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Civil Aviation Training College (CATC)

Summer Training Report – 2019

Topic - Communication Navigation
Surveillance (CNS)

Course coordinator Submitted by

Sh. Santosh Kr. Gupta, Abhiroop Dutta
Mgr. (CNS)
1. This is to certify that Abhiroop Dutta, student of B.Tech 3rd year,
from Tezpur University, Assam has completed his training in our
organization, Civil Aviation Training College(CATC), Bamrauli, Allahabad
for a period of 4 weeks.

2. He has been assigned to study “COMMUNICATION, NAVIGATION &

SURVEILLANCE EQUIMENTS”. During this period, he learnt about
various operations and processes concerned with the maintenance of
these devices. We assure that he would be an asset to any organization.
His conduct was ....................... during his summer training.

We wish him all the best for future endeavours.

Date : 5th July, 2019 Sh. Santosh Kr. Gupta, Mgr(CNS)

Place : CATC, Bamrauli, Allahabad Course Coordinator

Submitted by :
Abhiroop Dutta
B.Tech (ECE), 3rd year
Tezpur University, Assam
The basic aim of this training was to let the students know not only the
different elements that are required by AAI in controlling the air traffic
but also to understand the environment of the organization, the
different functions of communication and navigation equipments.
First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to my course
coordinator Sh. Santosh Kr. Gupta, Mgr(CNS) and without his help, this
project would not have been possible.
I also thank Sh. Amit Kr. Chaurasia AGM(CNS), Sh. Swaraj Chatterjee
AGM(CNS), Sh. Abhishek Keshri SM(CNS), Sh. Abhishek Kumar SM(CNS),
Sh. Hasan Ashraf SM(CNS), Sh. Pravin Kr. Singh SM(CNS), Sh. Anand
Yadav SM(CNS), Sh. Dinesh Mishra SM(CNS), Sh. Imtiaz Ahmed
SM(CNS), Sh. Iqubal Khan Mgr(CNS), Sh. Mithun Biswas Mgr(CNS), D.K.
Tiwari Mgr(CNS), Praneet Agarwal Mgr(CNS), D.B. Singh Mgr(CNS) and
Brajesh Kumar Mgr(CNS) for their support.
A special thanks to Sh. Sisir Kumar De, GM(CNS), for arranging summer
training for us.
I extend my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Suman Bhutani, CNS Course
Administrator of CATC, Bamrauli, Allahabad for his valuable
encouragement and guidance.
1. Introduction – AAI and CATC
2. Communication
2.1 Networking Fundamentals
3. Navigation
3.1 NDB
3.2 DME
3.3 DVOR
3.4 ILS
4. Surveillance
5. Airport Security – XBIS, DFMD, HHMD, ETD
6. Bibliography
1. Introduction – AAI and CATC
Airports Authority of India (AAI) was constituted by an Act of
Parliament and came into being on 1st April 1995 by merging erstwhile
National Airports Authority and International Airports Authority of
India. The merger brought into existence a single Organization
entrusted with the responsibility of creating, upgrading, maintaining
and managing civil aviation infrastructure both on the ground and air
space in the country.
AAI manages 125 airports, which include 18 International Airport, 07
Customs Airports, 78 Domestic Airports and 26 Civil Enclaves at
Defense airfields. AAI provides air navigation services over 2.8 million
square nautical miles of air space.
The functions of AAI are as follows:
 Design, Development, Operation and Maintenance of
international and domestic airports and civil enclaves.
 Provision of Communication and Navigation aids, viz. ILS, DVOR,
DME, Radar etc.
 Control and Management of the Indian airspace extending
beyond the territorial limits of the country, as accepted by ICAO.
 Construction, Modification and Management of passenger
 Development and Management of cargo terminals at
international and domestic airports.
 Provision of passenger facilities and information system at the
passenger terminals at airports.
 Expansion and strengthening of operation area, viz. Runways,
Aprons, Taxiway etc.
 Provision of visual aids – runway lights
Civil Aviation Training College-Allahabad
The center was established by DGCA(Directorate General of Civil
Aviation) in 1948 and now it is a part of the Airports Authority of India.
It is the pioneer institute in India which has been imparting training in
various aviation fields. It's main training areas are concerned with CNS
technology and the Air Traffic Management. This center was renamed
as Civil Aviation Training College (CATC) and it has been a member of
the ICAO TRAINAIR program which guides the aviation training
throughout the world. Ever since it's establishment it had been the
main source of production of technical personnel in the CNS and ATM
The College has two main training departments and they are further
divided in training sections. The CNS department has the
Communication and the security systems section, the navigation aids
section, the surveillance aids section and the Automation section. The
ATM department is sub divided in Aerodrome Control section, the
Approach Control section, the Terminal Area control section, Special
courses section and the Civil Airport Terminal section. Every section has
its training curriculum and conducts the courses as needed for
operations of the airports and the air navigation services. There are
other supporting sections like Meteorological section, Human
Resources, Finance, civil and electrical, Hostel management, Course
Development unit, Hospital and transport section.
Organizational structure of AAI
2. Communication –
2.1 – Networking Fundamentals

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection)Layer vs. TCP/IP

Layer 7 - Application
To further our bean dip analogy, the Application Layer is the one at the
top - it’s what most users see. In the OSI model, this is the layer that is
the “closest to the end user”. Applications that work at Layer 7 are the
ones that users interact with directly. A web browser (Google Chrome,
Firefox, Safari, etc.) or other app - Skype, Outlook, Office - are examples
of Layer 7 applications.
Layer 6 - Presentation
The Presentation Layer represents the area that is independent of data
representation at the application layer - in general, it represents the
preparation or translation of application format to network format, or
from network formatting to application format. In other words, the
layer “presents” data for the application or the network. A good
example of this is encryption and decryption of data for secure
transmission - this happens at Layer 6.
Layer 5 - Session
When two devices, computers or servers need to “speak” with one
another, a session needs to be created, and this is done at the Session
Layer. Functions at this layer involve setup, coordination (how long
should a system wait for a response, for example) and termination
between the applications at each end of the session.
Layer 4 – Transport
The Transport Layer deals with the coordination of the data transfer
between end systems and hosts. How much data to send, at what rate,
where it goes, etc. The best known example of the Transport Layer is
the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which is built on top of the
Internet Protocol (IP), commonly known as TCP/IP. TCP and UDP port
numbers work at Layer 4, while IP addresses work at Layer 3, the
Network Layer.
Layer 3 - Network
Here at the Network Layer is where you’ll find most of the router
functionality that most networking professionals care about and love.
In its most basic sense, this layer is responsible for packet forwarding,
including routing through different routers. You might know that your
Boston computer wants to connect to a server in California, but there
are millions of different paths to take. Routers at this layer help do this
Layer 2 – Data Link
The Data Link Layer provides node-to-node data transfer (between two
directly connected nodes), and also handles error correction from the
physical layer. Two sub layers exist here as well - the Media Access
Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. In the
networking world, most switches operate at Layer 2.
Layer 1 - Physical
At the bottom of our OSI bean dip we have the Physical Layer, which
represents the electrical and physical representation of the system. This
can include everything from the cable type, radio frequency link (as in
an 802.11 wireless systems), as well as the layout of pins, voltages and
other physical requirements. When a networking problem occurs, many
networking pros go right to the physical layer to check that all of the
cables are properly connected and that the power plug hasn’t been
pulled from the router, switch or computer, for example.

IP Addressing
Each device connected to the internet has a unique identifier. Most
networks today, including all computers on the internet, use the TCP/IP
as a standard to communicate on the network. In the TCP/IP protocol,
this unique identifier is the IP Address. The two kinds of IP Addresses
are IPv4 and IPv6.
IPv4 vs. IPv6
IPv4 uses 32 binary bits to create a single unique address on the
network. An IPv4 address is expressed by four numbers separated by
dots. Each number is the decimal (base-10) representation for an eight-
digit binary (base-2) number, also called an octet.

IPv6 uses 128 binary bits to create a single unique address on the
network. An IPv6 address is expressed by eight groups of hexadecimal
(base-16) numbers separated by colons. Groups of numbers that
contain all zeros are often omitted to save space, leaving a colon
separator to mark the gap .
IPv6 space is much larger than the IPv4 space due the use of
hexadecimals as well as having 8 groups. Most devices use IPv4.
Static vs. Dynamic
An IP address can be either dynamic or static.
Static address is one that you configure yourself by editing your
computer’s network settings. This type of address is rare, and it can
create network issues if you use it without a good understanding of
Dynamic addresses are the most common. They’re assigned by the
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), a service running on the
network. DHCP typically runs on network hardware such as routers or
dedicated DHCP servers. Dynamic IP addresses are issued using a
leasing system, meaning that the IP address is only active for a limited
time. If the lease expires, the computer will automatically request a
new lease.
IP Classes
Typically, the IPv4 space allows us to have addresses between to However, some numbers in that range are reserved
for specific purposes on TCP/IP networks. These reservations are
recognized by the authority on TCP/IP addressing, the Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA). Four specific reservations include the
following: — This represents the default network, which is the abstract
concept of just being connected to a TCP/IP network. — This address is reserved for network broadcasts, or
messages that should go to all computers on the network. — This is called the loopback address, meaning your
computer’s way of identifying itself, whether or not it has an assigned
IP address. to — This is the Automatic Private IP
Addressing (APIPA) range of addresses assigned automatically when a
computer’s unsuccessful getting an address from a DHCP server.
The other IP address reservations are for subnet classes. A subnet is a
smaller network of computers connected to a larger network through a
router. The subnet can have its own address system so computers on
the same subnet can communicate quickly without sending data across
the larger network. A router on a TCP/IP network, including the
Internet, is configured to recognize one or more subnets and route
network traffic appropriately. The following are the IP addresses
reserved for subnets: to — This falls within the Class A address
range of to, in which the first bit is 0. to — This falls within the Class B address
range of to, in which the first two bits are 10. to — This falls within the Class C range of through, in which the first three bits are 110.
Multicast (formerly called Class D) — The first four bits in the address
are 1110, with addresses ranging from to
Reserved for future/experimental use (formerly called Class E) —
addresses to

Subnetting: Dividing a large block of addresses into several contiguous

sub-blocks and assigning these sub-blocks to different smaller networks
is called subnetting. It is a practice that is widely used when classless
addressing is done.

Classless Addressing
To reduce the wastage of IP addresses in a block, we use sub-netting.
What we do is that we use host id bits as net id bits of a classful IP
address. We give the IP address and define the number of bits for mask
along with it (usually followed by a ‘/’ symbol), like,
Here, subnet mask is found by putting the given number of bits out of
32 as 1, like, in the given address, we need to put 28 out of 32 bits as 1
and the rest as 0, and so, the subnet mask would be
Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio
frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 MHz to 300
MHz, with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meters. Common
uses for VHF are FM radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, two
way land mobile radio systems (emergency, business, private use and
military), long range data communication up to several tens of
kilometers with radio modems, amateur radio, and marine
communications. Air traffic control communications and air navigation
systems (e.g. VOR, DME & ILS) work at distances of 100 kilometers or
more to aircraft at cruising altitude.
The VHF Unit consists of 4 parts namely –
1) VHF Transmitter/Receiver;
2) Digital Voice Recorder (DVR);
3) Voice Communication Control System (VCCS);
4) Digital Airport Terminal Information System (DATIS).

The purpose of VHF Communications is to facilitate communications

between ATCOs (Air Traffic Control Officers) and Pilots for various
purposes such as landing takeoff, taxiing, approach vectors etc. In
addition to the above mentioned usage, Armed Forces such as Indian
Air Force (IAF) etc. also use VHF communications in their operation.
Frequency Range Band
VLF (3KHz - 30KHz)
LF (30KHz - 300KHz)
MF (300KHz - 3000KHZ)
HF (3MHz - 30MHz)
VHF (30MHz-300MHz)
UHF (300MHz-3000MHz)
SHF (3GHz - 30GHz)
EHF (30GHz - 300GHz)
1) VHF Transmitter/Receiver –
As mentioned above, the VHF band ranges from 30 – 300MHz. The
Airports Authority of India uses the frequency band 117.975 – 137 MHz
for transmission purposes. The mode of communication is line of-sight,
space wave communication using Amplitude Modulation (AM). The
Airports Authority of India uses VHF transmitters made by different
companies such as Electronics Corporation of India Limited, India (ECIL);
OTE, Italy; and Park Air Electronics, UK (PAE). The Electronics
Corporation of India Limited (ECIL)/Park Air Electronics (PAE) type 5350
single channel transmitters are designed for the transmission of
amplitude modulated signals within VHF frequency band. The
transmitter is intended for use in ground station environments and can
be combined with an associated ECIL/PAE receiver to form a
transmitter/receiver system. The standard transmitter operates in the
frequency range 118 to 136.975 MHz. The transmitter consists of six
PCBs / modules

1) Synthesizer module - The Synthesizer module produces the

transmitter's carrier frequency, the RF drive output is enabled only
when the transmitter is keyed. The synthesizer's carrier frequency
output is derived from a 6 MHz Temperature Compensated Crystal
Oscillator (TCXO).
2) Audio & Control module - The audio and control module processes
the transmitter's speech and data inputs to provide a modulation signal
for the RF PA module.
3) RF PA module - The Radio Frequency Power Amplifier module
provides the drive and power amplification necessary to produce 50
Watt transmitter output. The module is supplied with two inputs i.e.,
carrier frequency from the Synthesizer module, and the modulation
signal from the Audio and Control module
4) Filter assembly - The filter / coupler assembly contains a low-pass
filter to remove unwanted RF components
5) Power supply module - The Power Supply Module provides an
unregulated supply between 21.4 V and 32 V DC from the mains AC
supply of 220V.
6) PSU regulation module - The PSU regulation module is supplied with
the unregulated supply from the PSU module as one input and 28 V
(Nominal) DC supply from the battery backup as the second input and
provides the following outputs –
(i) + 15 V regulated supply for the Synthesizer Module, and the Audio &
Control Module. (ii) + 10 V and + 5 V regulated supplies for the Audio &
Control Module. (iii) + 21.4 to 32 V unregulated supply for the RF PA
Module, Audio and Control Module and front panel indicators.
The audio instructions from ATCO are modulated and sent to the
aircraft’s receiving antenna.
The receiver antenna in the aircraft then demodulates the audio signal
containing instructions from the ATCO. Messages from Pilot to the
ATCO are also modulated and transmitted using the same technique
and then process is repeated again till the aircraft successfully lands.
The VHF Transmitter can transmit signals up to 200 Nautical Miles
(~370 km) and has an output impedance of 50 Ω and maximum power
of 50W.
Receiver Characteristics –
1) Sensitivity – The sensitivity of an electronic device is the minimum
magnitude of input signal required to produce a specified output signal
having a specified signal-to-noise ratio, or other specified criteria.
2) Selectivity – Selectivity is a measure of the performance of a radio
receiver to respond only to the radio signal it is tuned to (such as a
radio station) and reject other signals nearby in frequency, such as
another broadcast on an adjacent channel.
3) Fidelity – The fidelity of a receiver is its ability to accurately
reproduce, in its output, the signal that appears at its input.
The receiver used at the AAI is a super heterodyne receiver.

Flight Information Region The Flight Information Region or FIR is the

technical term to describe the area near the airport. The entire country
is divided into 4 FIRs namely –
1) Delhi FIR; 2) Mumbai FIR; 3) Chennai FIR; and 4) Kolkata FIR.
Furthermore, the FIR is divided into 3 parts namely –
1) Area; 2) Approach; and 3) Tower.
The use of VHF transmitters is to facilitate communications between
ATCOs and aircrafts while they are in these areas.
A. Area
The area between 60 – 200
NM with respect to ATC
Tower is known as Area
region. The job of ATCO here
is to guide the movement of
aircraft towards the airfield by
providing information such as
what radial to maintain etc, as
well as height at which a
particular aircraft is supposed
to fly at. Communications are
established at the 120.9 MHz
channel in this area.
B. Approach
The area between 25 – 60 NM with respect to ATC Tower is known as
Approach region. The job of ATCO here is to guide the aircraft for its
final approach towards the airstrip. Communications are established at
the 126.35 MHz channel.
C. Tower
The area < 25 NM with respect to ATC Tower is known as Tower region.
The job of ATCO here is to align and permit the aircraft for landing, or
request a go-around in case of congestion. Communications are
established at the 118.1 MHz channel.

2) Digital Voice Recorder (DVR)

A Digital Voice Recorder or DVR is an electronic device that is used to
record conversations in the cockpit, radio communications between the
cockpit crew and with air traffic control officers, along with DATIS
information etc. The purpose of using a Voice Recorder is that in case of
an accident or mishap, the conversation between pilot and ATCO can
be analyzed to ascertain whether the fault was of ATCO or pilot. The
Airports Authority of India maintains a record of all communications
between pilots and ATCOs up to 30 days based on ICAO guidelines
(International Civil Aviation Organization).
The Digital Voice Recorder is interfaced with multiple external lines
such as –
1) Hot Line - A hot line is a communication line that is employed to
carry out fast communications between two ends. It is used to connect
emergency services such as Fire, Police etc. with ATCO is case of a
2) Radio Channel – The radio channel is a communication line between
the ATCO and pilot of the aircraft where communications take place at
VHF frequencies.
3) Intercom – The intercom is a communication line for internal use
within the office premises.
4) Direct Lines – A direct line is a communication line that is used to
connect two telephones.
5) SSS Lines – The SSS lines are a communication line used by the Air
Force to communicate with each another.

3) Voice Communication Control System (VCCS) - The Voice

Communication Control System or VCCS is an electronic user interface
(UI) that is used to display information such as hot – lines connections,
radio channels that are operational at that time etc. to the ATCO. The
UI is in the form a touch screen panel that displays various external
lines such as hot – lines, radio channels, direct lines and SSS lines in the
form of buttons. In order to switch between two lines / channels, the
ATCO pushes a button on the touch screen and the selected line /
channel becomes operational. It works on TDMA.

4) Digital Airport Terminal Information System (DATIS) –

The Digital Airport Terminal Information System or DATIS, is an
electronic device that is used to relay Metrological (Met) information to
the ATCO and pilot to aid him in deciding whether the weather is
suitable for landings/take-offs or not, which runway to be used for
landings/take-offs etc. The metrological information is provided
through various antennae installed inside the airport premises.
A computer software analyzes the feeds from the antennae and a
computer aided voice then describes the weather conditions in a pre-
determined format. The weather report provided by DATIS is refreshed
every 60 minutes. It is a broadcast system i.e. it can only be used for
broadcasting information over a certain frequency. The Airports
Authority of India provides this service at the 126.4 MHz channel

2.3 – AFTN, AMSS

The Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network (AFTN) is a
worldwide system of aeronautical fixed circuits provided, as part of the
Aeronautical Fixed Service, for the exchange of messages and/or digital
data between aeronautical fixed stations having the same or
compatible communications characteristics. AFTN comprises aviation
entities including: ANS (Air Navigation Services) providers, aviation
service providers, airport authorities and government agencies, to
name a few. It exchanges vital information for aircraft operations such
as distress messages, urgency messages, flight safety messages,
meteorological messages, flight regularity messages and aeronautical
administrative messages.
AFTN Station address format - An AFTN address is an eight-letter-group
composed of a four-letter ICAO Location Indicator plus a three-letter-
group identifying an organization or service addressed and an
additional letter. The additional letter represents a department,
division or process within the organization/function addressed. The
letter X is used to complete the address when an explicit identification
of the department, division or process is not required.
Every location (airport or other
facility) with a connection to the
AFS is assigned a unique four letter
code (the aeronautical location
indicator) by ICAO. The first letter
or two letters indicate the country
and the remaining two or three
letters the specific location. For
instance the letter K is the first
letter of the four letter ICAO
address location within the
continental United States. The first
letter for a Canadian aerodrome, or
airport address, begins with the
letter C. Southern Europe codes
begin with L, and specifically codes in Spain with LE. Therefore the
address LEBBYNYX indicates the NOTAM office of Bilbao Airport, Spain.

AFTN Message Format - AFTN messages consist of a Heading, the

Message Text and a message Ending.
The message Heading comprises a Heading Line, the Address and the
Origin. The Heading Line comprises the Start-of-Message Signal which
is the four characters ZCZC, the Transmission Identification, an
Additional Service Indication (if necessary) and a Spacing Signal.
The AFTN Address comprises Alignment Functions, a two-letter Priority
Indicator depending on the message category and an eight-letter group
(Addressee Indicator). The first four letters of the eight-letter group is a
Location Indicator indicating the place of destination. The following
three-letter group indicates the organization or function addressed (for
instance aeronautical authority, service or aircraft operating agency).
The last letter of the eight-letter represents a department, division or
process within the organization/function addressed.
The Origin consists of message Filing Time (six-digit date-time-group),
the Originator Indicator (eight-letter group) identifying the message
originator, a Priority Alarm (used only in teletypewriter operation for
Distress Messages) and Alignment Functions.
The Message Text ends with the End-of-Message Signal, which is the
four characters NNNN. The Ending itself comprises twelve letter shift
signals which represent also a Message-Separation Signal.
A typical message would look like –
ZCZC LAA005 12032000



Message Categories
Via the AFTN the following message categories are submitted:
 distress messages;
 urgency messages;
 flight safety messages;
 meteorological messages;
 flight regularity messages;
 aeronautical information services (AIS) messages;
 aeronautical administrative messages;
 service messages.

Priority Indicators
Priority Indicators consist of two letters SS, DD, FF, GG and KK. They are
assigned depending on the messages category as follows:
 Priority Indicator SS for Distress Messages
 Priority Indicator DD for Urgency Messages
 Priority Indicator FF for Flight Safety Messages
 Priority Indicator GG for Meteorological Messages, Flight Regularity
Messages and Aeronautical Information Services Messages
 Priority Indicator KK for Aeronautical Administrative Messages
 Priority Indicator used for Service Messages are assigned as
considered appropriate by the originator, but most likely KK is used
The Priority Indicator is used to transmit AFTN messages according to
their Order of Priority. So messages with Priority Indicator SS have the
highest transmission priority. Messages with Priority Indicator DD and
FF have the second highest transmission priority and the remaining
messages with Priority Indicator GG and KK the lowest.

The AMSS(Automatic Message Switching System) is a computer based
system, centered on the Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication
Network (AFTN) for exchange of Aeronautical messages by means of
auto-switching for distribution of messages to its destination(s). This
system works on store and forward principle.
AMSS has four major areas:
1. System: AMSS is a dual architecture computer based system which
consists of few servers and workstations which are linked to each other
over a local area network as well as other equipment/devices for data
2. Messages: AMSS is mainly for exchange of AFTN messages, but at the
same time AMSS can handle some non-AFTN messages like AMS
messages (formally known as HFRT/Radio messages).
3.Switching: AMSS receives the messages from the terminals connected
via other switches, and after analyzing, stores the messages as well as
automatically retransmits the messages to their destination. During the
above process it uses switching system, which allows on demand basis
the connection of any combination of source and sink stations. AFTN
switching system can be classified into three major categories:
a. Line Switching b. Message Switching c. Packet Switching
4. Automation: So far as automation is considered for any system, it
could be achieved by means of mechanical devices like relay etc. and/or
application software design as per requirement. In Electronics
Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) AMSS, maximum features of
automation like message switching, analyzing, storing, periodical
statistics etc. are taken care of by AMSS software and few means of
mechanical system.

Hardware Configuration
AMSS consists of three major components:
1. Core System: It incorporates communication adapters,
protocols/suites, routing and gateway facilities. The core system is
composed of two identical computer machines (known as AMSS main
servers) which run in an operational/hot standby combination. Both
units supervise each other‘s software and hardware. In case of
software/hardware failure of the operational unit, the hot standby unit
is activated automatically so that it can take over immediately without
loss of data. The core system also includes remote communication
adaptors, multiplexers and one/two computer(s), known as
communication servers, to avail the communication gateway facilities
(if any).
2. Recording System: It has two identical mass data storage devices for
storing of all incoming and outgoing AFTN messages. It also has two
identical mirrored Database servers which are operated in parallel. The
mirroring between the two database servers is performed in the
background to store specified type messages like NOTAM, MET, ATC,
HFRT, with no effect on the regular operation.

3. User’s Terminals: It is the interface between user and the system

with capability for uniform administration and monitoring facilities for
all system components, networks and data as well as exchange of data
as per requirement of users vide different type application software.
Any number of user terminals (maximum 60) can be installed and used
3. Navigation –
3.1 – NDB
Non directional beacons are called non-directional because they don't
contain any directional information. The NDB transmits an omni-
directional signal that is received by the ADF or Automatic Direction
Finder, a standard
instrument onboard
aircraft. The pilot
uses the ADF to
determine the
direction to the
NDB relative to the
bearing). They use
ground wave
propagation. NDBs
have a two- or
three-letter identifier
broadcast in Morse code. NDB operates in 190 – 1750 KHz
frequency range, in India the range used is 190 – 535 KHz. To navigate
using the ADF, the pilot enters the frequency of the NDB. Radio waves
from an NDB create an electromagnetic field. All ADF systems have
both loop and sense antennas. The H-field induces a voltage into the
two windings of the ADF loop antenna. Because the windings are on a
closed loop, the phase
angle of the voltages
vary as the antenna is
rotated. Rotating the
loop antenna, you will
find there are two
points where the
voltages exactly cancel
each other out. These points are called nulls, which means zero
deflection, zero current. Only one of these nulls points to the NDB.
The other null is 180 degrees away from the NDB. If we use only a
loop antenna we could be heading in the opposite direction. This is
not good. The sense antenna determines which null is correct. The
sense antenna simply receives the electric portion of the
electromagnetic field and produces a voltage that is always in phase
with the transmitter. By measuring the combined voltage of the two
windings in the loop antenna and comparing that to the voltage
received by the sense antenna, the ADF is able to determine the
direction to the beacon.
The receiver will "electronically" rotate the loop antenna (and pointer
on the RMI) to achieve a minimum voltage output or null. Prior to the
null, the ADF receiver compares the loop antenna voltage to the sense
antenna voltage. If both loop and sense antenna signals are in phase
prior to the null, they will add to each other. If both signals are out of
phase prior to the null, they will subtract from each other. By adding
and subtracting the two signals, the ADF can tell the difference
between the two nulls. NDBs require little maintenance, economical
to use but bearing accuracy is not good.
Uses – Homing, enrooting, position fixing by using two NDBs, holding.

3.2 – DME
DME(Distance Measuring Equipment), gives the slant distance between
the station and the aircraft. DME consists of two parts – DME ground
station, DME
equipment. DME
is based on rho-
theta navigation
system where
rho, the slant
distance is provided by the DME and theta, the azimuth is provided by
DVOR, which gives us the position of the aircraft.
Types of DME –
1. HPDME – High power DME (1kW), range is 200 NM, co-located
with DVOR, used for homing and enroute.
2. LPDME – Low power DME(100 W), range is 25NM, collocated with
glide path in ILS, it provides the slant distance of the aero plane
from the touchdown point in the runway.
Freq range - DME operates in the 960-1215 MHz band (UHF), critically
used band is 962-1213 MHz, 2 MHz guard band. UHF is transmission is
done through space (LOS) propagation, but LOS is restricted by radio
horizon due to curvature of earth, to overcome this we need to
increase antenna height and power.
Working of DME – DME is based on the principle of secondary radar,
i.e. the target is cooperating(active). Here the interrogator is the
aircraft and the transponder is the DME station on ground. The
interrogator enquires about its distance from the station and expects a
reply from the transponder.
How does the DME station differentiate between noise and
interrogator signal ?
The interrogator signal has two
pulses exactly set apart
12us(XDME) or 36us(YDME), and
because probability of two noise
pulses set apart exactly 12/36us is
very low, the station can
differentiate between noise and
interrogator signal.
This validation, processing of
interrogator signal and
transmitting back the reply produces a delay (Pd). To calculate the
distance of the transponder, the aircraft has a timing circuit, which
calculates the time taken (T) to get back the reply from the
transponder. Now T will also include the processing delay (Pd) time
which must be subtracted from it to compute the distance, but Pd is a
variable quantity, and there’s no way for the timing circuit in the
aircraft to know Pd, thus a fixed delay (50us –XDME, 56us-YDME), is
agreed upon, and a monitoring circuit in the transponder unit
computes the variable Pd and accordingly adds intentional delay to
make the total delay 50us or 56us, so if the aircraft is operating in
XDME it will subtract 50us from the total time, no matter what Pd is.
Practically, the speed of EM waves is far greater than the speed of
aircraft, so the aircraft is assumed to be at rest in this process. The reply
signal also has two pulses set apart 12us for XDME and 30us for YDME.

Modes of operation:
1. Search mode – When the aircraft enters the range of DME, it
begins searching for the station, in this period, rate of
interrogation (Ir) is very high, around 150 ppps (pulse pairs per
second). The station also replies with the same rate.
2. Track Mode – If in search mode, 1000 pulse pairs are sent by the
interrogator and 650 or more replies are received, i.e., reply rate
is 65% or more, then mode is changed to track mode and Ir is
reduced to 30 ppps.
Why lower Ir?
 Less burden on transmitter of interrogator.
 The DME station has a maximum reply rate, i.e., if 10 aircrafts
interrogating at 150 ppps, then the DME station must have a
minimum reply rate of 1500 ppps.
The DME transponder must have a minimum reply rate of 700
ppps(specified by ICAO) as the interrogator has an AGS circuit in the
receiver which functions only if reply rate is 700 ppps or more. So the
transponder is generating 700 ppps irrespective of whether aircrafts
are present or not, this is called squiiter pulse, otherwise receiver won’t
work. Ex – if two aircrafts A, B interrogating at 150 ppps, then each gets
a reply of 700pps which includes 150 ppps replies for aircraft A, another
150 for aircraft B and the remaining 400 ppps are squitter pulses.
How do the aircrafts distinguish between their own and other replies ?
The interrogator pulse generated by each aircraft has a unique semi
random pattern, and the transponder also generates replies for the
aircrafts in the same pattern, thus every aircraft can identify and pick
up its own signal. No two aircrafts can have the same semi random
interrogation pattern.
3.3 – DVOR
Doppler VHF Omni Range is a navigational aid which provides magnetic
bearing, i.e., the angle between the magnetic North and the line
between the receiver and the ground station. DVOR ground beacons
operate in the 108-118 MHz VHF frequency range and have a
transmission range of 300 km, use space wave propagation.
Working principle : Each VOR ground station transmits a complex
signal (in VHF
band), with
the ID of the
ground station,
a reference
signal indicating
the magnetic
North and
a directional sine
wave, changing
its phase towards
the transmitting
direction. The
second is
produced by
rotating a variable
signal. The variable signal is in phase with the reference signal when at
magnetic north, but becomes increasingly out of phase as it is rotated
to 180°. As it continues to rotate to 360° (0°), the signals become
increasingly in phase until they are in phase again at magnetic north.
The receiver in the aircraft deciphers the phase difference and
determines the aircraft’s position in degrees from the VOR ground
based unit.
Uses - DVOR located at or near an airport not only provides bearing
information for an approach to that airport, but also provides en-route
bearing information to aircraft overflying or using the airway on which
the DVOR is serving.

3.4 – ILS
ILS stands for Instrument Landing System is a ground-based instrument
approach system that provides precision guidance to an aircraft
approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio
signals and, in many cases, high intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe
landing during instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), such as low
ceilings or reduced visibility due to fog, rain, or blowing snow.
ILS has three components – localizer, glide path, LPDME.

1. Localizer - A localizer provides horizontal (left/right) guidance

along the
centerline of
the runway, the
antenna is
located beyond
the departure
end of the
LOC carrier frequencies range between 108.10 MHz and
111.95 MHz The localizer, or VHF course marker, emits two
directional radiation patterns. One comprises of a bearing
amplitude-modulated wave with a harmonic signal frequency of
150 Hz and the other one with the same bearing amplitude-
modulated wave with a harmonic signal frequency of 90 Hz. For
an observer – a pilot, who is situated on the “approaching” side of
the runway (therefore in front of the LLZ antenna system)
predominates a modulation of 150 Hz on the right side of the
course plane and 90 Hz on the left. The intersection of these two
regions determines the on-track signal.
2. Glide Path - A glide slope provides vertical (up/down) guidance
toward the runway touchdown point, usually at a 3° slope. Glide
path transmission takes place in the UHF band on 40 spot
frequencies from 329.15 to 335 MHz. Like the signal of the
localizer, so does the signal of the glide slope consist of two
intersected radiation patterns, modulated at 90 and 150 Hz.
However unlike the localizer, these signals are arranged on top of
each other and emitted along the path of approach.

3. LPDME – A low power DME provides pilots with a slant

range measurement of distance to the runway in nautical miles.
DMEs are augmenting or replacing markers in many installations.
The DME provides more accurate and continuous monitoring of
correct progress on the ILS glide slope to the pilot, and does not
require an installation outside the airport boundary. When used
in conjunction with an ILS, the DME is often sited midway
between the reciprocal runway thresholds with the
internal delay modified so that one unit can provide distance
information to either runway threshold. Distance provided by the
LPDME is needed so that the rear wheels of the aircraft land at
the touchdown point exactly so that they can brake by using the
available length of the runway.
4. Surveillance – RADAR, GAGAN
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to
determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. Radar
stands for Radio Detection And Ranging. It can be used to detect
aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather
formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of
radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path.
The object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna
which is usually located at the same site as the transmitter. The
distance to the target is determined from the time taken between
transmitting the pulse and receiving the echo.
Based on operation:
1. Primary Radar - Co-operation of targets is not required for
detection. It works on “echo” technology.
2. Secondary Radar - Active co-operation of targets is required for
finding range and other details of targets.
Based on waveform:
1. CW Radar - can detect moving target and its velocity.
2. CWFM Radar - can detect range using FM signals.
3. Pulsed Radar - uses pulse modulated microwave signals for detecting
Based on services:
1. Search Radar - also known as surveillance radar. Uses continuously
rotating antenna. Covers large volume of space.
2. Tracking Radar - gives accurate angular position, range and radial
velocity of targets with precision. If used for tracking it must first be
co-located with search radar for 1stacquiring the target.
1. Air Traffic Control 2. Aircraft Navigation 3. Maritime Navigation 4.
Meteorological Applications 5. Space Applications 6. Military
Applications 7. Law Enforcement Applications
Radars used in ATC –
1. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)
2. Air Route Surveillance Radar (SSR)
3. Airport Surface Movement Detection Equipment (ASDE)
4. Precision Approach Radar (PAR)
5. Monopulse Secondary Surveillance Radar (MSSR)

Maximum range of RADAR depends on:-

a. Peak transmission power (4th root)
b. Minimum detectable signal (MDS)
c. Antenna Gain
d. Radar Cross Section of the target
e. Atmospheric Attenuation

Primary Radar - Primary Radar works on the principle of reflection or

echo Primary radar antennae continuously send pulses in all possible
directions. When these pulses hit some moving or still objects, the
pulse is reflected back to the antenna. Generally the radar transmitter
and receiver are located at the same located. The radar processes the
information and confirms the presence of an object. If the object is
moving either closer or farther away, there is a slight change in the
frequency of the radio waves, caused by the Doppler effect.
Secondary Radar - Secondary radar works target specific. An
interrogation pulse is sent from the radar transmitter. The target, on
receiving the signal, replies back with another signal. The radar then
processes the distance covered by the signal and the time taken for the
operation and calculates the position of the target accordingly.

One kind of secondary radar used by ATC is MSSR or Monopulse

Secondary Surveillance Radar.
MSSR Interrogation
The interrogator
transmits a pair of
pulses at 1030 MHz. Each pulse has the same duration, shape and
amplitude. Their spacing distinguishes various modes of interrogation.
P2 pulse is used for control.

Transponder Reply

F1 and F2 are always present (framing pulses). The 12 binary data

pulses in four groups of 3 bits: A,B,C,D. 4096 possible ID codes (Mode
3/A reply). Special codes: 7500=Hijack, 7600=Comm Fail,
7700=Emergency. 2048 permutations (D1 omitted) of altitude code
(Mode C reply) indicating heights. SPI (Special Position Indicator) pulse
is used upon request by ground control.

The GPS aided geo augmented navigation system (GAGAN) is a planned
implementation of a regional satellite-based augmentation system
(SBAS) by the Indian government. It is a system to improve the accuracy
of a GNSS receiver by providing reference signals. The AAI‘s efforts
towards implementation of operational SBAS can be viewed as the first
step towards introduction of modern communication, navigation,
surveillance system over Indian airspace. The project involves
establishment of 15 Indian Reference Stations, three Indian Navigation
Land Uplink Stations, three Indian Mission Control Centers and
installation of all associated software and communication links. It will
be able to help pilots to navigate in the Indian airspace by an accuracy
of 3 m. This will be helpful for landing aircraft in tough weather and
terrain like Mangalore airport and Leh.
5.Airport Security – XBIS, DFMD, HHMD, ETD
XBIS - X-Ray Baggage Inspection System X-ray scanning procedure
works on principle of penetrating X-rays on bag or luggage to be
detected. X-ray scan distinguishes objects by their atomic number and
classifies by colour. XBIS contains following major sub assemblies: X-ray
generator, X-ray sensor amplifier PCB, Computer with software, Tunnel
with a conveyor mechanism through which the baggage passes through
Image processing software with display and keyboard.

Working principle - When object is placed on conveyor belt, IR sensors

detects object and gives signal to x-ray generator. There are IR sensors
present on the either sides of the conveyor belt to detect the presence
of the luggage. It works on the principle of scanning an object by the x-
rays incident on it through the fine collimator.
DFMD - Door frame metal detectors are used in commercial and
industrial purposes. Widely applicable in hotels, airports, malls,
multiplexes and various public visiting areas. These door frame metal
detectors (DFMDs) are offered to our clients in various types and
specifications. Designed and manufactured in accordance to the related
Indian standard, our door frame metal detectors (DFMDs) are an ideal
preference for detecting metal on frisking object. These door frame
metal detectors (DFMDs) are aesthetically designed and sensitive to all
kind of ferrous and non ferrous material. Digitals door frame metal
detectors (DFMDs) are with adjustable sensitivity and do not affect an
in-planted pacemaker and pregnant woman. Widely used in jewellery
and precious metal industries and VIP security with built in foot fall and
alarm counter. DFMD is also known as Walk Through Metal Detectors
(WTMD). The DFMD has three units:- Transmitter. Receiver. Electronics
unit. Both the transmitter and receiver have eight coils each. This helps
in identifying the exact position of the metal body.
HHMD – Hand held metal detector. A battery in the top of the metal
detector activates the transmitter
circuit (red) that passes electricity
down through a cable in the
handle to the transmitter
coil (red) at the bottom. When
electricity flows through the
transmitter coil, it creates
a magnetic field all around it.
If you sweep the detector above
a metal object the magnetic field
penetrates right through it. The
magnetic field makes an electric
current flow inside the metal.
This flowing electric current creates another magnetic field all around
the object. The magnetic field cuts through the receiver coil (blue)
moving about up above it. The magnetic field makes electricity flow
around the receiver coil and up into the receiver circuit (blue) at the
top, making a loudspeaker buzz and alerting you you've found
ETD - Explosives trace detectors (ETD) are security equipment able to
detect explosives of small magnitude. The detection is accomplished by
sampling non visible "trace" amounts of particulates. Devices similar to
ETDs are also used to detect narcotics. The equipment is used mainly in
airports and other vulnerable areas considered susceptible to acts of
unlawful interference.
1. https://www.aai.aero
2. http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/ADF.htm
3. https://www.rfwireless-world.com
4. https://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Instru
5. https://www.wikipedia.org/