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TURBODEN ORC UNITS:

A WELL PROVEN SOLUTION


FOR SMALL SCALE BIOMASS CHP PLANTS

Doc. 08A06320_e - Copyright © 2008 – Turboden S.r.l. All rights reserved


Wood Energy information day
Wednesday 19 th November 2008
The Manor House Resort Hotel , Killadeas, Co. Fermanagh
Ilaria Peretti - ilaria.peretti@turboden.it

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Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) concept

Doc. 08A06320_e - Copyright © 2008 – Turboden S.r.l. All rights reserved


ORC is a commercial technology for distributed
production of combined heat and power from various
energy sources.

Turboden T600-CHP

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Agenda

• Turboden Company Profile

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• ORC unit in Biomass Cogeneration

• Technical Advantages/Results

• Sawmill plants application: viability

• Pellet plants application: key-study

• Conclusions

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Company profile: the origin

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Established in 1980 with the aim to design and manufacture
turbines and turn-key turbogenerator units based on the Organic
Rankine Cycle (ORC).

1984: 40 kWel ORC turbogenerator for 1987: 3 kWel ORC turbogenerator biomass
a solar application in Perth, Australia CHP plant in Milan

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Company profile: today

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•Turboden designs and develops ORC turbogenerators well suited
for distributed energy generation with the following power
ranges:
•200 kW to 2 MW for standard size Turbogenerators
•up to 10 MW for customized products

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6
Map of TURBODEN ORC units 1/2
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T2000-CHP-Split
Pellet Plant
Map of TURBODEN ORC units 2/2
Company profile: Figures of a growing company
EMPLOYEES

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90

80
12/2000 12/2006 12/2007 12/2008
70
(*)
60

50 Employees 7 51 74 103
40

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Production 1,4 23,5 29,5 40
20
Volume (M €)
10
•(*) estimated figures as of August 31st 2008
0
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010

PRODUCTION VOLUME (M€)

31/08/2008 Backlog: 59 M €
40,00

35,00

30,00

25,00

20,00
31/12/2007 Equity > 5 M €
15,00

10,00

5,00

0,00
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010

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9
Turboden’s new headquarters (shop and offices)
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10
ORC Plants in the cogeneration process
Overall Thermal Efficiency: 98 %
Net Electrical Efficiency: 19%

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100 % 79 %

Thermal Thermal power


power from to heat users
thermal oil

19 %
Net electric power

2 % Thermal losses (insulation and


generator losses)

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ORC technical advantages Operational results
• Fully Automatic operation and
• High cycle efficiency

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start - stop
• Very high turbine efficiency (up
• No operator attendance needed
to 85 %)
• Quiet operation
• Low mechanical stress of the
turbine, due to the low • Very High Availability (e.g.
peripheral speed Admont – over 50,000 hours of
• Low RPM of the turbine operation, availability > 98%)
allowing the direct drive of the • Partial load operation down to
electric generator without 10% of nominal power
reduction gear
• High partial load efficiency
• No erosion of blades, due to
• Low O&M requirements: 3-5
the absence of moisture in
hours / week
the vapour nozzles
• Long life

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CHP – Fuels & Applications

• Fuels • Heat Consumers

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• Wood biomass: sawdust, • Timber drying in sawmills.
woodchips, bark, treated wood.
• Saw dust drying in wood pellet
factories.
• Other biomass (dried sewage
sludge, straw, green cuttings, • Air pre-heating in MDF
rice husk, etc.). industries.

• District heating networks.


• Waste material.
• Refrigeration.

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Sawmill plants application: viability
CHP plants with ORC units
coupled to drying chambers in sawmills

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thermal
oil
electric
power
Biomass powered ORC
boiler

trunks selecting barking processing


hot
water

product packaging drying


drying

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CHP Applications: Sawmills
Some reference Plants

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 Sawmill Theurl - (Tyrol, Austria): T1100-CHP – 2004

 Sawmill Schwaiger (Hengersberg, Germany): T1500-CHP – 2005

 Sawmill Mayr-Melnhof (Leoben, Austria): 3*T1500-CHP – 2005

 Holzwerke Gmach (Pösing, Germany): T1500-CHP – 2005

 Holzwerk Weinzierl (Vilshofen-Alkofen, Germany): T1500-CHP – 2005

 Sawmill Templin (Templin, Germany): T600-CHP – 2005

 Sawmill Echtle (Nordrach, Germany): T800-CHP - 2006

 Sawmills Ludwig Ziegler (Plössberg, Germany): T1500-CHP – 2006

 Holzindustrie Pfeifer (Imst, Austria): T800-CHP – 2006

 Sawmill Anteholz (Bromskirchen-Somplar, Germany): T1500-CHP - 2007

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Technical assumptions:
Combustion system, Drying chamber process 1/2

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PLANT TECHNICAL FEATURES PLANT CONFIGURATION

Combustion system Drying chamber CHP


Thermal oil boiler efficiency (including
- 90%
Split system)
Hot water boiler efficiency (including
90% -
water economizer)
Thermal oil boiler own consumption
- 25
[kWel/MWth]*
Hot water boiler own consumption
15 -
[kWel/MWth]
Drying chamber process Drying chamber CHP

Inlet wet product moisture 40% 40%

Outlet dry product moisture 15% 15%

Drying efficiency 50% 50%


Hot water temperature inlet drying
90 90
chamber (about) [ C]

* Referred to thermal oil power

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Technical assumptions:
Combustion system, Drying chamber process 2/2

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• Starting from these assumptions we can obtain
a thermal energy requirement of 0.24 MWh/m3 dried wood

• Assuming a load factor of 6.500 full load operation hours per


year every standard size of the ORC unit can be linked to
a yearly dried wood production

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Technical characteristics and the related production
capacity (m3/year) for all ORC sizes

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T200-CHP Split T500-CHP T600-CHP T800-CHP T1100-CHP Split T1500-CHP Split T2000-CHP Split

Thermal power
input from 1.340 3.240 3.910 5.140 6.715 9.790 12.020
thermal oil (kW)
Hot water
temperature out 90 90 90 90 90 90 90
from ORC ( C)
Thermal power
output to hot 1.108 2.637 3.191 4.148 5.426 7.920 9.700
water (kW)
ORC net electric
205 538 641 889 1.155 1.674 2.079
power (kWel)
ORC net electric
15,3% 16,6% 16,4% 17,3% 17,2% 17,1% 17,3%
efficiency
Full load
operation hours 6.500 6.500 6.500 6.500 6.500 6.500 6.500
(hr/year)
Thermal energy
supplied to the
7.200 17.100 20.700 27.000 35.300 51.500 63.100
drying chambers
(MWh/year)
Dried
production 30.000 71.400 86.400 112.300 147.000 215.000 263.000
(m3/year)

ORC net electric efficiency = net electric power / thermal power input from thermal oil

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Assumptions of this study: economic data and values 1/2
Discussion of main economic parameters and assumptions

Doc. 08A06320_e - Copyright © 2008 – Turboden S.r.l. All rights reserved


ADDITIONAL INVESTMENT COSTS

CHP - Only drying chamber


Turboden ORC unit 1

Boiler 1,1

Civil work 0,5

Engineering 0,15

Overall (drying chamber excluded) 2,75

Assumed differential investment costs between a CHP plant and a heat only plant as
multiplier of ORC costs.

Cost for dying chambers = not considered (not relevant for the differential study)

275% of ORC cost + 100 k€ (grid connection): c.a. 2.800 k€ (T500) – 5.400 k€ (T2000)

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Assumptions of this study:
Economic data and values 2/2

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• Electricity Value: 0,1 - 0,25 Euro/kWhel

• Biomass costs (assuming a calorific value of 2,5 kWh/kg) : 20 Euro/MWh (50 €/ton)

• Full load operation hours: 6500 hours/year

• Discount rate: 5%

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Economic analysis results

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Constant hot water feed Temperature = 90°C. Calorific value=2,5 kWh/kg

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Pellet plant application: key-study
CHP PELLET plant:
Based on ORC unit coupled to BELT dryer
electric

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Thermal oil power
biomass powered ORC
boiler
thermal
oil

ambient
air

hot
water

chipping suitable granulometry;


trunks barking
UR around 40 %
exhaust
air
Belt dryer
wood selection/
chips sorting
UR < 13 %

pellets ready to pellet making dedusting/


air cooling/
be packaged press selection/
dedusting pellets
refining

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CHP – Applications: Pellet Industry
Some reference Plants

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• Erdenwerk Gregor Ziegler (Plössberg, Germany): T1100-CHP – 2003

• Schachl Holzindustrie (Abtenau, Austria): T1100-CHP – 2004

• Pabst Holzindustrie (Obdach, Austria): T1500-CHP – 2005

• Sawmill Mayr-Melnhof (Leoben, Austria): 3*1500-CHP – 2005

• Bio-energie Mudau (Mudau, Germany): T1100-CHP – 2006

• Erdenwerk Gregor Ziegler (Plössberg, Germany): T2000-CHP - 2007


The case of the Mudau plant

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Average Measured operational Data :

• Hot water temperatures (to Belt dryer) : 60/80°C

• Pellet production 5 – 6 t/h

• Thermal power from ORC to Dryer : 5 MWth

• Net electric power from ORC : 1200 kWel

• Net electric Efficiency (ORC unit) : 19,2 %

• 13.500 operation hours (since 10/2006) -> 8500 hours /year

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Conclusions 1/3 (Sawmill)

•The solution based on CHP - ORC technology

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coupled with drying chambers in sawmill plants is
economically interesting

•Relevant changes in biomass cost have almost no influence on the


feasibility calculation.
•Hence the investment in this kind of projects is safe against the risk
of changing in biomass price

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Conclusions 2/3 (Sawmill)

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With energy value at least of 0,10 €/kWhel starting from
about 215.000 m3/year of dried production capacity
(electric energy production 1800 kWel).
Under this conditions a cogeneration plant may be a
good solution for covering the own consumption of the
sawmill plant also in countries where no support
schemes for renewable energy production are
implemented

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Conclusions 3/3 (Pellet plants)

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• The introduction of ORC technology coupled to
belt dryers in pellet production plants gives the
possibility to implement cogeneration systems

•Profitability of plants starting from 8 t/h pellet production capacity


(about 1600 kWel from ORC) - energy value 0,11-0,12 €/kWhel

•The experiences from the 10 Turboden ORC installed in the


pellet industry confirm high reliability and technical assumptions of
this study

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Doc. 08A06320_e - Copyright © 2008 – Turboden S.r.l. All rights reserved
Via Cernaia, 10 - 25124 Brescia - Italy
Visit our web site: www.turboden.it
E-mail: info@turboden.it
Phone: +39.030.3552001
Fax: +39.030.3552011

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