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Psychrometric Processes

The various psychrometric processes involved in air conditioning to vary the psychrometric

properties of air according to the requirement are as follows:

1- Sensible Heating

The heating of air, without any change in its specific humidity, is known as sensible heating.

Let air at temperature (td1) passes over a heating coil of temperature, (td3) as shown in Fig. (1).a .It

may be noted that the temperature of air leaving the heating coil (td2) will be less than (td3). The

process of sensible heating, on the psychrometric chart, is shown by a horizontal line 1-2 extending

from left to right as shown in Fig. (1).b. The point 3 represents the surface temperature of the

heating coil. The heat absorbed by the air during sensible heating may be obtained from the

psychrometric chart by the enthalpy difference (h2-h1) as shown in Fig. (1) b. It may be noted that

the specific humidity during the sensible heating remains constant (i.e. W 1 = W2). The dry bulb

temperature increases from (td1) to (td1) and relative humidity reduces from 1 to 2 as shown in

Fig. (1) b. The amount of heat added during sensible heating may also be obtained from the

relation:

q h2 h1

c pa ( t d 2 t d 1 ) Wc pv ( t d 2 t d 1 )

( c pa Wc pv )( t d 2 t d 1 )

c pm ( t d 2 t d 1 )

The term (cpa+ W cpv) is called humid specific heat (cpm) and its value is taken as 1.022 kJ /kg

K.

Heat added,

q 1.022( t d 2 t d 1 )kJ / kg (1)

Notes: For sensible heating, steam or hot water is passed through the heating coil. The heating coil

may be electric resistance coil.

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

2- Sensible Cooling

The cooling of air, without any change in its specific humidity, is known as sensible cooling.

Let air at (td1) temperature passes over a cooling coil of temperature (td3) as shown in Fig. (2)a. It

may be noted that the temperature of air leaving the cooling coil (td2) will be more than (td3).

The process of sensible cooling, on the psychrometric chart, is shown by a horizontal line 1-2

extending from right to left as shown in Fig. (2)b. The point 3 represents the surface temperature

of the cooling coil.

The heat rejected by air during sensible cooling may be obtained from the psychrometric chart by

the enthalpy difference (h1-h2) as shown in Fig. (2)b.

q h1 h2

c pa ( t d 1 t d 2 ) Wc pv ( t d 1 t d 2 )

( c pa Wc pv )( t d 1 t d 2 )

c pm ( t d 1 t d 2 )

Heat rejected,

It may be noted that the specific humidity during the sensible cooling remains constant

(i.e. W1= W2). The dry bulb temperature reduces from (td1) to (td2) and relative humidity increases

from 1 to 2 as shown in Fig. (2)b.

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

For air conditioning purposes, the sensible heat per minute is given as:

Q s = ma cpm ∆T = V̇ ρ cpm ∆T kJ/min

Where:

𝑚3

V̇ = Rate of dry air flowing in ( ),

𝑚𝑖𝑛

Density of moist air at 20ºC and 50% relative humidity = 1.2 kg/m3 of dry air,

cpm = Humid specific heat = 1.022 kJ 1kg K, and

T t d 1 t d 2 = Difference of dry bulb temperatures between the entering and leaving

conditions of air in o C. Substituting the values of and c pm in the above expression, we get

1.22 V̇ ∆T kJ

Qs = = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟎𝟒𝟒 𝐕̇ ∆𝐓 = kW

60 s

Note: For sensible cooling, the cooling coil may have refrigerant, cooling water or cool gas

flowing through it. The sensible cooling can be done only up to the dew point temperature

(tdp) as shown in Fig.(2)b. The cooling below this temperature will result in the condensation

of moisture.

The temperature of the air coming out of the apparatus (td2) will be less than (td3) in case the coil

is a heating coil and more than (td3) in case the coil is a cooling coil.

Let 1 kg of air at temperature (td1) is passed over the coil having its temperature (i.e. coil surface

temperature) (td3) as shown in Fig. (3).

When air passes over a coil, some of it (say x kg) just by-passes unaffected while the remaining

(1-x) kg comes in direct contact with the coil. This by-pass process of air is measured in terms of

a by-pass factor. The amount of air that by-passes or the by-pass factor depends upon the following

factors:

1).The number of fins provided in a unit length i.e. the pitch of the cooling coil fins;

2) The number of rows in a coil in the direction of flow; and

3) The velocity of flow of air.

It may be noted that the by-pass factor of a cooling coil decreases with decrease in fin spacing and

increase in number of rows.

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Balancing the enthalpies, we get:

x cpm td1 + (1-x) cpm td3 = 1 cpm td2

xt d 3 t d 1 t d 3 t d 2

t t

x d3 d2 (3)

td3 td1

where x is called the by-pass factor of the coil and is generally written as BPF.

Therefore, by-pass factor for heating coil:

t t

BPF d 3 d 2 , (4)

td 3 td 1

Similarly, by-pass factor for cooling coil:

t t

BPF d 2 d 3 (5)

td 1 td 3

The by-pass factor for heating or cooling coil may also be obtained as discussed below:

Let the air passes over a heating coil. Since the temperature distribution of air passing through the

heating coil is as shown in Fig. (4), therefore sensible heat given out by the coil,

Q s UAc t m (6)

Fig. (4)

Where

U = Overall heat transfer coefficient,

As = Surface area of the coil, and

t m = Logarithmic mean temperature difference

td 2 td 1

tm , and (7)

td 3 td 1

ln

td 3 td 2

t t

1 / BPF d 3 d 1

td 3 td 2

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

td 2 td 1 (8)

tm

ln1 / BPF

td 2 td 1

Qs UAc (9)

ln( 1 / BPF )

We have already discussed that the heat added during sensible heating,

Q s m a c pm t d 2 t d 1 (10)

where

c pm = Humid specific heat =1.022 kJ/kg K, and

m a = Mass of air passing over the coil.

or

UA UA

c c

ma c pm 1.022 m

BPF e

e a (11)

Note The performance of a heating or cooling coil is measured in terms of a by-pass factor. A coil

with low by-pass factor has better performance

The term (1-BPF) is known as efficiency of coil or contact factor.

Efficiency of the heating coil,

td 3 td 2 td 2 td 1

H 1 BPF 1 (12)

td 3 td 1 td 3 td 1

C 1 (13)

td1 td3 td1 td3

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Example (1):

In a heating application, moist air enters a steam heating coil at 10 ºC, 50% RH and leaves at 30ºC.

Determine the sensible heat transfer, if mass flow rate of air is 100 kg of dry air per second. Also

determine the steam mass flow rate if steam enters saturated at100 ºC and condensate leaves at

80ºC.

Example (2):

A quantity of air having a volume of 300 m 3 30ºC dry bulb temperature and 25ºC wet bulb

temperature is heated to 40ºC dry bulb temperature. Estimate the amount of heat added, final

relative humidity and wet bulb temperature. The air pressure is 1.01325 bar.

Example (3):

The air enters a duct at 10ºC and 80% RH at the rate of 150 m 3 / min and is heated to 30ºC

without adding or removing any moisture. The pressure remains constant at 1 atmosphere.

Determine the relative humidity of air at exit from the duct and the rate of heat transfer.

Example (4):

Atmospheric air with dry bulb temperature of 28ºC and a wet bulb temperature of 17ºC is cooled

to 15ºC without changing its moisture content. Find: 1. Original relative humidity, 2. Final relative

humidity and 3. Find wet bulb temperature.

H.W:

The moist air is heated by steam condensing inside the tubes of a heating coil as shown in Fig.

below The part of the air passes through the coil and part is by-passed around the coil. The

barometric pressure is 1 bar. Determine: 1. The air per minute (in 3 ) which by-pass the coil ; and

2. The heat added by the coil

H.W:

The atmospheric air at 760 mm of Hg, dry bulb temperature 15ºC and wet bulb temperature 11ºC

enters a heating coil whose temperature is 14ºC. Assuming by-pass factor of heating coil as 0.5,

determine dry bulb temperature; wet bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air leaving the

coil. Also determine the sensible heat added to the air per kg of dry air.

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

3- Humidification and Dehumidification

The addition of moisture to the air, without change in its dry bulb temperature, is known as

humidification. Similarly, removal of moisture from the air, without change in its dry bulb

temperature is known as dehumidification. The heat added during humidification process and heat

removed during dehumidification process is shown on the psychrometric chart in Fig. (5)a and

(5)b respectively. It may be noted that in humidification, the relative humidity increases from 1

to 2 and specific humidity also increases from W1 to W2 as shown in Fig. (5)a. Similarly, in

dehumidification, the relative humidity decreases from 1 to 2 and specific humidity also

decreases from W1 to W2 as shown in Fig. (5)b. It may be noted that in humidification, change in

enthalpy is shown by the intercept ( h2 h1 ) on the psychrometric chart. Since the dry bulb

temperature of air during the humidification remains constant, therefore its sensible heat also

remains constant. It is thus obvious, that the change in enthalpy per kg of dry air due to the

increased moisture content equal to (W2 -W1) kg per kg of dry air is considered to cause a latent

heat transfer (LH).

Mathematically:

qL = (h2-h1) = hfg (W2 –W1) (14)

where hfg is the latent heat of vapourisation at dry bulb temperature (t dl).

Notes:

1. for dehumidification: qL = (h1-h2) = hfg (W1 – W2)

2.In air conditioning, the latent heat load per minute is given as:

Q L = ma ℎ𝑓𝑔 ∆W = V̇ ρ ℎ𝑓𝑔 ∆W kJ/min

where

V̇ = Rate of dry air flowing in

Density of moist air 1.2 kg / m 3 of dry air,

h fg Latent heat of vapourisation = 2500 kJ /kg , and

Substituting these values in the above expression, we get:

1.2 × 2500 × V̇ × ∆W kJ

QL = = 𝟓𝟎 𝐕̇ ∆𝐖 = kW

60 s

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Methods of obtaining Humidification and Dehumidification

The humidification is achieved either by supplying or spraying steam or hot water or cold water

into the air. The humidification may be obtained by the following two methods

1. Direct method.

In this method, the water is sprayed in a highly atomized state into the room to be air-conditioned.

This method of obtaining humidification is not very effective.

2. Indirect method.

In this method, the water is introduced into the air in the air-conditioning plant, with the help of

an air washer, as shown in Fig. (5). This conditioned air is then supplied to the room to be air-

conditioned. The air washer humidification may be accomplished in the following three ways:

(a) by using re-circulated spray water without prior heating of air,

(b) by pre-heating the air and then washing it with re-circulated water, and

(c) by using heated spray water.

Note: The dehumidification may be accomplished chemicals. In the air-washer system, the outside

or entering air is cooled below its dew point temperature so that it looses moisture by condensation.

The moisture removal is also accomplished when the spray water is chilled water and its

temperature is lower than the dew point temperature of the entering air. Since the air leaving the

air washer has its dry bulb temperature much below the desired temperature in the room, therefore

a heating coil is placed after the air-washer. The dehumidification may also be achieved by using

chemicals which have the capacity to absorb moisture in them. Two types of chemicals known as

absorbents (such as calcium chloride) and adsorbents (such as silica gel and activated alumina) are

commonly used for this purpose.

As a matter of fact, the heat added during a psychrometric process may be split up into sensible

heat and latent heat. The ratio of the sensible heat to the total heat is known as sensible heat factor

(briefly written as SHF) or sensible heat ratio (briefly written as SHR). Mathematically

Sensible heat SH

SHF (15)

Total heat SH LH

The sensible heat factor scale is shown on the right hand side of the psychrometric chart.

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

4- Cooling and Dehumidification

This process is generally used in summer air conditioning to cool and dehumidify the air. The air

is passed over a cooling coil or through a cold water spray. In this process, the dry bulb temperature

as well as the specific humidity of air decreases. The final relative humidity of the air is generally

higher than that of the entering air. The dehumidification of air is only possible when the effective

surface temperature of the cooling coil (i.e. td4) is less than the dew point temperature of the air

entering the coil (i.e. tdpl). The effective surface temperature of the coil is known as apparatus dew

point (briefly written as ADP). The cooling and dehumidification process is shown in Fig. (6)

Let

t d1 Dry bulb temperature of air entering the coil,

t dp1 Dew point temperature of the entering air t d 3 , and

t d4 Effective surface temperature or ADP of the coil.

Under ideal conditions, the dry bulb temperature of the air leaving the cooling coil (i.e. td4 ) should

be equal to the surface temperature of the cooling coil (i.e. ADP), but it is never possible due to

inefficiency of the cooling coil. Therefore, the resulting condition of air coming out of the coil is

shown by a point 2 on the straight line joining the points 1 and 4. The by-pass factor in this case

is given by:

𝑊2 − 𝑊4 ℎ2 − ℎ4

𝐵𝑃𝐹 = = (16)

𝑊1 − 𝑊4 ℎ1 − ℎ2

Also,

t d 2 t d 4 t d 2 ADP

BPF (17)

t d 1 t d 4 t d 1 ADP

Actually, the cooling and dehumidification process follows the path as shown by a dotted curve in

Fig. (6) a, but for the calculation of psychrometric properties, only end points are important. Thus

the cooling and dehumidification process shown by a line 1-2 may be assumed to have followed a

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

path 1-A (i.e., dehumidification) and A-2 (i.e. cooling) as shown in Fig. (6)a. We see that the total

heat removed from the air during the cooling and dehumidification process is

Where

𝑞𝐿 = (ℎ1 − ℎ𝐴 ) =Latent heat removed due to condensation of vapour of the

reduced moisture content (W1 W2 ) , and

𝑞𝑠 = (ℎ𝐴 − ℎ2 )=Sensible heat removed.

Sensible heat SH h h2

SHF A (18)

Total heat LH SH h1 h2

Note: The line 1-4 (i.e. the line joining the point of entering air and the apparatus dew point) in

Fig. (6)b is known as sensible heat factor line.

Example (5):

In a cooling application, moist air enters a refrigeration coil at the rate of 100 kg of dry air per

minute at 35ºC and 50% RH. The apparatus dew point of coil is 5ºC and by-pass factor is 0.15.

Determine the outlet state of moist air and cooling capacity of coil in TR.

Example (6):

The atmospheric air at 30ºC dry bulb temperature and 75% relative humidity enters a cooling coil

at the rate of 200 m 3 / min The coil dew point temperature is 14ºC and the by-pass factor of the

coil is 0.1. Determine 1. the temperature of air leaving the cooling coil; 2. the capacity of the

cooling coil in tonnes of refrigeration and in kilowatt; 3. the amount of water vapour removed per

minute; and 4. the sensible heat factor for the process.

H.W:

Moist air enters a refrigeration coil at 35ºC dry bulb temperature and 55 percent relative humidity

at the rate of 100 m 3 / min . The barometric pressure is 1.013 bar. The air leaves at 27ºC. Calculate

the tonnes of refrigeration required and the final relative humidity. If the surface temperature of

the cooling coil is 100oC and by-pass factor 0.1, calculate the tonnes of refrigeration required and

the condensate flow.

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

5- Cooling with Adiabatic Humidification

When the air is passed through an insulated chamber, as shown in Fig. (7)a, having sprays of water

(known as air washer) maintained at a temperature ( t 1 ) higher than the dew point temperature of

entering air ( t dp1 ), but lower than its dry bulb temperature ( t d 1 ) of entering air or equal to the wet

bulb temperature of the entering air ( t w1 ) then the air is said to be cooled and humidified. Since

no heat is supplied or rejected from the spray water as the same water is re-circulated again and

again, therefore, in this case, a condition of adiabatic saturation will be reached. The temperature

of spray water will reach the thermodynamic wet bulb temperature of the air entering the spray

water. This process is shown by line 1-3 on the psychrometric chart as shown in Fig. (7)b, and

follows the path along the constant wet bulb temperature line or constant enthalpy line.

In an ideal case i.e. when the humidification is perfect (or the humidifying efficiency of the spray

chamber is 100%), the final condition of the air will be at point 3 (i.e. at temperature td3 and relative

humidity 100%). In actual practice, perfect humidification is never achieved. Therefore, the final

condition of air at outlet is represented by point 2 on the line 1-3, as shown in Fig. (7)b.

The effectiveness or the humidifying efficiency of the spray chamber is given by:

H

Ideal drop in DBT

Actual drop in sp . humidity

Ideal drop in sp . humidity

t d t d 2 W 2 W1

H 1 (19)

t d 1 t d 3 W 3 W1

Notes:

1. When the sprays of water are maintained at a temperature lower than the wet bulb temperature

of the entering air (i.e. t 1 is less than t w1 ) by cooling the spray water by coolers before it is pumped

to the spray nozzles, then for the ideal condition, the process follows the path 1 3 , as shown in

Fig. (7) b. In such cases, the effectiveness or the humidifying efficiency of the spray chamber is

given by

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

t d 1 t d 2 W 2 W1

H (20)

t d 1 t d 3 W 3 W1

2. When the sprays of water are maintained at a temperature higher than the wet bulb temperature

of the entering air (i.e. t1 is greater than t w1 ) but lower than the dry bulb temperature of the

entering air ( t d 1 ) by heating the spray water by heaters before it is pumped to the spray nozzles,

then for the ideal condition, the process follows the path 1 3 as shown in Fig. (7)b. In such

cases, the effectiveness or the humidifying efficiency of the spray chamber is given by

t t W W1

η H d1 d2 2 (21)

t d1 t d3 W 3 W1

where t d 3 is greater than t w1

Let water at a temperature t1 is injected into the flowing stream of dry air as shown in Fig. (8)a.

The final condition of air depends upon the amount of water evaporation. When the water is

injected at a temperature equal to the wet bulb temperature of the entering air ( t w1 ), then the

process follows the path of constant wet bulb temperature line, as shown by the line 1-2 in Fig.

(8)b.

ma = Mass of dry air,

W1 = Specific humidity of entering air,

W2 = Specific humidity of leaving air, and

h1 = Enthalpy of water injected into the air.

mw

W 2 W1 (22)

ma

and for heat balance,

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

mw

h2 h1 h fw

ma (23)

h1 ( W 2 W 1 ) h fw

Since W2 W1 h fw is very small as compared to h1 and h2 , therefore it may be neglected. Thus

the water injection process is a constant enthalpy process, irrespective of the temperature of water

injected (i.e. whether the temperature t1 t w or t1 t w ).

Example (7):

200 m 3 of air per mm. is passed through the adiabatic humidifier. The condition of air at inlet is

40ºC dry bulb temperature and 15% relative humidity and the outlet condition is 25ºC dry bulb

temperature and 20ºC wet bulb temperature. Find the dew point temperature and the amount of

water vapour added to the air per minute.

Example (8):

A drying room is to be maintained at 32ºC and 30% RH. The sensible heat gain to the room is

150000 kJ/h. The moisture to be evaporated from the objects during drying is 18kg/h. If there is

no direct heat source to provide for evaporation in the room, calculate the state and rate of supply

air at 15ºC dry bulb temperature.

H.W:

Determine the final dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of air washed with recirculated

spray water if the air is initially at dry bulb temperature 35ºC and 50% relative humidity as it enters

an air washer which has humidifying efficiency of 85 per cent.

H.W:

At a certain locality, the dry bulb temperature of air is 30ºC and the relative humidity is 40%.

Determine the specific humidity and the dew point and wet bulb temperatures of air. If this air is

cooled in an air washer using recirculated spray water and having a humidifying efficiency of 0.9,

what are dry bulb temperature and dew point temperature of air leaving the air washer?

H.W:

The atmospheric air at 40ºC dry bulb temperature and 18ºC wet bulb temperature is flowing at the

rate of 100 m 3 / min through the space. Water at 18ºC is injected into the air stream at the rate of

48kg/ h. Determine the specific humidity and enthalpy of the leaving air. Also determine the dry

bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature and relative humidity of the leaving air.

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

7- Heating and Humidification

The process is generally used in winter air conditioning to warm and humidify the air. It is the

reverse process of cooling and dehumidification. When air is passed through a humidifier having

spray water temperature higher than the dry bulb temperature of the entering air, the unsaturated

air will reach the condition of saturation and- thus the air becomes hot. The heat of vaporisation

of water is absorbed from the spray water itself and hence it gets cooled. In this way, the air

becomes heated and humidified. The process of heating and humidification is shown by line 1-2

on the psychrometric chart as shown in Fig. (9) The air enters at condition 1 and leaves at condition

2. In this process, the dry bulb temperature as well as specific humidity of air increases. The final

relative humidity of the air can be lower or higher than that of the entering air.

For mass balance of spray water: m w 1 m w 2 ma W2 W1

(a) (b)

or

m w 2 m w 1 ma W 2 W1 (24)

m w 1 h fw1 m w 1 h fw2 m a h2 h1 (25)

h2 h1

m w1

ma

h fw1 h fw 2 W 2 W 1 h fw 2 (26)

The temperatures t s1 and t s 2 shown in Fig. (9)a denote the temperatures of entering and leaving

spray water respectively. The temperature t 3 is the mean temperature of the spray water which the

entering air may be assumed to approach. Actually, the heating and humidification process follows

the path as shown by dotted curve in Fig. (9)b, but for the calculation of psychrometric properties,

only the end points are important. Thus, the heating and humidification process shown by a line

1-2 on the psychrometric chart may be assumed to have followed the path 1-A (i.e. heating) and

A-2 (i.e. humidification), as shown in Fig. (9)b. We see that the total heat added to the air during

heating and humidification is

14 | P a g e Dr. Omar M. Hamdoon

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Where

q L ( h2 hA ) = Latent heat of vaporization of the increased moisture content

( W2 W1 ), and

q S ( hA h1 ) Sensible heat added

Sensible heat q S qS

SHF (28)

Total heat q qS qL

Note: The line 1-2 in Fig. (9)b is called sensible heat factor line.

The steam is normally injected into the air in order to increase its specific humidity as shown in

Fig. (10)a. This process is used for the air conditioning of textile mills where high humidity is to

be maintained. The dry bulb temperature of air changes very little during this process, as shown

on the psychrometric chart in Fig. (10)b.

Let ms=Mass of steam supplied, ma =Mass of dry air entering,

W1=Specific humidity of air entering, W2=Specific humidity of air leaving,

h1=Enthalpy of air entering, h2=Enthalpy of air leaving, and

Now for tbe mass balance,

m

W2 W1 s (29)

ma

and for the heat balance using equation (29)

m

h2 h1 s hs h1 W 2 W 1 hs (30)

ma

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Example (9):

The atmospheric air at 25ºC dry bulb temperature and 12ºC wet bulb temperature is flowing at the

rate of 100 m 3 / min through the duct. The dry saturated steam at 100ºC is injected into the air

steam at the rate of 72 kg per hour. Calculate the specific humidity and enthalpy of the leaving air.

Also determine the dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature and relative humidity of the leaving

air.

Example (10):

Atmospheric air at a dry bulb temperature of 16ºC and 25% relative humidity passes through a

furnace and then through a humidifier, in such a way that the final dry bulb temperature is 30ºC

and 50% relative humidity. Find the heat and moisture added to the air. Also determine the sensible

heat factor of the process.

H.W:

Air at 10ºC dry bulb temperature and 90% relative humidity is to be heated and humidified to

35 o C dry bulb temperature and 22.5ºC wet bulb temperature. The air is pre-heated sensibly before

passing to the air washer in which water is recirculated. The relative humidity of the air coming

out of the air washer is 90%. This air is again reheated sensibly to obtain the final desired condition.

Find: 1. the temperature to which the air should be preheated. 2. the total heating required; 3. the

makeup water required in the air washer; and 4. the humidifying efficiency of the air washer.

When two quantities of air having different enthalpies and different specific humidities are mixed,

the final condition of the air mixture depends upon the-masses involved, and on the enthalpy and

specific humidity of each of the constituent masses which enter the mixture. Now consider two air

streams 1 and 2 mixing adiabatically as shown in Fig. (11)a.

Let

m1 =Mass of air entering at 1,

h1 =Enthalpy of air entering at 1,

W1 =Specific humidity of air entering at 1,

m2 , h2 , W2 =Corresponding values of air entering at 2, and

m3 , h3, W3 =Corresponding values of the mixture leaving at 3

Assuming no loss of enthalpy and specific humidity during the air mixing process, we have for

the mass balance,

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

m1 m 2 m (31)

For the energy balance,

m1 h1 m 2 h2 m 3 h3 (32)

m 1W1 m 2W 2 m 3W 3 (33)

m1 h1 m 2 h2 ( m1 m 2 )h3 m1 h3 m 2 h3

m 1 h1 m 1 h3 m 2 h3 m 2 h2

(34)

m 1 ( h1 h3 ) m 2 ( h3 h2 )

Similarly, substituting the value of m3 from equation (33) in equation (34), we have

m1 W3 W2

(35)

m 2 W1 W 3

m 1 h3 h2 W 3 W 2

(36)

m 2 h1 h3 W1 W 3

Air Conditioning System Lecture (6)

Fig. (12)

The adiabatic mixing process is represented on the psychrometric chart as shown in Fig. (11)b.

The final condition of the mixture (point 3) lies on the straight line 1-2. The point 3 divides the

line 1-2 in the inverse ratio of the mixing masses. By calculating the value of W3 from equation

(36), the point 3 is plotted on the line 1-2.

It may be noted that when warm and high humidity air is mixed with cold air, the resulting mixture

will be a fog and the final condition (point 3) on the psychrometric chart will be to the left or above

the saturation curve which represents the fog region, as shown in Fig. (12). The temperature of the

fog is that of the extended wet bulb line passing through point 3.

The fog may also result when steam or a very fine water spray is injected into air in a greater

quantity than required to saturate the air. Even lesser quantity of steam, if not mixed properly, may

result fog.

The fog can be cleared by heating the fog, mixing the fog with warmer unsaturated air or

mechanically separating the water droplets from the air.

Example (11)

One kg of air at 40ºC dry bulb temperature and 50% relative humidity is mixed with 2 kg of air at

20ºC dry bulb temperature and 20ºC dew point temperature. Calculate temperature and specific

humidity of the mixture.

H.W:

800 m3/min of recirculated air at 22ºC DBT and 10ºC dew point temperature is to be mixed with

300 m3/min of fresh air at 30ºC DET and 50% RH. Determine the enthalpy, specific volume,

humidity ratio and dew point temperature of the mixture.

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