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Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Psychrometric Processes
The various psychrometric processes involved in air conditioning to vary the psychrometric
properties of air according to the requirement are as follows:

1- Sensible Heating
The heating of air, without any change in its specific humidity, is known as sensible heating.
Let air at temperature (td1) passes over a heating coil of temperature, (td3) as shown in Fig. (1).a .It
may be noted that the temperature of air leaving the heating coil (td2) will be less than (td3). The
process of sensible heating, on the psychrometric chart, is shown by a horizontal line 1-2 extending
from left to right as shown in Fig. (1).b. The point 3 represents the surface temperature of the
heating coil. The heat absorbed by the air during sensible heating may be obtained from the
psychrometric chart by the enthalpy difference (h2-h1) as shown in Fig. (1) b. It may be noted that
the specific humidity during the sensible heating remains constant (i.e. W 1 = W2). The dry bulb
temperature increases from (td1) to (td1) and relative humidity reduces from 1 to 2 as shown in
Fig. (1) b. The amount of heat added during sensible heating may also be obtained from the
relation:

Fig. (1) Sensible heating

q  h2  h1
 c pa ( t d 2  t d 1 )  Wc pv ( t d 2  t d 1 )
 ( c pa  Wc pv )( t d 2  t d 1 )
 c pm ( t d 2  t d 1 )
The term (cpa+ W cpv) is called humid specific heat (cpm) and its value is taken as 1.022 kJ /kg
K.
 Heat added,
q  1.022( t d 2  t d 1 )kJ / kg (1)

Notes: For sensible heating, steam or hot water is passed through the heating coil. The heating coil
may be electric resistance coil.

1|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
2- Sensible Cooling
The cooling of air, without any change in its specific humidity, is known as sensible cooling.
Let air at (td1) temperature passes over a cooling coil of temperature (td3) as shown in Fig. (2)a. It
may be noted that the temperature of air leaving the cooling coil (td2) will be more than (td3).
The process of sensible cooling, on the psychrometric chart, is shown by a horizontal line 1-2
extending from right to left as shown in Fig. (2)b. The point 3 represents the surface temperature
of the cooling coil.

(a) Psychrometric process (b) Psychrometric chart

Fig. (2) Sensible cooling

The heat rejected by air during sensible cooling may be obtained from the psychrometric chart by
the enthalpy difference (h1-h2) as shown in Fig. (2)b.

q  h1  h2
 c pa ( t d 1  t d 2 )  Wc pv ( t d 1  t d 2 )
 ( c pa  Wc pv )( t d 1  t d 2 )
 c pm ( t d 1  t d 2 )
 Heat rejected,

q=1.022 (td1-td2) kJ/kg (2)

It may be noted that the specific humidity during the sensible cooling remains constant
(i.e. W1= W2). The dry bulb temperature reduces from (td1) to (td2) and relative humidity increases
from 1 to 2 as shown in Fig. (2)b.

2|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

For air conditioning purposes, the sensible heat per minute is given as:
Q s = ma cpm ∆T = V̇ ρ cpm ∆T kJ/min
Where:
𝑚3
V̇ = Rate of dry air flowing in ( ),
𝑚𝑖𝑛
  Density of moist air at 20ºC and 50% relative humidity = 1.2 kg/m3 of dry air,
cpm = Humid specific heat = 1.022 kJ 1kg K, and
T  t d 1  t d 2 = Difference of dry bulb temperatures between the entering and leaving
conditions of air in o C. Substituting the values of  and c pm in the above expression, we get
1.22 V̇ ∆T kJ
Qs = = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟎𝟒𝟒 𝐕̇ ∆𝐓 = kW
60 s

Note: For sensible cooling, the cooling coil may have refrigerant, cooling water or cool gas
flowing through it. The sensible cooling can be done only up to the dew point temperature
(tdp) as shown in Fig.(2)b. The cooling below this temperature will result in the condensation
of moisture.

By-pass Factor of Heating and Cooling Coil


The temperature of the air coming out of the apparatus (td2) will be less than (td3) in case the coil
is a heating coil and more than (td3) in case the coil is a cooling coil.
Let 1 kg of air at temperature (td1) is passed over the coil having its temperature (i.e. coil surface
temperature) (td3) as shown in Fig. (3).
When air passes over a coil, some of it (say x kg) just by-passes unaffected while the remaining
(1-x) kg comes in direct contact with the coil. This by-pass process of air is measured in terms of
a by-pass factor. The amount of air that by-passes or the by-pass factor depends upon the following
factors:
1).The number of fins provided in a unit length i.e. the pitch of the cooling coil fins;
2) The number of rows in a coil in the direction of flow; and
3) The velocity of flow of air.
It may be noted that the by-pass factor of a cooling coil decreases with decrease in fin spacing and
increase in number of rows.

Fig. (3) By-pass factor.

3|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
Balancing the enthalpies, we get:
x cpm td1 + (1-x) cpm td3 = 1 cpm td2
xt d 3  t d 1   t d 3  t d 2
t t
x  d3 d2 (3)
td3  td1
where x is called the by-pass factor of the coil and is generally written as BPF.
Therefore, by-pass factor for heating coil:
t t
BPF  d 3 d 2 , (4)
td 3  td 1
Similarly, by-pass factor for cooling coil:
t t
BPF  d 2 d 3 (5)
td 1  td 3
The by-pass factor for heating or cooling coil may also be obtained as discussed below:
Let the air passes over a heating coil. Since the temperature distribution of air passing through the
heating coil is as shown in Fig. (4), therefore sensible heat given out by the coil,

Q s  UAc t m (6)

Fig. (4)

Where
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient,
As = Surface area of the coil, and
t m = Logarithmic mean temperature difference

We know that logarithmic mean temperature difference,

td 2  td 1
tm  , and (7)
 td 3  td 1 
ln 
 td 3  td 2 
t t
1 / BPF  d 3 d 1
td 3  td 2

4|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

td 2  td 1 (8)
 tm 
ln1 / BPF 

Now the equation(6) may be written as


td 2  td 1
Qs  UAc (9)
ln( 1 / BPF )

We have already discussed that the heat added during sensible heating,

Q s  m a c pm t d 2  t d 1  (10)
where
c pm = Humid specific heat =1.022 kJ/kg K, and
m a = Mass of air passing over the coil.

Equating equations (9) and (10), we have: UAc  ma c pm ln1 / BPF 


or
   
 UA   UA 
  c   c 
  
 ma c pm   1.022 m 

BPF  e  
e  a  (11)

H.W: Derive the equation (11) for a cooling coil.

Note The performance of a heating or cooling coil is measured in terms of a by-pass factor. A coil
with low by-pass factor has better performance

Efficiency of Heating and Cooling Coils


The term (1-BPF) is known as efficiency of coil or contact factor.
 Efficiency of the heating coil,

td 3  td 2 td 2  td 1
 H  1  BPF  1   (12)
td 3  td 1 td 3  td 1

Similarly, efficiency of the cooling coil,

td2  td3 td1  td2


C  1   (13)
td1  td3 td1  td3

5|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
Example (1):
In a heating application, moist air enters a steam heating coil at 10 ºC, 50% RH and leaves at 30ºC.
Determine the sensible heat transfer, if mass flow rate of air is 100 kg of dry air per second. Also
determine the steam mass flow rate if steam enters saturated at100 ºC and condensate leaves at
80ºC.

Example (2):
A quantity of air having a volume of 300 m 3 30ºC dry bulb temperature and 25ºC wet bulb
temperature is heated to 40ºC dry bulb temperature. Estimate the amount of heat added, final
relative humidity and wet bulb temperature. The air pressure is 1.01325 bar.

Example (3):
The air enters a duct at 10ºC and 80% RH at the rate of 150 m 3 / min and is heated to 30ºC
without adding or removing any moisture. The pressure remains constant at 1 atmosphere.
Determine the relative humidity of air at exit from the duct and the rate of heat transfer.

Example (4):
Atmospheric air with dry bulb temperature of 28ºC and a wet bulb temperature of 17ºC is cooled
to 15ºC without changing its moisture content. Find: 1. Original relative humidity, 2. Final relative
humidity and 3. Find wet bulb temperature.

H.W:
The moist air is heated by steam condensing inside the tubes of a heating coil as shown in Fig.
below The part of the air passes through the coil and part is by-passed around the coil. The
barometric pressure is 1 bar. Determine: 1. The air per minute (in 3 ) which by-pass the coil ; and
2. The heat added by the coil

H.W:
The atmospheric air at 760 mm of Hg, dry bulb temperature 15ºC and wet bulb temperature 11ºC
enters a heating coil whose temperature is 14ºC. Assuming by-pass factor of heating coil as 0.5,
determine dry bulb temperature; wet bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air leaving the
coil. Also determine the sensible heat added to the air per kg of dry air.

6|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
3- Humidification and Dehumidification
The addition of moisture to the air, without change in its dry bulb temperature, is known as
humidification. Similarly, removal of moisture from the air, without change in its dry bulb
temperature is known as dehumidification. The heat added during humidification process and heat
removed during dehumidification process is shown on the psychrometric chart in Fig. (5)a and
(5)b respectively. It may be noted that in humidification, the relative humidity increases from  1
to  2 and specific humidity also increases from W1 to W2 as shown in Fig. (5)a. Similarly, in
dehumidification, the relative humidity decreases from  1 to  2 and specific humidity also
decreases from W1 to W2 as shown in Fig. (5)b. It may be noted that in humidification, change in
enthalpy is shown by the intercept ( h2  h1 ) on the psychrometric chart. Since the dry bulb
temperature of air during the humidification remains constant, therefore its sensible heat also
remains constant. It is thus obvious, that the change in enthalpy per kg of dry air due to the
increased moisture content equal to (W2 -W1) kg per kg of dry air is considered to cause a latent
heat transfer (LH).

(a) Humidification. (b) Dehumidification.

Fig. (5) Humidification and dehumidification.

Mathematically:
qL = (h2-h1) = hfg (W2 –W1) (14)
where hfg is the latent heat of vapourisation at dry bulb temperature (t dl).

Notes:
1. for dehumidification: qL = (h1-h2) = hfg (W1 – W2)
2.In air conditioning, the latent heat load per minute is given as:
Q L = ma ℎ𝑓𝑔 ∆W = V̇ ρ ℎ𝑓𝑔 ∆W kJ/min
where
V̇ = Rate of dry air flowing in
  Density of moist air 1.2 kg / m 3 of dry air,
h fg  Latent heat of vapourisation = 2500 kJ /kg , and
Substituting these values in the above expression, we get:
1.2 × 2500 × V̇ × ∆W kJ
QL = = 𝟓𝟎 𝐕̇ ∆𝐖 = kW
60 s

7|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
Methods of obtaining Humidification and Dehumidification
The humidification is achieved either by supplying or spraying steam or hot water or cold water
into the air. The humidification may be obtained by the following two methods
1. Direct method.
In this method, the water is sprayed in a highly atomized state into the room to be air-conditioned.
This method of obtaining humidification is not very effective.
2. Indirect method.
In this method, the water is introduced into the air in the air-conditioning plant, with the help of
an air washer, as shown in Fig. (5). This conditioned air is then supplied to the room to be air-
conditioned. The air washer humidification may be accomplished in the following three ways:
(a) by using re-circulated spray water without prior heating of air,
(b) by pre-heating the air and then washing it with re-circulated water, and
(c) by using heated spray water.

Fig. (5) Air Washer

Note: The dehumidification may be accomplished chemicals. In the air-washer system, the outside
or entering air is cooled below its dew point temperature so that it looses moisture by condensation.
The moisture removal is also accomplished when the spray water is chilled water and its
temperature is lower than the dew point temperature of the entering air. Since the air leaving the
air washer has its dry bulb temperature much below the desired temperature in the room, therefore
a heating coil is placed after the air-washer. The dehumidification may also be achieved by using
chemicals which have the capacity to absorb moisture in them. Two types of chemicals known as
absorbents (such as calcium chloride) and adsorbents (such as silica gel and activated alumina) are
commonly used for this purpose.

Sensible Heat Factor


As a matter of fact, the heat added during a psychrometric process may be split up into sensible
heat and latent heat. The ratio of the sensible heat to the total heat is known as sensible heat factor
(briefly written as SHF) or sensible heat ratio (briefly written as SHR). Mathematically
Sensible heat SH
SHF   (15)
Total heat SH  LH
The sensible heat factor scale is shown on the right hand side of the psychrometric chart.

8|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
4- Cooling and Dehumidification
This process is generally used in summer air conditioning to cool and dehumidify the air. The air
is passed over a cooling coil or through a cold water spray. In this process, the dry bulb temperature
as well as the specific humidity of air decreases. The final relative humidity of the air is generally
higher than that of the entering air. The dehumidification of air is only possible when the effective
surface temperature of the cooling coil (i.e. td4) is less than the dew point temperature of the air
entering the coil (i.e. tdpl). The effective surface temperature of the coil is known as apparatus dew
point (briefly written as ADP). The cooling and dehumidification process is shown in Fig. (6)

Fig. (6) Cooling and dehumidification.

Let
t d1  Dry bulb temperature of air entering the coil,
t dp1  Dew point temperature of the entering air  t d 3 , and
t d4  Effective surface temperature or ADP of the coil.

Under ideal conditions, the dry bulb temperature of the air leaving the cooling coil (i.e. td4 ) should
be equal to the surface temperature of the cooling coil (i.e. ADP), but it is never possible due to
inefficiency of the cooling coil. Therefore, the resulting condition of air coming out of the coil is
shown by a point 2 on the straight line joining the points 1 and 4. The by-pass factor in this case
is given by:

𝑊2 − 𝑊4 ℎ2 − ℎ4
𝐵𝑃𝐹 = = (16)
𝑊1 − 𝑊4 ℎ1 − ℎ2

Also,
t d 2  t d 4 t d 2  ADP
BPF   (17)
t d 1  t d 4 t d 1  ADP

Actually, the cooling and dehumidification process follows the path as shown by a dotted curve in
Fig. (6) a, but for the calculation of psychrometric properties, only end points are important. Thus
the cooling and dehumidification process shown by a line 1-2 may be assumed to have followed a

9|Page Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
path 1-A (i.e., dehumidification) and A-2 (i.e. cooling) as shown in Fig. (6)a. We see that the total
heat removed from the air during the cooling and dehumidification process is

𝑞 = (ℎ1 − ℎ2 ) = (ℎ1 − ℎ𝐴 ) + (ℎ𝐴 − ℎ2 ) = 𝑞𝐿 + 𝑞𝑠


Where
𝑞𝐿 = (ℎ1 − ℎ𝐴 ) =Latent heat removed due to condensation of vapour of the
reduced moisture content (W1  W2 ) , and
𝑞𝑠 = (ℎ𝐴 − ℎ2 )=Sensible heat removed.

We know the sensible heat factor:

Sensible heat SH h  h2
SHF    A (18)
Total heat LH  SH h1  h2

Note: The line 1-4 (i.e. the line joining the point of entering air and the apparatus dew point) in
Fig. (6)b is known as sensible heat factor line.

Example (5):
In a cooling application, moist air enters a refrigeration coil at the rate of 100 kg of dry air per
minute at 35ºC and 50% RH. The apparatus dew point of coil is 5ºC and by-pass factor is 0.15.
Determine the outlet state of moist air and cooling capacity of coil in TR.

Example (6):
The atmospheric air at 30ºC dry bulb temperature and 75% relative humidity enters a cooling coil
at the rate of 200 m 3 / min The coil dew point temperature is 14ºC and the by-pass factor of the
coil is 0.1. Determine 1. the temperature of air leaving the cooling coil; 2. the capacity of the
cooling coil in tonnes of refrigeration and in kilowatt; 3. the amount of water vapour removed per
minute; and 4. the sensible heat factor for the process.

H.W:
Moist air enters a refrigeration coil at 35ºC dry bulb temperature and 55 percent relative humidity
at the rate of 100 m 3 / min . The barometric pressure is 1.013 bar. The air leaves at 27ºC. Calculate
the tonnes of refrigeration required and the final relative humidity. If the surface temperature of
the cooling coil is 100oC and by-pass factor 0.1, calculate the tonnes of refrigeration required and
the condensate flow.

10 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
5- Cooling with Adiabatic Humidification
When the air is passed through an insulated chamber, as shown in Fig. (7)a, having sprays of water
(known as air washer) maintained at a temperature ( t 1 ) higher than the dew point temperature of
entering air ( t dp1 ), but lower than its dry bulb temperature ( t d 1 ) of entering air or equal to the wet
bulb temperature of the entering air ( t w1 ) then the air is said to be cooled and humidified. Since
no heat is supplied or rejected from the spray water as the same water is re-circulated again and
again, therefore, in this case, a condition of adiabatic saturation will be reached. The temperature
of spray water will reach the thermodynamic wet bulb temperature of the air entering the spray
water. This process is shown by line 1-3 on the psychrometric chart as shown in Fig. (7)b, and
follows the path along the constant wet bulb temperature line or constant enthalpy line.

(a) Psychrometric process. (b) Psychrometric chart.

Fig. (7): Cooling with adiabatic humidification

In an ideal case i.e. when the humidification is perfect (or the humidifying efficiency of the spray
chamber is 100%), the final condition of the air will be at point 3 (i.e. at temperature td3 and relative
humidity 100%). In actual practice, perfect humidification is never achieved. Therefore, the final
condition of air at outlet is represented by point 2 on the line 1-3, as shown in Fig. (7)b.
The effectiveness or the humidifying efficiency of the spray chamber is given by:

Actual drop in DBT


H 
Ideal drop in DBT
Actual drop in sp . humidity

Ideal drop in sp . humidity
t d  t d 2 W 2  W1
 H  1  (19)
t d 1  t d 3 W 3  W1
Notes:
1. When the sprays of water are maintained at a temperature lower than the wet bulb temperature
of the entering air (i.e. t 1 is less than t w1 ) by cooling the spray water by coolers before it is pumped
to the spray nozzles, then for the ideal condition, the process follows the path 1  3 , as shown in
Fig. (7) b. In such cases, the effectiveness or the humidifying efficiency of the spray chamber is
given by

11 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

t d 1  t d 2 W 2  W1
H   (20)
t d 1  t d 3 W 3  W1
2. When the sprays of water are maintained at a temperature higher than the wet bulb temperature
of the entering air (i.e. t1 is greater than t w1 ) but lower than the dry bulb temperature of the
entering air ( t d 1 ) by heating the spray water by heaters before it is pumped to the spray nozzles,
then for the ideal condition, the process follows the path 1  3 as shown in Fig. (7)b. In such
cases, the effectiveness or the humidifying efficiency of the spray chamber is given by
t  t  W   W1
η H  d1 d2  2 (21)

t d1  t d3 W 3  W1
where t d 3 is greater than t w1

6- Cooling and Humidification by Water Injection (Evaporative Cooling)


Let water at a temperature t1 is injected into the flowing stream of dry air as shown in Fig. (8)a.
The final condition of air depends upon the amount of water evaporation. When the water is
injected at a temperature equal to the wet bulb temperature of the entering air ( t w1 ), then the
process follows the path of constant wet bulb temperature line, as shown by the line 1-2 in Fig.
(8)b.

Let m w = Mass of water supplied,


ma = Mass of dry air,
W1 = Specific humidity of entering air,
W2 = Specific humidity of leaving air, and
h1 = Enthalpy of water injected into the air.

(a)Psychrometric process. (b) Psychrometric chart.

Fig. (8): Cooling and humidification by water injection.

Now for the mass balance,


mw
W 2  W1  (22)
ma
and for heat balance,

12 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

mw
h2  h1   h fw
ma (23)
 h1  ( W 2  W 1 ) h fw
Since W2  W1 h fw is very small as compared to h1 and h2 , therefore it may be neglected. Thus
the water injection process is a constant enthalpy process, irrespective of the temperature of water
injected (i.e. whether the temperature t1  t w or t1  t w ).

Example (7):
200 m 3 of air per mm. is passed through the adiabatic humidifier. The condition of air at inlet is
40ºC dry bulb temperature and 15% relative humidity and the outlet condition is 25ºC dry bulb
temperature and 20ºC wet bulb temperature. Find the dew point temperature and the amount of
water vapour added to the air per minute.

Example (8):
A drying room is to be maintained at 32ºC and 30% RH. The sensible heat gain to the room is
150000 kJ/h. The moisture to be evaporated from the objects during drying is 18kg/h. If there is
no direct heat source to provide for evaporation in the room, calculate the state and rate of supply
air at 15ºC dry bulb temperature.

H.W:
Determine the final dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of air washed with recirculated
spray water if the air is initially at dry bulb temperature 35ºC and 50% relative humidity as it enters
an air washer which has humidifying efficiency of 85 per cent.

H.W:
At a certain locality, the dry bulb temperature of air is 30ºC and the relative humidity is 40%.
Determine the specific humidity and the dew point and wet bulb temperatures of air. If this air is
cooled in an air washer using recirculated spray water and having a humidifying efficiency of 0.9,
what are dry bulb temperature and dew point temperature of air leaving the air washer?

H.W:
The atmospheric air at 40ºC dry bulb temperature and 18ºC wet bulb temperature is flowing at the
rate of 100 m 3 / min through the space. Water at 18ºC is injected into the air stream at the rate of
48kg/ h. Determine the specific humidity and enthalpy of the leaving air. Also determine the dry
bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature and relative humidity of the leaving air.

13 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
7- Heating and Humidification
The process is generally used in winter air conditioning to warm and humidify the air. It is the
reverse process of cooling and dehumidification. When air is passed through a humidifier having
spray water temperature higher than the dry bulb temperature of the entering air, the unsaturated
air will reach the condition of saturation and- thus the air becomes hot. The heat of vaporisation
of water is absorbed from the spray water itself and hence it gets cooled. In this way, the air
becomes heated and humidified. The process of heating and humidification is shown by line 1-2
on the psychrometric chart as shown in Fig. (9) The air enters at condition 1 and leaves at condition
2. In this process, the dry bulb temperature as well as specific humidity of air increases. The final
relative humidity of the air can be lower or higher than that of the entering air.
For mass balance of spray water: m w 1  m w 2   ma W2  W1 

(a) (b)

Fig. (9) Heating and humidification.

or
m w 2  m w 1  ma W 2  W1  (24)

and for enthalpy balance,


m w 1 h fw1  m w 1 h fw2  m a h2  h1  (25)

Substituting the value of mw 2 from equation (25), we have

m w 1 h fw1  m w 1  ma W 2  W1 h fw2  ma h2  h1 

h2  h1 
m w1
ma
 
h fw1  h fw 2  W 2  W 1 h fw 2 (26)

The temperatures t s1 and t s 2 shown in Fig. (9)a denote the temperatures of entering and leaving
spray water respectively. The temperature t 3 is the mean temperature of the spray water which the
entering air may be assumed to approach. Actually, the heating and humidification process follows
the path as shown by dotted curve in Fig. (9)b, but for the calculation of psychrometric properties,
only the end points are important. Thus, the heating and humidification process shown by a line
1-2 on the psychrometric chart may be assumed to have followed the path 1-A (i.e. heating) and
A-2 (i.e. humidification), as shown in Fig. (9)b. We see that the total heat added to the air during
heating and humidification is
14 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon
Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

q  h2  h1  h2  h A   hA  h1   q L  q S (27)


Where
q L  ( h2  hA ) = Latent heat of vaporization of the increased moisture content
( W2  W1 ), and
q S  ( hA  h1 ) Sensible heat added

We know that sensible heat factor,


Sensible heat q S qS
SHF    (28)
Total heat q qS  qL

Note: The line 1-2 in Fig. (9)b is called sensible heat factor line.

Heating and Humidification by Steam Injection


The steam is normally injected into the air in order to increase its specific humidity as shown in
Fig. (10)a. This process is used for the air conditioning of textile mills where high humidity is to
be maintained. The dry bulb temperature of air changes very little during this process, as shown
on the psychrometric chart in Fig. (10)b.
Let ms=Mass of steam supplied, ma =Mass of dry air entering,
W1=Specific humidity of air entering, W2=Specific humidity of air leaving,
h1=Enthalpy of air entering, h2=Enthalpy of air leaving, and

(a) Psychrometric process. (b) Psychrometric chart.

Fig. (10) Heating and humidification by steam injection.

hs= Enthalpy of stream injected in to the air.


Now for tbe mass balance,
m
W2  W1  s (29)
ma
and for the heat balance using equation (29)
m
h2  h1  s  hs  h1  W 2  W 1 hs (30)
ma

15 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)
Example (9):
The atmospheric air at 25ºC dry bulb temperature and 12ºC wet bulb temperature is flowing at the
rate of 100 m 3 / min through the duct. The dry saturated steam at 100ºC is injected into the air
steam at the rate of 72 kg per hour. Calculate the specific humidity and enthalpy of the leaving air.
Also determine the dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature and relative humidity of the leaving
air.

Example (10):
Atmospheric air at a dry bulb temperature of 16ºC and 25% relative humidity passes through a
furnace and then through a humidifier, in such a way that the final dry bulb temperature is 30ºC
and 50% relative humidity. Find the heat and moisture added to the air. Also determine the sensible
heat factor of the process.

H.W:
Air at 10ºC dry bulb temperature and 90% relative humidity is to be heated and humidified to
35 o C dry bulb temperature and 22.5ºC wet bulb temperature. The air is pre-heated sensibly before
passing to the air washer in which water is recirculated. The relative humidity of the air coming
out of the air washer is 90%. This air is again reheated sensibly to obtain the final desired condition.
Find: 1. the temperature to which the air should be preheated. 2. the total heating required; 3. the
makeup water required in the air washer; and 4. the humidifying efficiency of the air washer.

8- Adiabatic Mixing of Two Air Streams


When two quantities of air having different enthalpies and different specific humidities are mixed,
the final condition of the air mixture depends upon the-masses involved, and on the enthalpy and
specific humidity of each of the constituent masses which enter the mixture. Now consider two air
streams 1 and 2 mixing adiabatically as shown in Fig. (11)a.
Let
m1 =Mass of air entering at 1,
h1 =Enthalpy of air entering at 1,
W1 =Specific humidity of air entering at 1,
m2 , h2 , W2 =Corresponding values of air entering at 2, and
m3 , h3, W3 =Corresponding values of the mixture leaving at 3
Assuming no loss of enthalpy and specific humidity during the air mixing process, we have for
the mass balance,

16 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Fig. (11) Adiabatic mixing of two air streams

m1  m 2  m (31)
For the energy balance,
m1 h1  m 2 h2  m 3 h3 (32)

and for the mass balance of water vapour,


m 1W1  m 2W 2  m 3W 3 (33)

Substituting the value of m3 from equation (32) in equation (33),


m1 h1  m 2 h2  ( m1  m 2 )h3  m1 h3  m 2 h3
m 1 h1  m 1 h3  m 2 h3  m 2 h2
(34)
m 1 ( h1  h3 )  m 2 ( h3  h2 )

Similarly, substituting the value of m3 from equation (33) in equation (34), we have
m1 W3  W2
 (35)
m 2 W1  W 3

Now from equations (34) and (35),

m 1 h3  h2 W 3  W 2
  (36)
m 2 h1  h3 W1  W 3

17 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon


Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Fig. (12)

The adiabatic mixing process is represented on the psychrometric chart as shown in Fig. (11)b.
The final condition of the mixture (point 3) lies on the straight line 1-2. The point 3 divides the
line 1-2 in the inverse ratio of the mixing masses. By calculating the value of W3 from equation
(36), the point 3 is plotted on the line 1-2.
It may be noted that when warm and high humidity air is mixed with cold air, the resulting mixture
will be a fog and the final condition (point 3) on the psychrometric chart will be to the left or above
the saturation curve which represents the fog region, as shown in Fig. (12). The temperature of the
fog is that of the extended wet bulb line passing through point 3.
The fog may also result when steam or a very fine water spray is injected into air in a greater
quantity than required to saturate the air. Even lesser quantity of steam, if not mixed properly, may
result fog.
The fog can be cleared by heating the fog, mixing the fog with warmer unsaturated air or
mechanically separating the water droplets from the air.

Example (11)
One kg of air at 40ºC dry bulb temperature and 50% relative humidity is mixed with 2 kg of air at
20ºC dry bulb temperature and 20ºC dew point temperature. Calculate temperature and specific
humidity of the mixture.

H.W:
800 m3/min of recirculated air at 22ºC DBT and 10ºC dew point temperature is to be mixed with
300 m3/min of fresh air at 30ºC DET and 50% RH. Determine the enthalpy, specific volume,
humidity ratio and dew point temperature of the mixture.

18 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon