottish and Irish history. Bag
pipes are sometimes played at formal events in Commonwealth
universities.

X. Make a report about one of the famous modern British


composers.
U N I T 13
AMERICAN MUSIC

Modern American music may be said to begin only with the


opening of the 20th century when American composers were
under the European influence. They became aware of the rich
musical material that was not to be found in any other coun
try: the melodies of the American Indians, Negro spirituals,
cowboy songs, the hymns and religious tunes, the patriotic
songs of the revolution and of the Civil War. Then there was
the folk song of the city dwellers — musical comedy hits and
jazz. However, it was not easy for modern American music to
establish itself. In the early years of the 20th century, serious
American music, being modern, did not appeal to the public,
which was strongly conservative. Besides, there was no system
of awards to give the American composers financial assis
tance. The conductors of the great American orchestras were
mostly Europeans who preferred to devote their talents to
Beethoven, Brahms and Tchaikovsky. Nevertheless the gradual
victory of modern music in Europe had an influence on America.
It became a matter of national pride to develop a strong Ameri
can school.
The New York Philarmonic is the oldest functioning sym
phony orchestra in America. The history of the Philarmonic is
the history of American music. The orchestra was founded in
1842. Its history is rich in names from many generations of
the greatest personalities known to the western world. Some
directed the Ph., among them being Richard Strauss, Gustav
Mahler, Felix Weingartner, Vasily Safonov. Two famous mu
sicians helped to bring the New York. Ph. to the very rank of
274 Английский язык для музыкантов

the world’s symphonic organization. One of them was W. Men


gelberg (1922–1950). The other was A. Toscanini who was its
permanent conductor from 1951 to 1956. John Barbirolli suc
ceeded Toscanini and stayed until 1945. In 1950 Leonard
Bernstein became a musical director of the N. Y. Ph. and toured
Russia with the N. Y. Ph.
One of the famous American musicians is Elliott Carter.
He was born in 1903 in New York City. He revealed a bent for
music even before he could read or write. When he studied at
High School he was often taken to public concerts. When he
went to Harvard University in 1926 he had not yet made up
his mind to become a professional musician and he concen
trated on English literature. But he studied the piano and the
solfeggio intensively. During this period he visited many
concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra as he could, some
times three times a week: he also sang in the Harvard Glee
Club. It was during his last year as an undergraduate that he
decided definitely to devote himself to musical composition.
He took courses in harmony and counterpoint with Walter
Piston. In 1952 Carter received his degree at Harvard and
went to Paris to continue his studies with Nadia Boulanger.
He returned to America in 1955 and settled in Cambridge.
While living there he wrote incidental music for some ama
teur performances. In 1942 he wrote his First Symphony. In
1944 he wrote his “Holliday Overture” which won a prize.
His most ambitious work is his First Symphony. In three
movements it is largely lyrical in character with a gay last
movement. The entire symphony is subdued in character,
restrained in color, sober in emotional expression. Other
major works of Carter include his Piano Sonata, some bal
lets, Chamber music — “Pastoral for piano and viola”, “Quin
tet for Woodwinds”, “Sonata for cello and piano”, some cho
ral music and orchestral pieces.
Another famous American composer is Charles Ives. He
was born in Danbury Connecticut in 1874. His father was a
fine musician and his music earned the praises of President
Lincoln. He gave his son not only a thorough training in gen
eral musical appreciation, harmony counterpoint and instru
mentation, but also roused in the boy curiosity for unexplored
Unit 13. American Music 275

in music. After his father’s death Charles Ives began experi


menting with music since 1895. Characteristic of his style is
his “Piano Sonata” No. 2, subtitled “Concord” which many
critics believe to be Ives’s greatest work. Ives composed four
symphonies which are equally extraordinary for their inven
tiveness and originality. The Third Symphony was heard in
1946 in NewYork City, in a concert devoted entirely to Ives’s
music. This Symphony brought its composer the Pulitzer Prize
in Music in 1947. Musical critics remarked that each of four
Symphonies represents not only an important stage in Ives’s
development but the importance of American music. Ives has
also composed many works for chamber — musical groups and
a whole library of remarkable songs.

I. Answer the following questions, using the information


from the text.
1. When was Elliott Carter born?
2. What composition by Elliott Carter is the most ambi
tious?
3. When was it written?
4. Which of American composers won the Pulitzer Prize?
5. What symphonies by Charles were musical critics inter
ested in?
6. What a unique musical material allowed American com
posers reject some European traditions and enrich their musi
cal culture?
7. What personality was music interested in before he
learned how to read and write?
8. When was America’s oldest symphony orchestra founded?
9. What works by Elliott Carter were musical critics inter
ested in most of all?

II. Read the text and title each paragraph.

III. Read the text again and complete the sentences.


1. Besides, there was no ... to give the American ... finan
cial assistance.
2. The history of the ... of American music.
3. The orchestra was ...
276 Английский язык для музыкантов

4. The New York ... the oldest functioning ... orchestra in


America.
5. Ives has also ... works for chamber — musical groups
and a whole library ... songs.
6. His most ambitious work is ...
7. American composer is ...
8. He took courses in ... with Walter Piston.
9. ... piano and the solfeggio intensively.
10. ... Elliott Сarter.

IV. Fill in modal verbs: may, was, could.


Modern American music ... be said to begin only with the
opening of the 20th century when American composers began
to throw off the European influence. They became aware of
the rich musical material that ... not to be found in any other
country: the melodies of the American Indians, Negro spiritu
als, cowboy songs, the hymns and religious tunes, the patriotic
songs of the revolution and of the Civil War.
He revealed a bent for music even before he ... read or
write.

V. Read the text again and find all the sentences in the
Passive Voice.

VI. Match the words from the columns to make phrases


from the text.
Harmony songs
Musical songs
Religious comedy
Patriotic orchestra
Folk material
Musical groups
Modern songs
Musical tunes
Symphony counterpoint and instrumentation
Famous conductor
Remarkable music
Permanent musicians
Public musicians
Unit 13. American Music 277

Professional music
Musical composition
Incidental concerts
Amateur music
Choral pieces
Orchestral performances

VII. Read the text and...


А. Guess what music style is described.
B. Give a summary of the text.

... is a kind of music characterized by swing and blue notes,


call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation.
Though originally a kind of dance music, ... has been a major
part of popular music, and has also become a major element of
Western classical music. ... has roots in West African cultural
and musical expression, and in African American music tradi
tions including blues and ragtime, as well as European mili
tary band music. ...’s roots come from the city of New Orleans,
Louisiana, populated by Cajuns and black Creoles, who com
bined the FrenchCanadian culture of the Cajuns with their
own styles of music in the 19th century.
Louis Armstrong became one of the first popular stars and
a major force in the development of ..., along with his friend
pianist Earl Hines. Armstrong and Hines were influential in
the rise of a kind of pop big band ... called swing. Swing is
characterized by a strong rhythm section, usually consisting
of double bass and drums, medium to fast. Swing is primarily
a fusion of 1930’s ... fused with elements of the blues. Swing
used bigger bands than other kinds of ..., leading to bandleaders
tightly arranging the material which discouraged improvisa
tion, previously an integral part of ... Swing became a major
part of African American dance, and came to be accompanied
by a popular dance called the swing dance.
... influenced many performers of all the major styles of
later popular music, though ... itself never again became such
a major part of American popular music as during the swing
era. In the middle of the 20th century, ...evolved into a variety
of subgenres, beginning with bebop. Bebop is a form of ...
278 Английский язык для музыкантов

characterized by fast tempos, improvisation based on harmonic


structure rather than melody, and use of the flatted fifth.
Bebop was developed in the early and mid1940’s, later evolv
ing into styles like hard bop and ... Innovators of the style
included Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie, who arose from
small ... clubs in New York City.

VIII. Read the text and match the names of the para
graphs with their plot.
А. New styles of country music.
B. History of country music’s development.
С. Origins of the country music.

IX. Read and translate the text.

COUNTRY MUSIC

Country music is primarily a fusion of African American


blues and spirituals with Appalachian folk music, beginning
in the 1920’s. The origins of country are in rural Southern
folk music, which was primarily Irish and British, with Afri
can and continental European music. AngloCeltic tunes, dance
music, and balladry were the earliest predecessors of modern
country, then known as hillbilly music. Early hillbilly also
borrowed elements of the blues and drew upon more aspects of
19th century pop songs as hillbilly music evolved into a com
mercial genre eventually known as country and western and
then simply country.
The roots of commercial country music are generally traced
to 1927. After the World War II, there was an increased inter
est in specialty styles like country music, producing a few
major pop stars. The most influential country musician of the
era was Hank Williams, a bluesy country singer from Ala
bama. He remains renowned as one of country music’s great
est songwriters and performers, viewed as a “folk poet” with
a “honkytonk swagger” and “workingclass sympathies”.
A producer Chet Atkins created the Nashville sound by strip
ping the hillbilly elements of the instrumentation and using
smooth instrumentation and advanced production techniques.
Unit 13. American Music 279

By the early part of the 1960’s, however, the Nashville sound


had become perceived as too watereddown by many more tra
ditional performers and fans, resulting in a number of local
scenes like the Lubbock sound and the Bakersfield sound.
Outlaw country was rockoriented and lyrically focused on
the criminal antics of the performers, in contrast to the clean
cut country singers of the Nashville sound. By the middle of
the 1980’s, the country music charts were dominated by pop
singers, alongside a nascent revival of honkytonkstyle coun
try with the rise of performers like Dwight Yoakam. The 1980’s
also saw the development of alternative country performers,
who were opposed to the more poporiented style of main
stream country. At the beginning of the 2000’s, poporiented
country acts remained among the bestselling performers in
the United States, especially Garth Brooks.

X. Make a report about modern styles of American music.

XI. Read the texts and fill in the words from the box:
Disturbed Indestructible, Erykah Badu, Madonna.
1. There is no sign that “nu metal” or “alternative metal”,
is going out of vogue, and the good chart performance by
“Indestructible”, the fourth studio album by the American
rock band ..., is another testimony to that. The album be
came ... third consecutive 1 debut on the Billboard 200, mak
ing ... one of only seven rock bands that ever accomplished
three consecutive debuts, and stayed in the top slot for five
weeks. Formed in Chicago in 1996, by Dan Donegan, Steve
“Fuzz” Kmak, Mike Wengren and David Draiman, ... has sold
over 10 million albums worldwide. There is some debate about
whether music by ... should be classified as “alternative” or
“nu” metal, which doesn’t really make sense to anyone but
heavy metal fans. Similarly, music on the band’s new album —
whether as heavy as on the previous records or not — is un
likely to appeal to anyone other than the genre’s fans.
2. In her work, she mixes elements of R&B, hip hop and
jazz, being one of the main figures in the rise of the neo soul
subgenre. But she is also known for her eccentric, cerebral
musical stylings and sense of fashion. For instance, early in
280 Английский язык для музыкантов

her career, ... was recognizable for wearing very large and
colorful headwraps. For her musical sensibilities, she has of
ten been compared to Billie Holiday. “New Amerykah Part
One (4th World War)” features production by Madlib, Karriem
Riggins, 9th Wonder, and Mike “Chav” Chavarria, and a guest
spot from Georgia Anne Muldrow. One of the provisional titles
of the album was “Kahba”, which, apart from other meanings,
is a derogatory name for women in the Arabic language — that
might be one reason why it didn’t stick. Among the key tracks
are “The Healer” and “Soldier”.
3. This review is not about a concert, but about something
that may help you forget momentarily about all the possible
upcoming concerts. ...’s previous album, Confessions on the
Dancefloor, was an electronic album filled with her sweet
moaning. It was successful, but ultimately ... boring. Now,
aided by collaborations with the powehouses of American
pop — Timbaland, Justin Timberlake, and Pharrell Will
iams — ... takes aim at American audiences and radio. The
result is an expansive dancecentric collection that likely will
rank among the very best of her 11 albums. Hard Candy was
released a week ago and the reviews are quite different. “Roll
ing Stone” called this album “an act of submission”; other
critics say that it’s the first time she’s not the most important
part of her own album. We recommend listening to “Incred
ible” and “Miles Away”. Both tracks seem fresh and strong.
And of course, the pop diva is still hot.
Moscow News, 2013

XII. Read the text, fill in the words from the box and
translate the text: After, and (3), and then, because, before,
but, from ... to, when.
Nicole Kidman was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on 20 June,
1967 where her Australian parents were working. The family
lived in Washington DC (1) ... 1967 ... 1970. (2) ... they re
turned to Australia. (3) ... wanting to be an actress, her inter
est was ballet (4) ... she soon changed to acting (5) ... played in
many school dramas. Nicole left school to commit herself to a
career in acting (6) ... in 1983 she had a role in her first film.
After that she had many acting offers (7) ... went to work in
Unit 13. American Music 281

the USA. She quickly became a very popular film star. At the
end of 1990 she married Tom Cruise. (8) ... Nicole Kidman is
nearly six feel tall, (9) ... she was with her husband she never
wore shoes with high heels. An interesting fact about her is
that she is afraid of butterflies! Nicole Kidman was the first
Australian to win an Oscar as Best Actress for her part as
Virginia Woolf in “The Hours”. (10) ... she divorced Tom Cruise
in 2001, she said: “Now I can wear high heels”. Today, she
demands millions of dollars to act in a film.

XIII. Write a letter to your friend, using the information


from the text.

KENNY WAYNE SHEPHERD

American blues guitarist, singer and songwriter Kenny


Wayne Shepherd will be perfoming in Moscow with his band
for the first time. Shepherd attended Caddo Magnet High
School in Shreveport, Louisiana. Selftaught, he began play
ing at the age of seven, learning Muddy Waters licks from his
father’s record collection. At the age of 13, he was invited
onstage by the New Orleans bluesman Bryan Lee. After prov
ing his abilites, he decided on music as a career. Demo tapes
were made and a two camera video was shot at Kenny’s first
performance at the Red River Rever Arts Festival in Shreve
port. It was that video performance that impressed Giant
Records chief Irving Azoff enough to sigh Kenny to a multiple
album record deal.
Shepherd took six singles into the top 10, holds the record
for the longest running album on the Billboard Blues Charts,
“Trouble is ...”. Shepherd has been nominated for four Grammy
awards, received two Orville Gibson award and has sold mil
lions or CDs. Some critics say his music is too standart but
fans of blues like it.

XIV. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. What country is she from?
2. How old is she?
3. What are her most famous films?
282 Английский язык для музыкантов

4. What was her first acting job?


5. How old was she when she appeared in her first film?
6. Who did she star with in Interview with “The Vam
pire”?
7. What is her most famous part?
8. What new project is she working on with her mother?

KIRSTEN DUNST

One magazine called her the coolest girl in the world,


another called her the hottest property in Hollywood. One
thing for sure — she is a star with an exciting future ahead
of her. Kirsten Dunst was born in New Jersey, USA, in 1982.
Her acting career began at the age of three when she ap
peared in her first TV advert — in the end she made more
than seventy! She made her film debut with a small part in
Woody Allen’s “New York Stories” (1989). Shortly after this
her family moved to Los Angeles and her film career really
started in a big way. In 1994, she got her big break in Inter
view with “The Vampire”, performing with famous megastars
Brad Pitt and Tom Cruise. Her performance as a creepy kid
earned her a “Golden Globe” nomination, the “MTV Award
for Best Breakthrough Performance” and the “Saturn Award”
for Best Young Actress. The following year, people magazine
included her on their list of the world’s Fifty Most Beautiful
People. Over the next few years, she starred in more hit
movies including “Little Women” (1994), “Jumanji” (1995),
the romantic “Get Over it” (2001) and “Mona Lisa Smile”
with Julia Roberts (2003). However, her most successful films
are the “Spider man” films (2002 and 2004) with Tobey
Maguire, where she plays the part of superhero “Spider —
man’s” girlfriend, Mary Jane. Kirsten recently started a film
production company with her mother but plans to continue
acting, too. So what does she want to do next? I don’t know.
You know. “I Iove doing comedies and I Iove doing more
serious films, too.”

XV. Read the text. Find adjectives according to the fol


lowing nouns: excitement, fame, romance, success.
Unit 13. American Music 283

XVI. Fill in the words from the text. Dramatize it: about,
good idea, I’d like, let’s, on.
Mick: What’s ... at the cinema Lucy?
Lucy: Let’s have a look. I know ... go and see I “Robot”.
I think Will Smith is really good.
Mick: Mm. I don’t Iike science fiction films. What ...
“Troy”?
Lucy: No, I don’t like Brad Pitt. And people say it s boring.
Mick: Well, an old film, then? ... to see “Casablanca” again.
It s my favourite film.
Lucy: Ok. That’s a ... Let’s do that!

XII. Answer the questions, using the information from


the text.
1. Which film is 85 hours long?
2. How much did the fourth Harry Potter film cost to make?
3. Who directed “Psycho”?
4. Which film made more money than any other film?
5. How rich is Steven Spielberg?

HOLLYWOOD FACT FILE

1. Dracula is the most popular film character. There are


over 160 Dracula films!
2. In 1987, J. H. Timmis made the longest film in his
tory. It is called “The Cure for Insomnia” and it is 85 hours
long!
3. The most expensive film is the fourth Harry Potter films,
“The Goblet of Fire” (2005). Director Mike Newell spent about
$308 million!
4. One of the funniest film actors was Charlie Chaplin. In
the 1920’s, he was probabiy the most famous person in the
world — but didn’t win an Oscar until 1972!
5. One of the best film directors was Alfred Hichcock. His
films included “Psycho” (1960) and “The Birds” (1963), but he
never won an Oscar!
6. The worst moneymaker is “Heaven’s Gate” (1980). This
was probably the least successful film in history! The biggest
moneymaker of all time is “Gone With the Wind” (1939).
284 Английский язык для музыкантов

7. The most successful film director of all time is Steven


Spielberg. Films like “Jaws”, “E.T.”, the “Indiana Jones” film
and “Jurassic Park” made him one of the highest earners in
Hollywood. In 2004, he was the 205th richest person in the
world with $25 billion!

XVIII. Read the text and match the names of the para
graphs with their plot.
1. Professional theater groups.
2. The Arts.
3. Stage and Screen.
4. Dance.
5. Music.
6. Television.
7. Symphony orchestras.
8. Musicals.
9. Opera.
10. Musical life.

1. In the past 20 years Americans across the country have


shown increasing interest in a variety of cultural events. Many
big cities and piversity towns have built arts centers, and now
hold annual arts festivals. Called “the greatest performingarts
combine in the world”, the Lincoln Center tor the Performing
Arts in New York City, completed houses of the Metropolitan
Opera Company, the New York Philharmonic, the Juilliard
School of Music, a repertory theater and a librarymuseum.
Another major cultural complex is the John F. Kennedy Center
for the Performing Arts in Washington, D. C., Overlooking
the Potomac River, this marblesheathed building houses three
beautifully appointed theaters for opera, dance, drama and
music. It is also the home of the American Film Institute, the
National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington Opera and the
American National Theater.
2. Music of all kinds is extremely popular in the United
States. More than $1000 million is spent annually on operas,
musicals, concerts and popular music, and over $100 million
on classical records. Radio stations broadcast at least 15,000
hours of musical programs weekly. Operas, orchestral perfor
Unit 13. American Music 285

mances, chamber music and jazz concerts are often presented


on television so that viewers in every part of the country can
watch close up performances formerly available only to those
who lived in large cities and could afford concert tickets.
Amateur musicians, playing folksongs, jazz and classical music
number in the millions.
3. There are 1572 symphony orchestras in the United
States — the city of Los Angeles alone supports 20. The New
York Philharmonic and the great orchestras of Boston, Phila
delphia (Cleveland, Chicago, Minnesota and Washington,
D. C.), are known throughout the world. Annual attendance at
symphony concerts tops 22 million. Summer music festivals
feature leading orchestras, soloists and opera companies. Two
of the best known festivals are held at Tanglcwood, Massachu
setts, in the East, and at Aspen, Colorado, in the West.
4. Free outdoor public concerts are held during summer
months in many cities. There are numerous professional schools
of music and music departments in many universities. Out
standing performers developed by these schools include pia
nists Van Qiburn, Eugene Istomin and Grant Johannesen, and
a violinist Isaac Stern. Veteran American composers who have
made important contributions to serious music include Aaron
Copland, Virgil Thomson. Roger Sessions, John Cage and
Leonard Bernstein. Other important contemporary composers
are Milton Babbitt, William Schuman, GianCarlo Menotti,
Elliott Carter, Ulysses Kay, Gunther Schuller, David Del
Tredici, Philip Glass and Steve Reich.
5. There are 133 major opera companies in the United
States. For more than 40 years the famous Metropolitan Opera
Company in New York has broadcast a performance every
Saturday afternoon during the opera season, bringing music
of the highest quality to millions of American listeners and to
a vast audience abroad. Amateur groups bring opera produc
tions to people living in the smaller cities.
6. The modern American theater has perfected an unusual
art form: the musical play. “These musicals” combine songs
and dances in both traditional and modern styles with stories
of dramatic interest. Examples include “Porgy and Bess”,
“Oklahoma”, “South Pacific”, “My Fair Lady”, “Hello, Dolly!”,
286 Английский язык для музыкантов

“Fiddler on the Roof” and “A Chorus Line”. Wellknown com


posers and lyricists of musicals have included Irving Berlin,
Jerome Kern, Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein, George
and Ira Gershwin, Cole Porter, Frank Loesser, Alan Jay Lerner,
Frederick Loewe and Stephen Sondheim.
7. Audience response to traditional ballet and modern dance
concerts has increased enormously in the past 10 years. Now
nearly every city has at least one school for teaching ballet to
children. A number of professional ballet companies are well
established — among them the New York City Ballet, the
American Ballet Theatre, the Alvin Ailey Dance Company, the
Joffrey Ballet, the Dance Theatre of Harlem and the San Fran
cisco Ballet. Jerome Robbins, the late George Balanchine,
Martha Graham, Twyla Tharp, Paul Taylor, Merce Cunningham
and Eliot Feld are among the wellknown choreographers of
recent years. Star dancers include Suzanne Farrell, Mikhail
Baryshnikov, Judith Jamison, Fernando Bujones, Gelsey
Kirkland and Allegra Kent. A number of excellent American
ballets have been created, and classical French and Russian
works continue to have great appeal. Nationwide television
programs help to make all forms of dance popular.
8. Many new plays, usually about 50 productions a season
are presented first on Broadway, the theater district of New
York City. If successful, they often go “on the road” to scores
of cities throughout the country. To many Americans, seeing
a Broadway show is a high point in their visit to the nation’s
largest city. In addition, a movement “regional theater” has
developed across the United States in the past 30 years; and
large subscription audiences now attend professional theater
based in their own communities. Over the years New York
Theater has developed two new avenues, known as “off
Broadway” and “offoff Broadway”, where plays are mod
estly staged in small playhouses, but some rank with the
best Broadway performances in professional skill, and many
enjoy runs. Among the distinguished writers of plays are
Arthur Miller, the late William Saroyan, the late Tennessee
Williams, Shepard, Marsha Norman and Edward Albee. After
the regular theater season has closed, more than 300 summer
theaters go into action in rural areas, in suburbs and at sea
Unit 13. American Music 287

shore and mountain resorts. Sometimes the theater is only a


renovated barn or even a tent. Wellknown actors often appear
in these plays. At the same time, ambitious young students of
the theater have an opportunity to work with experienced
actors and directors. Outdoor pageant plays have also grown
in popularity. One of the best known, “The Common Glory” —
a story of America’s early history — is performed every sum
mer at Williamsburg, Virginia. Kreeger Theater, part of the
Arena Stage in Washington, D. C.
9. Among the 70 or so major resident professional theater
groups, the most respected include the Tyrone Guthrie The
ater in Minneapolis, Minnesota; the Actors Theatre of Louis
ville, Kentucky; the American Conservatory Theatre in San
Francisco, California; Arena Stage in Washington, D. C.; the
Trinity Square Repertory Theater in Providence, Rhode Is
land; the Goodman Theatre in Chicago, Illinois; the Seattle
Repertory Theatre in Washington State; and the Mark Taper
Forum in Los Angeles, California. There are about 20,000
nonprofessional theater groups in cities and small towns, uni
versities, churches and community centers. Motion pictures
remain a favorite form of entertainment despite the popular
ity of television.
10. There are some 16,000 indoor motion screens (with as
many as 12 screens clustered in one theater) and about 2800
outdoor “driveins”, where patrons sit in their own automo
biles to watch domestic and foreign films. Not as many feature
films are being made today as 20 years ago but the quality of
the films has improved. Independent producers with fresh
ideas and approaches have taken over from the factorylike
production of the old studio system. They select their stories
and treat the subjects in ways that reflect their creative ideas.
Many films made abroad enrich the American screen with new
faces and new ideas. Modern methods of moviemaking, such
as the wide screen, color film, and improved sound, have en
hanced realism and audience enjoyment. Television, in 98 per
cent of the homes, gives the American people a wide variety of
programs from early morning until late at night on their
121 million receiving sets. Featuring many great entertainers
and such brilliant singers as Renata Tebaldi and Leontyne
288 Английский язык для музыкантов

Price, television programs have given viewers new insight


into history, art, music, literature, ballet, theater, the discov
eries of modern science and the wonders of the universe; tele
vision is used in large classrooms and in the home as a teaching
aid. Some programs, particularly on the public broadcasting
system, are designed specifically for children. The television
viewer pays no tax or charges for receiving programs on his
set. The cost of the programs on commercial television is borne
chiefly by “sponsors” who buy air time to advertise their goods
or services during programs. Subscribers to cable television,
which is growing rapidly in popularity, do pay a monthly fee
for access to as many as 100 channels of news, sports, movies,
community events and other broadcasts.

XIX. Read the text and...


А. Put 5 tagquestions.
B. Prove your own point of view, using the phrase: Ame
rica has not only one but many different folkmusics.
The great music of the past in other countries has always
been built on folk music. This is the strongest source of mu
sical fecundity. America is no exception among the coun
tries. The best music being written today is music which
comes from folksources. It is not always recognized that
America has folkmusic; yet it really has not only one but
many different folkmusics. It is a vast land, and different
sorts of folkmusic have sprung up in different parts, all
66 having validity and all being a possible foundation for
development into an artmusic. For this reason, I believe that
it is possible for a number of distinctive styles to develop in
America, all legitimately born of folksong from different
localities. Jazz, ragtime, Negro spirituals and blues, South
ern mountain songs, country fiddling, and cowboy songs can
all be employed in the creation of American artmusic, and
are actually used by many composers now. These composers
are certain to produce something worth while if they have
the innate feeling and the talent to develop the rich material
offered to them. There are also other composers who can be
classed as legitimately American who do not make use of
folkmusic as a base, but who personally, working in America,
Unit 13. American Music 289

developed highly individualized styles and methods. Their


newfound materials should be called American, just as an
invention is called American if it is made by an American!
Jazz I regard as an American folkmusic; not the only one,
but a very powerful one which is probably in the blood and
feeling of the American people more than any other style of
folkmusic. I believe that it can be made the basis of serious
symphonic works of lasting value, in the hands of a composer
with talent for both jazz and symphonic music.

XX. Make a report about one of the modern American


composers.
APPENDIX
GLOSSARY

Academic musicians — академические музыканты.


Academic folk music — академическая народная музыка.
Academic music traditions — академические музыкальные
традиции.
Actual compositionalcreative achievements — важные ком
позиторские достижения.
Aesthetic, theoretical beliefs of the composer — эстетиче
ские, теоретические взгляды композитора.
Any choir is the sum of its vocal parts — любой хор — сумма
вокальных партий.
Art music — музыкальное искусство.
Artistic folklore music — исполнители народной музыки.
Authentic folk music — аутентичная народная музыка.
Authentic folk performance practice — практика аутентич
ного народного исполнения.
Authentic musical material — аутентичный музыкальный
материал.
Authentic nature of folk music — подлинный характер на
родной музыки.
Authentic performance — аутентичное исполнение.
Authentic village singing — аутентичное деревенское
пение.
Balalaika players — исполнители на балалайке.
Baroque ricarcare — барочный ричеркар.
Bass line — басовая линия.
Bass note — басовая нота.
Bass singer — певецбас.
Glossary 293

Book on harmonic theory “Unterweisung im Tonsatz” —


книги по теории гармонии «Инструкция по теории му
зыки».
Brilliant English composer — блестящий английский ком
позитор.
Buoyant counterpoint of the piece — жизнерадостный кон
трапункт произведения.
Burly basso voice — крепкий басовый голос.
Canon for two cellos — канон для двух виолончелей.
Career as a composer — композиторская карьера.
Chest register singers — певцы грудного регистра.
Choir singers — хористы.
Choirs impish rendition — хоровая изобретательная интер
претация.
Choral arrangement — хоровая обработка.
Choral musics of supreme technical challenges — хоровая
музыка высочайшей технической сложности.
Choral professionals or choirmasters — хоровые профессио
налы или хормейстеры.
Choral societies — хоровые сообщества.
Classical repertoire — классический репертуар.
Collecting folk music — собирание народной музыки.
Comic opera — комическая опера.
Complete the libretto — завершить либретто.
Complete with sound effects and happy vocal glissando —
завершить со звуковыми эффектами и задорными во
кальными глиссандо.
Complicated eightpart fugue scored for double chorus —
сложная восьмичастная фуга для двойного хора.
Composerarranger — композитораранжировщик.
Comprising all usable genres — содержащий в себе все ис
пользуемые жанры.
Concert stage — концертная сцена.
Conductor, teacher and musical theorist — дирижер, учи
тель, музыкальный теоретик.
Contact in music between the producer and the consumer in
our time is regrettable — контакт в музыке между ис
полнителем и слушателем в наше время вызывает сожа
ление.
294 Английский язык для музыкантов

Contract for three more works — контракт еще на три ра


боты.
Chamber instrument — камерный инструмент.
Cosmic harmony of the spheres — космическая гармония
сфер.
Deeper voiced member of the violin family — представитель
скрипичного семейства с самым глубоким голосом.
Delightful choral romp — очаровательная хоровая суета.
Disharmony — дисгармония.
Dissonance as a kind of jibe — диссонанс как своего рода
насмешка.
Double and triple stops — дуольные и триольные паузы.
Double choir — двойной хор.
Dramaturgical corollaries — драматургические коллизии.
Dubious musical costume — сомнительный музыкальный
костюм.
Extended tonality — расширенная тональность.
Eminent conductor — выдающийся дирижер.
Ethnic music — этническая музыка.
Etudes for the cello — этюды для виолончели.
Faculty of folk music at the Moscow Conservatoire —
факультет народной музыки в Московской консерва
тории.
Fascinating and substantial threepart fusion of Brittens
music and the poetry of W. Auden — обворожительное и
масштабное трехчастное произведение, представляющее
синтез бриттеновской музыки и поэзии У. Одена.
Figured bass — цифрованный бас.
Final chorale — заключительный хорал.
Final scene of the opera — финальная сцена оперы.
First performance — первое исполнение.
Folk elements — народные элементы.
Folk instrument — народный инструмент.
Folk melodies — народные мелодии.
Folk music — народная музыка.
Folk performer — народный исполнитель.
Folk singers — народные певцы.
Folkloric performance — фольклорные выступления.
Folkloric manner — фольклорная манера.
Glossary 295

Folkloric music — фольклорная музыка.


Folk music traditions — фольклорные музыкальные тра
диции.
Four soloists: soprano, mezzosoprano, tenor and bass —
четыре солиста: сопрано, меццосопрано, тенор и бас.
Fresh voices — живые голоса.
Fugue — фуга.
Genius of creation — творческий гений.
Genres: orchestral works, solo concertos, chamber music
for a wide variety of instruments, choral works, lieder,
operas and ballets — жанры: оркестровые произведе
ния, сольные концерты, камерная музыка для широ
кого спектра инструментов, хоровые произведения,
песни, оперы и балеты.
Gifted and original composer — талантливый и оригиналь
ный композитор.
Glorious voices — восхитительные голоса.
Great music of our time — великая музыка нашего времени.
Guitar festival — фестиваль гитары.
Harpsichord player — клавесинист.
Having no frets — отсутствие ладов.
Highpitched tone — высокий звук.
Imitative counterpoint — имитационный контрапункт.
In classic Anglican setting — в классической англиканской
музыке.
In magical brainteasing complexity — в магии интеллекту
ального воздействия.
In the chorus included female voices — в хор включены
женские голоса.
Individual voices — индивидуальные голоса.
Ingenious harmonic structure — оригинальная гармониче
ская структура.
Instrumental accompaniment — инструментальное сопро
вождение.
Instrumental expression — инструментальная выразитель
ность.
Instrumental music — инструментальная музыка.
Instrumental music traditions — традиции инструменталь
ной музыки.
296 Английский язык для музыкантов

Interwoven vocal lines — переплетающиеся вокальные линии.


Ironical chamber music — ироническая камерная музыка.
Leading composers of the century — ведущие композиторы
века.
Level of virtuosity — уровень виртуозности.
Libretto had to undergo substantial revisions in order to
satisfy the epoch’s censorship — либретто подверглось
значительным изменениям в угоду цензуре.
Listen to the music — слушать музыку.
Low diapason — низкий диапазон.
“Mass music” (music for the proletarian masses) — «массо
вая музыка» (музыка для пролетарских масс).
“Materialisation” of this vision in the materials of music —
материализация этого видения в музыкальном мате
риале.
Major and minor harmonies — мажорные и минорные гар
монии.
Moscow Military Area Song and Dance Ensemble — Мос
ковский военный ансамбль песни и пляски.
Most impressive music — очень впечатляющая музыка.
Most popular of all Verdi’s operas — самая популярная из
всех опер Верди.
Multiple ornamental notes — множество украшающих нот.
Multiple soloist — многоплановый солист.
Music lush textures — плотность музыкальной ткани.
Musical drama — музыкальная драма.
Musical language — музыкальный язык.
Musical literacy — музыкальная грамотность.
Musical moods wings — спектр музыкальных образов.
Musical setting of the Roman Catholic funeral mass (Re
quiem) — музыкальное оформление римскокатоличе
ской заупокойной мессы («Реквием»).
Musician’s conviction — убеждения музыканта.
Musictheoretical and aesthetic convictions — музыкально
теоретические и эстетические убеждения.
Neoclassical style — неоклассический стиль.
Northern Russian Folk Chorus — северный русский народ
ный хор.
Not performed in the liturgy — не исполняется в литургии.
Glossary 297

Octave to 12 notes — октава до 12 нот.


One of the choir members — один из участников хора.
One of the final works in this genre — одна из последних
работ в этом жанре.
Openthroated tone — открытый, горловой звук.
Opera in ecclesiastical robes — опера в церковных одеждах.
Opera orchestra — оперный оркестр.
Opera or oratorio grade voices — голоса оперного или орато
риального типа.
Orchestras of folk instrument — оркестры народных инст
рументов.
Order of tones — порядок звуков.
Original idea of musical drama — оригинальная идея музы
кальной драмы.
Overall communal sound — общий эмоциональный ключ
звучания.
Participating in the accompaniment — участие в аккомпа
нементе.
Passacaglia — пассакалия.
Pearlytoned choral fantasia — жемчужные тоны хоровой
фантазии.
Performance practice — практика исполнительства.
Performances by the Red Army Song and Dance Ensemble —
выступления ансамбля песни и танца Красной Армии.
Piano part — партия фортепиано.
Pianoduet transcription — переложение для фортепианно
го дуэта.
Pieces for solo cello — произведения для виолончелисоло.
Playwright and music critic — драматург и музыкальный
критик.
Polyphonic writing techniques — полифоническое сочинение.
Premiered a full staging — состоялась премьера полной
постановки.
Process of vocal control — процесс вокального контроля.
Producing a sound — звукоизвлечение.
Professional composers — профессиональные композиторы.
Professor for composition/musicology — профессор компо
зиции/музыковедения.
298 Английский язык для музыкантов

Prominent role in music history — видная роль в истории


музыки.
Pursue a career as a theatre composer — продолжить карь
еру как театральный композитор.
Quality of choral sound — качество хорового пения.
Rapid speed of composing — быстрая скорость сочинения
музыки.
Raucous music — «кабацкая» (хриплая) музыка.
Regional folkloric ensembles — региональные фольклорные
ансамбли.
Regularly performed — регулярно исполняемое.
Reproduce authentic folk music — воспроизводить подлин
ную народную музыку.
Requirements of firstrate choral singing — требования
высокого уровня хорового звучания.
Sacred music — церковная музыка.
Sacred or secular melody — церковная или светская мелодия.
Score — партитура.
Scordatura of the lowest string — скордатура (перестройка)
нижней струны.
Sensual and gently jazzy arrangement classic — чувствен
ная, с мягкими джазовыми аранжировками классика.
Setting a passage — музыка, написанная по мотивам.
Significant musical fragments — значительные музыкаль
ные фрагменты.
Solo concerto — сольный концерт.
Solo performance — сольное исполнение.
Solo repertoire —– сольный репертуар.
Sonatas are indispensible works in the repertoire of all in
strumentalists — сонаты, незаменимые в репертуаре
всех инструменталистов.
Spare piano accompaniment — небольшой фортепианный
аккомпанемент.
Spontaneous “vision” of the work to be created — спонтан
ное видение творческого процесса.
Standard works of operatic history — классика оперного
жанра.
Stilettosharp intonation — стилистически отточенная ин
тонация.
Glossary 299

String instrument — струнный инструмент.


Style of polyphonic splendor — стиль полифонического ве
ликолепия.
Style of classical notation — стиль классической нотации.
Stylized stage costumes — стилизованные сценические кос
тюмы.
Substantial contribution to the genre of music theatre —
существенный вклад в жанр музыкального театра.
Sultryvoiced soloist — солист, обладающий экспрессивным
тембром голоса.
Talented pianist and composer — талантливый пианист и
композитор.
Technical aspects of the compositional process — техниче
ская сторона сочинения музыки.
Technical compositional questions — вопросы техники ком
позиции.
This stellar ensemble — этот звездный ансамбль.
The first arrangement of the symphonic poem — первая
аранжировка симфонической поэмы.
The first lessons in composition — первые уроки по компо
зиции.
The wellknown cycle — хорошо известный цикл.
To break standard compositional rules for musical effect —
сломать стандартные композиционные правила для му
зыкального эффекта.
To express the powerful emotions engendered by the text —
выражать сильные чувства и эмоции, порождаемые тек
стом.
To inspire the composers — вдохновить композиторов.
To perform in Catholic Church rituals (such as a requiem
mass) — участвовать в ритуалах католической церкви
(например заупокойной мессы).
To sing in master choir — петь в высококлассном хоре.
Toccata — токката.
Tonal music — тональная музыка.
Traditions of Russian ballet — традиции русского балета.
Truly creative gift — настоящий творческий дар.
Unaccompanied sonatas — сонаты без аккомпанемента.
300 Английский язык для музыкантов

Various forms of art music — различные формы музыкаль


ного искусства.
Various forms of music — различные формы музыки.
Very top and the very bottom of the keyboard — самый верх
и самый низ клавиатуры.
Virtuoso cellists — виолончелистывиртуозы.
Vocal music — вокальная музыка.
Welldosed harmony — хорошо гармонизованный.
Wellknown tenor solo — соло известного тенора.
Western folklore traditions — западные музыкальные тра
диции.
Western pop music — западная попмузыка.
“White” sound or “white” voice — «белый» звук или «бе
лый» голос.
Work of ethnomusicologists — работа этномузыковедов.

I. Read music words and add some new ones from the
texts.

II. Learn vocabulary and...

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306 Английский язык для музыкантов

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316 Английский язык для музыкантов

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Glossary 317

А. Make your own sentences.


B. Make up dialogues.
III. Give more music terminology from the texts.
Rest is a sign which shows how long you are not to play or
sing. Rests are the reverse side of the music that is heard.
There exists exact correlation between note values and rest
values. Rest values also have different variants of naming in
British and American English.
Aleatory music — music in which the composer introduces
elements of chance or unpredictability with regard to either
the composition or its performance. The terms aleatoric, chance
music, music of indeterminacy have been applied to many
works created since 1945 by composers who differ widely as to
the concepts, the methods, and the rigor with which they em
ploy procedures of random selection. The first wellknown
example of the 20th century aleatory composition was John
Cage’s Music of Changes for piano (1951).
Rockabilly — a form of American popular music that com
bined the plucked string sounds of country and western music
with songforms and lyrics of rock’n’roll. The genre flourished
from about 1954 to 1960 in the southern US and for somewhat
longer in England. Its essential representatives include Jene
Vincent, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, and the young Elvis Presley.
Rhythmandblues (also rhythm’n’blues, R’n’B) — Black
American popular music from the late 1940’s through the
early 1960’s. Rhythmandblues continued to be a general term
for many styles of black popular music throughout the 1960’s,
but the classic rhythmandblues style was supplanted in popu
larity in the late 1950’s by rockandroll (essentially a blend of
rhythmandblues and country, which was pioneered by Elvis
Presley and became a part of white youth culture), and slightly
later by soul music (which resulted from the application of
gospel singing styles to rhythmandblues, as developed by
Ray Charles and Sam Cooke, and quickly became the most
popular style among black teenagers).
Folk rock — a combination of folk music with the ampli
fied instrumentation of rock usually including drums and elec
tric stringed instrument.
318 Английский язык для музыкантов

Soul — a type of black American popular music that ap


peared in the mid1960’s. Popular vocalists are Ray Charles,
Stevie Wonder.
Impressionism — an artistic movement of the late 19th
and early 20th century, represented in music chiefly by Claude
Debussy (1862–1918).
Impressionism was first fully realized in Debussy’s After
noon of a Faun (1892) and later in his Nocturns for Orchestra
(1893–1899), the orchestral suite “La Mer” (1903–1905), the
opera “Pelléas et Mélisande” (1902), and the collections for
pianoforte, Images (1905, 1907), “Préludes” (1910–1913).
Many other composers were strongly influenced by Debussy’s
innovations, e. g., Ravel, Dukas, Roussel, de Séverac in France;
Delhis, Bax, Scott in England; Réspighi in Italy; Falla in Spain;
Carpenter and Griffes in America. Among important techni
cal devices of impressionistic style are parallel chords and the
wholetone scale.
PostRomanticism (or late Romanticism) — a term some
times used in reference to composers such as Mahler, R. Strauss,
and others, who continued the essential Romantic expression in
music after its high period in the mid19th century.
Expressionism — a term denoting a certain trend in music
beginning during the second decade of the 20th century, par
ticularly in Austria and Germany. The term was taken over
from the graphic arts (Nolde, Kirchner) and used, more or less
metaphorically, for music written in a deeply subjective and
introspective style, conveying a typical “expressionistic” ex
pression of tortuous emotions and psycho-analytical complexes.
The composers most often identified as “expressionists”
are Arnold Schoenberg (who was also a talented painter), Alban
Berg and to some extent Anton von Webern.
Dynamism — a term sometimes used in reference to the
style of Stravinsky about 1910. It is characterized by a large,
brilliantly colourful orchestra, by strongly percussive rhythms
in irregular metric patterns, and by harshly dissonant harmo
nies.
Neoclassicism — a movement of the 20th century, which is
essentially a reaction against the subjectivity and unrestrained
emotionalism of late Romanticism. It is characterized by the
Glossary 319

adoption of aesthetic ideal and of forms or methods derived


from the music of earlier masters, especially those of the 18th
century such as Bach, Handel, Mozart, etc. Neoclassicism be
came the most widespread and most important trend in music
about 1920. Stravinsky’s Sonata for Pianoforte (1922) and
Octet for Wind Instruments (1923) are among the definitive
examples of neoclassical style.
Concrete music (Fr. musique concrete) — a historical
source of electroacoustic music and a continuing genre in
which sonic material is derived from recorded sound. The first
examples were music for radio plays composed by Pierre
Schaeffer at the studios of French Radio in Paris (1948). In
1951 an experimental studio under Schaeffer’s direction was
established, the first to be devoted to electronic music (Groupe
de Recherches de Musique concrete). Between 1948 and 1980,
935 works were composed in the studios, including pieces by
Varèse, Berio, Stockhausen, Cage and Boulez. See also note to
p. 6 “Electroacoustic music”.
Serial music — music constructed according to permuta
tions of a group of elements placed in a certain order of series
(tone row). These elements may include pitches, durations, or
any other musical values. Strictly speaking, serial music en
compasses twelvetone music as well as music employing other
types of pitch series. Normally, however, the term is reserved
for music that extends classical Schoenbergian twelvetone
pitch technique and, especially, applies serial control to other
musical elements, such as duration. Such music, mainly devel
oped after the World War II is often distinguished from twelve
tone serialism as “integral” or “total” serialism.
Dance is a wider term than ballet, and includes all types of
dancing. For example, it may be applied to folk dancing, as in
the expression folk dance company. Sometimes, however, it is
used more or less as a synonym of ballet; for example, newspa
per articles and reviews are sometimes headed DANCE instead
of BALLET. Dance also occurs in the names of some ballet
companies
Repertory [‘repət(ə)ri], repertoire [‘repətwa:]. These are
two variants of the same word, the second borrowed from
French without change of form. Their meanings are basically
320 Английский язык для музыкантов

the same, that is, in connection with the theatre, the stock of
productions which a company is able to present at a given time
(репертуар).
The head of an opera company is the musical director. He
is a conductor (дирижер), and is also responsible for the whole
musical side of the company’s productions. In addition, each
production has a producer, who is responsible for the dra
matic aspect and its coordination with the music. Either pro,
duce or direct may be used with reference to his work.
The head of a ballet company may be called simply the
director, as in the theatre, or the chief choreographer. Since
there is little or no separate dramatic element in a ballet, a
particular production has no producer/director, but only a
choreographer. Compose and stage are used with reference to
a choreographer’s work.
The chorusmaster is the person who trains the singers in
an opera company (хормейстер). There appears to be no femi
nine form (i. e., chorusmistress), presumably because this
position is traditionally occupied by a man in Britain. At any
rate, no instances of a woman occupying this position in a
British opera company have been found by the author.
The balletmaster/mistress is the person who trains the
dancers in a ballet company (балетмейстер).
A promenade concert is a type of popular symphony con
cert in Britain, which takes place every evening for a season
during the summer, and where many of the audience stand
(which makes the tickets cheaper) and the atmosphere is very
informal. Originally the audience even walked about, hence
the name, which is French for a walk. Promenade concert is
often abbreviated to prom.
Recital — this is the proper name for a concert given by
one performer or a small group, with reference to classical
music, and is widely used by regular concertgoers. It is often
combined with the name of the instrument, or a composer, and
sometimes the type of work is specified. It is not essential to
use recital when there is only one performer or a small group.
Concert may be used instead, although it is less common, at
least with regular concertgoers. Recital is often the best trans
lation of вечер in such expressions as (фортепианный вечер,
Glossary 321

вечер скрипичной музыки). Recital may refer not only to


music, but also to poetry, as in the expression a poetry recital.
Poetry evening is possible, though less common.
Number is used of an item in a variety show, a jazz or pop
concert. It suggests something light.
Piece may be used to denote a short and usually not very
serious musical work, or sometimes an excerpt.
Audience is the usual word for those watching a theatrical
performance or other entertainment.
Theme is used to denote a short tune which is developed
and repeated in a sonata, a symphony, etc., or which serves as
the basis for a set of variations.
Tune and melody are synonymous, but tune is more widely
used than melody. A tune may be simple or complex, fast or
slow, ordinary or strikingly beautiful. Melody tends to imply
a beautiful tune, especially a slow and moving one. Tune is
stylistically neutral, whereas melody is literary, and little used
in everyday conversation. Tune is used in contrast to words
with reference to songs.
Note is not used in the plural to mean notes printed on
sheets of paper, like the Russian (ноты). This is sheet mu
sic, or simply music. Music in this sense also occurs in the
expression to read music. This can be contrasted with to
have an ear for music, where music is used in its more usual
sense.
Score is used to denote the copy where all the parts (пар,
тии) are shown, especially with reference to orchestral music.
It corresponds to (партитура). Score may also be used of the
music itself, not simply its written form.
A group of singers is generally called a choir. Most schools
in England have a choir, and there are also many adult choirs,
both amateur and professional. Some symphony orchestras
have their own choir. Here, however, chorus is sometimes
used instead of choir. For example, the London Philharmonic
Orchestra has a choir, and the New Philharmonia Orchestra a
chorus, with no difference of meaning. The distinction be
tween the two words is not clearcut.
Chorus is always used in opera. In addition it has the
meaning “refrain”, that is, part of a song for everyone to sing,
322 Английский язык для музыкантов

recurring after each verse. In chorus is used in the sense of


“all together”, with reference to both singing and reading.
Most choirs have four groups of voices:
sopranos
contraltos or altos
especially in children’s choirs, where they may be either
girls or boys
tenors
basses
They generally sing in parts (на несколько голосов), for
example, in two, three or four parts, but they sometimes sing
in unison, that is, all together. They are trained by a choir
master, sometimes called a chorusmaster.
Duet, trio, quartet, etc. [dju’et, ‘triou, ,kwo:’tet]. These
are works composed for two, three or four performers. Here
also the instruments or type of instruments can be specified.
The most common expression of this kind is string quartet.
Trio, quartet, etc. are also used to denote a group of three,
four, etc. players performing together. The following terms
are used of works for more than four instruments: quintet —
for five septet — for seven sextet — for six octet — for eight.
In practice these occur comparatively seldom.
Classical music. There is a tendency to use classical music
with particular reference to the music of the past, up to and
including the nineteenth century. However, the term also in
cludes music being written now, and we may therefore speak
of modern classical music. Classical here refers to genre, not
period, and should not therefore be used in contrast to mod,
ern. A classic may be used of a musical work which is firmly
established in the concert repertoire and is therefore well
known. Such works are sometimes called collectively the clas
sics. However, classic is used less often in connection with
music than with literature.
Light classical is used of short classical works or excerpts
which are easy to listen to, either because the composer’s aim
was simply to entertain, or because of their familiarity. Light
here is the opposite of serious.
Serious music. This is sometimes used as a synonym of
classical music, but strictly speaking it is not synonymous,
Glossary 323

since not all classical music is serious, and other types of


music, for example, folk music and jazz, can claim to be
serious too, in the sense of being not merely entertainment,
but art. Serious music is thus a wider concept than classical
music.
Light music. This is not so much a category as a collection
of works from various categories. It includes light classical
music (see above), popular tunes and songs from different
sources, both traditional and new, dance music, film music,
and so on.
Folk music corresponds to the Russian (народная музы,
ка), and includes both instrumental music and songs.
Jazz. This is defined by Hornby as follows: “popular music
first played by Negro groups in the southern USA in the
early 20th century, characterized by improvization and strong
rhythms, called traditional jazz; similar music played by
large bands for dancing; a later variation much influenced by
the blues to produce an unhurried emotive style, called mod
ern jazz.”
(Blues is defined as “haunting jazz melodies originally of
Negroes in the southern US”.)
Traditional jazz is (классический джаз). Classical jazz is
not used.
Note that jazz is generally used without music, e. g., I like
(traditional/modern) jazz.
Pop music. Pop is an abbreviation of popular, but it has
developed a specific meaning: modern music of an uncompli
cated type, played mainly on electric guitars and drums, often
with a singer. The Russian (эстрадная музыка) includes some
pop music, but it is a wider category, and has no English
equivalent. In situations where (эстрадный) includes not only
music but other types of entertainment, variety can be used.
Variety singer, however, does not seem to occur. There is only
pop singer.
Dance music. This is not a specific type of music, since
various kinds of music may be used for dancing, including jazz
and pop music.
Film music — music composed for films.
324 Английский язык для музыкантов

Background music. This expression is used in Britain to


denote any music played softly as a background for conversa
tion, etc. Some people put on records as background music
when friends come to see them, and such music is increasingly
heard in public places in Britain: hotel foyers, airports, super
markets, etc.
Instrumental/vocal music. These categories correspond
to the Russian (инструментальная/вокальная музыка). The
performers may be called instrumentalists vocalists.
Vocal music and vocalist are often replaced in nonprofes
sional conversations by singing, and singer.
Instrumental music and instrumentalist also sound rather
professional, but they have no colloquial equivalent. In some
cases, however, player can be used meaning instrumentalist.
Orchestral music. This corresponds more or less to (сим,
фоническая музыка). Symphonic music is little used by non
professionals, as it has a narrower application than orchestral
music, referring only to symphonies, and excluding such works
as concertos, suites. Orchestral work/concert are also used.
Chamber music. This corresponds in most cases to (камер,
ная музыка). Some chamber music is orchestral, written for
a chamber orchestra, but the category also includes works for
smaller groups of instrumentalists or vocalists, or soloists.
Chamber work/concert are also used.
TESTS

TEST No. 1
1. Fill in puzzles.
326 Английский язык для музыкантов

1. Произведение. 15. Серенада.


2. Движение. 16. Концерт.
3. Мотив. 17. Кантата.
4. Мелодия. 18. Оратория.
5. Такт. 19. Соната.
6. Аккорд. 20. Тема с вариациями.
7. Ритм. 21. Менуэт.
8. Ключ, тональность. 22. Рондо.
9. Партитура. 23. Вальс.
10. Форма. 24. Полька.
11. Симфоническое и хоровое 25. Гопак.
произведение. 26. Полонез.
12. Симфония. 27. Танго.
13. Оркестровая сюита. 28. Ария.
14. Инструментальная миниа 29. Увертюра.
тюра. 30. Народное пение.
Tests 327

1. Сладкий. 12. Резкий.


2. Приятный. 13. Хриплый.
3. Тихий. 14. Глухой.
4. Звонкий. 15. Голос.
5. Мягкий. 16. Баритон.
6. Грудной. 17. Бас.
7. Низкий. 18. Тенор.
8. Громовой. 19. Контральто.
9. Громкий. 20. Меццосопрано.
10. Высокий. 21. Оперные певцы.
11. Тонкий. 22. Необыкновенный.

1. Камерная музыка. 6. Инструментальная музыка.


2. Классическая музыка. 7. Симфоническая музыка.
3. Современная музыка. 8. Джазовая музыка.
4. Танцевальная музыка. 9. Легкая музыка.
5. Народная музыка. 10. Популярная музыка.
328 Английский язык для музыкантов

1. Дирижер. 9. Исполнитель на банджо.


2. Пианист. 10. Исполнитель на концертино.
3. Скрипач. 11. Исполнитель на балалайке.
4. Виолончелист. 12. Исполнитель на тамбурине.
5. Арфист. 13. Гитарист.
6. Кларнетист. 14. Аккордеонист.
7. Флейтист. 15. Мандолинист.
8. Органист. 16. Аккомпаниатор.

TEST No. 2
CHOOSE THE RIGHT VARIANT
1. I’m trying to recall an ... that I heard at the cinema.
a) air;
b) symphony;
c) cantata.
2. I’ve got that new tune on my ...
a) form;
b) waltz;
c) brain.
3. It’ a ... catchy melody.
a) tune;
b) rather;
с) light music.
Tests 329

4. The tune is rather ...


a) musicianship;
b) pretty;
c) overture.
5. His ... have charm.
a) melodies;
b) to interprete;
c) beauty of tone and phrasing.
6. His music abounds in ...
a) minuet;
b) rondo;
c) melody.
7. His ... are expressive and deeply felt.
a) to get an ovation;
b) interpretation;
c) melodies.
8. His melodies are ... and strong.
a) clear (rining);
b) hoarse;
c) aggressive.
9. The melody is based on the ... of.
a) airs;
b) beauty of tone and phrasing;
c) a mixed chorus.
10. Most of his melodies are derived from ...
a) form;
b) folk songs;
c) movement (s).
11. His melodies are full of ... and charm.
a) round;
b) light music;
с) originality.
12. The musical ... was full of catchy tunes.
a) sweet;
b) comedy;
c) bass.
13. It’s a light ... tune.
a) dance;
b) piece (of music);
330 Английский язык для музыкантов

c) rondo.
14. What .../heartrending tunes!
a) interpretation;
b) wailing;
c) to have a season ticket.
15. Do you know the ... song?
a) trio;
b) to interpret;
c) drinking.
16. I know only a few ... of that songs.
a) lines;
b) to give an encore;
c) solo.
17. It’s a new ... adapted to the tune.
a) tango;
b) song;
c) chord.
18. This song is more in the ... pattern.
a) classical;
b) serious;
c) lyrical.
19. It’s a lyrical ...
a) song;
b) polonaise;
c) minuet.
20. The depth and sweetness of the song is ...
a) wonderful;
b) a recital;
c) concerto.
21. How ... the song is!
a) overture;
b) sweetvoiced;
c) aria.
22. How noble and ... the song sounds.
a) noble restraint;
b) pleasant;
c) moving.
23. Oh, yes, it is deep in feeling, ...
a) indeed;
Tests 331

b) voice;
c) rhythm.
24. The song is rather ...
a) bass;
b) melodious;
c) sextet.
25. There is a ... in the song thet makes it wail and moan.
a) note;
b) bar;
c) score.
26. The ... is hardly traceable in that song.
a) technique;
b) duet;
c) rhythm;
27. His rhythm is ...
a) tedious;
b) high;
c) toneless.
28. She makes free with the of the ...
a) musicianship;
b) song;
c) chorus.
29. This folksong is marked by a certain peculiarity of
rhythm, ... and melody.
a) tune;
b) key;
c) form.
30. Let’s join in the ...
a) singing;
b) polka;
c) orchestral suite.
APPLICATION

Application No. 1
PRONUNCIATION OF NAMES
OF SOME FAMOUS COMPOSERS
Bach [ba:k, ba:x, ba:h] Mozart [‘moutsa:t]
Bartok [‘ba:tok] Mussorgsky [mə’so:gski]
Beethoven [‘beithouvn] Prokofiev [prə’kofjef]
Berlioz [‘bε(ə)liouz] Puccini [pu’tɾi:ni(:)]
Brahms [bra:mz] Purcell [‘pə:sel]
Britten [‘brit(ə)n] Rachmaninov [ræk’maeninof]
Chopin [‘ɾoupe] Ravel [rə’vel]
Debussy [də’bu:si(:)] Scarlatti [ska:’læti(:)]
Dvorák [‘(d)vo:a:k] Schoenberg [‘ɾə: nbə: g]
Franck [fra:nk] Schubert [‘ɾu:bə(:)t]
Gounod [‘gu:nou] Schumann [‘ɾu:mən]
Grieg [gri:g] Shostakovich [,ɾostə’kouvitɾ]
Handel [‘hændl] Strauss [straus]
Haydn [‘haidn] Stravinsky [stra’vinski]
Hindemith [‘hindəmit] Tchaikovsky [tɾai’kofski]
Honegger [‘honigə] Verdi [‘vεədi]
Liszt [list] Vivaldi [vi’vældi(:)]
Mahler [‘ma:lə] Wagner [‘va:gnə]
Mendelssohn [‘mendlsn] Weber [‘veibə]

Application No. 2
USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
WITH THE TERMINOLOGY
A. Перед названиями опер, балетов, оперетт, музы
кальных произведений, песен с прописной буквы:
The Snow Maiden «Снегурочка» (опера Н. РимскогоКор
сакова);
The Tsar’s Bride «Царская невеста» (опера Н. Римского
Корсакова);
Application 333

The Maid of Pskov «Псковитянка» (опера Н. Римского


Корсакова);
The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh «Сказание о
невидимом граде Китеже и деве Февронии» (опералегенда
Н. РимскогоКорсакова);
The Legend of Tsar Saltan «Сказка о царе Салтане» (опе
ралегенда Н. РимскогоКорсакова);
The Magic Flute «Волшебная флейта» (опера Моцарта);
The Barber of Seville [sə’vil] «Севильский цирюльник»
(комедия П. Бомарше, опера Дж. Россини);
The Thieving Magpie «Сорокаворовка» (опера Дж. Рос
сини);
The Players «Паяцы» (опера Р. Леонкавалло);
The Pearl Fishers «Искатели жемчуга» (опера Ж. Бизе);
The Beggar’s Opera «Опера нищих» (опера И. К. Пе
пуша);
The Power of Destiny «Сила судьбы» (опера Дж. Верди);
The Rhinegold [‘rain, gould] «Золото Рейна» (опера
Р. Вагнера);
The Nutcracker «Щелкунчик» (балет П. Чайковского);
The Sleeping Beauty «Спящая красавица» (балет П. Чай
ковского);
The Rite of Spring «Весна священная» (балет И. Стра
винского);
The Blue Danube «На прекрасном голубом Дунае» (вальс
И. Штраусасына);
The Tales of Hoffmann «Сказки Гофмана» (опера Ж. Оффен
баха);
The WellTempered Clavier «Хорошо темперированный
клавир» (соч. И. С. Баха);
The Musical Offering «Музыкальное приношение» (соч.
И. С. Баха);
The Devine Poem «Божественная поэма» (симфонич.
произведение А. Скрябина);
The Night on the Bare Mountain «Ночь на Лысой горе»
(интермеццо для оркестра М. Мусоргского);
The Fiddler on the Roof «Скрипач на крыше» (мюзикл
амер. композитора Дж. Бока по рассказам ШоломАлейхе
ма; фильм Н. Джуисона);
334 Английский язык для музыкантов

The West Side Story «Вестсайдская история» (амер.


мюзикл);
The Poem of Ecstasy «Поэма экстаза» (симфонич. произ
ведение А. Скрябина);
The Seasons «Времена года» (оратория И. Гайдна);
The Four Seasons «Времена года» (А. Вивальди — цикл
из четырех концертов; Чайковский — цикл пьес для фор
тепьано);
The StarSpangled Banner «Звездное знамя», или «Усе
янное звездами знамя» (гимн);
The Maple Leaf Forever «Кленовый лист навеки» (попу
лярная канад. патриотическая песня);
однако:
The Internationale «Интернационал» (международный
революционный гимн социалистов);
однако:
A Life for the Tsar «Жизнь за царя» (опера М. Глинки);
A Kiss in Spring (англ.) «Фиалка Монмартра» (оперетта
И. Кальмана);
A Chorus Line «Кордебалет» (мюзикл композитора
М. Хэмлиша);
однако:
May Night «Майская ночь» (опера Н. РимскогоКорса
кова);
Swan Lake «Лебединое озеро» (балет П. Чайковского);
Pictures at an Exhibition «Картинки с выставки» (фп.
пьеса М. Мусоргского);
Tales from the Vienna Woods «Сказки Венского леса»
(вальс И. Штраусасына).
B. Перед названиями симфоний, сонат, концертов,
увертюр, музыкальных циклов определенный артикль
пишется со строчной буквы:
the Classical Symphony Классическая симфония (С. Про
кофьева);
the Еroica Symphony Героическая симфония (3я симфо
ния Бетховена);
the Farewell Symphony Прощальная симфония (45я
симфония Гайдна);
Application 335

the Pastoral Symphony Пасторальная симфония (6я


симфония Бетховена);
the Moonlight Sonata «Лунная соната» (Бетховена);
the Pathetic Sonata «Патетическая соната» (Бетховена);
the Kreutzer [‘kroitsə] Sonata «Крейцерова соната» (Бет
ховена);
the EighteenTwelve [or 1812] Overture «Торжественная
увертюра 1812 год» (П. Чайковского);
the Academic Festival Overture «Академическая увер
тюра» (Брамса);
the Tragic Overture «Трагическая увертюра» (Брамса);
the Brandenburg [‘brændənbə:g] Concertos Бранденбург
ские концерты (6 оркестровых произведений И. С. Баха);
однако:
A Hero’s Life «Жизнь героя» (симфонии, поэма
Р. Штрауса);
An Alpine Symphony «Альпийская симфония» (симфо
ническая поэма Р. Штрауса);
A Colour Symphony «Симфония красок» (А. Блисса);
Rhapsody [‘ræpsədi:] in Blue «Рапсодия в стиле блюз»
(концерт для фп. и скрипки с оркестром Дж. Гершвина);
Rhapsody on a Theme of [or by] Paganini «Рапсодия на
тему Паганини» (соч. для фп. с оркестром С. Рахманинова);
Baba Yaga «Бабаяга» (соч. для оркестра А. Дарго
мыжского).
C. Перед названиями театральных трупп, коллек
тивов, театров, концертных залов употребляется:
the American Ballet Theatre Американский театр балета
(ньюйорская труппа);
the Bolshoi Theatre Большой театр (гос. академический
(ГАБТ));
the Bolshoi Ballet Большой балет (так часто называют на
Западе балетную труппу Большого театра);
the Covent Garden Theatre театр «КовентГарден»;
the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) Королевский опер
ный театр (официальное название оперного театра «Ко
вентГарден»);
336 Английский язык для музыкантов

the Mariinsky company, the (Imperial) Marie Theatre


Мариинский театр (в СанктПетербурге);
the Metropolitan [metrə’polətən] Opera Company театр
Метрополитенопера (ведущая амер. оперная труппа);
the La Scala Opera Опера Лa Скала;
the Sydney Opera House Сиднейский оперный театр (по
строен по проекту датского архитектора Йёриа Утсона на
берегу бухты Сиднея; открылся в 1973 г.);
the Vienna State Opera Венская государственная опера;
the National Ballet Company Национальная балетная
труппа;
the Rambert Dance Company «Рамбер Данс компани»;
the Tabernacle [‘taebo, nxkol] Choir хор «Табернакл» (хор
в составе ок. 400 человек в знаменитом молельном доме
мормонов Табернакл в СолтЛейкСити);
the Bach Choir Хоровое общество Баха (один из ведущих
хоров Англии);
the Washington Opera Chorus Вашингтонская оперная
группа;
the Ballet Rambert «Баллей Рамбер» (одна из ведущих
англ. балетных трупп);
the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo «Балле Рюсс де Монте
Карло»;
the Dutch National Ballet Голландский национальный
балет;
the London Festival Ballet Лондонский фестивальный
балет;
the New York City Ballet Балет города НьюЙорка, «Нью
Йорк сити балет» (с 1964 г. выступает в Театре штата Нью
Йорк в Линкольновском центре сценических искусств);
the Royal Ballet Королевский балет (нац. балетная труп
па Великобритании);
the Royal Danish Ballet Королевский датский балет;
the Stuttgart Ballet Штутгартский балет:
(the) Carnegie [‘ka:nəgi:] Hall Карнегихолл (концерт
ный комплекс в НьюЙорке);
the Grand Hall of the Conservatory [or Conservatoire]
Большой зал консерватории (в Москве);
Application 337

the Radio City Music Hall киноконцертный зал «Радио


сити» (в НьюЙорке);
the Royal [‘roiəl] Festival Hall «РойялФестивалХолл»
(Королевский фестивальный зал: концертный зал в Лон
доне);
the Cookery «Кукери» (один из крупнейших в НьюЙор
ке джазклубов и ресторанчик, расположенный в Гринвич
Виллидже);
the Moulin Rouge «МуленРуж» (кабаре в Париже);
the Ballets Russes «Русский балет» (труппа С. П. Дягилева);
однако:
Diaghilev’s Russian Ballet «Русский балет» Дягилева.
D. Перед названиями симфонических оркестров, му
зыкальных ансамблей, попгрупп употребляется:
the ВВС Symphony Orchestra Симфонический оркестр
«Бибиси»;
the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra Берлинский филар
монический оркестр;
the Boston Symphony Orchestra Бостонский симфониче
ский оркестр;
the Chicago Symphony (Orchestra) Чикагский симфони
ческий оркестр;
the European Youth Orchestra Европейский молодеж
ный оркестр;
the London Philharmonic Orchestra Лондонский филар
монический оркестр;
the London Symphony Orchestra Лондонский симфони
ческий оркестр;
the Philadelphia Orchestra Филадельфийский симфони
ческий оркестр (считается одним из лучших в стране);
the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra оркестр филармо
нии Рочестера (США);
the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra Королевский филар
монический оркестр (один из ведущих лондонских орке
стров);
the State Symphony Orchestra Государственный симфо
нический оркестр;
the Who «Ху»;
the Beatles «Битлз». разг. «Битлы»;
338 Английский язык для музыкантов

the Rolling Stones «Роллинг стоунз»;


the Deep Purple «Дип Перпл» (англ. рокгруппа);
the Pink Floyd «Пинк Флойд» (англ. рокгруппа);
the Depeche Mode «Депеш Мод» (англ. рокгруппа).
the Bad Boys Blue «Бэд Бойз Блю» (рокгруппа);
the Bad Company «Бэд Компани» (англ. рокгруппа);
the Bad English «Бэд Инглиш» (амер. хардрокансамбль);
the Bananarama «Бананарама» (брит. попгруппа);
the Beach Boys «БичБойз» (амер. попгруппа);
the Boney М «Бони М» (немец. вокальная дискогруппа);
the Bonfire «Бонфаэ» (немец. хардрокгруппа);
the Bon Jovi «Бон Джови» (амер. рокансамбль);
the Kansas «Канзас» (амер. хардрокгруппа);
the U2 «Юту», «Ю2» (ирланд. рокгруппа);
the ZZ Тор «Зи Зи Топ» (амер. попгруппа);
the Gerry Mulligan Quartet квартет Джерри Маллигана;
the Julliard String Quartet струнный квартет Джулли
арда (амер. муз. коллектив, известный исполнением произ
ведений амер. композиторов);
the Modern Jazz Quartet «Квартет современного джаза»
(амер. джаз. ансамбль);
the Boston Pops «Бостонпопс» (оркестр nonyлярной
симфонической музыки);
the Red Army Ensemble of song and dance Ансамбль пес
ни и пляски Красной Армии;
the English Opera Group «Английская камерная группа»
(известна своими постановками камерных опер Б. Бриттена).
E. Перед названиями музыкальных инструментов
употребляется:
the grand рояль; the baby grand кабинетный рояль; the
boudoir grand салонный рояль; the concert grand концерт
ный рояль; the harp арфа, the aeolian [i:”ou’li:ən] harp, the
wind harp эолова арфа, the angle harp, the triangular harp
угловая арфа, the arched harp, the bow [bou] harp дуговая
арфа, the double harp двойная арфа, the doublepedal harp
арфа с педалями двойного действия, the frame harp лукооб
разная арфа, the hooked [hukt] harp крючковая арфа, the
Irish [‘airiɾ] harp ирландская арфа, the mouth harp губная
гармоника, the orchestral harp оркестровая арфа, the pedal
Application 339

harp педальная арфа, to play the harp, to string [or to strike]


the harp играть на арфе, the pointed harp арпанетта (арфо
образная цитра).
F. Перед названиями джазовых стилей употребляется:
the Harlem jump гарлемский джамп;
the AfroCuban jazz афрокубинский джаз;
the archaic [a:r’keik] jazz архаический джаз;
the big band jazz бигбендджаз;
the Chicago jazz чикагский джаз;
the classic jazz классический джаз;
the cool jazz кулджаз, «холодный» джаз, джаз в стиле
«кул»;
the Creole [‘kri : oul] jazz креольский джаз (у креолов);
the East coast jazz джаз восточного побережья, истко
устджаз;
the freeform jazz, the free jazz фриджаз, свободный
джаз;
the Harlem [ha: ləm] jazz гарлемский джаз;
the hot jazz хогджаз, «горячий» джаз;
the KansasCity jazz КанзасСитиджаз;
the mainstream [‘meinstri:m] jazz устоявшийся стиль
джаза;
the modal [‘moudal] jazz модальный джаз, ладовый джаз;
the modern jazz современный джаз, модернджаз;
the New Orleans [nju: o: ’liənz] jazz новоорлеанекий джаз;
the progressive [prə’gresiv] jazz прогрессивный джаз,
прогрессив;
the straight jazz чикагский джаз;
the traditional jazz традиционный джаз;
the West Coast [koust] jazz весткоустджаз, калифор
нийский джаз, джаз западного побережья, уэст коуст.
G. Перед названиями танцев может употребляться:
the Kamarinskaya камаринская (веселая рус. народная
песня и танец);
the Charleston [’tɾa: rlztən] чарльстон (бальный танец);
the Lambeth [‘ləmbθ] walk ламбетуок (простонародный
лондонский танец);
the Furry Dance ферриданс (англ. народный массовый
танец);
340 Английский язык для музыкантов

the Eagle Dance пляска орла (ритуальный танец у мно


гих индейских племен);
the Gay Gordons «Веселые Гордоны» (быстрый шотл.
групповой муж. танец).
H. Перед названиями видов музыкальных мелодиче
ских украшений, мелизмов употребляется:
the mordent [‘mo: dənt] мордент (вид мелизма, мелоди
ческое украшение);
the double mordent двойной мордент;
the inverted mordent верхний (неперечеркнутый) мор
дент, мордент с верхней вспомогательной нотой;
the lower mordent мордент с нижней вспомогательной
ногой, нижний перечеркнутый мордент;
the single mordent простой мордент;
the upper mordent верхний (неперечеркнутый) мордент,
мордент с верхней вспомогательной нотой.
I. Перед названиями русских песен не употребляется:
Kalinka «Калинка»;
Katyusha «Катюша»;
Ochi chernye «Очи черные».
ИСПОЛЬЗУЕМАЯ
ЛИТЕРАТУРА

1. Либерман, Н. И. Английский для музыкантов / Н. И. Либер


ман, Н. А. ФроловаБагрева, М. М. Кедрова. — М. : Высш.
шк., 1989. — 463 с.
2. Прошкина, Е. П. В мире музыки. Книга для чтения на анг
лийском языке : учеб. пособие. — М. : Высш. шк., 1991. —
141 с.
3. Присухiн, М. The Course of English for Music Colleges. —
Тернопiль : Пiдручники i посiбники, 2007. — 176 с.
4. Савельева, Е. К. Английский для музыкальных специально
стей : учеб. пособие / Е. К. Савельева, Г. А. Савельева. —
РостовнаДону : РГК им. С. В. Рахманинова, 2013. — 430 с.
5. Povey, J. English at Leisure : vocabulary of Leisure Activi
ties. — М. : Высш. шк., 1978.
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Предисловие . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Unit 1. I am a musician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Unit 2. The system of musical education . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Unit 3. The Musical instrument, I play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Unit 4. My favourite piece of Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Unit 5. My favourite performer/composer . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Unit 6. What is Music? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Unit 7. Russian Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Unit 8. Russia as the famous cultural state
of the world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Unit 9. Cultural traditions of Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Unit 10. RostovonDon is the cultural center
of the South of Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Unit 11. Great Britain as one of the European countries
with its cultural traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Unit 12. British Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Unit 13. American Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

Appendix
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Используемая литература . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Юлия Вячеславовна БЖИСКАЯ
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ МУЗЫКАНТОВ
Учебное пособие

Yuliya Vyacheslavovna BZHISKAYA


ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR MUSICIANS
Textbook

Ответственный редактор Наталья Александрова


Корректор Ирина Вильман

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