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Anharmonic Oscillator [5+(5+5)+(1+4+5)]

(a) What are the conditions on the small constants a, b, c, d, e, and f in order that
q=Q+aQ 2 +2 bQP+ cP2
p=P+ dQ2+2 eQP+ fP2
be a canonical transformation.
(b) The Hamiltonian for a single anharmonic oscillator is
p2 1 2 2 3
H= + m ω q +β q
2m 2
where β is small. Perform a canonical transformation of the type given in part (a)
and adjust the constants so that the new Hamiltonian H does not contain an
anharmonic term to first order in small quantities, thus
P2 1 2 2
H̄= + m ω Q + second order terms
2m 2
(c) Write down and solve the Hamiltonian equations for the new canonical variables and
then use the transformation equations to find the solution to the anharmonic
oscillator problem valid to the first order in small quantities.
2. Canonical Transform and Harmonic Oscillator [(3+3+3)+(3+3)+(5+5)]
Consider the following transformation
Q=q cos θ − sin θ

P=m ω q sin θ + p cos θ
(a) Show that it is a canonical transformation
i. by evaluating [Q,P]q,p
ii. by expressing pdq-PdQ as an exact differential dF1(q,Q,t). Hence find the type 1
generating function of the transformation.
(b) Use the relation F2=F1+PQ to find the type 2 generating function F2(q, P), and check
your result by showing that F2 indeed generates the transformation.
(c) Suppose (q,p) are canonical variables for a simple harmonic oscillator with
p2 1 2 2
H= + mω q
2m 2
Find the Hamiltonian K(Q,P,t) for the new canonical variables (Q,P), assuming that
the parameter θ is some function of time. Show that we can choose θ(t) so that K=0.
3. Equation of Motion†1*2[(3+3)+(3+3+3)+5+5]
The formal solution to the equation of motion for u:
=[u , H ] ,
t2 t3
is u(t)=u0 +t [u , H ]0 + [[u , H ], H ]0 + [[[u , H ], H ], H ]0 +... , where subscript zero
2! 3!
refers to the initial conditions at t=0.
(a) Using the above prescription, find x and p from the Hamiltonian of a particle of
mass, m undergoing constant acceleration, a in one dimension, in terms of x0, p0.
(b) Show that the transformation from present “old” variable (x,p) to initial “new”
variables (x0,p0) is a canonical transformation
i. by Poisson bracket test;
ii. by finding (for t≠0) the type 1 generating function F1(x,x0,t);
iii. by verifying the symplectic condition.
(c) Find the Hamiltonian K(x0, p0, t) for the new canonical variables (x0, p0).
(d) Solve the new canonical equations to find (x0, p0) as a function of time.

1 † indicates unique question.

2 * indicates relatively easy question.
4. Infinitesimal Canonical Transformation* [(3+3)+(5+2)+6+6]
Consider the function
F( q , P , ϵ )=qP+ ϵ q2 (1+cosP)
(a) Find the transformations generated by F.
(b) Verify if the transformations are canonical. If not, then under which condition it is?
(c) Solve the transformation equations to express (q,p) in terms of (Q,P).
(d) Find the condition to be applied on ϵ for F to generate a near-to-identity canonical
[hint: Use the Taylor’s expansion for -(1-x)½ to avoid ϵ in the denominator.]

5. Poisson Bracket Formulation† [7+ (6+4)+8]

(a) Prove that for every t ϵ R we formally have the Hamiltonian flow
H^ t
U (t)=e 0


(−t )(i) ^ i
U ( f (P , Q))(t )=∑ H 0 ( f (P ,Q))
i=0 i!
where H^ 0 indicate the operator [ ,H] evaluated at t=0.
(b) Find the associated Hamiltonian flow if
( q2 + p2)
i. H=

(−1)(i) x 2 i ∞
(−1)(i) x 2i +1
[Hint: Use cos (x)=∑ and sin( x )=∑ .]
i=0 (2 i)! i=0 (2 i+1)!
ii. H= pq
(c) For the Hamiltonian in (i) of part (b) consider the function f =qp . Show that
f (q(Q , P), p(Q , P))=U (f (Q , P))(t )
[Hint: Use Taylor’s expansion for trigonometric function.]

6. Canonical Invariants [(3+3+3)+5+6+5]

Given the Hamiltonian
H=q 1 p1−q2 p 2−aq 21+ b q22 ,
where a and b are constants. Also, consider the functions
( p −bq 2)
f 1= 2 , f 2=q 1 q 2 , f 3=q 1 e−t
(a) Show that the three functions are constants of motion.
(b) Are they functionally independent?
(c) Do there exist other independent constants of the motion? If exist, find all of them
until you obtain the maximum number of functionally independent ones.
(d) Show explicitly that Poisson’s theorem is valid.
[Note: This Hamiltonian is unusual in that it does not come from any Lagrangian]

7. Oscillating Fieldgps3 [7+(8+5)+5]

We start with a time independent Hamiltonian H0(q,p) and impose an external oscillating
field making the Hamiltonian
H=H 0 (q , p)−ϵ sin ω t
where ϵ and ω are given constants
(a) How are the canonical equations modified?
(b) Find the canonical transformation that restores the canonical form of the equations of
motion and determine the new Hamilton.
(c) Give a possible physical interpretation of the imposed field.

3 ‘gps’ indicates Goldstein problems. Solutions might be found on web.

8. Angular Momentum Poisson Bracket Relations gps [8+7+10]
(a) Using the theorem concerning Poisson brackets of vector functions and components
of the angular momentum, show that if F and G are two vector functions of the
coordinates and momenta only, then
[F . L, G . L]=L .(G×F)+ Li L j [F i ,G j ]
(b) Let L be the total angular momentum of a rigid body with one point fixed and let Lμ
be its component along a set of Cartesian axes fixed in the rigid body. By means of
part (a) find a general expression for
[ Lμ , L ν ], where μ , ν =1,2,3
(c) For the Poisson bracket equations of motion for Lμ derive Eular’s equations of
motion for a rigid body.