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DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TRACTOR MOUNTED AXIAL

FLOW MIST BLOWER SPRAYER FOR GRAPE AND POMEGRANATE


ORCHARDS

A thesis submitted to the

Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani

By

Mr.Kharade Umesh Sampat


(Reg. No. 2015AE/09M)

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
(Agricultural Engineering)
In

FARM MACHINERY AND POWER ENGINEERING

Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering,


College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,
Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth,
Parbhani (M. S.) India
2018
DedIcatIon

Affectionately Dedicated to
My source of inspiration
My beloved Parents

....Umesh
CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION

I hereby declares that dissertation or part

Of there has not been submitted by me

To any other University or

Institution for

Any other degrees

Or

Diploma

Place –Parbhani (Mr. Kharade U.S)


Date - / / (Reg.No.2014AE/09
Prof. D. D. Tekale
Assistant Agricultural Engineer (FMP),
AICRP on Utilization of Animal Energy
Department of Farm Machinery and Power,
College of Agricultural Engineering & Technology,
Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth,
Parbhani-431402(M.S).
Certificate-I
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Development and
Evaluation of Tractor Mounted Axial Flow Mist Blower Sprayer for Grape
and Pomegranate Orchards” submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement
for the degree of Master of Technology in Agricultural Engineering in (Farm
Machinery and Power) embodied the results of the bonafied study carried out by
Mr. Kharade Umesh Sampat under my guidance and supervision. I also certify
that the dissertation has not been previously submitted by him for the award of
degree or diploma of any university or institute.

Place -Parbhani. Prof. D. D.TEKALE


Date. / / (Research Guide)
CERTIFICATE-II
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Development and
Evaluation of Tractor Mounted axial Flow Mist Blower Sprayer for Grape
and Pomegranate orchards” submitted by Mr. Kharade Umesh Sampat to
Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth Parbhani inpartial fulfillment of
the requirement for the degree of Master of Technology in Agricultural
Engineering in (Farm Machinery and power)” has been approved by the student
advisory committee after oral examination in collaboration with external examiner.

Advisory Committee

( )
External examiner Prof.D.D.Tekale
(Chairman)

Prof.J.M.Potekar
(Member)

Dr G.U. Shinde
(Member)

Prof.B. B. Badgire
(Member)

Associate Dean& Principal Head


CAET, V.N.M.K.V, Parbhani. Department of Farm
Machinery and Power
Engineering
C.A.E.T,V.N.M.K.V,Parbhani.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Emotions cannot be adequately expressed in words because then emotions are


transformed into mere formalities. Never less, formalities have to be completed. My
acknowledgement are many more than what I am expressing here.

It is matter of privilege as well as an immense pleasure to express my sincere


feelings of profound gratitude and indebtedness, adorned by the showers of thanks towards my
research guide and Chairman of Advisory Committee to Prof.D.D.Tekale, Assistant Agricultural
Engineer,(F.M.P), A.I.C.R.Pon Utilization of Animal Energy C.A.E.T,V.N.M.K.V Parbhani. For
his nourishing incentive and inspiration within me along with the unending encouragement,
excellent guidance and give valuable suggestions during the course of investigation, and
preparation and presentation of dissertation. Her valuable consistent efforts and strives to keep
the progress of work genuine by providing the necessary facilities throughout the research not
only in completing my research work but will prove as light house throughout my future life.

I am equally indebted to Prof.S.N.Solanki, Head, Department of Farm Machinery


and Power Engineering, C.A.E.T,V. N.M.K.V, Parbhani for her over willing advice, constructive
criticism, constant support and providing all facilities required to completion of the project work.

I have great pleasure in expressing my deep sense of gratitude, indebtedness and


sincere thanks to Prof.J.M.Potekar, Ex.Head &Associate Professor
(F.M.P),C.A.E.T,V.N.M.K.V, Parbhani. Dr.G.U.Shinde, Assistant Professor,
(F.M.P),C.A.E.T,V.N.M.K.V, Parbhani, Prof.P.A.Munde Assistant Professor,
(F.M.P),C.A.E.T,V.N.M.K.V, Parbhani, Prof.B.B.Badgire, Assistant Professor Department
of Agricultural Engineering, college of Agriculture, Latur. For their valuable guidance and
creative suggestions during the entire research work.

My sincere thanks and gratitude's are extended to Dr. A.S. Kadale, Associate
Dean and Principal, C.A.E.T, V.N.M.K.V, Parbhani, for his valuable information and kind co-
operation during research work.
Special thanks to Dr.K.G.Dhande, Associate Prof. Department of
(F.M.P),C.A.E.T, B.S.K.K.V, Dapoli.Shri Premji bhai, Manager, Navyug Krishi Sandhan
Private Limited Tansa, and Dr. Parag Jadhav. I am also thankful to Ghanshyam,
Magan,Manij,Kanta,Mahendra, for the cooperation in conducting field trials

I am especially thankful for cooperation for fabrication of research work Ms.


Nancy Fernandis.

One uses the choicest words to measure the boundless love for someone. I express
heartily feelings to my Parents for encourage me throughout my education.

Finally I owe my sincere thanks to all those whom I might have forgotten due to
my short come.

Place: Parbhani. Kharade Umesh .S


Date: / / (Reg.no.2014AE/09M)
CONTENTS

Page
Chapter Title
no.
1. INTRODUCTION
1-10
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
11-27
3. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS
28-48
4. MATERIAL AND METHODS
49-86
5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
87-115
6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
116-118
7. SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE WORK
119
8. LITERATURE CITED
120-123
APPENDIX 124-154

C-Droplet size distribution analysis 124-141

A-Specification of instruments used during testing of blower 142-152

B-Field evaluation calculations 153-154

VITA 155
LIST OF TABLES

Table Title Page.no


1.1 Leading states in grape production 5
1.2 Leading states in pomegranate cultivation 7
2.1 Varieties of pomegranate 14
2.2 Classification of spray droplets 20
2.3 Classification of air carrier sprayer on the basis of application rate 25
4.1 Specifications of existing air assisted orchard sprayer 50

4.2 Specifications of existing axial flow blower (B) 52


4.3 Specifications of existing axial flow blower (C) 53
4.4 Specifications of developed axial flow mist blower (A) 55

4.5 Details of wind tunnel for testing axial flow mist blower in laboratory 62
5.1 Performance details of blower „B‟ 88-89
5.2 Performance details of blower „C‟ 93-94
5.3 Performance details of blower „A‟ 98-99
5.4 Average three replications spray volume ( ucc) (grape vineyard) 104
5.5 Average three replications spray volume ( ucc) (pomegranate orchard) 104
5.6 Analysis of variance of spray volume deposition on left, centre and right 105
side for grape crop
5.7 Analysis of variance of spray volume deposition on left, centre and right 105
side for pomegranate crop.
5.8 Average (three replications) number of droplets per square centimeter 112
Grape vineyard
5.9 Average (three replications) number of droplets per square centimeter 112
Pomegranate orchard
5.10 Average VMD (µm) and NMD (µm) on grape vineyard. 114
5.11 Average VMD (µm) and NMD (µm) on pomegranate orchard 114
LIST OF PLATES

Plate
Title Page
no.
no.
1.1 Distribution of grape cultivation area in the world 4
1.2 Distribution of pomegranate cultivation area in India 7
4.1 Tractor mounted air assisted orchard sprayer 51
4.2 Components of air assisted orchard sprayer 51
4.3 View of existed type blower fan „B‟ 54
4.4 View of existed type blower fan „C‟ 54
4.5 View of developed fan of blower „A‟ 56
4.6 Casing of existed blower „B‟ and „C‟ 57
4.7 Casing of developed axial blower „A‟ 57
4.8 View of wind tunnel assembly 61
4.9 View of belt and pulley arrangement 64
4.10 View of pitot tube connected with manometer 64
4.11 View of voltmeter and ammeter connection arrangement 66
4.12 Measurement of blower RPM 66
4.13 View of test setup of blower „B‟ 68
4.14 View of test setup of blower „C‟ 68
4.15 View of test setup of blower „A‟ 69
4.16 Outside laboratory testing of sprayer 71
4.17 Control panel system on sprayer 77
4.18 Arrangement of nozzles on sprayer 77
4.19 Attachment of glossy paper to the grape trees 83
4.20 Attachment of glossy paper to the pomegranate trees 83
4.21 Field evaluation of axial flow blower with air assisted orchard sprayer
(Pomegranate orchard) 84

4.22 Field evaluation of axial flow blower with air assisted orchard
sprayer(Grape vineyard) 84

4.23 Droplet size analyzer 86


LIST OF FIGURES
Sr.no Title Page.no
3.1 Basic dimensional parameters of blower impeller 31
3.2 Design of blower blade 34
4.1 AMCA design of wind tunnel assembly 60
5.1 Effect of rotational speed on pressure for axial flow mist 90
blower „B‟
5.2 Effect of rotational speed on discharge and velocity for axial 91
flow mist blower „B‟
5.3 Effect of rotational speed on power and efficiency for axial 92
flow mist blower „B‟
5.4 Effect of rotational speed on pressure for axial flow mist 95
blower „C‟
5.5 Effect of rotational speed on discharge and velocity for 96
blower „C‟
5.6 Effect of rotational speed on power and efficiency for blower 96
„C
5.7 Effect of rotational speed on pressure for axial flow mist 100
blower „A‟
5.8 Effect of rotational speed on discharge and velocity for 101
blower „A‟
5.9 Effect of rotational speed on power and efficiency for blower 101
„A‟
5,10 Effect of travel speed on spray deposition on grape vineyard 106
(left side)

5.11 Effect of travel speed on Spray deposition on grape 106


vineyard(center side)
5.12 Effect of travel speed on spray deposition grape vineyard 107
(right side)

5.13 Effect of travel speed on spray deposition on pomegranate 108


orchard (left side)

5.14 Effect of travel speed on Spray deposition on pomegranate 108


orchard (centre side)

5.15 Effect of travel speed on Spray deposition on pomegranate 109


orchard (right side)
5.16 Spray deposition on grapevine yard 111
5.17 Spray deposition on pomegranate orchard 111
LIST OF ABBREVIATION

M - Meter
ml - Milliliter
mm - Millimeter
No. - Number
NS - Non-significant
Sig. - Significant
SE(m) - Standard error of mean
viz. - Namely
Μm - micron meter
β1 - Blade inlet angle
β2 - Blade outlet angle
Bm - Blade mean angle
C - Chord length
ω - Angular velocity
fc - Centrifugal force
‫ג‬ - Local flow coefficient
Εs - Local swirl coefficient
Σ - Blade solidity
% - per cent
0
- Degree
Cm - Centimeter
et al. - et alia (and others)
Fig. - Figure
G - Gram
Ha - Hectare
i.e. - That is
B - Blade type
S - Speed of operation
Q - Air discharge
Va - Mean axial velocity of air
Θ - Blade camber angle
Tt - Permissible tensile stress
Deptt. - Department
etc. - Etcetera
eqn. - Equation
FRP - Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic
GI - Galvanized Iron
HP - Horse power
IIT - Indian Institute of Technology
IS - Indian standard
J - Journal
m/s - meter per second
MS - Mild steel
RPM - revolution per minute
Sq - Square
UC - Uniformity Coefficient
VMD - Volume Median Diameter
NMD - Number Median Diameter
CRD - Completely Randomized Design
RBD - Randomized Block Design
PTO - Power Take Off
AMCA- Air Moving and Conditioning Association
ASPEE- American Spring and Pressing Works Pvt.Ltd.
ARDF - Agricultural Research and Development Foundation
ASAE - American Society of Agricultural Engineers
ABSTRACT
“DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TRACTOR MOUNTED AXIAL FLOW
MIST BLOWER SPRAYER FOR GRAPE AND POMEGRANATE ORCHARDS”

By

Kharade U.S.

A candidate for the degree of

Master of Technology (Agril.Engg.)

DEPARTMENT OF FARM MACHINERY AND POWER ENGINEERING


COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
V.N.M.K.V, PARBHANI. (431402).

Research Guide : Prof. D. D. Tekale


Department : Farm Machinery and Power Engineering

The study entitled “Development and evaluation of axial flow blower for small hp
tractor for orchard spraying” was conducted in laboratory as well as on field at ASPEE
Agricultural Research foundation, Tansa, Tal. - Wada, Dist. -Palghar. Air assisted spraying
system is a viable solution for orchard spraying. It uses air blast as a vehicle to carry finely
atomized droplets to distant tree targets. To produce blast of air it employs a blower. The existing
axial flow blower was tested and observed that dirt, sand, dry leaves enter in the blower, a
blockage problem arises which affects air output and air velocity, also increase the load on the
tractor and found not suitable for low tractor. To overcome the drawback new blower was
designed and developed with reverse fan blades to avoid foreign matter (leafs, dirt, sand) being
enter in the blower and suitable for small hp tractor. The various components of axial flow
blower such as blade, hub, casing, back plate, frame was fabricated.

The conventional methods of spraying in grape vineyard and pomegranate


orchards are time consuming and labour intensive. Moreover, proper spray volume deposition
and penetration are not obtained. To overcome this drawback, the present studies was undertaken
to evaluate the performance of existing air carrier sprayer and to redesign a suitable one to meet
the requirements the laboratory studies revealed that developed blower is suitable for the grape
vineyard and pomegranate orchards. Laboratory studies revealed that the blower „A‟ having low
efficiency 22.75% leading to develop the blower with more efficiency. Field performance studies
of developed blower „A‟ indicated that proper spray deposition and penetration could be
obtained at travel speed of 3 kmph and system pressure of 15 bars. The laboratory studies
revealed that blower of type A is suitable for grape vineyard and pomegranate orchard.
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

Population growth always has direct repercussions on agriculture. Primarily it


led to desperate deforestation in search of more and more arable land to increase food
production. But soon this process of land reclamation was found to be no more effective since
the world‟s total land resource is limited. Farmers then felt the need for an increased output
within the limitation of land under cultivation and hybrid seeds. But the hybrid seeds required
increased use of fertilizers and irrigation facilities which in turn resulted in higher incidence of
pests, diseases and weeds, making these high yielding varieties less remunerative. This
necessitated the plant protection measures.

Over the past 30 to 40 years Agricultural Engineering and sciences have


contributed lion share for improvement in agricultural production throughout the world. The
standard of living in most part of the world both developed and developing has risen largely as
a result of more assured food supplies. In the developing country like India, food production is
not sufficient to fulfill the requirements of its population. Most of the countries food production
is lost due to pests and diseases, because they are predominant factors responsible for reduction
in fruit and crop yields. Pests not only reduce the yield of fruits and crops but also lower the
quality. Thus use of the pesticides and insecticides through improved plant protection
techniques is the only solution to save the food production.

Now days, farmers all over the world are making utmost efforts to increase food
production to previously unreached levels in order to feed the millions utilizing most modern
equipment and farming systems. Farmers are employing high yielding varieties of seeds,
applying fertilizers and irrigation, and adopting proper plant protection measures for this
purpose. India is no exception to this. However, Indian agriculture is characterized not only by
its regular annual crops but also to a large extent, by its orchard and tree crops. Like any other
crop, these plantation crops are susceptible to attack of pests and diseases. The Indian farmers
usually control them using conventional methods and appliances which include spraying of
pesticides to the affected crops up to the point of runoff with manually operated or power
operated hydraulics prayers, such as rocking sprayer, foot sprayer and reciprocating pump

1
supplying pressurized liquid to the spray guns. The conventional methods of spraying orchard
and tree crops involve low initial cost but manifest serious drawbacks and limitations in
spraying orchards and trees as enumerated below.

1. Great amount of time and labour.


2. More than 50 per cent of the spray fluid drips down as a loss.
3. Environmental hazards due to high application rates.
4. Spray cannot properly penetrate through the foliage and there is a
5. Great chance of missing areas of foliage.
6. Spraying of chemicals is not uniform. The top of the plant,
Underneath of leaves and bottom of the crop remain unsprayed.

To encounter and overcome all these and other problems, farmers and fruit
growers of developed countries have been using air assisted spraying system for many years. In
India, although air-assisted spraying technique has been employed in some of the hand
operated and boom sprayers, air-carrier sprayers capable of spraying vast orchard and tree
crops are still aliens to Indian agriculture.

As the name implies, an air-carrier sprayer utilizes an airstream to carry the


spray droplets onto the target It employs a blower(which is basically a fan) to produce and
deliver an air stream of sufficient discharge, velocity and pressure, and introduces the spray
fluid into this air stream in the form of fine droplets at high pressures (from a reciprocating
pump) at the air outlet The turbulence of the air stream causes thorough mixing of air and
liquid, and this spray laden air proceeds from the sprayer to displace the original air inside the
canopy. The turbulent air stream along with the suspended pesticide solution in it causes
ruffling action of the foliage and effect impingement of spray droplets on both sides of the
leaves, including those in the inner most parts in the canopy.

1.2 Scope of work

Uniform distribution and deposition of chemical from top to bottom of plant


canopy and on the undersides of leaves is of utmost importance for effective pest control.
Incorporation of air assistance in spraying system improves the deposition uniformly in the
entire tree canopy. Spray deposition on the lower portion of plant leaves, where most of pests
harbor also improves in the air assisted spray application (Sirohi et.al. 2008). The deposition of
spray droplets, requirement of air volume in air assisted spraying system and pesticide

2
application rates are mainly influenced by canopy characteristics like leaf area index and leaf
area density. The higher leaf area density results in lower droplets density at the canopy
(Bhargav, 2001). The tractor operated air-assisted sprayer in which high air velocity is
generated through axial or centrifugal blower produces smaller size droplets by atomization.

The air-assisted sprayer produces appropriate size droplets uniformly reducing


losses of expensive chemical and environmental pollution. The fine droplets at high pressure
during movement mix up thoroughly with air. The turbulent air stream along with fine spray
particles causes ruffling action of foliage and effect impingement of spray droplets on both
sides of leaves, including that in the innermost part in the canopy. It therefore, makes effective
and economic spray deposition on tall and branched tree leaves (Mathews .1992).

India occupies the pride of place in respect of the wide range of fruit grown. The
grape and pomegranate are the important remunerative horticultural crops. There income per
hectare is probably high.

Grape (Vitis Viniferous L.) and Pomegranate (Punica Granatum) orchards use
the Mist Sprayer application for fungicides, insecticides and foliar feeding because the Mist
Sprayer will deposit spray droplets on the underside of the leaves. 1-2 gallons per acre will
effectively covered by the crop with swath widths of 1.5 to 25 meter. This is next to impossible
with conventional boom or aerial spraying methods.

1.3 Grape

Grape is one of the most delicious, refreshing and nourishing fruits of the
World. It is universally praised as a table fruit. taly and France the world‟s two largest grape
producers, have cultivated the fruit for centuries on end.

Grapes are popular agricultural crop all over the world. There are more than
10000 different varieties of grapes worldwide, which are consumed in the varieties of forms.
Global grape production currently amounts to more than 75 million metric tons per year. Today
there are well over 18vmillion acres of cultivated vineyards.

3
China
2.66 %
Bangladesh
5.06 %
13.44 % 23.71% Sri lanka
United Arab
6.79 % 10.7 % 20.73 %
India
Russia
3.24 % Sweden
2.63 %
Thailand
other countries

Plate 1.1 Distribution of grape cultivation area in the world

Worldwide China produces the majority of the world grapes with annual grape
production of 12.627999 MT. taly and the nited States aren‟t far behind with annual
productions of 69.30794 and 71.52063 MT respectively. Spain and china each produces 5
million metric tons each year.

India is the leading country producing grape in the world. The area under the
grape in India is about 1,23000ha, with an annual production of 26.35000MT. (National
Research Centre for Grapes (N.R.C.G), Manjri Farm, Pune, 2016 India.)

th
India stands at 8 position in the world for the area of harvest for grapes. As the
area under grape cultivation has increased considerably by 14,892 ha over the years 1990 to
1994 and then the area of harvest has reached a stable figure of 40,000 ha during 1994 to 2000.
After that the growth is very less. The area under grape cultivation is not expanding fast now.

th
India is the 8 largest grape producing country in the world with the production of
1,546,300 (tones), which make a share of 3.24 per cent of total production of grapes in the world.

In Maharashtra area under the grape (Vitis Vinifera) crop is about 86000 ha with
the development taking place world over, and production up to 7, 74000 tons of grapes
annually. (Report on Product profile of grape, APEDA, 2016.) The leading districts in
production of grapes in Maharashtra are Nasik, Sangli, Sholapur & Pune. Latur and

4
Osmanabad districts having maximum area under grape cultivation. The area under grape in
Latur and Osmanabad districts were 643 and 860 hectares, respectively. (Economics of grape
production in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state.2016).The area under grapes in
Maharashtra has increased by 82.68 percent and has increased at the rate of 6.68 percent.
(International journal of advanced multidisciplinary research. 2016).

Table.1.1 Leading states in grape production

Maharashtra Nashik, Sangli, Solapur, Osmanabad, Pune, Satara

Karnataka Belgaum, Bijapur, Bagalkot, Kolar, Bengalore

Tamilnadu Theni, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Dharampuri

Punjab Bhantinda, firozpur, muktsar, Sangrur

Andhra Pradesh Rangareddy, Mehboob nagar

Haryana Fatehabad, Sirsa,hisar

Although, the returns per unit area of land are very high with grape cultivation,
the area under grapes is not expanding fast owing to the high initial cost of establishing the
vineyards and high recurring cost of production.

The risk of losing a crop due to unprecedented changes in weather is also very
high. Since the highest productivity in grapes has been achieved, efforts are needed to extend
grape cultivation to newer areas. Soil and water salinity and drought are the impediments in
this direction, for which suitable rootstocks are to be identified.

Ripe grape is very easily digested. It contains large proportion of sugars and
useful minerals. Varieties good for eating as fresh fruit are called table grapes. Though are good
for eating as fresh fruits and better when dried and preserved.

1.4 Pomegranate

According to old Hindu scriptures written in Sanskrit nearly 4000 years ago, the
pomegranate plant was considered holy with miraculous qualities. The Pomegranate (Punica
Granatum) is the most important perennial horticulture crops. Its per hectare income is highest

5
among all horticultural crop at the global level. ndia is the world‟s largest producer of
pomegranates, followed by Iran. Other countries like Turkey Spain Tunisia, Morocco, also
cultivate this crop. The Indian pomegranate production is growing by 20-25% every year. India
is the only country able to deliver pomegranates all year round thanks to its climate. The
countries main variety is the Bhagwa. The Bhagwa makes up the majority of fruit exported and
consumed domestically.

In 2015-16 the total area under cultivation of pomegranate in India is 143000


thousand ha and production is around 17.74000 MT. In 2016-017 Maharashtra produced
18.00000 MT of pomegranates and area of production is 1, 32,000ha. Maharashtra is the
country‟s pomegranate bowl with 1 21 of total area under pomegranate.(Report of
Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) 2015-
016).In the production of pomegranate Sholapur, Sangli, Dhule, Ahmednagar, Aurangabad
Districts are ahead.

The state producing Pomegranate crops are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu


and Andhra Pradesh.

The total production of pomegranate is concentrated mainly in the Western


Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan in India.
Maharashtra is the leading State with 132000 thousands hectare area under pomegranate
cultivation, followed by Karnataka and Gujarat with 13.6 thousand ha and 5.8 thousand ha
respectively, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu stood at fourth and fifth position with. 2.8 And
0.5 thousand ha of pomegranate cultivation in India.

6
4% 2% 1%

8%
Maharashtra

19% Karnataka
Gujrat
66%
Andhra pradesh
Tamilnadu
Others

Plate.1.2 Distribution of pomegranate cultivation area in the India


(Source-The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority
(APEDA) report. 2016)

In orchard and vines, it is difficult to spray the pesticide uniformly and


efficiently throughout the tree by conventional method of spraying, especially in grape vines. It
is difficult to use the conventional method of spraying due to its bushy leaves and method of
planting. Being time consuming, labour intensive and non-uniform the conventional method of
spraying is not suitable to control the pests and diseases on grape and pomegranate vines.

Table.1.2 leading states in pomegranate cultivation

Maharashtra Solapur, Nashik, Sangli, Ahmadnagar, Pune, Satara

Karnataka Bijapur, Baglkot, Belgaum

Gujarat Bhavnagar, Ahmedabad, Sabarkantha

Andhra Pradesh Anantpur

Mist Sprayers provide better coverage at a much lower cost than farmer would
incur with other application methods. Many producers/growers have sprayed their grapes with
a Mist Sprayer. They have reported excellent results at treatment levels 25-30% below
conventional spraying methods and in half the time.

7
Spraying is the one of the most important in plant and crop protection from the
point of view of pests and diseases control. There are mainly two methods,
 Conventional method of spraying
 Air carrier spraying

1.5 Conventional methods of spraying:

The conventional methods of spraying in orchard and tree crop involve low
initial cost but having serious drawbacks.

1. Large volume of water required per tree.


2. Great amount of time and labour is required.
3. More than 50% of the spray fluid is lost by drips.
4. Environmental hazards occur due to high application rate.
5. Spray can not penetrate through foliage.
6. Backside of the leaves, which generally harbors most of the pest remains unsprayed.

1.6 Air carrier spraying:

Air carrier spraying having following advantages

1. It requires less amount of water per tree/vine.


2. It saves great amount of time and labour.
3. Quick and easy pest control is possible, keeping economic losses to a minimum.
4. Due to faster application rate spraying can be done with minimum time.
5. When properly operated there is less chance of exposure to chemicals than with the old
gun method.
6. Cover whole canopy front as well as back sides of leaves.

Air carrier sprayer provides good coverage consuming very less water time and
labour hence it is suitable for spraying in grape and pomegranate orchards. The sprayer which
uses air as a carrier for spraying chemicals is called as Mist Blowers. It employs the blower Pto
deliver an air blast of sufficient discharge and velocity. Spray fluid is introduced into this air
blast in form of fine droplets. In air carrier system centrifugal and axial flow blowers are used.
Centrifugal blowers are suitable for small height plants and axial blower is suitable for large
height plants.

8
1.7 Need of study

enerally the two types of blower‟s centrifugal and axial flow are used with
air-carrier sprayers. Compared to the axial flow blowers, the centrifugal blowers provide less
air discharge with relatively higher air pressures and are suitable in sprayers used for spraying
tall trees. Whereas, the axial flow blowers provide comparatively larger air discharge with low
to medium air pressures. Scientists and researchers contend that high air flow rate is the most
important requirement in achieving desired results in orchard spraying. Thus, it was felt
necessary to conduct research trials on the axial flow blowers which are considered ideal for
use in orchard air-carrier sprayers.

Blowers used in developed countries with air-carrier sprayers are of very high
capacity and require large size tractors (above 50 hp or 37.30 kW). But commonly used Indian
tractors are of 35 hp (26.10 kW) only and are considered too small to operate such large
capacity sprayers if imported. Hence, it is necessary to modify the existing designs as well as
design and develop new blowers which can be operated with the available PTO power of an
average Indian tractor and at the same time would satisfy the air parameter requirements of a
particular orchard crop. Few attempts were made in the country to design and develop orchard
air carrier sprayers which could be suitable on the available tractor size. Axial flow blowers
previously developed in India for orchard, suffered either from insufficient air discharge and
air velocity, and which are the prime requirement for thorough spray coverage or higher input
power requirement with low blower efficiency.

Many designs of the air assisted sprayer do not specifically adjust the blower
output to match crop canopy characteristics. These drawbacks of the air carrier sprayer can be
overcome by precise and optimum development of blower as per the requirement of orchard
crop and input power available for operating blower at the Power Take off (P.T.O.) shaft of the
tractor.

Day by day use of small hp tractor in India for orchard crop has increased so it
has required developing matching e uipment‟s suitable for agricultural operations. There is
need of designing and developing blower for sprayer with requirement of 15 to 20 hp. It should
satisfy the technical requirement for spraying and should be within economical reach of
farmers.

9
From the above discussion there is an urgent need of design and development of
suitable air carrier spraying system for grape vines. With a view to design suitable air carrier
sprayer systems for spraying grape vines and pomegranate orchards. The project was
undertaken at Aspee Research Institute, Mumbai.

Objectives:

1. To test the performance of existing blowers in laboratory.


2. To develop axial flow blower suitable for grape vineyard and pomegranate orchards
operated by small tractors.
3. To evaluate the performance of developed tractor mounted axial flow mist blower sprayer
in grape vineyard and pomegranate orchard.

10
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In order to fulfill the objectives set for present studies it is necessary to know
cultural practices and pest control methods for grape and pomegranate.In view of this,
following section are incorporated in this chapter.
1. Grape and pomegranate crop
2. Need to control pests
3. Control of pests
4. Technique and equipment used to pest control
5. Air carrier sprayer
6. Air sprayer jet theory
7. Spray volume
8. Orchards sprayers and
9. Operational technique for air carriers sprayer

2.1 Grape (Vitus Viniferous L.)

The botanical name of Grape is Vitus Viniferous L. It is subtropical crop. It is


the most important member of the family Vitaceae, but there are number of other species,
several of which are cultivated. The Viniferous grape is indigenous to the region stretching
from the cancasus to Western India and has been grown in Europe for thousands of years.
About 82 percent of grapes are used in making vine, of the reminder, about half is dried and
marketed as raisins and about half is eaten fresh.

2.1.1 Climate

Climate is very important factor in the grape industry. Rainfall at the time of
harvesting is likely to cause the berries to crack and spoil. Dry weather at the time the fruit
developing and maturing, is most important. Many of the superior varieties in the large parts of
the country because they do not mature before the beginning of the monsoon. High
temperatures are desirable during the ripening period. So grape requires warm to dry summer
and cool winter.

11
2.1.2 Soil

Fairly light soils are ordinarily preferred for grapes and good drainage is
essential. In Pimplgoan (Nasik), the soil is medium black with lime content from 3 to 5 per
cent.

2.1.3 Varieties

There are 10000 varieties of grape in the world varieties are mainly seeded or
seedless. In India seeded varieties are Anabe shahi, Bhokri, Chema sahebi, Gold Kalisahebi
Gulabi, Bengalore Purple, Champa, Champion, Pandari sahebi etc.
Seedless varieties are Beauty seedless, Thompson seedless, Pusa seedless,
Sharad seedless, Kishmish belli etc. (Ref. website- gardening know how (2016).

2.1.4 Propagation

Founded that there are two methods of propagating grape vines i.e. sexual and
asexual. The sexual method is employed chiefly for evolving new varieties through
hybridization. In asexual method vines are multiplied by vegetative part such as branches, buds
and canes etc. Among this propagation by hard wood cutting, budding, grafting, layering and
tissue culture are commonly performed.

2.1.5 Spacing

There are different row to row and plant to plant spacing‟s adopted for grape
vines. Some preferred spacing‟s are 3m x2.4m, 2.4m x1.8m, 3mx1.8m.

2.1.6 Pests/Insects

There are different paste found attacking grape vine and its fruit in different
grape growing region of the world. However the cock chaffer, Bittles, Flea bittle, Thrips,
Scales, Paddle legged bug, Berry borer are major insects attack on grape. The pests are namely
mites and nematode.

2.1.7 Diseases

Grapes are susceptible to number of diseases mostly caused by fungus. There is


more spread of disease under humid summer condition. Disease like powdery mildew develops

12
well in dry climate. Diseases which commonly occur in India are Anthracnose, Downy mildew,
Powdery mildew and dead arm.

2.1.8 Need to control pests

It was reported that on an average about one third of the potential agricultural
production in the world was annually lost to the pest. There is a great loss in a quality and
quantity of grapes if it is not protected from major pests.

1. Physical control : Physical removal of barriers, traps and environmental


manipulation.

2. Cultural control : Crop rotation, cropping system, crop spacing, trap crop,
tillage

3. Genetic control : Parasites, predators, viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa.

2.1.9 Pruning

When vines are 1.5 to 2 years old and attend wrist size. It regulates growth and
gives the good crop. Pruning is done twice a year, in April for summer crops and again in
October for winter crop.

2.1.10 Training

The training of vine is a matter of great importance and influences very largely
all other operations from planting to harvesting. In the long history of grapes growing many
different methods of training have been developed.
Types of trainings are,
1. Single stake system
2. Head system
3. Kniffen system
4. Cordan system
5. Bower system

13
2.2 POMEGRANATE

2.2.1 Climate

Pomegranate requires cool winter and warm summer. It requires hot and dry
climate during the period of fruit development and ripening. It is draught tolerant plant and can
thrive under desert conditions. It can grow in the planes as well as on hills up to an elevation of
about 1850 meter. The optimum temperature for the fruit development is 38°c.

2.2.2 Soil

For pomegranate crop, deep loamy, alluvial soils are good. This crop can
tolerate soils which are lime and slightly alkaline. This crop can also be grown in medium or
light black soil having at least 60cm depth.

2.2.3 Varieties

Some important varieties of pomegranates are given for particular state below.

Table 2.1 Varieties of pomegranate

State Important varieties


Maharashtra Ganesh,Muskat..
Gujarat Dholka.
Rajasthan Jello, Jodhpuri red, Jodhpur white.
Karnataka Bassein seedless, Madhurigi.
Haryana Chawla nabha.

2.2.4 Sources of propagation

Pomegranate crop can be propagated by different methods such as Seeding,


Hard wood cutting, Suckers, Softwood cutting, Air layering etc.

2.2.5 Spacing

Depending upon the type of soil generally row to row and plant to plant spacing
are 5mx2m, 5mx3m, and 5mx4m respectively. However for lighter type soil the spacing are
5x5m and for poor soils of Deccan it is 3.3 m x 5m.

14
2.2.6 Irrigation

Regular irrigation aid is essential from flowering to ripening of fruits. An


irregular moisture content results into small fruits. It may also cause development of cracks on
cracks on mature fruits which reduce market value and customer acceptance.

2.2.7 Harvesting

The fruits are ready to harvest after 5-7 months of the appearance of blossoms.
They are harvested when the skin turns slightly yellow and the fruit gives a metallic sound
when tapped.

2.2.8 Yield

The tree starts yielding from the 4th year onwards, after planting the yield is
above 20 to 25 fruits/tree. Yield increases progressively and in the 10 th year a tree may produce
as much as 200-250 fruits/tree.

2.2.9 Pomegranate insects

1. Fruit borer
2. Thrips
3. Aphids
4. Fruit fly
5. Caster pod borer

2.2.10 Pomegranate diseases

1. Bacterial blight
2. Alternaria fruit rot
3. Internal breakdown of aril
4. Wilt complex
5. Fruit spot

15
2.3 History of Air Carrier Sprayers

Historically the question of pest control is a great antiquity. The fight against
insect vector, particularly those of malaria in tropics started at almost the end of nineteenth
century. In 1939 the remarkable insecticidal properties of compound like DDT that has been
synthesized in Switzerland in 1874 were demonstrated by Geigy Company and insect control
was given a more attractive outlook. The enormous success of synthetic organic insecticides
such as DDT and BHC following the conclusion of the world war II began a new era of the
pest control (Symes. et al.1962) However the liquid solution chemical were applied to the
plants with watering cans, syringe or with a heath brush in case of vineyard in earlier days.
Appearance in Europe of powdery mildew of the vine (1845) was followed by an extension of
the use of sulpher as a fungicide (1848), the severe outbreak in France of downy mildew of
vine (1 ) was followed by millardet‟s discovery of the fungicidal value of copper sulfate-
lime mix (1882). The spread of Colorado beetle (1850-59), countered by the introduction of
Paris green (1867), an arsenical later displaced by lead arsenate (1892), a material first used in
United States during gypsy moth plague in 1889. The tremendous development in the range of
chemical availability for the plat protection followed by the year1939-45 war (Martin, 1973).
The investigations and development work on new chemicals for insect and pests are being
continued till today. Same time emphasis is being given the development of plant protection
equipments.

According to Rose (1963) first successful sprayer with high speed air jet via a
compressor was developed in 1937. It was the first air assisted sprayer. According to
Brann(1956),axial flow fan started to generate air in 1940 and that by 1 the “Speed
Sprayer” as it was nown was in commercial use in all the main fruit growing area of SA.
Marshall et al. (1963) was among the first workers to discuss the merit of air volume and air
velocity. Randall (1971) gave a comprehensive understanding of air assisted spraying.

2.4 Air carrier sprayer

An air carrier sprayer utilizes air as a carrier and to break the pesticide solution
into a fine mist spray. The air velocity must be sufficient to carry the spray mist into the tree or
plant canopy. They are often referred as mist blower if produce droplet sin the range of 50-100
m. Air carrier sprayers are particularly useful for spraying large targets such as orchards. he
effectiveness of air carrier sprayer depends on its ability to displace the air in all parts of the

16
target. For the effective control of pests and diseases, the spray-laden air must completely
displace the air contained within the foliage being sprayed. The air spraying equipment must be
able to handle the chemicals in suspension as well as liquid emission.

Hadar (1980) enumerated the following merits of air carrier spraying system.

1. It requires less amount of water per tree/vine.


2. It saves great amount of time and labour.
3. It reduces or eliminates run-off, resulting in saving of chemicals.
4. Quick and easy pest control keeps losses to a minimum level.
5. There is a little chance of missing area of foliage due to blanket type of application.
6. Due to the faster application rate, spraying can be done with minimum time.
7. It covers the whole plant or crop canopy i.e. upper or lower side of leaves.

2.5 Factors affecting the performance of air carrier sprayer

Rasl (1991) enumerated following basic parameters which affects the


performance of sprayer while spraying a tree target.
1. Size and density of crop canopy.
2. Amount of liquid to be transported to the target.
3. Degree of atomization will be used.
4. Forward travelling speed
5. Air characteristics available at outlet.
6. Distance of farthest point of target

2.6 Air stream at spra er’s outlet

Air assisted sprayers use air stream to enhance the transport and deposition of
pesticides on the canopy. Careful design of airstream formed by a sprayer can considerably
improve the deposition. However, the use of air stream can cause extensive environmental
contamination due to off target drift. The prime requirement of air carrier sprayer is that air
stream must be sufficient to carry the liquid into crop canopy. The air velocity should be
sufficient to impinge the spray droplets with minimum drift.

Byass and Weaving (1960) and Randall (1971) described importance of air
stream in the context of droplet spectrum and deposition on canopy. A study was made at
Cornell University for two-air streams of identical horsepower. It was concluded that fine spray

17
was transported into greater distance than the coarse sprays. The course sprays were carried
better in high velocity-low volume air stream, while fine sprays were carried in equal amount
by both streams.

Randall (1971) in his classical fieldwork demonstrated that higher volume of air
at lower velocity produced better coverage than lower volume at higher velocity for given
energy input. He suggested that the ratio of volume to air velocity should be large as possible
with the provision that the velocity at densest part of canopy is sufficient to deflect the leaves
allowing spray to penetrate in apple tree. He also found that a minimum speed of 12.2 m/s was
required for spray to penetrate beyond the outer canopy of apple trees.

Hale (1978) developed a 1/12th scale model of an orchard in a wind tunnel. The
effect of the forward speed, wind speed, direction and the charges in the outlet energy had been
measured. The results of the modeling showed that the air jet travel from the outlet dependent
upon the energy of air jet and air volume emitted in each unit of forward travel. He concluded
that in orchard, for penetration through the tree volume outputs as a low as 2.79 m3/s and
forward speed up to 11.22 km/h could be used. To achieve this performance, the sprayer
required power of about 28 hp at the tractor PTO shaft and a further 3 to 7 hp for the operation
of spray pump.

Raisigal (1991) conducted a study on air jet characteristics for mist blower and
concluded that the successful blower and nozzle design should start from the theories regarding
the resultant velocity profile of the jet penetrating the foliage and the droplet carrying ability of
the resultant velocity profile. The machine designed should also have provision to correct the
mechanical parameters of the machine according to the dimensions of the target. Over supply
and under supply of air energy related to tree size, droplet size or forward traveling speed could
result inadequate deposit, more loss, and hence poor pest control.

2.7 Travel speed of machine and spray deposition:

The correct rate of travel is essential for good spray coverage. For a given
sprayer and tree size, too slow rate of travel will result in over-spraying which amounts to
waste of time, fuel, and possibly spray material. Too high rate of travel will result in
insufficient coverage.

18
Randall (1971) compared the spray deposition resulting from the airflow
volumes (1.53, 2.46 and 7.67 m3/s) at two travel speeds (3.2and 6.4 km/h). He found that the
highest air flow volume produced the most uniform deposit throughout an apple tree when the
sprayer traveled at the slower speed. He concluded that the optimum performance requires air
volume rate of 7.67 m3/s at an outlet velocity of 31 m/s. He opined that uniformity of
deposition was improved it the forward speed of tractor was as slow as economically possible.

Fox et al. (1982) conducted study to measure the ability of spray jet to penetrate
the canopy. Air velocities were measure at selected point in a tree canopy to quantify the
interactive effect of air volume flow rate, outlet air velocity, sprayer travel speed and canopy
resistant on jet velocity distribution. They observed that the sprayer traveling at 6.4
km/produced jets 10-15 per cent less as compared to traveling at 3.2 km/they concluded that
traveling at higher speed resulted in less uniform distribution of spray material over a tree than
spraying at lower speed.

Darksen and Gray (1995) investigated the effect of fan speed on in canopy. Air
velocity and spray deposition found increased in upper part of tree at higher flow rate. There
was not a good co-relation between air velocity and spray deposition for increasing travel
speed from0.9 to 1.3 m/s.

2.8 Droplet Size

Spray contains a large number of very small spheres of liquid known as


droplets. Droplet size is an important factor for the pesticides to be applied effectively with
minimum contamination to the environment. The droplet size requirement depends upon the
pest, the pesticide, its mobility and mode of action. The unit of measure of droplet diameters is
the micron ( m) which is e uivalent to . 1 mm. Droplet undisturbed by relative airflow is
approximately spherical. Pesticide sprays generally classified according to the droplet size as
shown in Table.

2.9 Classification of sprays

ason D. (2 ) stated that droplets under 1 m are better coverage than


droplets over m resist drift but have a tendency to bounce or run upon impact, providing
poorer coverage.

19
Malik, R.K et al (2012) classified air carrier sprayer on the basis of spray
volume into following groups as given in table 2.3.they concluded that the droplet density of
20-25drps/sq.cm and droplet size of 100-150 µm offered effective pest control in crops.
Source: International Journal of Pest Management. G.A. Mathew (1975).

Table 2.2 Classification of spray droplets

VMD, µm Droplet size classification

<50 Aerosol

51-100 Mist

101-200 Fine spray

201-400 Medium spray

>400 Coarse spray

2.10 Droplet size distribution and spray deposition from air carrier sprayer

Willson and Iron (1962) conducted a study on the effect of different droplet
sizes on the effective disease control. They found that spray droplets with 100-400 µm VMD
showed good disease control compared to spray droplet size.

Miles et al. (1975) developed a model to determine deposition efficiencies with


different droplet diameter. They computed the deposition efficiency of 91 percent and 11
percent for 200 and 20 µm size droplets respectively at 4.57 m/s velocity of air stream.

Smith et al. (1975) recommended droplet size between 140 µm and 200 µm for
spraying most of the crops. For required quality of pesticide and optimum droplet size of 200
µm, they found that 20-25 droplets/cm2 density was most effective for control of weevil disease
in cotton.Jose (1987) developed following equation for determining spray volume.

V=LAI x DDt x Fs x Vvmd x 100/pc (2.1)

Where,
V = Spray volume, l/ha

20
LAI = Leaf area index
DDt = Theoretical droplet density
Fs = Factor of safety
Vvmd = Volume of droplet of vmd size.
Pc = Useful volume percent
The present useful volume is the ratio of volume deposited on leaves to total volume
multiplied by 100.

Sudhakar (1988) suggested equation to determine spray volume based on Jose, (1987).

LAI = 1.51617 x 10-4 x 101.968545 ( 2.2)


ln (Vs /2.5) = 1.431152709 + 0.131080763 ln (LAI)

Where,
H = Plant height, cm,
Vs = Spray volume, cm3

Mathews (1984) reported that narrower droplet spectrum avoided the production
of the larger droplets as they were inefficient from pesticide efficacy view point and also
avoided the production of small drift prone droplets.

Weidenhoff (1991) reported the work of Porskamp et al (1985). He reported the


small droplets gave more coverage to the target and deposition.

Holownicki R. et al. (2002) developed the method of quantitative and


qualitative evaluation of spray application based on deposit and coverage measurements on
artificial targets. This relatively simple and fast method is proposed for small scale comparative
field experiments with air-assisted orchard sprayers. Biological efficacy, being very important
for the grower, is not enough informative method of evaluation of spraying technique from the
cognitive point of view. Therefore fluorescent dye and filter paper as artificial targets was
proposed.

Parker(2003).Fully understanding an effort to provide quantitative information


for end physical process of spray droplet evaporation and residual users in order to increase
pesticide application efficiency for pattern formation on target surfaces is essential not only in
controlling particular insects or diseases, the objective of this improving pesticide application

21
efficiency but also in mini- research was to determine the evaporation time, droplet missing
off-target contamination.

Deveau J. (2009) explained the objective of spraying is to deliver an effective,


uniform dose of product to a target area in a safe and timely manner. Any product not
deposited on the target is called “wastage”. astage includes drift.

Gianfranco Pergher (2013) studied a new, two-row, air-assisted tunnel sprayer


was tested in the vineyard in comparison to a conventional, broadcast sprayer. The tunnel was
fitted with external axial flow fans (airflow rate: 2.23 m3s-1 per row) and lamellate separating
panels, designed to filter the excess spray and recover its liquid fraction for recycling, while
discharging the air to the outside. Two field tests were performed, at end of flowering and
beginning of ripening. Mean deposits on the leaves and on leaf undersides at twelve canopy
locations.

Dhande (1991) founded that mean volume median diameter (VMD) average
number median diameter (NMD) and average droplet density were recorded 190.10 µm,
40.85µm and 55 no/sq.cm respectively at all zones and location of mango during spraying with
air assisted sprayer.

Narang et al. (2015) reported that, the average volume median diameter (VMD)
and average number median diameter (NMD) was found to be 152.12 µm and 51.71 for Indian
gooseberry and 223.12 µm and 51.71 for kinnow respectively.

2.11 Classification of the Blowers

Classification of blowers can be made according to the type of blades.


These were,
1. Axial flow blower
2. Centrifugal fan blower
3. Cross flow blower

2.11.1 Axial Flow Blower

In this type of design, air enters and leaves the impeller axially i.e. a straight
flow, and the outlet air often has high degree of swirl. This blower has the design
characteristics of providing medium to high volume flow rate of air at medium to low pressure

22
(Osborne, 1982).Axial flow blowers are suitable for handling larger air volume and can be used
where noise level considerations are not important. They are transporter well but poor in
atomization.(Arora,1994). Due to their long range of capacity, spray equipped with axial flow
blower deliver pesticides over a great distance and greater flow rate generates a wide core and
a far more uniform velocity distribution and consequently high uniform coverage (Klenin et
al.1979).

2.11.2 Selection of blower for air assisted sprayer

According to Anonymous (1984) effectiveness of application and performance


of an air assisted sprayers are largely dependent on blower used in it. Therefore, appropriate
selection of blower is a crucial step in designing air carrier sprayer for effective spraying.
While selecting the sprayer its spray coverage is a function of air and is considered rather than
its capacity or velocity alone. For the same size of sprayer higher velocity can be achieved for
spraying large canopy tree or crop by reducing the outlet area of sprayer. Therefore, while
designing a blower more concentration should be given to the air discharge than air velocity.
The selection of air carrier sprayer is governed by factors viz. air to be displaced in the tree or
plant canopy required air discharge rate, air velocity, air pressure etc.

Miller and Hobson (1991) indicated that axial flow blower is commonly used
for orange orchard spraying because of its suitability to generate high volume flow rate at
medium to low pressure. The centrifugal blowers, which deliver relatively lower air discharge
rate higher pressure, are suitable for all tall trees.

2.12 Development work on Axial - flow blowers in India

Khade (1991) developed an axial flow blower by modifying the hub and tip
diameter of an improved Russian blower. The tip diameter was decreased from 65 to 64 cm
and corresponding boss ratio was increased from 0.477 to 0.562. It was reported that the new
blower performed better than Russian blower and produced an air discharge of 1.85m3/s at a
maximum speed of 2490 rpm. However, power consumption of the blower as high was 7.6kW
as compared to Russian blower (6.9kW).

Dhande (2015) designed and developed an axial flow blower with adjustable
staggered angle for mango orchards. It gave a poor performance in terms of air discharge and
velocity. Its air discharge was 3.5 m3/s which was insufficient for spraying in mango orchard.

23
Turare (1992) designed an axial flow blower for mango orchard, after
evaluating an existing ASPEE axial flow blower in laboratory as well as in field. It was found
that the blower consumed 15.5 kW input power for a maximum discharge of 4.5 m3/s at 2500
rpm.

Das (1997) evaluated the performance of existing ASPEE axial flow blower
with 8,10, 12 and 14 blades operated at speed between 2030 to 3730 rpm for orange orchard
and compared with tractor mounted axial flow Italian blower operated at different hub-to tip
stagger angle ratio (0.7143 to 0.7674) and impeller speed (2130 to 2658 rpm). The effect of
these parameters on discharge, pressure, air velocity and blower efficiency were established
individually. Finally, following non-linear multiple regression, the number of impeller blades
as 10, air velocity as 31.1 m/s at 2380 rpm, hub-to-tip stagger angle ratio as 0.6989 were
optimized.

Mayande (2000) designed axial flow blower of 2.62 m3/sec discharge based on
average mango tree canopy volume 8 mango tree for determination and fan design parameters
like diameter, boss ratio, blade size and angles. An impeller was designed using established
principles and fabricated using FRP (Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic). Optimized blower had
impeller of 60 cm diameter, 0.467 boss ratio and 8 straight cambered blades at stagger angle of
340 operated at 2400 rpm, required input power of 10.90 kW suitable for small tractor.

Jamar L. et al. (2010) the use of tunnel sprayers should be encouraged because
they and potentially reduce pesticide input and drift in orchards. They could also allow smaller
plot size in multi factorial trials in which fully randomized or randomized block designs are
recommended. However, the effectiveness of plant protection products applied with tunnel
sprayers cannot be reliably assessed without a thorough investigation into spray distribution in
tree canopies.

Aware,V.V.(2008) studied that air assisted sprayers the spray droplets are
atomized and carried by the high velocity air to the target. According to the requirement of air
velocity and air discharge for ruffling action of mango tree leaves, which were essential for
even spraying, blower was designed and fabricated. MS pipe frame of size 240×240 cm was
fabricated to which nylon strings were tied across at a distance of 30 cm to fix the test points.

Planas S. et al. (2013) observed that Strong relationships between the intended
and the sprayed flow rates (R2 = 0.935) and between the canopy cross-sectional areas and the

24
sprayed flow rates (R2 = 0.926). In addition, when spraying in variable-rate mode, the
prototype achieved significantly closer application coefficient values to the objective than
those obtained in conventional spraying application mode.

2.13 Parameters of Air-Assisted Sprayers

2.13.1 Air Carrier Sprayer classification

Retan (1975) classified air carrier sprayer on the basis of spray volume into
following groups as given in Table 2.3. He also classified air carrier sprayer on basis of air
volume and liquid discharge.

Table 2.3 Classification of air carrier sprayer on the basis of


Application rate

Sr. Type of sprayer Application rate, l/ha


No
1 ULV sprayer >1.5
2
Concentrate spraying machine 10-100
3 Low volume spraying 100-1000
4 High volume spraying 1000-2500

He concluded that droplet density of 20-25 drops/sq.cm and droplet size of 100-1 m
offered effective pest control in crops. He wants to eliminate the pest from the crop, the spray
should reach deep into canopy and underside of the leaf as most of the pest and insects harbors
on lower side of leaf. He further added that concept of air assisted spraying increased the
deposition and reduced the drift up to 50 per cent.

2.14 Centrifugal Blower

This blower consists of an impeller rotating in a closed housing having spirally


shaped counters. The air enters the impeller in the axial direction and discharges along the
periphery, the impeller rotation being towards the casing outlet. They are normally capable of
operating at higher pressure than axial flow blower. The amount of work done on air, evident
in the pressure development of fan, depends primarily on the angle of the fan blades with
respect to the direction of rotation at the periphery of the impeller (Osborne, 1982).

Jorgensen (1983) suggested that to minimize slip effect, the no. of blade should
be large, on the other hand, to minimize fluid friction, he suggested that the no. of blades

25
should be comparatively so small so that the mean hydraulic radius of the channels between
blades is nearly maximum. He stated that the width of the blade at every point from heel to tip
influence the mean hydraulic radius of the friction losses through the impeller.

Powar (1997) stated that there was an inlet diameter (DI) for each combination
of hub diameter (DH) at rotational speed (N) and volume flow rate (Q) for which relative speed
is minimum. According to him this was the optimum inlet diameter. He also stated that simple
solution for equation of the inlet diameter could be obtained either graphically or by trial or
error method.

Yu-Tai Lee et al (2010) method was presented for redesigning a centrifugal


impeller and its inlet duct. The double-discharge volute casing is a structural constraint and is
maintained for its shape. The redesign effort was geared towards meeting the design volute exit
pressure while reducing the power required operating the fan.

2.15 Cross Flow Blower

In this blower, air is drawn on one side of the impeller and discharge on the other
side. This design is used where the shape of air outlets is required to generate particular air
flow conditions, into the tree canopy. This type of blowers have a low efficiency and
commonly operate at relatively low pressures, However, the outlet air flow from this has little
swirl.

2.16 Air stream

Air assisted sprayers use air stream to enhance the transport and deposition of
pesticide on the canopy. Air stream also creates turbulence within the crop that improves the
deposition of spray material on the targets, which are normally inaccessible. However, the use
of air stream can cause extensive environmental contamination due to off target drift. Byass
and Weaving (1960) and Randall (1971) described importance of air stream in the context of
droplet spectrum and deposition on canopy. A study conducted at Cornell University, USA of
two air stream of identical horsepower but with 200 and 100 micron diameter droplets,
concluded that fine spray was transported in great amount to greater distance than the coarse
sprays. In air streams of equal horsepower, the coarse sprays were carried better in high
velocity –low volume air stream while fine sprays were carried in equal amount by both

26
streams. The distance over which a given spray was transported was proportional to their horse
power of the stream.

Salyani and Hoffman (1996) studied the effect of air velocity of a sprayer
traveling at speed of 2.6 km/h on spray deposition on a vertical plane perpendicular to the
direction of the travel. They found that the paper target had significantly higher deposits than
leaf targets. The difference was larger at the location nearer to the sprayer. The spray
deposition decreased with increased volume and higher volumes involved more runoff from the
leaf surface. No correlation was found between air velocity and spray deposition on leaf
sample.

2.17 Air Volume and velocity for better coverage

Flemings (1962) deduced the relationship among air volume, air velocity and
efficiency of sprayer. He stated that for a given air energy, larger the droplet the greater was the
air velocity required to keep it airborne for a given distance. The experiments were conducted
at laboratory conditions.

2.17.1 Classification of tractor on the basis of horse power of the engine (Dogra and
Ghuman 2008)

1) Small hp tractor - less than 30 hp


2) Medium hp tractor - between 31 and 40 hp
3) Large hp tractor - more than 40 hp

27
CHAPTER III

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

This chapter explains the theoretical considerations involved in the process of


designing the blower for air carrier sprayer. It involves the measurements of various input and
output parameters to the blowers. The important parameters to be measured are the velocity of air,
discharge, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, input power to blower and the blower
speed.

3.1 Definations of terms

3.1.1 Fan of blower

A fan is a device for moving air which utilizes power driven rotating impeller.

3.1.2 Temperature

Dry bulb temperature is the air temperature measured by a dry bulb thermometer and wet
bulb temperature is the air temperature measured by a wet bulb temperature.

3.1.3 Static pressure

Static pressure is that portion of the air pressure which exists by virtue of degree of
compression only.

3.1.4 Dynamic pressure

Dynamic pressure is that portion of air pressure which exists by virtue of which of the rate
of motion only.

3.1.5 Total pressure

It is the sum of static and dynamic pressure.

3.1.6 Fan flow rate

It is the volumetric flow rate at fan outlet.

28
3.1.7 Fan power outlet

It is proportional to the product of fan total pressure and flow rate.

3.1.8 Flow coefficient

It is the volume of air per revolution per second with impeller of one meter diameter.

3.1.9 Pressure coefficient

It is defined as the pressure developed per revolution per second with an impeller of unit
diameter.

3.1.10 Power coefficient

It is said to be the power developed per revolution per second with an impeller of unit
diameter.

3.1.11 Absolute velocity

The velocity of the particle relative to the ground is called absolute velocity.

3.1.12Relative humidity

The velocity relative to the impeller is called relative humidity.

3.2 Axial flow mist blower

The basic purpose of a blower is to move a mass of air or gas at the desired velocity. For
achieving this objective there is a slight increase in the gas or air velocity across blower impeller.
Fig 3.1 shows details of axial flow mist blower.

In an axial flow blower ,the flow is axial i.e. parallel to the axis of rotation .in the axial flow
blower air approaches the impeller in an axial direction and leaves with a rotational component due
to work done by the impeller on the air. Thus the absolute velocity of the leaving air is higher than
the axial velocity of impeller with the result that sum of the total pressure developed by the
impeller does not appear as useful blower total pressure.

Axial flow mist blower is used in the air assisted spraying system of orchards .The axial
flow mist blower gives larger air volume at better air pressure which is essential for spraying on the
tree like orange having close spacing.

29
Air assisted spraying system consists of small horizontal triplex pump to move the
concentrated mixture from the tank to the discharge opening .both the pump blower operated by
tractor PTO shaft. As the tractor moves down the row of trees both sides are sprayed.

3.3 Selection of mist blower

Effective spraying obtained by moving the air contained in the tree and replacing with
spray laden air .a balance in equipment performance .timing chemical effectiveness and operational
techniques are very important for production of quality fruits. The absence of any one factor causes
serious economic loss .spray coverage is a function of air horse power and not capacity or velocity
alone (Jaiswal 1996).

30
Trailing edge of blade

Hub
Wheel diameter
Dia.
Leading edge of blade

Fig 3.1 Basic dimensional parameters of blower impeller

31
3.4 Design of axial flow blower

A blower is the heart of an air assisted sprayer and it produces an air mass of
desired flow rate and pressure which is necessary to carry the spray droplets to the tree canopy
and deposit it on the leaves. Uniformity of spraying and deposition efficiency is two important
parameters which determine the pest control efficiency of the machine. These parameters are
significantly affected by the air velocity, flow rate and above all the air power delivered by the
blower. Therefore, careful design of the blower is the most essential step towards the
development of a successful sprayer. A blower should be designed to work at its peak
efficiency within the power constraints while satisfying all other requirements such as
discharge, pressure and velocity.

3.4.1 Design Considerations

Several terms and parameters are associated with the design and study of axial
flow blower, the most important ones of which have been enlisted in the following sub-
sections. Although all the terms and parameters would not directly be manipulated in this
study, they have been described briefly from the view point of their general implications and
for better understanding of the subject. However, it is worthy to know at the very outset the
major blower functioning relationships which impose constraints on the extent of manipulation
of main blower parameters in order to obtain desired blower outputs. These relationships are
the “fan laws which relate air discharge air pressure output power of blower blower
diameter and blower speed in the following manner (Osborne, 1982).

3.4.1.1 Air discharge (Q)

Air discharge required for efficient spraying of a crop can be determined using
air displacement theory. According to this theory for better spraying, the air in the tree canopy
should be completely displaced by the pesticide laden air discharged from the sprayer.
Therefore, this discharge depends upon the volume of tree canopy, spacing of the tree and
travel rate of the sprayer. Air discharge required for one row of tree is given below:

Assuming the shape of tree cylindrical then,

Volume of tree = /4 x D2 x H

Where D = diameter of the tree


H = height of tree

32
Volume of air required to discharge the air in the tree,

Air discharge m3/s = Air volume in tree canopy (m3) x Ground speed (m/s) (3.1)
Tree spacing, m

3.4.1.2 Boss ratio

It is the ratio between the hub diameter and tip diameter of the blower. A high
boss ratio may lead to a low discharge at high pressure whereas; a low boss ratio leads to a
high discharge with low pressure. For axial flow blowers a boss ratio of 0.3 to 0.7 is usually
preferred (Jaiswal 1996). Thus, for obtaining higher discharge, which is essential in case of
high foliage density orchard crop lower boss ratios are preferred.

3.4.1.3 Number of blades (nb)

Number of blades required for particular capacity of blower depends upon the
boss ratio of blower less than the optimum number of blades increases, the blades solidity and
camber angle which results in more power consumption.

nb = 6 𝑟/1 − 𝑟 (3.2)

nb = 6 x 0.47 / 1 - 0.47

=9

Where, r = boss ratio

Less than the optimum number of blades increases the blade solidity and camber
angle, which results in more power consumption. On the other hand more than optimum
number of blades decreases the area for complete diffusion of air which results in more air
losses and thus causes poor performance of the blower.

3.4.1.4 Blower blade design

Efficient fan design depends upon many variables associated with airfoil shape
and aerodynamic performance. There are inexistence numerous families of airfoils that have
been developed for various applications. Three general categories of airfoil which extensively
used are,

33
1.Circular arc blading: It is a high performance type of blading particularly
suitable for high pressure rise units.

2. Flat undersurface blading: It is also a high performance type of blading, suitable for
low pressure rise units.

3. Backword curved blading: It is a less efficient but cheaper variety of blading. This
type of blading has many advantages. In cambered plate blade, thickness of the airfoils
remains constant along the chord. The fig.3.2 shows the type of blades.

Fig.3.2 Design of blower blade

3.4.1.5 Chord length

It is the distance between the leading edge and trailing edge of the blade at a
particular radius. It depends upon the blade radius, solidity and number of blades.
C=2𝜋r𝜎/𝑛 (3.3)
= 2x3.14x0.20 x1.25/9
=174.4mm
Where, 𝜎= Solidity of blade
n= Number of blades

34
3.4.1.6 Blade solidity

Blade solidity is the ratio of chord length at any section to the circumferential
spacing of the blades at the given radius.

𝜎 = cn / d ... (3.4)

= Considered as 1.25

Where, 𝜎 = Blade solidity


d = Diameter of impeller
c = Chord length, m

3.4.1.7 Thickness of blade

Thickness of the blade up to 10 % of the chord is found optimum. Therefore thickness


of the blade selected at different section as follows
Thickness at leading edge = 8 mm
Thickness at trailing edge = 4 mm
Thickness at tip of blade = 6 mm

3.4.1.8 Mean axial velocity (Va)

It depends on air discharge rate, fan radius and boss ratio.


Va = 𝑄/ 1 − 𝑣 𝜋𝑅 (3.5)
= 1.80 / (1– 0.4) x3.14 x 0.50/2
= 25 m/s
Where, Q = Air discharge rate
R = Fan radius, v = boss ratio

3.4.1.9 Total theoretical pressure required at impeller (Hth)

The following relationship for determining the total theoretical pressure required at
impeller,
Hth = P (Ac /As) 2 (3.6)
= 713.5X (0.1900/0.2244)2
= 512 N/m2

35
Where, Hth = Total theoretical pressure required at impeller, N/m2
P = Maximum pressure attained at impeller blade, N/m2
Ac = Area of blower exit, m2
As = Swept area of impeller blade, m2

3.4.1.10 Total pressure loss flow co-efficient (Kth)

It is given as,
Kth = Hth / 0.5 x (va)2 (3.7)
2
= 512 / 0.5 X 0.93 x 25
= 1.90
Where,
Kth = Total pressure loss flow co-efficient
Hth = Total theoretical pressure required at impeller, N/m2
= Air density at standard temperature and pressure kg/m2
Va = Mean axial velocity, m/s

3.4.1.11 Local flow coefficient (𝜸)

It is the ratio of axial velocity (va) to the rotational speed of rotor at a given
radius(r) it is given by,

hub = Va / 2Nr ... (3.8)

= 21 x 60/2 x 2260 x 0.20

= 0.4

Where, = Local flow coefficient


Va = Mean axial velocity. m/s
N = Impeller speed, rpm
r = Impeller radius, m

tip = 20 X 60 / 2 X 3.14 X 2260 X 0.20


= 0.154

36
3.1.4.12 Local swirl coefficient (£s)

It is the ratio between the swirl velocity and the axial velocity component, downstream
the rotor at a given radius.

£s (hub) = Kth hub /2 (3.9)


= 1.90x 0.4/ 2
= 0.39
£s (tip) = Kth tip /2
= 1.90 x 0.154 / 2
= 0.14
£s = Local swirl coefficient
Kth = Total pressure loss flow co-efficient
= Local flow coefficient

3.4.1.13 Blade outlet angle

It is the angle made by the vector mean of the relative velocities at the inlet and outlet.

m = tan-1(1-0.5£s) / hub (3.10)

Bm = tan-1(1-0.5 x 0.39) / 0.4

= 800

3.4.1.14 Blade inlet angle

It is the angle made by the inlet velocity to the axis of rotation. Generally it is varies
from 60 to 80 degrees.
β1=tan-1(1-0.5£s )/ tip ( .11)

= tan-1(1-0.5x0.146)/0.154

= 680

Where, m = Mean blade angle


£s = Local swirl coefficient

37
3.4.1.15 Thickness chord ratio (b/c)

It is the ratio of blade thickness to chord length. As radius increases, it decreases for
circular arc foil. It varies from 4 to 7 percent.

Thickness chord ratio = 8/174.4

= 0.04 = 4 per cent

3.4.1.16 Blade cam er angle

It is the angle between the tangents to the mean camber line at the leading and trailing
edges. Cambered plate blades require greater value of than the conventional airfoils. For
small turning angles, 18° it is recommended as minimum value of the camber for cambered
plate airfoil.

3.4.1.17 Collar diameter of blade

In each type of blades a circular collar to interlock with the aluminium hub was
provided at inlet end. The design dimensions of the collar were determined considering the
centrifugal force (fc) of the individual blade of mass (m) as 240 g and operand at impeller
speed (N) of 2500 rpm. The effective mass of each blades has been assumed to be concentrated
at a radial distance (Rc) of 0.2175m (11.5 + (27.5 – 11.5/2) and the centrifugal force (fc) was
calculated as follows.

fc m ω2 r (3.12)

= 0.290 (2 X 3.14 X 2500/60)2 X 0.2175


= 4318.71 X 9.81
= 42366.54 N
Assuming the factor of safety as 2 and permissible tensile stress of Nylon as 79 MN/m2 the
diameter of the collar was calculated,
42366.54 = 79 X 106 X 3.14 X d2/ (2 X 104 X 4)
= 7.21 cm
= 72.1 mm
Hence, a safe diameter of the collar has been taken as 70 mm

38
3.5 Operational techniques

3.5.1 Rate of travel

The correct speed of operation is essential for uniform coverage. Excessive speed leads
to insufficient coverage and too slow speed results in over spraying leading to loss of time, fuel
and spray liquid. For orchard spraying, the rate of travel should not exceed 4 km/h (Poffely M.
1996) depending on the type of crop and spraying condition. Driving speed of 3 kmph is
proved satisfactory when adequate rig is used.

3.5.2 Nozzling up the sprayer

Droplet size is affected by portion and type of nozzle. For effective droplet size wide
angle nozzles are quite good the position of nozzle is important in relation to proper mixing
and projection of droplets in air stream.

In nozzling up sprayer for efficient use of 2/3 of liquid be discharged into upper 1/3 of
effective air blast .One third of liquid be discharged in lower 2/3 of effective air blast.

3.5.3 Operating pressure

It is also one of the important parameter in spraying technique. Orifice size of nozzle
and operating pressure determine the effective rate of discharge. High velocity nozzles mean
the effective rate of discharge. High velocity nozzles mean better atomization but higher
evaporative losses, due to their relative velocity between droplet and carrier air. The ideal
situation is to use hydraulic pressure for atomization and nozzles with discharge velocity equal
to air discharge velocity.

Nozzles operated at pressure 7 to 14 bar produces velocity 100-150 km/hr. therefore to


achieve that much pressure at nozzle the system pressure depends upon the number of nozzles
in system.

39
3.5.4 Liquid discharge rate

About 3000 litres/ha is considered a dilute application of a tree of average size.


Discharge rate depends upon:

1. Litres to be applied per tree

2. Distance between two rows

3. Travel speed

To determine lpm (litre per minute) fill up the tank with water, observe time to empty
tank. Volume of liquid and time to empty tank gives the discharge rate.

3.5.5 Total power

Power constraint of tractor is one of the important factors while designing blower for
orchard. Total power to tractor mounted air carrier sprayer:

P = P1+P2+ P3+PL ,.. (3.13)

P = 5 + 3 + 1.90 + 1.90

=11.7 hp

Where, P1= Input power to blower hp

P2= Input power to pump (htp)

P3= Power required to overcome soil resistance while running tractor at a


specific speed, hp.

PL = Transmission losses in transmitting power from PTO to blower and pump,


hp

40
3.6 Laboratory Testing of Blowers

Laboratory testing of blowers involves measurement of air discharge, air velocity, static
pressure, dynamic pressure, total pressure, input and output power to blower and other
measurements such as speed of blower, ambient temperature and humidity.

3.6.1 Determination of dynamic static and total pressure at test section

One centimeter rise of water column amounts to a pressure of 98.1 N/m2 the dynamic
and static head at test section are converted into respective pressures as:

Pv dynamic pressure, N/m2 = Dynamic head x98.1 (3.14)


= 4.95X 98.1=485.95 N/m2
Ps. Static pressure, N/m2 = Static head x 98.1 (3.15)
= 0.43 x 98.1=42.18 N/m2
Pt. Total pressure, N/m2 = Ps+PV (3.16)

= 485.95+42.18 = 528.13 N/m2

Static pressure is that portion of the air pressure which exists by virtue of the degree of
compression only. The static pressure head is determined by connecting one end of manometer
to static end of pitot tube and other keeping open to atmosphere.

Dynamic total pressure is the air pressure which exists by the rate of motion only it is
always positive. It is measured by connecting one end of manometer to the total pressure and
other to static end of pitot tube.

Total pressure is the sum of static and dynamic pressure.

3.6.2 Measurement of mean air velocity of blower

In the air duct the velocity is not uniform across the section. It is maximum at the
center and decreases from center to side.

Mean velocity, Vm = K x Hd/100 (3.17)

= 0.02 x 4.95/ 100

= 28.45 m/sec

41
Where,

Hd = Water column height, cm

K = Constant (0.02)

Value of k depends upon atmospheric pressure saturated vapor pressure and air density.

Absolute atmospheric pressure Pab = 101.33

Saturated air pressure Ps = 4.1 Kpa

Dry air density (Ed) = 0.93 kg/cu.m

Humid air density Eh = Ed (Pab-0.378x Pvs x R.H/100)/Pab

Velocity constant k = 0.02

3.6.3 Determination of air discharge rate

Knowing the values of mean velocity Vm and cross sectional area A of the section the
discharge rate can be calculated. Air discharge is a function of air velocity and cross section
area of the air duct.

c/s area at test section. A = x d2 ... (3.18)

= 3.14/4 x 0.212

= 0.0346 m2

Where, d = Diameter of duct, m

Air discharge Q = A x Vm cu.m/sec

= 0.0346 x 28.43

= 1.80 m3/s

3.7 Determination of various parameters at blower exit

3.7.1Determination of loss of pressure head P’

Loss of pressure between blower outlet and test section is given by the following formula.

PL= FL /D.Pv ... (3.19)

= 0.02 x 3.4 / 0.20 x 485.95

42
= 7 N/m2

Where, FL = Fiction loss N/Sq.cm

F= Fiction factor = 0.02

L= Distance between lower outlet and test section,3.4m

D= Diameter of load section, m

Pv = Dynamic pressure, N/sq.cm

3.7.2 Determination of dynamic pressure at the lo er e t Pve’

The dynamic pressure at blower exit given as,

P ve= At2/Ae2 x et/ee (3.20)

At = c/s area of test section.sq.cm

Ae = c/s area of blower exit.sq.cm

et = Air density at test section/cu.m

ee= Air density at blower exit kg/cu.m

Generally et and ee are considered equal

Hence, Pve = Pv x At2/Ae2

= 0.93 x 0.03462/0.212

= 290.16 N/m2

3.7.3 Determination of total pressure at blower exit (Pte)

Total pressure at blower exit will exceed to that at test section by friction loss. Thus total
pressure is given as,

Pte = Pt +PL (3.21)

= 705.5 +7

=713.5 N/m2

Where, Pt = Total pressure

PL= Dynamic pressure

43
3.7.4 Determination of static pressure at blower exit, (Pse)

It is the difference between total and dynamic pressure at blower exit

Pse = Pt-Pve (3.22)


= 713.5-290.16

= 423.34 N/m2
Where, Pse = Static pressure
Pt = Total pressure

3.7.5 Air velocity blower exit (Ve)

The blower velocity at exit can be determined by using the equation of continuity.
Therefore,
At x Vt = Ae x Ve (3.23)
Dt2 x Vt = De2 x Ve

Ve = (Dt/De)2 x Vt

= (0.164/0.21)2 x 28.45

= 31.62 m/s

Where, Dt = Diameter of test section, cm


De = Diameter of blower exit, cm
Ve = velocity at blower exit, m2

3.8 Calculation of power consumption

3.8.1 Input power to the motor

It is calculated by equation as
P =3 x E x Ix cosø (3.24)
= 3 x 430 x 18.91 x 1
= 8338 W = 8.33 kW
Where, P = Power input to the motor, W
E = Input voltage to the motor,
I = Input current to the motor, A
Cos ø = Power factor

44
3.8.2Output power to motor P’
The efficiency of motor nm varies as input load given to it. he output power to motor P‟
is given by,
P‟ P x nm = 3 x E x Ix cosø x nm (3.25)
= 3 x 430 x 1 x 1.13
= 7.31 kW
3.8.3 Input power to blower (Pi)
Input power to blower is the output power to motor minus transmission loss k an account
of power transmission.
Pi P‟(1-k) (3.26)
= 3 x E.x I.x cosø x nm x (1-k)
= 3 x 430 x 18.91 x 1.13 x (1- 0.02)
= 7.33 kW
Generally k = 0.02

3.8.4 Output power to blower (Po)

It is calculated by equation as

Po = Q x Pte (3.27)

Po= 1.80 x 713.5

= 10.98 kW

Where, Po = Output power, watts

Pte = Total pressure, N/m2

Q = Discharge rate, cum/sec

3.9 Performance coefficients

3.9.1 Flow coefficient

The physical meaning of flow coefficient is volume of air per one rps with an impeller
of one meter diameter; the flow coefficient is constant for all similar impeller.

Ø = Q/UD3 ( .2 )

= 1.79 /40 x 0.53

= 0.11

45
Where, U = rps of rotation
Q = Flow rate, cum/sec
D = Diameter of impeller, m

3.9.2 Pressure coefficient

Pressure coefficient given by following relationship.


2
t = Pte / ea v X D2 (3.29)

= 713.5 / 0.93 x 28.43 x 0.5

= 0.75

Where, Pte = Total pressure at blower exit N/sq.m


ea = Air density, kg/cu.m
D = Diameter of impeller,

3.9.3 Power coefficient

The physical significance of power coefficient is the power developed per one rps with
an impeller of unit diameter.

= Pi ea U3.D5 (3.30)

= 7.32/ 0.93 x 403 x 0.55

= 1.12

Pi = Input power to the blower, kW

Where, D = Diameter of impeller, m


ea = Air density, kg/cu.m
U = rps of rotation

46
3.9.4 Efficiency of blower

The ratio of output power to input power of blower.

Blower efficiency, Eb= output power of blower input power of blower

Eb = Po / Pi x 100 (3.31)
= 10.98/7.33 x 100
= 22.75 per cent
Where, Po = Output power, Pi= Input power

3.10 Terminology used for performance evaluation of air carrier sprayer

3.10.1 Volume median diameter

Volume median diameter is a sample of droplets of a spray is divided into two equal
parts by volume so that one half of the volume contains droplets smaller than the droplets
whose diameter is the VMD and the other half of the volume contains larger droplets.

3.10.2 Number median diameter

Number median diameter is the average diameter of droplets without any reference to
volume. The diameter corresponding to the size which divides the droplet into two parts by
number only is known as NMD.

3.10.3 Spread factor

It is the ratio of the diameter of actual droplets to the diameter of the droplet spread on
any object is called as spread factor.

3.10.4 Droplet density

The number of droplets per unit Area of leaf surface is called droplet density.

3.10.5 Spray deposition index

An ideal spraying would result in deposition of 25 droplets of 100µ size per square
centimeter of leaf area. The actual volume of spray deposit per unit area is given by the
formula.

Va = n/6 x d3 x n (3.32)
Where, d = diameter of droplet, m

47
n = number of droplets/sq.cm area.
Va = actual volume of deposit.cc
The volume of spray deposited in ideal spraying can compute by formula
VO = n/6 x 100 x25
= 0.130899cc

3.10.6 Deposition index

Deposition index is given by the following relationship.

DI= Va/Vo x 100 (3.33)

If the deposition index is less than one, then there is under spraying and if the
deposition index is equal to one then spraying is satisfactory and if deposition index exceeds
one then there is over spraying.

48
CHAPTER IV
MATERIAL AND METHODS

This chapter deals with materials used for laboratory testing of blower and field
testing of air carrier sprayer. Methods for laboratory testing of air carrier sprayer are elaborated
in later sections.

4.1 Constructional details of tractor mounted axial flow mist blower

The performance of tractor mounted air carrier sprayer was evaluated in the
laboratory as well as in the grape and pomegranate field.

4.1.1 The sprayer consist of following components


1. Axial blower
2. Frame for mounting blower
3. Distributor
5. Nozzles
6. Pesticide tank
8. Strainers
9. Power transmission units

10. Hydraulic pump

The detailed specifications of existing air assisted sprayer are given in table 4.1.Its
overall view is shown in plate no.4.1.The detailed components of air assisted sprayer are given
in plate 4.2

Table 4.1 Specifications of existing air assisted orchard sprayer

Sr.No Specifications of existing air assisted orchard sprayer

1 Type Air assisted sprayer

2 C Chemical tank capacity 200 L

3 Input drive Tractor PTO

4 Pump Diaphragm pump (70 to 80LPM)

49
5 Blower Axial blower with gear box (1:4.5)

6 Normal working Maximum pressure 400 psi


pressure

7 Speed 1800-2460 RPM

8 Nozzle number 9

9 Driving speed <30km/h

10 Power 6.7 kW

11 Dimension(cm) 130x90x127

Twin nozzle, hollow cone type having


12 Nozzle
discharge rate 0.8 & 1.5 LPM

50
Plate 4.1 Tractor mounted air assisted orchard sprayer

Plate 4.2 Components of air assisted sprayer

51
4.1.2 Details of existed axial flow mist blower

The existing axial flow blowers selected for study has parameters are as given
below. Three axial blowers namely blower B, blower C and blower A were tested in laboratory
to study the comparative performance of blowers. The developed blower A was tested in grape
and pomegranate field to study its performance in the field.

Constructional details of above three blowers are given in table 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4.

Table 4.2 Specifications of existing axial flow blower (B)

Sr.No Specifications of existing axial flow blower (B)

1 Blade profile Axial

2 Number of blade 9

3 Diameter of tip, mm 590

4 Hub diameter, mm 240

5 Boss ratio 0.40

6 Chord length, mm 100

7 Material of blade Nylon

8 Material of hub Aluminum

9 Casing diameter, mm 660


10 Spacing between two blades 40
at hub (mm)
11 Spacing between two blades at 192.5
tip(mm)

12 Total weight of impeller, kg 5.27

13 Gear box ratio 1:4.5

52
Table.4.3 Specifications of existing axial flow blower (C)

Sr.No Specifications of existing axial flow blower (C)

1 Blade profile Axial

2 Number of blade 9

3 Diameter of tip, mm 600

4 Hub diameter, mm 310

5 Boss ratio 0.47

6 Chord length, mm 110

7 Material of blade Nylon

8 Casing diameter, mm 660

9 Spacing between two blades 55


at hub (mm)
10 Spacing between two blades at tip(mm) 200

Material
11 Material of hub Aluminium

12 Gear box ratio 1:4.5

13 Weight of impeller, kg 5.70

53
Plate 4.3 View of existed type blower fan B’

Plate 4.4 View of existed type blower fan C’

54
Table 4.4 Specifications of developed axial flow mist blower (A)

Sr.No Specifications of developed axial flow mist blower (A)

1 Blade profile Axial

2 N Number of blade 9

3 Diameter of tip, mm 600

4 Hub diameter, mm 280

5 Boss ratio 0.47

6 Chord length, mm 174.4

7 Material of blade Nylon

8 Material of hub aluminum

9 Casing diameter, mm 700

10 Spacing between two blades 30


at hub (mm)

11 Spacing between two blades at tip(mm) 210

12 Gear box ratio 1.5

13 Weight of impeller, kg 6.20

55
Plate 4.5 View of developed fan of blower A’

56
4.1.3 Casing of diffrent blowers are shown in plate 4.6 and 4.7

Plate 4.6 Casing of existing blower B’ and C’

Plate 4.7 Casing of developed axial blower A’

57
4.2 Laboratory testing of existing blower

Existing blowers were tested in the laboratory to evaluate performances at


different speeds. From these test the optimum speed of operation of the blower was
determined. Experiment was conducted at ASPEE, Agricultural Research Foundation Tansa,
Tal-Wada, Dist- Palghar in the month of Sep-2017.

4.2.1 Experimental design for laboratory testing

4.2.1.1 Independent variables

1. No. of blowers -3

2. Speed of operation- 4

3. Test section points-20

4. Measurements of atmospheric variables

A. Temperature

B. Humidity

4.2.1.2 Dependent variables

1. Static pressure

2. Dynamic pressure

3. Air velocity

4. Air discharge

5 blower efficiencies

6. Power input

7. Power output

58
4.2.2 Details of laboratory set up for testing

The laboratory test setup consisted of the following accessories e uipment‟s and
instruments for laboratory tests of the blower.

1. Blower assembly

2. Frame to support the blower

3. Wind tunnel assembly

4. Prime mover

5. Transmission assembly

6. Pressure measuring instruments

7. Power measuring instruments

8. Speed measuring instruments

9. Temperature measuring instruments.

4.2.2.1 Blower assembly

It consisted of axial flow mist blower, diffuser, casing, bearing block and mesh.
The impeller was fitted on the shaft, which was supported by bearing block.

4.2.2.2 Frame to support blower assembly

The frame was fabricated by joining the two M.S angles of 50mm x 50mm x 5mm
and bolted to heavy M.S plate to resist the vibration while in operation.

4.2.2.3 Wind tunnel assembly

A wind tunnel assembly was used to measure the blower driven parameters which
were not directly measurable. According to AMCA (1967), design dimensions of a wind tunnel
assembly depend on the dimensions of blower outlet.

The wind tunnel assembly had three main components namely transformation
section, air duct and flow strainer. Transformation section was the converging part of wind

59
tunnel connected to the blower outlet and was circular and different in size and shape from the
blower outlet, a transformation piece was necessary. The flow strainer was the component
placed at a particular position across the air duct, whose function was to transform the turbulent
flow coming through the blower outlet into laminar flow. The air duct beside the flow strainer
accommodated the measuring station for measurement of the air parameters. The wind tunnel
assembly consisted of wind tunnel, pitot tube and u tube manometer Shown in Fig.4.1.

Fig.4.1 AMCA design of wind tunnel assembly

The wind tunnel assembly was supported on suitable iron stands and rectangular
opening of its transformation section was joined with the blower outlets with nut and bolts as
shown in plate no.4.8.

60
Plate 4.8 view of wind tunnel assembly

61
Table 4.5 Details of wind tunnel for testing axial flow mist blower in laboratory.

Sr. No Details of wind tunnel

1 Length of wind tunnel (cm) 20.5

2 Slope of transition section (cm) 155.0

3 Length of transition section (cm) 6.5

4 Distance between test section and transition section 335.0


(cm)

5 Total length between test section and outlet (cm) 500

6 Width of flow strainer (cm) 13.5

7 Distance between flow strainer and test section (cm) 150

8 Thickness of fins(cm) 1.3

9 Spacing of fins(cm) 2.0

10 Diameter of wind tunnel 26.5

62
4.2.2.4 Prime mover

The blower was driven by 3 phase A.C induction motor by means of belt and
pulley arrangement. The specifications are as follows.

Type- squirrel cage induction motor 3 phase

Voltage-440 V

Frequency-50 Hz

Power- 13.5 HP

Current- 50 amp

Speed- 1465RPM

4.2.2.5 Power transmission assembly

Power was transmitted from the motor shaft to the impeller shaft of blower by
means of belt and pulley arrangement for obtaining different speeds. As shown in plate no.4.9.

4.2.2.6 Pressure measuring instruments

The static, dynamic and total pressure of the air that has been blown by the blower
was determined by standard pitot tube in conjunction with U tube manometer And pitot static
tube with spherical head as shown in plate 4.10.

The pitot tube was inserted into the tunnel through the holes drilled on tunnel
surface. Velocity and static pressure were measured at various traverse points. Then average of
the readings considered for calculating these pressures.

63
Plate 4.9 View of belt and pulley arrangement

Plate 4.10 View of pitot tube connected with manometer

64
4.2.2.7 Power measuring instrument

For measuring the power consumption by the blower a voltmeter and ammeter
were used. Voltmeter and ammeter were connected to the line supplying power in parallel and
series respectively after the starter as shown in plate no.4.11.

Specification of ammeter

Range- 0 -100 amperes

Least count -2 amperes

Specification of voltmeter

Range- 0 -500 volts

Least count -10 volt

4.2.2.8 Speed measuring instrument

Tachometer was used measure the speed of the impeller shaft in revolution per
minute. The measurement o blower rpm with contact tachometer is shown in plate no.4.13.

Range available: 30-150,100-500,300-1500, 1000-5000, 10000-50000 rpm.

4.2.2.9 Temperature measuring instruments

A dry bulb temperature was measured by dry bulb thermometer


Range- 0 -100 C

Least count -10C

4.2.2.10 Humidity measuring instrument

Humidity in the air was measured by hygrometer.

Range-0 -100 per cent

Least count-1 per cent

65
Plate 4.11 View of voltmeter and ammeter connection arrangement

Plate 4.12 Measurement of blower RPM

66
4.2.3 Laboratory test procedure

The wind tunnel was fixed to the blower. It was operated at the desired speed of
rotation. The various operations taken at the time of experiment included dry bulb temperature,
relative humidity, static head and dynamic head, Current and voltage. The test setup is shown
in plate 4.14 through 4.16 for different blowers. Special arrangement was made for developed
fan of blower as shown in plate.4.16.

4.2.3.1 Determination of static dynamic and total pressure at test section

When two limbs of the manometer are connected to pitot tube, the difference in
water column in the two limbs gives the dynamic head. When the static end of the pitot tube is
connected to one end of the manometer and the other limb is kept open to the atmosphere, the
difference in water level of U tube limbs gives the static head. This heads converted in terms of
pressure unit by using the property that one cm rise in water column corresponds to the 98.1 N
/cm2 of pressure. Then the total pressure was computed by adding these two pressures.

Thus,

Static pressure (Ps) = Static head x 98.1

Dynamic pressure (Pd) =Dynamic head x 98.1

The total pressure was computed by addition of two pressures.

67
Plate 4.13 V e o test set p o lo er B’

Plate 4.14 View o test set p o lo er C’

68
Plate 4.15 View of test setup of developed blower A’

69
4.3 Outside laboratory test of air carrier sprayer in open air

The field testing of air assisted spraying system on grape vineyard and
pomegranate orchard was conducted at Pimpalgaon (Basawant) Dist- Nasik. The field
testing was done to determine the distribution pattern of axial flow mist blower on grape
vineyard and pomegranate orchard.

For field testing calibration of sprayer was made. Step in calibration were as follows.

1. The air assisted spraying system with axial flow mist blower was first mounted on
the Tractor.

2. Selected nozzles were fixed in the blower outlet casing where nozzles were fitted on
M.S pipe then hose was connected to M.S pipe.

3. The chemical storage tank was filled completely by water. The suck back valve on
control panel was positioned such that the liquid injected into the chemical tank. Then
tractor was operated.

4. Subsequently P.T.O shaft was engaged and blower speed was adjusted at 2260 rpm.
The pressure in the pump was maintained by adjusting the pressure control valve for
testing three different pressures of 10, 15 and 20 bar. Tractor travel speed was
maintained at three different speeds i.e. 2, 3 and 3.5 kmph.

5. The discharge through individual nozzle was measured for a minute.

6. The discharge was checked for its correctness at above given pressures.

70
Plate 4.16 outside laboratory testing of sprayer

71
4.4 Field experiment

The methodology followed in planning, conducting and analyzing the field results is
discussed in this section.

Field trials were carried out for the evaluation of volume deposition and droplet
distribution for tractor mounted air assisted spraying system. Split plot design with nine
treatments each with three replications were made to conduct the field trails.

4.4.1.1 Independent variables

1. No of sprayer-1 (tractor mounted air assisted system with axial flow mist blower)

2. Blower speed - 2260rpm

3. Tractor speed-2, 3, 3.5 kmph

4. System pressure-10 bar,15bar, 20 bar

5. Flow rate-1200ml/min

6. PTO speed – 1(1000rpm)

7. Air discharge- 1.8 m3/s

8. Total number of treatment-9

9-Replication -3 (for each treatment)

4.4.1.2 Dependent variables

1. Spray volume deposition (cu.cm)

2. Droplet size distribution (No. of droplet/sq.cm)

3. Uniformity coefficient

4. Application rate/tree –

5. Number mean diameter (um)

6. Volume mean diameter (um)


72
7. Deposition index

4.4.1.3 Biological observation

Location- Pimpalgaon, (Baswant) Nasik

Plant to plant distance-1.5 m (rape), 4m(pomegranate)

Row to row spacing-3m (Grape) 4m (Pomegranate)

Height of plant- 2.20m (grape) 2.5 m (Pomegranate)

Area – 0.5 ha and 1 ha for grape and pomegranate respectively

Varieties-grape- Sharad seed less pomegranate- Ganesh

4.5 Selection of Various Parameters in the Field Experiment

4.5.1 Method of Selection of tractor

Power constraint of tractor is an important factor while designing the blower for
orchard carrier sprayer. Total power to tractor mounted orchard air carrier sprayer is given by

P=P1 +P2+P3 +P4

Where, p - Total power


P1 - Input power to the blower, hp.
P2 - Input power to pump, hp.
P3 -Power required to overcoming soil resistance, kW
P4 -Transmitting losses in transmitting power, kW

From laboratory testing results the blower requires

P1 = 5hp

P2 = Pump requires 3 hp

P3 = F.R.S

Where, F = (W1+W2) x 9.8

W1 = Weight of tractor, kg

73
W2 = Weight of air carrier sprayer filled with mixture of pesticide and water, kg

R = Coefficient of soil resistance

S = Speed of tractor, m/s

In this case,

W = 700 kg (weight of Kubota B -420)

W2 g (weight of Aspee‟s mist blower with water)

R = 0.2 m

S = 0.8 m/sec

F = (700+490) x 9.8

= 11662 kg/m2

P3 =11662 x 0.2x 0.8

=1865.92

=1.86hp

Power required to overcome soil resistance =1.9 hp

Power transmission loss = 1.9hp

Total power required for tractor mounted air carrier sprayer operating at 3.5 kmph

P= 5+1.9+1.9+3

= 11.7 hp

A 18.5 hp tractor gives 16 hp and 13.5 hp at PTO. Therefore available power was
around 13.5hp which is within the power limit of 18.5hp tractor. Therefore 18.5 hp tractor was
suitable.

74
4.5.2 Specifications for tractor used in field testing

Model : KUBOTA 180D

Horse power : 18.5 H.P

Engine : 3 cylinder water cooled

Clutch type : Single disk dry clutch

Travel speeds : 1 to 14.5 Kmph

P.T.O speed : 623, 919, 1506 RPM

Weight of tractor : 640 Kg

Hydraulic lifting
Capacity : 700 kg
Height of tractor : 1.5

Overall length :3m

Ground clearance : 0.320m

Wheel base : 1.83m


Turning circle : 5.290m

4.5.3 Specification of pump

Horizontal triplet pump is used to discharge the liquid from tan to air stream
produced by blower. Details of pump are given below:

Type : Horizontal triplex pipe

Maximum discharge : 80lit /min

Maximum pressure : 31kg/sq.cm

Input power : 3 H.P

This pump was fitted on the frame, below the liquid storing tank. Power was
transmitted to pump from propeller shaft with the help of belt and pulley arrangement.

75
4.5.4 Control system

It was used to regulate the liquid discharge. It was consisted of pressure regulator
valve which was fitted on the pump to regulate the system pressure as shown in plate no.4.18.
It consists of back suck valves. Back suck controls the flow of liquid moving towards nozzles.
Pressure regulator valve was fitted on the pump to regulate the system pressure.

4.5.6 Selection and arrangement of nozzle

Nozzles are required to atomize liquid and to spray it into air stream produced by
blower. So proper nozzle selection was essential for the better performance of the air carrier
system. Total ten nozzles were required, five on each side of the outlet shown in plate
no.4.17.Selection of nozzle was done on the basis of discharge requirement. Discharge nozzles
having 1200ml/min discharge rate were taken. Arrangement of nozzles was shown in plate
no.4.19.

4.5.7 System pressure

It was also one of the important parameters in air carrier spraying. For low flow
rate it is necessary to operate the system at lower pressure. But low discharge at higher
pressure will damage the nozzle at faster rate.

4.5.8 Travel speed

Travel speed of the air carrier sprayer was also the most important parameter in
air carrier spraying. Too low speed results to over spraying, leading to loss of time, fuel and
spray material, while in too high speed, plants were not filled with chemical laden air.
Considering above points, travel speed selected for this study were 2, 3, 3.5 kmph.

76
Plate 4.17 Control panel system on sprayer

Plate 4.18 Arrangement of nozzles on sprayer

77
4.5.5 Application rate

The flow rate depends on application rate and speed of travel. There was no fixed
method to determine the application rate for air carrier system. The dilute application rate for
control of particular pest was supplied by the pesticide manufacturers for the hydraulic sprayer.
It is an air assisted spraying system to use the sprays of various concentrations such as
x,2x,4x,5x,10x, 40x, etc. The digit indicates the number of time by which the dilute application
rate is reduced. The dilute application rate suggested by manufacturers for the grape and
pomegranate crop is about 3000 lit /ha and 2500 lit/ha respectively. The swath width for air
assisted spraying system was 3 m and operating speed was 3 km/hr.

Discharge rate = Application rate speed x swath width/600

= 600 x 3 x3/600=9 lit /min for grape crop

=500 x 3 x3/600 =7.5 lit /min for pomegranate crop

This was the total discharge required for 10 nozzles.

4.6 Design of field experiment

An experiment was planned in selecting split plot design having nine treatments
involving three travel speeds and three pressure levels with three replications.

4.6.1 System pressure and travel speed for field experiment

System pressure and travel speed was considered as significant factors for field
experiment. For a low flow rate it was necessary to operate the system at lower pressure. But
low discharge at higher pressure will damage the nozzles at faster rate. Three pressure 10, 15,
20 bar were selected for this study.

Too low speed results in over spraying, leading to loss the time, fuel and spray
material while in too high speed trees are not filled with chemical laden air. Considering above
points, travel speed selected for this study were 2, 3 and 3.5 km/hr.

System pressure represented by P

Travel speed represented by T

78
System pressure selected for study were

P1=10 bar

P2=15 bar

P3=20 bar

Also tractor speed selected for study were

T1=2.0 kmph

T2=3.0 kmph

T3= 3.5 kmph

An experiment was planned in selecting split plot design having nine treatments
involving three travel speeds and three system pressure levels with three replications in each
row. For experiment tractor travel speed and system pressure considered as significant factors.

79
4.6.2 Split plot design (grape vineyard)

Travelling direction
T1 T2 T3 T2 T1 T3 T1 T3 T2

P1 P2 P3 P2 P1 P3 P3 P2 P1

P2 P3 P1 P3 P2 P1 P1 P3 P2

P3 P1 P2 P1 P2 P3 P2 P1 P3

16.5 m

Rep-1 Rep-2 Rep- 3

Number of treatment- 9

Number of replication-3

System pressure

P1=10 bar

P2=15 bar

P3=20 bar

Tractor travel speed

T1=2.0 kmph

T2=3.0 kmph

T3=3.5 kmph

Number of trees = 900

Area = 0.5ha

Size of field =16.5 m x 16.5m

80
4.6.3 Split plot design (pomegranate orchard)

Travel direction

T1 T3 T2 T1 T3 T2 T1 T3 T2

P1 P2 P3 P2 P1 P3 P3 P2 P1

P2 P3 P1 P3 P2 P1 P1 P3 P2

P3 P1 P2 P1 P2 P3 P2 P1 P3

33 m

Rep-1 Rep-2 Rep-3

Number of treatment - 9

Number of replication -3

System pressure

P1=10 bar

P2=15 bar

P3=20 bar

Tractor travel speed

T1=2 kmph

T2=3 kmph

T3=3.5 kmph

Number of trees = 320

Area of field = 1 ha

81
3m

Plant location 1.5m


3m

Tractor travel direction


L-left C-center R-right

Fig.4.2 Arrangement of glossy papers on the roof of grape vineyard

4m

Plant location 2m
4m

Tractor travel direction


L-left C-center R-right

Fig. 4.3 Arrangement of glossy papers on the roof of Pomegranate orchard

82
Plate 4.19 Attachment of glossy paper to the grape trees

Plate 4.20 Attachment of glossy paper to the pomegranate trees

83
Plate 4.21 Field evaluation of axial flow blower with air assisted orchard sprayer
(Pomegranate orchard)

Plate 4.22 Field evaluation of axial flow blower with air assisted orchard sprayer
` (Grape vineyard)

84
4.6.4 Calibration of the sprayer

The air assisted sprayer was calibrated on the field to know the discharge rate and
to determine number of nozzle required for spraying. Firstly the mist blower was mounted on
tractor and the chemical tank filled with water. Before operation nozzle were checked for
foreign material. Then the blower operated at required pressure and at the same time discharge
through nozzle was measured.

Tractor travel speed in kmph converted by means of speedometer (approximately


7rpm means 2kmph).This device also give liquid flow rate in lmp, mechanical pressure gauge
was used to measure the pressure, thermometer, Thermometer hygrometer and wind meter was
used for measuring the temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity respectively in the
field.

Prior to applying treatment, driver was given intensive training to maintain proper
tractor speed and liquid pressure. Then after adding 5gm /lit dye to the water, the air assisted
spraying system was operated in the field .When the dye solution was removed from the
leaves, then the proper were kept according to treatment number and replication to avoid
further sorting. The papers were taken to the laboratory for the droplet spectrum analysis for
the performance evaluation of the sprayer.

4.6.5 Determination of droplet size

The analysis of glossy paper was done in laboratory using the microscope and the
particle size analyzer. Schematic view of droplet size analyzer with microscope is shown in
plate 4.23.

The preliminary results gave the size of droplets and number of droplets in the
particle size range was counted. Then using the diameter of droplets in the particular size range
the volume of liquid applied was calculated. For this computer program was used to calculate
the parameters such as a spray volume deposition, volume median diameter, number median
diameter and uniformity coefficient and droplet density. The droplet size distribution analysis
is given in appendix C.

85
Droplets

Plate 4.23 Droplet size analyzer

86
Chapter V
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter results obtained from the laboratory testing of three axial flow mist
blowers and field testing of one tractor mounted air carrier sprayer are discussed.

5.1. Laboratory Performance of the Blowers

Three Axial flow mist blowers were tested in the laboratory at four different speeds
such as blower „B‟ from 21 to 2 blower „C‟ from 2 to 2 and developed blower
„A‟ from 2 to 2 rpm. he results obtained are discussed in the following sub section.

5.1.1 Laboratory performance of blower B

The axial flow mist blower B was tested at speed ranging from 2130 to 2490 rpm. The
various observations taken at the time of testing and the various computed values of
performance parameters are presented in Table 5.1.The performance curves are presented from
Fig.5.1 through Fig.5.3 and discussed below.

5.1.1.1 Pressure output of the blower

The relationship between the speed of rotation and various pressures are shown in
fig.5.1.From the graph it was observed that as the speed of rotation increased, the pressure
output also increased .The data indicated that total pressure output at blower test section varied
from 502.66 N/sq. m at 2130 rpm to 690.43 N/sq. m at 2490 rpm and total pressure at blower
exit from 666.25 N/sq. m at 2130 rpm to 915.65 at 2490 rpm. The total pressure at blower exit
was more than the total pressure at the test section because of various losses in wind tunnel.
The static pressure at all speeds at test section and blower exit was less as compared to
dynamic pressure because air was at low pressure and had high velocity.
The dynamic pressure was found to increase with increase in speed linearly. This is
because of increase in the outlet peripheral velocity which is the function of peripheral speed.
The dynamic pressure at test section and blower exit was same due to same cross sectional area
of outlet and wind tunnel.

87
Ta le Per ormance deta ls o lo er B’

Sr. Speed of operation, rpm


no Details

2130 2230 2360 2490


1 Mean dynamic head (cm of 4.78 5.23 6.10 6.58
w.c.)
2 Mean static head (cm of w.c.) 0.35 0.43 0.47 0.46

3 Input current ,amp 17.57 17.67 18.81 19.13

4 Input voltage(volts) 400 415 410 400

5 Dry bulb temperature 0C 30.75 34.75 29.75 32.50

6 Wet bulb temperature 0C 21.25 22.75 20.50 22.50

7 Relative humidity, per cent 42.25 34.25 42.50 41.50

8 Saturated vapour pressure N/m2 4200 5250 4400 4300

9 Dry air density kg/m3 1.61 1.14 1.16 1.15

10 Humid air density, kg/m3 1.15 1.13 1.15 1.14

At test section

11 Mean air velocity m/s 28.51 30.03 32.16 33.54

12 Dynamic pressure N/m2 468.72 513.25 598.41 645.30

13 Static pressure N/m2 33.94 42.58 45.91 45.13

14 Total pressure N/m2 502.66 555.84 644.32 690.43

88
Continued

Speed of operation, rpm


Sr.No Details

2130 2230 2360 2490

At blower exit

1 Mean air velocity, m/s 28.51 30.03 32.16 33.54

2 Air discharge m3/s 1.46 1.53 1.64 1.71

3 Dynamic pressure N/m2 277.30 303.65 354.02 381.76

4 Static pressure N/m2 388.95 431.33 499.16 533.89

5 Total pressure N/m2 666.25 734.98 853.18 915.65

6 Input power to motor kW 7.40 7.38 7.95 7.97

7 Output power from motor kW 6.57 6.44 7.05 7.07

8 Input power to blower kW 6.44 6.41 6.91 6.93

9 Output power from blower kW 9.72 11.24 13.99 15.65

10 Blower efficiency, per cent 15.10 17.52 20.22 22.58

11 Flow coefficient 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.17

12 Power coefficient 1.08 0.95 0.85 0.78

13 Pressure coefficient 1.09 1.11 1.13 1.30

89
5.1.1.2 Velocity and discharge of blower

The relationship between velocity and discharge with rotational speed is shown in
Fig.5.2. The data indicated that the velocity and air discharge varied from 28.51m/sec and 1.46
m3/sec at 2130 rpm to 33.54 m/sec and 1.71m3/sec at 2490 rpm, respectively.

It indicated that as the speed of rotation of the impeller increased the velocity and
discharge also increased. The increase in velocity was due to increase in peripheral velocity of
the impeller. The air velocity and discharge were same at the test section and blower exit
because of the cross sectional area at test section and blower exit.

1000
900
800 STATIC PRESSURE AT TEST
SECTION
PRESSURE N / Sq.M

700
DYNAMIC PRESSURE AT
600 TEST SECTION
500 TOTAL PRESSURE AT TEST
SECTION
400
STATIC PRESSURE AT EXIT
300
200 DIANAMIC PRESSURE AT
EXIT
100
TOTAL PRESSURE AT EXIT
0
2130 2230 2360 2490

ROTATIONAL SPEED (RPM)

Fig 5.1 Effect of rotational speed on pressure or a al lo m st lo er B’


5.1.1.3 Power requirement of the blower

The relationship between the speed of rotation and power requirement is shown in Fig.
5.3.The data revealed that the power input to the blower varied from 9.72 kW at 2130 rpm to
15.65 kW at 2490 rpm. If the different power losses are considered.th blower can be operated
by tractor of 30 hp.
The static pressure at all speeds at test section was less compared to dynamic pressure
because air was at low pressure and had high velocity. The dynamic pressure was found to
increase with increase in speed linearly. This is because of increase in the outlet peripheral
velocity which is the function of impeller speed.

90
40
35
30
air velocity m/s

25
20
AIR VELOCITY M/S
15
AIR DISCHARGE CU.M/S
10
5
0
2130 2230 2360 2490

ROTATIONAL SPEED ( RPM )

Fig 5.2 Effect of rotational speed on discharge and velocity for axial flow mist blower B’

5.1.1.4 Efficiency of the blower

The relationship between the speed of rotation and efficiency of the blower is shown in
Fig.5.3.the efficiency was calculated from the power input and power output of the blower. The
data revealed that the efficiency of blower varied from 15.10 per cent at 2130 rpm to 22.58 per
cent at 2490 rpm. It showed that the efficiency of blower was increased with increase in
rotational speed. Higher efficiency of blower observed at 2490 rpm. So 2490 was the best
operating speed of the blower in the field operation. At this speed velocity, discharge of air and
the efficiency of the blower were found to be 33.54 m/sec,1.71m3/sec and 22.58 per cent,
respectively.

The effect of rotational speed on flow coefficient is negligible. Flow coefficient was
observed from 0.15 to 0.17. Pressure coefficient was 1.09 at 2130 rpm and increased up to 1.30
at 2490 rpm, respectively. Power coefficient values revealed that increase in rotational speed
decreased the power coefficient values. For 2130 rpm it was 1.08 and decreased to 0.78 for
2490 rpm.

91
25

20

15
power (kW)

INPUTE POWER TO
BLOWER, kW

10 OUTPUT POWER FROM


BLOWER, kW
EFFICIENCY OF BLOWER , %
5

0
2130 2230 2360 2490

ROTATIONAL SPEED (RPM)

Fig 5.3 Effect of rotational speed on power and efficiency for axial flow mist blower B’

La orator per ormance o lo er C’

The blower C was tested at speed ranging from 2030 rpm to 2450 rpm. The various
computed values of performance parameters are presented in table.5.2. To study the
relationship of various parameters, the graphs were drawn and as shown in Fig.5.4 through 5.6.
5.1.2.1 Pressure output of the blower

The relationship between the speed of rotation and various pressures are shown in
Fig.5.4. From the graph and data indicated that static pressure at test section was less than at
blower exit. Whereas dynamic pressure at blower test section was more than at blower exit .It
indicates that static pressure increases with increase in area.

Total pressure at test section was less than that at blower exit section. It was to
frictional losses from blower exit to test section. i.e. in wind tunnel. The graph showed that
static, dynamic and total pressure at test section as well as blower exit section increased
linearly with increase in rotational speed.

92
Ta le Per ormance deta ls o lo er C’

Sr.no Details
2030 2160 2350 245 0

1 Mean dynamic head (cm of w.c.) 4.0 4.30 5.50 6

2
Mean static head(cm of w.c.) 0.45 0.40 0.55 0.59

3 Input current ,amp 18.20 18.56 19.68 18.23

4 Input voltage (volts) 430 430 420 420

5 Dry bulb temperature 0c 31.20 30.14 28.46 32.30

6 Wet bulb temperature 0c 20.30 22.60 20.76 22.90

7
Relative humidity, per cent 37.50 38.51 47.35 41.5

8 Saturated vapour pressure N/m2 4200 4350 4400 4500

9 Dry air density kg/m3 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93

10 Humid air density, kg/m3 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92

At test section

11
Mean air velocity m/s 27.12 28.45 29.34 30.13

12 Dynamic pressure N/m2 402.23 485.51 564.56 583.6

13 Static pressure N/m2 38.30 41.16 49.08 52.68

14 441.55 526.27 612.68 632.55


Total pressure N/m2

93
Cont n ed

Speed of operation, rpm


Sr.no Details
2030 2160 2350 2450

At blower exit

1 Mean air velocity, m/s 25.40 23.12 24.36 31.63

2 Air discharge m3/s 1.34 1.52 1.60 1.70

3 Dynamic pressure N/m2 274.60 283.16 310.24 323.54

4 Static pressure N/m2 342.37 434.34 453.67 466.98

5 Total pressure N/m2 616.97 717.5 763.91 809.71

6 Input power to motor kW 7.53 8.33 8.41 8.63

7 Output power from motor kW 6.96 7.31 7.61 7.95

8 Input power to blower kW 6.28 7.32 7.67 7.88

9 Output power from blower kW 8.49 10.94 14.63 17.81

10 Blower efficiency per cent 11.40 10.09 12.16 17.65

11 Flow coefficient 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11

12 Pressure coefficient 0.91 0.78 0.78 0.72

13 Power coefficient 1.14 1.17 0.91 0.92

94
900

800

700 STATIC PRESSURE AT TEST


SECTION
PRESSURE N / Sq.m

600
DYNAMIC PRESSURE AT TEST
SECTION
500
TOTAL PRESSURE AT TEST
400 SECTION
STATIC PRESSURE AT EXIT
300

200 DIANAMIC PRESSURE AT EXIT

100
TOTAL PRESSURE AT EXIT
0
2030 2160 2350 2450

ROTATIONAL SPEED ( RPM )

Fg E ect o rotat onal speed on press re or a al lo m st lo er C’

5.1.2.2 Velocity and discharge of the blower

The relationship between velocity and discharge with rotational speed are shown in
Fig.5.5. The data indicated that the air velocity and the discharge increased as speed of rotation
increased linearly. The graphs also showed that air velocity at test section was more than at
blower exit because of difference in cross sectional area at test section and blower exit. But
discharge was same irrespective of cross sectional area.

5.1.2.3 Power requirement of blower

The relationship between speed of rotation and power requirement is shown in


Fig.5.6. The data shown that power output to the blower was varies from 8.49 kW to 17.81 kW
at 2030rpm to 2450 rpm respectively. If the power losses were considered this blower was
operated by 35 hp tractors. It was found from data that blower output and input power
increased linearly with increase in rotational speed.

95
35
30
air velocity m/s
25
20
15 AIR VELOCITY M/S 1
10 AIR VELOCITY M/S 2
5 AIR DISCHARGE CUM.M/S
0
2030 2160 2350 2450

ROTATIONAL SPEED ( RPM )

Fig.5.5 Effect of rotational speed on discharge and veloc t or lo er C’

5.1.2.4 Efficiency of the blower

The relationship between rotational speed and efficiency of the blower is shown in
Fig.5.6. Data showed that minimum blower efficiency was found at 2030 rpm as 11.40 per cent
and maximum blower efficiency was 17.65 per cent found at 2450 rpm. Hence the blower
should be operated at a speed of 2450 rpm. Here air velocity, air discharge and efficiency of the
blower was found to be 31.63m/sec.1.70 m3/sec and 17.65 per cent respectively. The power
requirement was 17.81 kW.

20
18
16
power (kw)

14
12 INPUTE POWER TO
10 BLOWER, kW
8 OUTPUT POWER FROM
6 BLOWER, kW
4
EFFICIENCY OF BLOWER
2
,%
0
2030 2160 2350 2450

ROTATIONAL SPEED (RPM)

Fig. 5.6 Effect of rotational speed on power and efficiency for blower C’

96
5.1.3Laboratory performance of developed blower A’

The blower A was tested at speeds ranging from 2094 rpm to 2460 rpm. The various
observations taken at the time of testing and various computed values of performance
parameters are presented in table.5.3.

5.1.3.1 Pressure output of the blower

The relationship between the speed of rotation and various pressures is shown in
Fig.5.7.The graph and data indicated that static pressure at test section was less than that at
blower exit. Whereas dynamic pressure at blower tests section was more than that of blower
exit. And total pressure at test section was less than the total pressure at blower exit. This
shows that performance trend of blower „C‟ and developed blower „A‟ are similar.

5.1.3.2 Velocity and discharge of blower

The relationship between velocity and discharge with rotational speed is shown in
Fig.5.8.The graph and data showed the trend of linearly increasing velocity and discharge with
increasing speed.

5.1.3.3 Power requirement of the blower

The relationship between the speed of rotation and power requirement is shown in
Fig.5.9. The data showed that power output power to the blower varies from 8.43 kW at 2094
rpm To 17.85 kW at 2460 rpm. So if the power losses were considered this blower was
operated by above 18hp tractor. Also relationship shows power output and input to blower
increases linearly with increase in rotational speed.

97
Table .5.3 Performance details of developed lo er A

Speed of operation rpm


Sr.no Details
2094 2260 2380 2460

1 Mean dynamic head (cm of w.c.) 4.1 4.95 5.75 6

2 Mean static head (cm of w.c.) 0.4 0.43 0.5 0.55

3 Input current ,amp 18.84 18.91 19.13 18.23

4 Input voltage(volts) 420 430 420 420

5 Dry bulb temperature 0C 33.20 30.16 28.50 32.50

6 Wet bulb temperature 0C 22.30 22.75 20.50 22.50

7 Relative humidity Per cent 37.70 38.30 47.9 41.6

8 Saturated vapour pressure N/m2 4200 4250 4400 4300

9 Dry air density kg/m3 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93

10 Humid air density, kg/m3 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92

At test section

11 Mean air velocity m/s 27.03 28.45 28.49 30.76

12 Dynamic pressure N/m2 402.21 485.95 564.75 588.6

13 Static pressure N/m2 39.24 42.18 49.05 53.95

14 441.45 528.13 613.8 642.55


Total pressure N/m2

98
Continued...

Speed of operation, rpm

Sr.no Details
2094 2260 2380 2460

At blower exit

1 Mean air velocity, m/s 25.82 31.62 30.87 27.18

2 Air discharge m3/s 1.37 1.79 1.63 1.54

3 Dynamic pressure N/m2 276.60 290.16 310.24 323.73

4 Static pressure N/m2 339.37 423.34 449.67 480.98

5 Total pressure N/m2 615.97 713.5 759.92 804.71

6 Input power to motor kW 7.53 8.33 8.41 8.63

7 Output power from motor kW 6.97 7.31 7.66 7.99

8 Input power to blower kW 6.29 7.32 7.67 7.88

9 Output power from blower kW 8.43 10.98 14.67 17.85

10 Blower efficiency per cent 13.40 22.75 19.12 17.65

11 Flow coefficient 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.1

12 Pressure coefficient 0.94 0.75 0.79 0.73

13 Power coefficient 1.10 1.12 0.98 1.05

99
900

800

700
STATIC

PRESSURE N / Sq.m
600 PRESSURE AT
TEST SECTION
DYNAMIC
500 PRESSURE AT
TEST SECTION
400 TOTAL
PRESSURE AT
300 TEST SECTION
STATIC
200 PRESSURE AT
EXIT
100 DIANAMIC
PRESSURE AT
EXIT
0
2094 2260 2380 2460

ROTATIOANAL SPEED (RPM)

Fig.5.7 Effect of rotational speed on pressure for axial flow mist lo er A’

5.1.3.4 Efficiency of the blower

The relationship between the speed of rotation and efficiency of blower is shown in
Fig.5.9. Data showed that maximum blower efficiency was found at 2260 rpm i.e. 22.75 per
cent after this the efficiency decreased.

So this blower was operated in the field at 2260 rpm, where air velocity, air discharge
and efficiency of the blower were found to be 31.62 m/s, 1.54 and 22.75 per cent respectively.
And input power was 7.32 kW. So at this speed developed blower A was operated by 18hp
tractor.

100
35

30

25
air velocity m/s

20
air velocity m/sec 1
15
air velocity m/sec 2
10 air discharge cum.m/s

0
2094 2260 2380 2460

ROTATIONAL SPEED ( RPM )

Fig.5.8 Effect of rotational speed on discharge and velocity for developed lo er A’

25

20

15 INPUTE POWER TO
power kW

BLOWER, kW
10 OUTPUT POWER FROM
BLOWER, kW
EFFICIENCY OF BLOWER
5
,%

0
2094 2260 2380 2460

ROTATIONAL SPEED (RPM)

Fig. 5.9 Effect of rotational speed on power and efficiency for developed lo er A’

101
5.2 Performance Comparison of Blower A, B and C

The performance comparison of blower A, B and C was done on the basis of


power requirement, air discharge, air velocity and efficiency.

The blower B gave more velocity, discharge of air and efficiency at 2490 rpm.
Corresponding values were 33.54 m/sec, 1.71m3/s and efficiency 22.58 per cent respectively.
Whereas power required to run the blower 15.65 kW this required above 30 hp Tractor to
operate in the field. This blower was designed for Spot crop by the manufacturer.

The blower C gave more velocity, discharge of air and efficiency at 2450 rpm.
Corresponding values were 31.63 m/sec, 1.70 and efficiency 17.65 per cent respectively. This
blower was suitable for tractors above 35hp. This blower was recommended by the
manufacturer for orchard crop.

The blower A gave more velocity, discharge at 2260 rpm. Blower efficiency
was maximum at 2260 rpm. Corresponding values were 31.62 m/sec, 1.79 m3/sec and
efficiency 22.75 per cent respectively where as power required to run the blower was 7.32 kW
for which 18 hp tractor can be used to operate it in the field. This blower is suitable for
spraying grape and pomegranate crop, where a limitation of size is governing factor.

This blower is therefore tested in grape and pomegranate crop field and
performance is as follows.

5.3 Field performance of developed blower A

Air assisted spraying system equipped with axial flow blower was tested in
grape vine yard and pomegranate orchards at various system pressures and travel speed as
mentioned in chapter IV.

5.3.1 Metrological observations

The various metrological observations include relative humidity wind velocity


at the test site. The average dry bulb temperature was found to be 27 0C. The wind was blowing
intermittently from left to right side direction of the sprayer with average velocity of 1.5m/s.
The relative humidity was 50 per cent.

102
5.3.2 Comparison of results between treatments

The data obtained were volume deposition, NMD, VMD, droplet density, uniformity
coefficient and deposition index were used to compare the effect of speed and pressure on the
performance of the sprayer unit. The results obtained are presented in appendix C.

The treatment effects were compared on the basis of mean spray volume deposits.
Spray deposition was measured in terms o droplet density on front and back side of the leaf.
The average volume of spray deposition, NMD and VMD on left, Centre and right are given in
table.5.4 and table 5.5 for grape and pomegranate crop respectively.

The analysis of study was used to study the significant effect of each treatment. The
ANOVA on left, centre and right side of the sprayer are given in table 5.6 and 5.7 for grape and
pomegranate crop respectively.

The F values in the table 5.5 indicates that volume deposit on left side of sprayer at 2,3
and 3.5 kmph are significant at 1 percent level whereas the effect on pressure levels i.e. 10, 15,
20 bar on the volume deposit are also significant at 1 per cent level for grape vineyard.

The F values in the table 5.5 indicates that volume deposit on center side of sprayer at
2,3 and 3.5 kmph are significant at 1 percent level whereas the effect on pressure levels i.e. 10,
15, 20 bar on the volume deposit are insignificant at 1 per cent level for grape vineyard.

The F values in the table 5.5 indicates that volume deposit on right side of sprayer at
2,3 and 3.5 kmph are significant at 1 percent level whereas the effect on pressure levels i.e. 10,
15, 20 bar on the volume deposit are insignificant at 1 per cent level for grape vineyard.

The F values in the table 5.6 indicates that volume deposit on left side of sprayer at 2,3
and 3.5 kmph are significant at 1 percent level whereas the effect on pressure levels i.e. 10, 15,
20 bar on the volume deposit are also significant at 1 per cent level for pomegranate orchard.

The F values in the table 5.6 indicates that volume deposit on center side of sprayer at
2,3 and 3.5 kmph are significant at 1 percent level whereas the effect on pressure levels i.e. 10,
15, 20 bar on the volume deposit are insignificant at 1 per cent level for pomegranate orchard.

103
The F values in the table 5.6 indicates that volume deposit on right side of sprayer at
2,3 and 3.5 kmph are significant at 1 per cent level whereas the effect on pressure levels i.e. 10,
15, 20 bar on the volume deposit are insignificant at 1 percent level for pomegranate orchard.

Volume deposits on centre side of sprayer at speed 2,3 and 3,5 kmph are significant at 1
per cent level where as the effect of pressure levels on volume deposit was found to be
insignificant because of maximum spray deposition occurs on centre of the sprayer for grape
and pomegranate crop.

Table 5.4 Average three replications spray volume (ucc) (Grape vineyard)

Sr.no Spraying deposition


Left Center Right
N1 P 1 308 315 301
N1 P 2 356 375 352
N1 P 3 464 495 380
N2 P 1 263 300 265
N2 P 2 310 355 275
N2 P 3 360 440 295
N3 P 1 240 275 250
N3 P 2 265 328 263
N3 P 3 290 375 280

Table 5.5 Average three replications spray volume ( ucc) (Pomegranate orchard)

Sr.no Spraying deposition


Left Center Right
N1P1 255 280 244
N1P2 290 330 263
N1P3 340 388 290
N2P1 234 250 210
N2P2 267 290 255
N2P3 298 332 287
N3P1 210 228 194
N3P2 242 270 250
N3 P 3 267 298 275

104
Table 5.6 Analysis of variance of spray volume deposition on left, centre and right side for grape crop.

Degree
Sr. Source of of Left side Centre side Right side
No Variation freedom Sum of Mean Compu Sum of Mean Comp Sum of Mean Computed
square square ted F square square uted F square square F
1 Replication ( r-1) 3-1=2 2938.1 1469.5 - 1236.72 6318.89 - 16109.67 8045.34 -

2 Speed travel, A (a-1) 3-1=2 884307.2 44213.6 177.6 742180.1 371079.34 60.43 8054.56 3635.67 146.78
xx 6
3 Error(r-1)(a-1) 2+2=4 9988.12 2497.1 - 23701.45 5935.56 - 9989.79 2484.67 -

4 Pressure level (b-1) 3-1=2 46878.90 24439.2 13.35 15958.57 7979.13 1.60 4330.43 2165.87 1.23
xx
5 AXB 2+2=4 12191.93 3045.4 1.70 1489.56 372.56 0.089 60564.89 14567.11 7.45
ns
6 a(a-1)(b-1) 12 21060.40 1755.5 - 64775.11 5400.56 - 22335.6 1256.78 -

Cv (a) 20.80 20.96 14.46


Cv (b) 16.00 20.43 13.56

Table 5.7Analysis of variance of spray volume deposition on left , centre and right side for pomegranate crop.

Sr. Degree
No Source of of Left side Centre side Right side
Variation freedom Sum of Mean Computed Sum of Mean Computed Sum of Mean Computed
square square F square Square F square square F
1 Replication ( r-1) 3-1=2 3938.1 1545.5 132.57 1391.43 6848.76 3435.89 15110.67 7543.34 -
2 Speed travel,A (a-1) 3-1=2 885407. 44393.6 178.6 741267. 372379.34 67.53 8043.56 6734.56 .78
2 Xx 61
3 Error(r-1)(a-1) 2+2=4 9978.12 2497.1 - 2544712 5415.56 9863.56 9439.79 2484.67 230.78
.4
4 Pressure level (b-1) 3-1=2 46348.9 24459.2 14.45 16381.5 7153.13 1.45 5335.43 2314.78 1.56
0 Xx 8
5 AXB 2+2=4 1221.93 2445.4 1.79 1329.65 282.56 0.059 50564.89 15421.45 7.90
Ns
6 a(a-1)(b-1) 12 21060.4 1155.5 - 64764.1 5326.56 - 25385.6 1645.67 -
0 1

Cv (a) 15.56 14.67 19.43


Cv(b) 13.34 12.91 16.67

xx- significant at 1% level of significance


ns- Not significant

105
5.4 Effect of travel speed on spray deposition for grape vineyard

500
450
spray depostion,ucc
400
350
300 20 bar
250
15 bar
200
150
10 bar
100
50
0
2 kmph 3 kmph 3.5 kmph
travel speed

Fig.5.10 Effect of travel speed on spray deposition (Left side)

Fig .5.10 indicated that the volume of spray deposition on left side of sprayer on grape
vineyard. In this case maximum spray deposition (464 umm) was found at 20 bar with travel
speed of 2kmph and minimum spray deposition (240umm) was found at system pressure 10 bar
with travel speed of 3.5 kmph. The graph trend data showed that there was increase in volume
deposition with increased system pressure. But it decreased with the increase in travel speed.

Fig.5.11 showed the volume deposition on centre side of sprayer on grape vines. The
data indicated that maximum spray deposition (495 umm) was found at 20 bar with travel
speed of 2 kmph and minimum spray deposition (275 umm) was found at P =10 bar and T= 3.5
kmph. In this case volume of spray deposition increased with increased system pressure and
decreased with increase in travel speed of sprayer.

600
spray depostion,ucc

500
400
300 20 bar
200
15 bar
100
10 bar
0
2 kmph 3 kmph 3.5 kmph
travel speed

Fig.5.11 Effect of travel speed on Spray deposition (Center side)

106
400

350

300
spray depostion,ucc

250

200 20 bar
150 15 bar

100 10 bar

50

0
2 kmph 3 kmph 3.5 kmph
travel speed

Fig 5.12 Effect of travel speed on spray deposition (Right side)

Fig.5.12 showed that volume of spray deposition on grape vineyard on right side of
sprayer. The maximum spray deposition (380 umm) was found at pressure 20 bar and travel
speed of 2 kmph and minimum spray deposition (194 umm) was found at pressure 10 bar with
travelling speed of T = 3.5 kmph.

Thus the volume of spray deposition increased as system pressure increased but it
linearly decreased with increased travel speed of sprayer.

107
5.5 Effect of travel speed on spray deposition for pomegranate orchard

400
350
300

spray depostionucc
250
200 20 bar
150 15 bar
100 10 bar
50
0
2 kmph 3 kmph 3.5 kmph
travel speed

Fig.5.13 Effect of travel speed on spray deposition (Left side)

Fig.5.13 indicated that the volume of spray deposition on left side of sprayer on
pomegranate orchard. In this case maximum spray deposition (340 umm) was found at 20 bar
with travel speed of 2 kmph and minimum spray deposition (210 umm) was found at system
pressure bar with travel speed of 3.5 kmph. The graph trend data showed that there was
increase in volume deposition with increased system pressure. But it decreased with the
increase in travel speed.

450

400

350
spray depostion,ucc

300

250 20 bar
200 15 bar

150 10 bar

100

50

0
2 kmph 3 kmph 3.5 kmph

Fig.5.14 Effect of travel speed on Spray deposition (Centre side)

108
Fig.5.14 showed the volume deposition on centre side of sprayer. The data indicated
that maximum spray deposition was (388umm) found at 20 bar pressure with travel speed of 2
kmph and minimum spray deposition(228 umm) was found at P = 10 bar and N=3.5 kmph in
this case volume of spray deposition increased with increased system pressure and decreased
with increase in travel speed of sprayer.

Fig.5.15 showed that volume of spray deposition on pomegranate orchard on right side
of sprayer. The maximum spray deposition (290 umm) was found at pressure 20 bar and travel
speed of 2 kmph and minimum spray deposition (194 umm) was found at pressure 10 bar with
travelling speed of N= 3.5 kmph.

350

300
spray depostion,ucc

250

200
20 bar
150
15 bar
100
10 bar
50

0
2 kmph 3 kmph 3.5 kmph
travel speed

Fig.5.15 Effect of travel speed on Spray deposition (Right side)

Thus the volume of spray deposition increased as system pressure increased but it
linearly decreased with increased travel speed of sprayer.

It is concluded that volume of spray deposition was more on left side and right side than
centre side of spraying. This is due to wind disturbance while spraying. As the wind direction
was from left to right more deposition was observed on right side as compared to left side and
centre. It is also concluded that the travel speed increases spray volume deposition decreases.
The deposition at particular location also depends upon the time spent for spraying at the
location. As speed increases the air resistance also increases. Which divert the spray affecting
spray deposition. Infect speed should not be too low or too high too low speed may cause over
spraying and too high speed cause under spraying.

109
The effect of speed level was ground to be highly significant at all spraying sides for
grape and pomegranate crop .therefore considering the effect of travel speed on spray
deposition, air carrier sprayer should be run at proper speed.

From the test of list significant difference, it was found that the sprayer should be run at
3 kmph travel speed with bar system pressure for grape crop and 3 kmph travel speed with 15
bar system pressure for pomegranate crop for obtaining best results of spraying in the field.

110
600

500
N1P1
N1P2
SPRAY DIPOSITION ucc
400
N1P3
N2P1
300
N2P2

200 N2P3
N3P1

100 N3P2
N3P3
0
LEFT SIDE CENTRE SIDE RIGHT SIDE

Fig.5.16 Spray deposition on grapevine yard (N-Speed, Kmph. P- Pressure, bar)

450

400

350 N1P1
N1P2
spray deposition ucc

300
N1P3
250 N2P1
200 N2P2
N2P3
150
N3P1
100
N3P2
50 N3P3

0
left side centre side right side

Fig.5.17 Spray deposition on pomegranate orchard (N-Speed, Kmph. P- Pressure, bar)

111
Table 5.8 Average (three replications) number of droplets per square centimeter Grape
vineyard
Sr.no Left Centre Right

N1P1 59 59 60

N1P2 49 51 47

N1P3 56 57 49

N2P1 55 51 46

N2P2 53 56 52

N2P3 57 59 56

N3P1 49 51 53

N3P2 53 55 50

N3P3 46 51 44

Table 5.9 Average (three replications) number of droplets per square centimeter
Pomegranate orchard

Sr.no Left Centre Right

N1P1 49 46 47

N1P2 40 49 39

N1P3 40 49 48

N2P1 47 48 45

N2P2 40 42 44

N2P3 53 58 55

N3P1 53 55 52

N3P2 50 57 53

N3P3 41 48 50

112
The Fig.5.16 and Fig.5.17 shows that volume of spray deposition was more on
centre side than at left and right side of spraying. It is due to wind velocity disturbance while
spraying. In the centre side of sprayer more spray material was deposited due to overlapping
spray of the nozzles in right side also more deposition occurred compared to that on left side
because of wind disturbance. However it was still lesser compared to deposition at central
location. It is therefore concluded that as travel speed increases spray volume deposition
decreases.
The spray deposition at a particular location also depends upon the time spent for
spraying at that location. As speed increases, time spent for spraying a particular location
decreases. As travel speed increase, air resistance also increases. This diverts the spray,
affecting spray deposition. In fact, speed should not be too low or too high. Too low a speed
may cause over spraying and too high speed causes under spraying.

Along with the spray volume deposit, the droplet density, VMD, NMD was also
measured. The data indicated that as the pressure increased the number of droplets also
increased. The droplet density was found to be more than 40 no /cm2 at all system pressures for
both grape and pomegranate crops which was shown in table 5.8 and 5.9 respectively.

The volume median diameter for grape crop was ranges from 305 to 330 µm,
322 to 331 µm and 319 to 332 µm for left centre and right side respectively. For pomegranate it
was ranges from 321 to 330 µm, 329 to 332 µm and 322 to 332 µm for left centre and right
side respectively shown in table no. 5.10 and 5.11 respectively.

Due to obstruction of dense foliage the air velocity was greatly reduced. In such
situation the small droplets can be handled more than large droplets. So smaller droplet will
have greater penetrating ability compared to that of the large droplets. Therefore spray pattern
should contain large number of smaller droplets for dense foliage crop like grape and
pomegranate crops. This need higher pressure operation for the spraying system. Therefore the
spraying pressure of 15 bars is found to be suitable for both this crops.

The average volume median diameter and number median diameter for both
crops on left side, centre side, and right side of spraying was shown in the table 5.10 and 5.11,
respectively.

113
Table 5.10 Average VMD (µm) and NMD (µm) on grape vineyard.

VMD (µm) NMD(µm)


Left center Right Left Center right

321 328 319 128 138 149

318 322 332 127 134 145

306 331 324 116 128 120

327 324 322 134 122 107

328 324 325 133 124 111

329 326 328 133 129 115

322 326 329 131 125 122

323 325 324 130 126 115

327 331 324 136 121 116

Table 5.11 Average VMD (µm) and NMD (µm) on pomegranate orchard.

VMD (µm) NMD (µm)


Left center Right Left Center Right

327 332 329 127 104 108

326 324 321 133 121 110

331 318 329 131 119 126

326 319 329 125 127 106

316 326 312 126 128 119

329 325 328 126 101 110

330 319 332 124 115 128

317 320 329 112 122 108

321 324 330 136 120 130

114
The number median diameter for grape crop was ranges from 116 to 136 µm,
122 to 138 µm and 107 to 149 µm for left Centre and right side respectively. The number
median diameter for pomegranate crop was ranges from 112 to 136 µm, 101 to 128 µm and
108 to 130 µm for left Centre and right side respectively which is shown in table.5.10 and 5.11
respectively.

115
Chapter VI

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The grape (vitis vinifera L.) and pomegranate (Punica Granatum) are one of the
most important remunerative horticultural crops .India is the leading country producing grape
and pomegranate crops in the world. The area under grape in India is about 1, 23000 thousand
ha, with more than 26.35000 thousand MT of production and the area under pomegranate in
India is 1,43000 thousand ha, with more than 17.74000 thousand MT of production. In
Maharashtra the area occupied by grape is about 60 per cent and pomegranate is about and 70
per cent of the total area under grape and pomegranate in India.

Thus there is need to have an effective technique to control the pests and
diseases in grapevines and pomegranate orchards. Due to draw back of hydraulic spraying, the
air carrier spraying is becoming popular. An air carrier utilizes an air stress to carry the spray
fluid introduced into air stream in the form fine droplets to the target. Past studies on the air
carrier sprayers indicate that a very little work has been done on grape and pomegranate crop.
The present work has, therefore, undertaken to study the performance of the air carrier spraying
system in the grape crop with the following objectives.

General objective

To study the performance of air assisted spraying system for grapevines and
pomegranate orchards.

Specific objectives

1. To test the performance of existing blowers in laboratory.

2. To develop axial flow blower suitable for grapes and pomegranates orchards operated
by small tractors.

3. To evaluate the performance of developed tractor mounted axial flow mist blower
sprayer in grape vineyard and pomegranate orchard.

116
6.1Conclusions

6.1.1 Laboratory performance of existing axial flow mist blower

Three axial flow mist blowers namely „B‟ „C‟ and developed blower „A‟ were
tested separately. in the laboratory at different speeds such as blower „B‟ from 21 rpm to
2 rpm blower „C‟ from 2 to 2 rpm developed blower „A‟ from 2 rpm to 2
rpm respectively. From the data collecting following conclusions are drawn.
1. It indicates that static pressure and dynamic pressure increase linearly with increase in
rotational speed.
2. The maximum blower efficiency was observed in developed blower „A‟ 22. per cent as
compared to blower „B‟ 22. per cent and „C‟ 1 . per cent.
3. he blower „B‟ „C‟ and „A‟ were operated best in the field at 2490 rpm,2450 rpm and 2260
rpm speed of impeller respectively and needed 15.65 kW,17.81kW and10.98 kW power
respectively.
4. The maximum air discharge was observed in blower „A‟ (1. m3/s) as compared to the
discharge of blower „B‟ (1. 1m3 s) and blower „C‟ (1. m3/s).
5. he blower „B‟ „C‟ and „A‟ needed tractors of si e hp hp and 1 hp respectively.
6. he maximum air velocity was observed in blower „B‟ (33.54 m/s) as compared to blower
„C‟ ( 1. m s) and blower „A‟ ( 1. 2 m s).
6.1.2 Field performance of axial flow mist blower A’

Axial flow mist blower A was tested in the grape and pomegranate crop to study
the effect of travel speed and pressure on the performance of blower. There were overall nine
treatments which includes three system pressure P 1=10 bar, P2 =15bar and P3 =20 bar and three
travel speed N1=2 kmph.N2=3 kmph. N3=3.5 kmph. Experimental layout of split plot design
was selected for experimentation. The results are given below.
1. The field test of blower indicates that the travel speeds have significant effect on the
spray deposition on the left side of spraying.
2. The best results of spraying were obtained when sprayer was operated at travel speed of
3 kmph and system pressure of 15 bar for both crops.
3. The spray volume deposition was obtained more (464ucc) on backside surface than front
side (240 ucc) of leaf for grape crop and (388ucc) on backside surface than front side
(194ucc) leaf of pomegranate orchard.

117
4. When system pressure increase from 10 bars to 20 bars. The volume of spray
deposition increases whereas when travel speed increases from 2 kmph to 3.5 kmph the
volume of spray deposition decreases.

The blower A should be operated at rotational speed of 2260 rpm at system pressure of
15 N/m2 with tractor forward speed of 3kmph for both crops.

118
Chapter VII

SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE WORK

A new designed blower was done on the basis of laboratory and field performance
results of existing blower „A‟. As the blower had very low efficiency i.e.22.75 per cent and less
air discharge i.e.1.79m3/s. which is not sufficient to grape vines and pomegranate orchards.

In view of above findings, the blower was redesigned based on the theory of Osborne
(1982) some assumptions were made to design a new blower suitable for grape vineyard and
pomegranate orchard to give increased efficiency and better spraying deposition as well as
good penetration. The details of the new design are given in the appendix „A‟.

It is necessary to develop an axial flow mist blower based on the new design and to
evaluate its performance in laboratory as well as in the field.

119
Chapter VIII

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124
APPENDIX C

Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure-10 bar Wind velocity-1.5 m/s


Air discharge -1.8 m3/s Travel speed-2m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-bottom
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Right
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 9 4 6 5 6 7
101-150 125 84.4 14 13 10 9 12 11
151-200 175 118.7 9 7 9 6 9 6
201-250 225 152.1 6 5 8 6 10 9
251-300 275 185.8 7 4 7 3 7 9
301-350 325 219.5 4 3 6 3 3 5
351-400 375 253.3 5 8 5 2 7 4
401-450 425 287.1 6 4 4 1 4 6
451-500 475 320.1 3 3 4 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 2 2 1 1 0
Droplet density No./cm2 65 53 61 57 62 57
NMD, µm 145 110 147 130 146 152
VMD, µm 334 309 335 322 313 326
Uniformity coefficient 2.30 2.80 2.27 2.47 2.14 2.14
volume of droplets 339 277 319 298 324 298
Droplet index 25.89 17.34 24.37 22.76 24.75 22.76

F- Front of leaf B-Back of leaf

125
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure-15 bar Wind velocity; 1.5 m/s


Air discharge: 1.8 m3/s Travel speed: 2m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-middle
Size(µm) Average Actual Left center bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 5
101-150 125 84.4 13 11 9 8 11 9
151-200 175 118.7 8 5 8 5 9 8
201-250 225 152.1 8 8 9 5 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 6 9 7 4 5 4
301-350 325 219.5 4 2 6 5 4 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 3 6 4 2 2
401-450 425 287.1 3 5 3 3 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 1 1 4 1 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 1 2 1 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 58 40 61 41 56 38
NMD, µm 135 119 129 140 145 148
VMD, µm 333 303 320 325 338 326
Uniformity coefficient 2.46 2.54 2.48 2.3 2.33 2.20
volume of droplets 303 209 319 214 292 198
Droplet index 23.14 15.96 24.37 16.34 22.30 15.12

F- front of leaf B-back of leaf

126
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 20 bar Wind velocity 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 2m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)
Position of spraying-Top
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 8 4 6 5
101-150 125 84.4 13 10 9 6 11 6
151-200 175 118.7 8 6 7 5 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 8 7 9 6 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 6 5 8 5 5 3
301-350 325 219.5 4 3 3 3 4 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 4 6 4 2 2
401-450 425 287.1 3 3 6 5 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 1 1 3 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 1 1 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 58 45 60 43 56 36
NMD, µm 120 113 123 134 115 125
VMD, µm 310 303 330 332 320 329
Uniformity coefficient 2.58 2.68 2.68 2.47 2.78 2.63
volume of droplets 303 235 313 224 292 188
Droplet index 23.14 17.95 23.91 17.11 22.30 14.39

127
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 10 bar Wind velocity 1.5m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-bottom
Size(µm) Average Actual Left center bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 4
101-150 125 84.4 13 11 10 7 11 9
151-200 175 118.7 8 6 7 4 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 8 5 7 5 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 6 3 9 6 5 4
301-350 325 219.5 4 2 6 2 4 4
351-400 375 253.3 6 6 6 4 6 4
401-450 425 287.1 3 2 6 5 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 1 2 4 2 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 1 1 1 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 58 43 63 40 56 36
NMD, µm 145 123 115 130 112 102
VMD, µm 325 330 335 312 329 322
Uniformity coefficient 2.24 2.68 2.91 2.4 2.9 3.1
volume of droplets 303 224 329 209 292 188
Droplet index 23.29 17.12 25.13 15.96 22.53 14.36

128
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 15bar Wind velocity: 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-Middle
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 5
101-150 125 84.4 13 11 10 9 11 10
151-200 175 118.7 8 4 7 6 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 8 6 7 7 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 8 7 9 6 5 5
301-350 325 219.5 4 3 3 2 4 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 7 6 4 6 6
401-450 425 287.1 3 3 8 7 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 1 0 4 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 1 1 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 60 47 62 50 56 48
NMD, µm 142 124 112 135 117 105
VMD, µm 328 329 334 314 327 323
Uniformity coefficient 2.3 2.6 2.9 2.3 2.7 3.0
volume of droplets 313 245 324 261 292 251
Droplet index 23.97 18.71 24.75 19.94 22.30 19.17

129
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 20 bar Wind velocity: 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-Top
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size size F B F b f B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 5
101-150 125 84.4 13 11 10 9 11 9
151-200 175 118.7 8 6 7 8 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 9 8 7 4 9 6
251-300 275 185.8 8 7 9 6 5 4
301-350 325 219.5 5 6 7 6 6 5
351-400 375 253.3 6 4 6 4 4 3
401-450 425 287.1 3 4 8 7 4 4
451-500 475 320.1 1 1 4 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 1 1 1 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 62 53 66 52 58 46
NMD, µm 140 124 126 133 120 110
VMD, µm 325 333 337 314 326 330
Uniformity coefficient 2.32 2.6 2.67 2.36 2.71 3.0
volume of droplets 324 277 345 271 303 240
Droplet index 24.75 21.16 26.35 20.70 23.14 18.33

130
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 10 bar Wind velocity: 1.5m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8m /s Travel speed: 3.5m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-bottom
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 4 5 7 4 6 8
101-150 125 84.4 13 11 10 9 11 12
151-200 175 118.7 10 9 8 5 9 6
201-250 225 152.1 8 5 9 9 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 5 2 9 6 7 6
301-350 325 219.5 4 6 3 3 6 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 5 6 4 5 5
401-450 425 287.1 2 0 8 7 4 0
451-500 475 320.1 1 0 4 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 1 2 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 55 44 66 52 63 41
NMD, µm 143 120 115 135 123 120
VMD, µm 320 323 336 316 330 322
Uniformity coefficient 2.23 2.69 2.92 2.34 2.68 2.68
volume of droplets 287 230 345 271 329 214
Droplet index 21.92 17.57 26.35 20.70 25.13 16.34

131
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 15 bar Wind velocity 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8m /s Travel speed: 3.5m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-Middle
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 3 3 6 6
101-150 125 84.4 14 11 12 9 14 12
151-200 175 118.7 10 9 7 6 9 5
201-250 225 152.1 6 5 8 7 9 6
251-300 275 185.8 6 4 9 6 5 4
301-350 325 219.5 4 4 3 3 4 7
351-400 375 253.3 6 3 6 4 3 1
401-450 425 287.1 4 4 8 7 4 1
451-500 475 320.1 1 1 4 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 0 1 1 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 60 47 61 50 59 42
NMD, µm 138 122 118 135 124 107
VMD, µm 317 330 340 310 327 321
Uniformity coefficient 2.29 2.70 2.88 2.29 2.63 3.0
volume of droplets 313 245 319 261 308 219
Droplet index 23.91 18.71 24.37 19.94 23.53 16.83

132
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 20 bar Wind velocity: 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8m /s Travel speed: 3.5m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on grape leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-top
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 4
101-150 125 84.4 12 11 9 10 11 9
151-200 175 118.7 5 4 5 8 9 5
201-250 225 152.1 8 8 7 4 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 4 3 6 4 3 3
301-350 325 219.5 4 3 3 6 4 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 3 6 4 2 2
401-450 425 287.1 3 3 4 7 4 2
451-500 475 320.1 0 2 4 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 0 1 0 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 49 43 51 52 53 35
NMD, µm 145 127 112 130 123 109
VMD, µm 328 326 332 310 327 321
Uniformity coefficient 2.26 2.56 2.96 2.38 2.65 2.94
volume of droplets 256 224 266 271 277 183
Droplet index 19.55 17.11 20.32 20.70 21.16 13.91

133
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 10 bar Wind velocity 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 2m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three replications)

Position of spraying-bottom
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 4
101-150 125 84.4 10 7 9 4 11 8
151-200 175 118.7 8 6 7 6 9 6
201-250 225 152.1 7 5 6 3 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 9 7 9 6 5 5
301-350 325 219.5 4 3 3 3 4 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 7 6 4 2 2
401-450 425 287.1 3 3 8 2 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 1 0 0 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 0 1 0 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 55 43 55 37 56 38
NMD, µm 141 115 127 121 113 103
VMD, µm 334 321 336 328 336 323
Uniformity coefficient 2.36 2.79 2.64 2.71 2.97 3.1
volume of droplets 287 224 287 193 291 198
Droplet index 21.92 17.11 21.92 14.75 22.23 15.12

134
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 15 bar Wind velocity 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 2m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three
replications)
Position of spraying-middle
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 6 5 7 4 6 5
101-150 125 84.4 9 8 9 6 9 8
151-200 175 118.7 5 4 7 7 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 7 4 7 5 5 1
251-300 275 185.8 6 5 9 6 5 3
301-350 325 219.5 4 2 3 2 4 2
351-400 375 253.3 6 4 6 4 2 2
401-450 425 287.1 3 0 5 2 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 1 2 4 4 0 1
>500 525 354.7 0 0 1 0 0 0
Droplet density No./cm2 47 34 58 40 44 34
NMD, µm 143 124 117 125 113 108
VMD, µm 321 332 331 320 330 321
Uniformity coefficient 2.24 2.67 2.82 2.56 2.92 2.97
volume of droplets 245 177 303 209 230 177
Droplet index 18.71 13.52 23.14 15.96 17.57 13.52

135
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 20 bar Wind velocity:1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 2m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three
replications)

Position of spraying-top
Size(µm) Average Actual Left center bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 4 5 7 4 6 5
101-150 125 84.4 9 8 9 5 11 8
151-200 175 118.7 6 5 7 8 9 6
201-250 225 152.1 8 4 7 5 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 0 1 9 5 5 4
301-350 325 219.5 4 2 5 2 4 3
351-400 375 253.3 5 3 6 5 2 2
401-450 425 287.1 3 4 5 4 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 0 1 2 1 3 1
>500 525 354.7 0 0 1 1 2 1
Droplet density No./cm2 39 32 58 41 56 40
NMD, µm 115 147 135 104 135 118
VMD, µm 333 329 326 309 331 313
Uniformity coefficient 2.89 2.23 2.41 2.97 2.45 2.65
volume of droplets 203 167 303 214 292 209
Droplet index 15.50 12.75 23.14 16.34 22.30 15.96

136
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 10 bar Wind velocity: 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three
replications)
Position of spraying-bottom
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 9 4 7 8
101-150 125 84.4 9 9 10 5 9 7
151-200 175 118.7 8 7 8 8 6 6
201-250 225 152.1 6 6 9 6 9 6
251-300 275 185.8 5 7 5 6 5 4
301-350 325 219.5 4 2 3 4 3 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 4 4 2 6 2
401-450 425 287.1 3 2 5 4 2 1
451-500 475 320.1 1 1 1 0 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 1 0 2 0 0
Droplet density No./cm2 51 44 54 42 52 38
NMD, µm 109 141 147 103 114 99
VMD, µm 322 330 329 308 334 325
Uniformity coefficient 2.95 2.34 2.23 2.50 2.92 3.2
volume of droplets 266 230 282 219 271 198
Droplet index 20.32 17.58 21.54 16.73 20.70 15.12

137
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure 15 bar Wind velocity 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three
replications)

Position of spraying-middle
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 4 5 7 4 6 7
101-150 125 84.4 13 9 8 7 10 10
151-200 175 118.7 5 5 7 5 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 6 4 7 7 6 3
251-300 275 185.8 4 3 4 5 5 2
301-350 325 219.5 4 4 3 3 4 2
351-400 375 253.3 6 5 6 4 2 1
401-450 425 287.1 0 0 6 4 4 6
451-500 475 320.1 1 2 4 0 2 0
>500 525 354.7 0 1 1 0 0 0
Droplet density No./cm2 43 38 46 39 48 40
NMD, µm 148 103 107 147 104 133
VMD, µm 323 308 324 329 309 314
Uniformity coefficient 2.18 2.99 3.02 2.23 2.97 2.36
volume of droplets 224 198 240 203 251 209
Droplet index 17.11 15.12 18.33 15.50 19.17 15.96

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Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure -20 bar Wind velocity 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three
replications)

Position of spraying-top
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 6
101-150 125 84.4 9 7 10 9 11 9
151-200 175 118.7 8 5 7 8 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 8 8 7 9 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 6 4 9 6 7 5
301-350 325 219.5 7 6 3 6 4 7
351-400 375 253.3 6 7 6 4 6 5
401-450 425 287.1 3 4 8 7 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 1 2 4 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 2 1 1 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 57 49 60 56 58 52
NMD, µm 149 102 100 102 109 111
VMD, µm 327 331 323 327 330 327
Uniformity coefficient 2.19 3.2 3.23 3.20 3.02 2.94
volume of droplets 298 214 313 292 303 271
Droplet index 22.76 16.34 24.06 23.83 23.14 20.70

139
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure:10 bar Wind velocity:1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3.5m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three
replications)
Position of spraying-bottom
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 6
101-150 125 84.4 13 11 10 11 11 10
151-200 175 118.7 8 9 7 8 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 8 8 11 9 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 6 4 5 4 5 5
301-350 325 219.5 3 3 4 4 4 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 7 6 4 2 3
401-450 425 287.1 3 1 4 4 4 6
451-500 475 320.1 1 2 2 3 3 1
>500 525 354.7 1 1 1 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 55 51 57 53 56 49
NMD, µm 135 113 135 104 115 141
VMD, µm 331 329 326 312 334 326
Uniformity coefficient 2.45 2.91 2.14 3.0 2.92 2.31
volume of droplets 287 266 298 277 292 256
Droplet index 21.92 20.32 22.76 21.16 22.30 19.55

140
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 15 bar Wind velocity 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3.5m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three
replications)

Position of spraying-middle
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 7 5 7 4 6 8
101-150 125 84.4 9 9 10 14 11 12
151-200 175 118.7 8 7 7 8 9 9
201-250 225 152.1 9 8 7 9 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 6 5 9 6 5 5
301-350 325 219.5 5 5 3 3 4 3
351-400 375 253.3 6 4 6 4 2 1
401-450 425 287.1 3 3 8 3 4 2
451-500 475 320.1 1 0 4 0 3 1
>500 525 354.7 0 0 1 2 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 54 46 62 53 59 47
NMD, µm 107 118 103 141 107 110
VMD, µm 321 313 308 330 324 333
Uniformity coefficient 3.0 2.65 2.99 2.34 3.02 3.02
volume of droplets 282 240 324 277 308 245
Droplet index 21.54 18.33 24.75 21.16 23.53 18.73

141
Droplet size distribution analysis

System pressure: 20 bar Wind velocity: 1.5 m/s


3
Air discharge: 1.8 m /s Travel speed: 3.5m/s
Number of droplets per square centimeter on pomegranate leaf (average of three
replications)
Position of spraying-top
Size(µm) Average Actual Left Center Bottom
size(µm) size(µm) F B F B F B
0-50 25 16.8 0 0 0 0 0 0
51-100 75 50.6 5 5 7 4 6 5
101-150 125 84.4 9 10 8 7 11 9
151-200 175 118.7 6 5 7 8 9 8
201-250 225 152.1 5 4 7 6 10 6
251-300 275 185.8 8 7 5 6 5 6
301-350 325 219.5 4 4 3 3 4 4
351-400 375 253.3 4 3 6 4 2 3
401-450 425 287.1 0 4 4 5 4 3
451-500 475 320.1 1 2 4 0 3 1
>500 525 354.7 0 1 1 0 2 0
Droplet density No./cm2 42 40 52 44 56 45
NMD, µm 125 147 125 116 126 135
VMD, µm 323 319 333 315 318 320
Uniformity coefficient 2.58 2.17 2.66 2.71 2.52 2.37
volume of droplets 219 209 271 230 287 235
Droplet index 16.73 15.96 20.70 17.57 21.92 17.95

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APPENDIX A

Specifications of the Instruments used during testing of blower

1) Specification of Tachometer

Type- Digital Tachometer


Non-contact type, with reflective type of infrared sensor
Measuring distance range- 4 inches to 12 inches
Range- 60 to 100,000 RPM
Make- AGRAWAL ELECTRONICS, GHATKOPAR, MUMBAI.

2) Specification of Anemometer

Type - Electronic anemometer


Range - 0.0-50 m/s
Make - ACD MACHINE CONTROL CO. (P) LTD. MUMBAI.

3) Specification of droplet size analyzer

Type - Electronic imaging programmer


Name - Image pro plus version 4.5
Make- MEDIA CYBERNETICS, INC., USA.

4) Specification of tractor

Model : KUBOTA 180D


Horse power : 18.5 H.P
Engine : 3 cylinder water cooled
Clutch type : Single disk dry clutch
Travel speeds : 1 to 14.5 Kmph
P.T.O speed : 623, 919, 1506 RPM
Weight of tractor : 640 Kg
Hydraulic lifting
Capacity : 700 kg
Height of tractor : 1.5

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DETAILS OF NEW AXIAL BLOWER

DESIGN OF NEW AXIAL BLOWER

Following assumptions were made to design a new blower suitable for grape vine yard
and pomegranate orchard based on the theory of Osborne (1982) and Pandey (1986).

Input data

1. Blower discharge Q, m3/s = 1.80 m3/s


2. Blower speed (N) rev/sec = 40
3. Number of blades =9
4. K1 = V3/V2 = 0.5
5. K2 = Vm2/u2 = 0.3
6. K4 = Vo/Vm1 =2
7. Ration of width of casing (Wc) to impeller blade= 2
8. Ratio of casing outlet area(Aco) to inlet area (Aci)=1
9. Coefficient of pressure loss due to entry and turning of flow = 0.8
10. Coefficient of pressure loss due to flow separation=0.25
11. Coefficient of pressure loss in casing, Kth =1.90
12. Discharge coefficient for leakage through inlet and casing=0.6
13. Local flow coefficient γhub=0.4
14. Local flow coefficient tip =0.154
15. Local swirl coefficient £s (hub)=0.39
16. Local swirl coefficient £s (tip)=0.18

Output result

1. Output static pressure n/m2= 423.34


2. Blower input power kw = 7.32
3. Total outlet pressure= N/m2=713.5
4. Mean axial velocity =25 m/s
5. Blower inlet velocity (Vo) m/sec= 28.45
6. Blower outlet velocity (V3) m/sec=31.62
7. Flow coefficient=0.11
8. Pressure coefficient (SI)=4.67

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9. Efficiency of blower, percent =22.75
10. Torque on blower = 44.89

Design details of blower

1. Material of construction =mild steel


2. diameter of fan of blower, mm=500
3. Minimum thickness of back plate, mm =4
4. Diameter of shaft, cm =20
5. Diameter of back plate =900 mm
Shaft supported on only one side

Design details of blades and hub

1. Type of blade= backward curved


2. Radius of blade (r2), m= 0.25
3. Inlet blade angle =680
4. Outlet blade angle=800
5. Width of blade, cm=21
6. Angular pitch of blades=6.930
7. Hub diameter ,mm =280
8. Blade solidity =1.25
9. Chord length =174.4mm
10. Thickness chord ratio= 4 per cent
11. Blade camber angle = 180
12. Collar diameter of blade =70mm
13. Diameter of hub = 280 mm
14. Distance between two blades on hub = 15 mm
15. Diameter of center of hub= 10 mm

145
Design details of blower casing

1. Diameter casing ,mm =700


2. Width of casing, mm= 210
3. Height of casing ,mm= 760
4. Diameter of casing at inlet mm = 650
5. Minimum thickness of casing, mm=2.5
6. Material of construction =fiber material

The detail drawing s of the d new axial blower is given on fig, A1 to A9.

146
10cm

17.7cm

Front view scale 1:1


6 cm

A1.Details of blade of blower

A2.Schematic view of fan of blower

147
A3. View blower casing

A4. Schematic drawing of Details of blower casing

148
A5.Schematic drawing of hub of blower

A6. Schematic drawing of side view of hub of blower

149
A7. Design of hub of blower

A8. Design of back plate

150
A.9 systematic drawing of dimensions of back plate

151
Specification of gear box

Gear ratio - 1:4.5


Use – To increase the rotational speed of blower up to 2500 rpm
Type of gear box – Perpendicular shaft with horizontal offset
Direction of rotation of input shaft - counterclockwise
Direction of rotation of output shaft – clockwise
Make – AMERICAN SPRING AND PRESSING WORK LTD, MUMBAI (M.S).

Specification of diaphragm pump

Type : Diaphragm pump


Maximum discharge : 40 liter / min at 500 rpm
Maximum pressure : 29kg/cm2
Input power : 3H.P

Specification of nozzle

Type - Double head non drip cone nozzle


Cone angle, degree - 85
Discharge, lit/min - 1.2
Number of nozzles - 10
Orifice diameter, mm - 2.3

152
Instruments used for laboratory testing

Sr.no Instrument Purpose Range

1 Thermometer Measurement of ambient temperature 0-100 c

2 Hygrometer Measurement of relative humidity 0-100%

3 Tachometer Measurement of rotational speed of blower 0-1000rpm

4 Ammeter To measure voltage 0-100amp

5 Voltmeter To measure voltage 0-500 v

6 Manometer Measurement of water head _

7 Pitot tube Measurement of pressure _

153
APPENDIX B

Field evaluation calculations

Spray volume

Tractor speed - 2, 3, 3.5 km/hr

The blower having 10 nozzles, each nozzle having diameter of 1.2 mm

For 1.2mm diameter, spray volume -1200ml/min

Tractor speed =2km/h

From above, =1200 ml/min

=72000ml/hr
=72lit/hr

Tractor speed =3km/hr

For 2km/hr = 72000ml/hr.


For 1km/hr = 36000km/hr.
For 3km/hr = 36000x3ml/hr.
= 108lit/hr.
Tractor speed= 3.5km/hr.

= 36000x3.5
= 126000 mm/hr.
= 126lit/hr.

Grape vineyard

Spray volume = Number of plants


X Spray volume for single plant
Area
= 900/0.5x 67.06ml
= 120.600ml/ha

154
Pomegranate orchards

Spray volume = Number of plants


X Spray volume for single plant
Area
= 320/1 x 77.06ml
= 246.640ml/ha

4.7.3 Biological observations

1. Height of plant : 2.50 m

2. Spread of vine branches on either side of stem : 3m

3. Row to row spacing: 3 m

4. Plant to plant spacing: 1.5m

5. Variety of grape : Sharad seed less

4.7.4 Specification of tractor used in field testing

1. Model : Kubota B420

2. Horse Power : 18.5hp

3. Engine : 3 cylinder water cooled

4. Clutch type : double disc dry clutch

5. Travelling speed : 1 to 18 kmph

6. PTO speed : 2000 RPM

7. Weight of tractor : 700 kg

8. Hydraulic

Lifting capacity : 600 kg

9. Height of tractor : 1.5 m

10. Width of tractor : 1.0m

11. Gears : 6 gears

155
VITA

1. Name of Student : KharadeUmeshSampat


2. Date of birth : 27/12/1992
3. Name of College : Vasantrao Naik Marathwada
Agriculture University,Parbhani.
4. Residential address : At post :Takave
Along with phone no. Taluka :Shirala
Dist :Sangli
Mo. No: 07757819751
5. Email : umeshkharade.27121992@gmail.com
6. Academic qualifications:

Name of Year in Name of


Division/
Sr.no the degree which awarding Subject
class
awarded obtained university
MPKV FMP,SWCE,
1 B.Tech 2014 IInd
Rahuri IDE, APE
and RES

7. Field of interest : Research and Development

Place: Parbhani
Date: / /2018 (Kharade Umesh Sampat)

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