Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

I.

Title of the Experiment


Determine the Ultra Short Wavelength by Using Microwave Interferometer
II. The Goals of The Experiment
1. Analyzing microwave interference based on a graph of the relationship
between the incoming wave angles with the intensity of the wave.
2. Determinethe quantity of microwave wavelengths.
III. Theoretical Basis
The phenomenon of interference is due to superposition of two wave
trains with a constant phase difference between them (Chaudhuri, 2010).
Interference is the clustering of superpositions of two or more waves that
meet at one point in space. Characteristics of waves are allows the
superposition principles which state: If two or more waves are the same with
one point at the same time, then the momentary amplitude there is the sum of
each wave. In two waves that have the same frequency and wavelength but
different phases combine, then the resulting wave is a wave that depends on
the value of the phase. If the value of the phase is 0 or an integer multiple of
3600, then the wave will appear to produce a greater amplitude and
interference in mutually reinforcing (constructive interference) as shown in
Figure 1. While the amplitude is the same as the sum of the amplitude of
each wave. If the phase value is 1800 or an odd number is 1800, then the
resulting wave will be different phase and interfere with each other sagging
(destructive interference)as shown in Figure 1. The resulting amplitude is the
percentage amplitude of each wave (Tripler, 1991). To produce a single
wavelength, the light source is a single company (monochromatic). The phase
difference between two waves caused by both waves. The difference in the
trajectory of one wavelength produces a phase 3600 goal, which is equivalent
to nothing at all. The difference in half-wavelength paths produces 1800 phase
numbers, generally the trajectory numbers are the same as the frequency of
the difference in phase given byEq.1:

d d
 2  360 0
  . (1)

Interferometer Microwave | 1
Wave interference from two sources is not observed unless the source is
coherent, or the phase difference is in a constant wave with time. In order for
wave interference to be observed, the light source must be single
(monochromatic) to produce a single wavelength.
The pattern of interference results that can be captured on the screen,
namely:
1) Bright lines are the result of maximum wave interference (mutually
reinforcing or constructive)
2) Dark lines are the result of minimum interference (mutually weakening or
destructive)

Figure 1. Constructive Interference Figure 2. Destructive Interference

The interference of light waves was initially shown by Thomas Young in


1801. Based on experiments conducted by Thomas Young as shown in
Figure 3, it can be concluded that:

1) Two coherent sources are produced by dividing the wavefront, by


illuminating narrow gaps that are parallel to a single light source.
2) The points located on the wavefront are a source of new points, which
will propagate waves in all directions with a circular wavefront.

Interferometer Microwave | 2
Figure 3. The Thomas Young Experiment

Based on the Figure 4, the difference in path between the file S1 and d sin θ,
with d is the distance between two slits (Gap).

Figure 4. Double Gap Interference

So maximum interference (bright lines) occurs if:

d sin   n (2)

Where is d sin  = track difference

λ = wavelength

n = bright order number to (0, 1,2,3, ...)

In the calculation of the bright line using the formula above, the value of n =
0 for center light, n = 1 for the first bright line, n = 2 for the second bright
line, and so on.

Interferometer Microwave | 3
Minimum interference (dark line) occurs if the difference in the second
trajectory of light is an odd multiple of half the wavelength so that it is
obtained as Eq.3:

 1
d sin    m  
 2 (3)

Using m is the dark order to (1, 2, 3, ...).

Microwaves or short waves are electromagnetic waves that have very


short wavelengths (ultra-short) so they are called microwaves. These waves
cannot be seen by the eye because their wavelengths (although very small
compared to radio waves) are much larger than the wavelength of light
(outside visible light spectrum). Light wavelengths range from 400-700 nm
(1nm = 10-9 m) while the range of microwaves is around 1-30 cm (1cm = 10-
2 m). The relationship between the wavelengths and it’s frequency as shown
in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Electromagnetic wave spectrum

IV. Tools and materials


The tools and materials needed in this experiment are:
1) Transmitter (microwave transmitter)
2) Receiver (receiver with signal indicator)
3) Goniometer
4) Adapter
5) Narrow gap separator
6) Metal reflector (double slit)

Interferometer Microwave | 4
7) Component holder
V. Steps to Work
1. Preparethe experimental tools and materials.
2. Seting the transmitter to the left end of the goniometer arm and then the
receiver to the right end of the goniometer arm.
3. Seting the component holder on the goniometer transversely, then put the
metal reflector and the narrow gap separator on the component holder
with the position facing the transmitter.
4. Seting the Position of the reflector with a distance of = 7 cm from the
narrow gap separator.
5. Connecting the adapter to the transmitter, then connect to the power
source and calibrate the device.
6. Seting the receiver with an angle and observe the value on the
amperemeters.
7. Shift the right arm of the goniometer to form an angle of 60, then observe
the amperemeters on the receiver and record the values found on the
amperemeters.
8. Repeat step 7 as much as 10 times with 60 angle variations each data
collection and record the observational data in the following observation
Table 1.

d = ... cm
Table 1. Results of Experimental Observations
No Angel (0) Current (mA) Interference Pattern
1
2
3
4
5
6
9. Repeat steps 4 to 6 for a gap between 10 cm.
10. Shift the right arm of the goniometer to form an angle of 40, then observe
the amperemeters on the receiver.

Interferometer Microwave | 5
11. Repeat step 10 as much as 10 times with 40 angles variation each data
collection and record the observational data in the observation table.
12. Make a graph of the relationship between the incoming wave angles and
the intensity of the wave captured by the receiver based on observational
data.
The desain of this experiment is as follows:

Reflector Logam

Component holder
Figure 6. Desain of Experiment
VI. Data analysis technique
Data analysis is intended to find the wavelength produced by the
transmitter. The value is searched for maximum intereference using the Eq.4:

d sin   n (4)

For minimum interference, the value can be searched by the following


Eq.5:

 1
d sin    m   (5)
 2

The incoming angle is obtained by observing peaks (maximum


interference) and valleys (minimum interference) on the graph. If there are
several peaks, then the value is searched for each peak, then the average value
is searched.

The absolute error can be found using the Eq.6 and Eq.7:

Interferometer Microwave | 6
a) If the peak obtained is single from maximum interference observation, then
calculate the absolute error using the Eq.6:

2 2

 
1
sin   d 2  1 d cos    2 (6)
n n

b) If the peak obtained is single from the minimum interference observation,


then calculate the absolute error using the Eq.7:

2 2

 
2
sin   d 2  2 d cos    2 (7)
2m  1 2m  1

c) If the peak and valleys obtained is more than one, then an error can be
found using the Eq.8:


 (8)
nm

With n is the number of peaks and valleys obtained, and m is the number of
valleys. Next to determine the initial uncertainty, use Table 2 as follows:

Table 2. Wavelength Data Analysis


No.  i   i    i
2

SUM
The uncertainty of the wavelength measurements of the experimental results
are as followsEq.9:

    
2

 
i
(9)
nn  1

To simplify the settlement of Eq.9a count table can be used. Based on the
results of Eq.9, the wavelength can be expressed by the Eq. 10:

Interferometer Microwave | 7
     (10)

The relative wavelength error of the experimental results is:


KR   100% (11)

The accuracy of the measurement results can be determined by the Eq.13:

teori   perhitungan
Kesalahan   100% (12)
teori

Accuracy = 100% - Error (13)

VII.Observation Data

d = 7 cm
Table.3Experimental Data
No Angle (0) Current (mA) Interference Pattern
1 6 0,4 -
2 12 0 1st Dark
3 18 2 -
4 24 4,2 1st Light
5 30 2 -
6 36 0 2nd Dark
7 42 0,2 -
8 48 1 -
9 54 1,4 2nd Light
10 60 1 -
From the Table. 3 above we can made graph of the relationship between the
incoming wave angles with the intensity of the wave as shown in Figure.7 for
Gap 7 cm.

Interferometer Microwave | 8
Graph I-Ө for Gap of 0.07m
4.5
24, 4.2
4
3.5
3
I (mA)

2.5
2 18, 2 30, 2
1.5 54, 1.4
1 48, 1 60, 1
0.5 6, 0.4
42, 0.2
0 12, 0 36, 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
ө

Figure 7. Graph of Intensity of Waves to Coming Waves Angle for d = 7 cm

d = 10 cm
Table.4 Experimental Data
No Angle (0) Current (mA) Interference Pattern
1 4 0,42 -
2 8 0,24 1st Dark
3 12 1,38 -
4 16 1,5 1st Light
5 20 1,02 -
6 24 0,12 2nd Dark
7 28 0,18 2nd Light
8 32 0,96 -
9 36 0,9 -
10 40 0,54 -
From the Table. 3 above we can made graph of the relationship between the
incoming wave angles with the intensity of the wave as shown in Figure. 8
for Gap 10 cm.

Interferometer Microwave | 9
Graph I-Ө for Gap 0,1m
1.6
16, 1.5
1.4 12, 1.38
1.2
1 20, 1.02
32, 0.96
36, 0.9
I(mA)

0.8
0.6
40, 0.54
0.4 4, 0.42

0.2 8, 0.24
28, 0.18
24, 0.12
0
0 10 Ө 20 30 40 50

Figure 8. Graph of Intensity of Waves Against Coming Waves for d = 10 cm

VIII. Data Analysis


Based on the experimental data graph, the peaks and valleys are
obtained on the graph. The peaks in the graph indicate the maximum
interference order captured by the transmitter, while the valleys in the graph
are the minimum interference order.
A. First experiment with d = 7 cm
In first experiment with d = 7 cm there were 2 peaks and 2 valleys in the
graph.
1. Determine the wavelength   of maximum interference

a. For maximum interference with n  1 and   24 o


d = 7 cm = 0,07 m

d sin   n

d sin 

n

7  10 2 sin 24 o

1

  0,028471m

Interferometer Microwave | 10
b. For maximum interference with n  2 and   54 o
d = 7 cm = 0,07 m

d sin   n

d sin 

n

7 10 2 sin 54o



2

0,056631

2

  0,028316m

2. Determine the wavelength   for minimum interference

a. For minimum interference with m = 1 and   12 o

d = 7 cm = 0,07m

 1
d sin    m  
 2

d sin 

 1
m  
 2

7  10 2 sin 12 o

 1
1  
 2

0,014554

1
2

  0,014554  2

  0,029108m

Interferometer Microwave | 11
b. For minimum interference with m = 2 and   36 o

d = 7 cm = 0,07m

 1
d sin    m  
 2

d sin 

 1
m  
 2

7  10 2 sin 36 o

 1
2  
 2

0,041145

3
2

2
  0,014554 
3

  0,027429m

3. Determine the wavelength   for d = 7cm

 

N

0,028471  0,028316  0,0229108  0,027429


 
4

  0,028331m

  2,8331 10 2 m

  2,83 10 2 m

Interferometer Microwave | 12
Table.5Data Analysis for d = 7 cm
No.  m  i m   i m      m 
i
2 2

1 0,028331 0,028471 -0,00014 0,0000000196


2 0,028331 0,028316 0,000015 0,000000000225
3 0,028331 0,029108 -0,00078 0,000000604
4 0,028331 0,027429 0,000902 0,000000814
Sum 0,00000143716

The uncertainty of the wavelength measurements of the experimental


results are as follows:

    
2

 
i

N N  1

0,00000143716
 
44  1

0,00000143716
 
12

  0,000000119763
  0,000346064m

  0,0346 10 2 m

  0,03 10 2 m

So that the wavelength   can be expressed by :

    

  2,83  0,0310 2 m
4. Determine the relative error of the wavelength in the experimental results

KR   100%

Interferometer Microwave | 13
0,0346
KR   100%
2,8331

KR  0,012215176  100%

KR  1,22%

5. Determine the value of teori based on theoretical calculations

Known:   10,5 10 9 Hertz

c  3  108 m / s

So,

c


3 108 m / s

10,5 109 Hertz
  0,0285714m
  2,8571 10 2 m
  2,86  10 2 m
6. Determine the accuracy of the wavelength measurement results for
maximum interference
teori   percobaan
Error  100%
teori

2,8571  2,8331
Error  100%
2,8571

Error  0,008414008  100%

Error  0,84%

Accuracy =100% - kesalahan

Accuracy = 100% - 0,84%

Interferometer Microwave | 14
Accuracy = 99,16%

B. Second experiment with d = 10 cm


For the second experiment with d = 10 cm there were 2 peaks and 2
valleys in the graph.
1. Determine the wavelength   of maximum interference

a. For maximum interference with n  1 and  16o


d = 10 cm = 0,10 m
d sin   n
d sin 

n
10  10 2 sin 16 o

1
  0,027564m
b. For maximum interference with n  2 and   32 o
d = 10 cm = 0,10 m

d sin   n

d sin 

n

10 10 2 sin 32 o

2

0,052992

2

  0,026496m

2. Determine the wavelength   for minimum interference

a. For minimum interference with m = 1 and   8 o

d = 10 cm = 0,10m

Interferometer Microwave | 15
 1
d sin    m  
 2

d sin 

 1
m  
 2

10  10 2 sin 8 o

 1
1  
 2

0,013917

1
2

  0,013917  2

  0,027835m

b. For minimum interference with m = 2 and   24 o

d = 10 cm = 0,10m

 1
d sin    m  
 2

d sin 

 1
m  
 2

10  10 2 sin 24 o

 1
2  
 2

0,040673

3
2

2
  0,040673 
3

Interferometer Microwave | 16
  0,027116m

3. Determine the wavelength   for d = 10 cm

 

N

0,027564  0,026496  0,027835  0,027116


 
4

  0,027253m

  2,7253  10 2 m

  2,73 10 2 m

Table. 6 Data Analysis for d = 10 cm


No.  m  i m   i m      m 
i
2 2

1 0,027253 0,027564 -0,00031 0,0000000968766


2 0,027253 0,026496 0,000757 0,000000572671
3 0,027253 0,027835 -0,00058 0,000000339015
4 0,027253 0,027116 0,000137 0,0000000187006
Sum 0,00000102726
The uncertainty of the wavelength measurements of the experimental
results are as follows:

    
2

 
i

N N  1

0,00000102726
 
44  1

0,00000102726
 
12

  0,0000000856052
  0,000292584m

Interferometer Microwave | 17
  0,0292584  10 2 m

  0,0292  10 2 m

  0,03 10 2 m

So that the wavelength   can be expressed by :

    

  2,73  0,0310 2 m
4. Determine the relative error of the wavelength in the experimental results

KR   100%

0,0292
KR   100%
2,7253

KR  0,010735934  100%

KR  1,07%

5. Determine the value of teori based on theoretical calculations

Known:   10,5 10 9 Hertz

c  3  108 m / s

So,

c


3 108 m / s

10,5 109 Hertz
  0,0285714m
  2,8571 10 2 m
  2,86  10 2 m

Interferometer Microwave | 18
6. Determine the accuracy of the wavelength measurement results for
maximum interference
teori   percobaan
Error  100%
teori

2,8571  2,7253
Error  100%
2,8571

Error  0,046153 100%

Error  4,62%

Accuracy =100% - kesalahan

Accuracy = 100% - 4,62%

Accuracy = 95,38%

IX. Results and Discussion


1. Results
Based on the analysis of observational data, the results of the
experiment can be reported as follows:
a. Distance between slits d = 7 cm
Wavelength   2,83  0,03 10 2 m with relative error (KR) =
1,22% and accuracy of experimental results 99,16% .
b. Distance between slits d = 10 cm
Wavelength   2,73  0,03 10 2 m with relative error (KR) =
1,07% and accuracy of the experimental results 95,38%.
2. Discussion
Light interference is a combination of two light waves. In order for
the interfering results to have a regular pattern, the two light waves must
be coherent, namely having the same frequency and amplitude as well as
fixed phase difference. Two coherent sources are produced by dividing
the wavefront, by illuminating narrow gaps that are parallel to a single
light source, where the points located on the wavefront are a new source

Interferometer Microwave | 19
of points, which will propagate waves in all directions with a wavefront
in the form circle.
Based on the results of data analysis at a distance between gaps of
7 cm has a wavelength   2,83  0,03 10 2 m with a relative error KR
= 1,22% and the accuracy of the experimental results 99,16% whereas in
experiments using a gap between 10 cm has a wavelength
  2,73  0,03 10 2 m with its relative error KR = 1,07% and the

accuracy of the experimental results is 95,38% so it can be concluded


that this experiment is acceptable because the relative errors of the two
experiments were obtained less than 10%. In this experiment, the
transmitter used produces a wave frequency of 10.5 GHz so that based on
calculations in theory produces a wavelength of 2,86 10 2 m .Because the

standard wavelength for microwaves is around 1-30 cm 1cm  10 m,


2

the wavelength obtained at the time of the experiment is acceptable.


Based on the results of the experiment, it can be seen that the
smaller the distance between the gaps used, the calculation of the average
wavelength will be more accurate or close to the wavelength value
according to the theory and vice versa.
In this experiment there are deviations in the results of the existing
theory. The cause of this result deviation is the existence of errors during
the experiment, as follows:
a. Common mistakes, namely mistakes that occur due to human error. A
common mistake that occurs in this experiment is the mistake of
reading the amperemeter scale on the receiver and the angle on the
goniometer rotary arm, so that the data obtained is less accurate.
b. Systematic errors, namely errors caused by measuring instruments or
instruments and environmental influences when conducting
experiments. Systematic errors that occur in this experiment when
turning the goniometer arm sometimes occur because the practicum
table used as a base is not a perfectly flat field. Practical tools often
suffer damage such as the connecting cable between the adapter and

Interferometer Microwave | 20
the loose transmitter and the amperemeter needle on the jammed
receiver. In addition, the influence of the environment such as outside
air greatly influences the value of reading the ammeters on the
receiver.
c. Random errors, namely errors caused by other things that are
unknown and occur randomly, but are very influential on the results of
the experiments conducted.
The constraints that faced in the microwave interference experiments,
namely :
1. Difficulty in reading the scale on the ammeter contained in the
receiver that is easily changed due to vibration. We recommend that
when conducting an experiment we look for a flat place so that when
we rotate the goniometer arm there is no vibration.
2. Difficulty in turning the arm of the goniometer turntable precisely
and accurately according to the desired angle because the scale
distance is too tight. It's best when turning the goniometer arm more
slowly and thoroughly.
X. Conclusions and Recommendation
1. Conclusions
Based on experiments and discussions that have been conducted it
can be concluded that :
a. Light interference is a combination of two light waves. In order for
the interference results to have a regular pattern, the two light waves
must be coherent, namely having the same frequency and amplitude
and fixed phase difference. Two coherent sources are produced by
dividing the wavefront, by illuminating narrow gaps that are parallel
to a single light source. Interference wave pattern can be determined
based on the graph of the relationship between the wave angles
coming with the wave intensity, where each peak graph shows a
bright pattern and a valley from the graph showing a dark pattern.
b. Microwave wavelengths obtained are:
1. Distance between slits d = 7 cm

Interferometer Microwave | 21
The wavelength   2,83  0,03 10 2 m with relative error KR
= 1,22% and accuracy of experimental results 99,16%.
2. Distance between slits d = 10 cm
The wavelength   2,73  0,0310 2 m with its relative error
KR = 1,07% and the accuracy of the experimental results
95,38%.
2. Suggestions
The suggestions that can be conveyed regarding the Microwave
Interferometer experiment include:
a. Understanding the practical instructions and basic theories that
underlie experiments, so that observers have no difficulty when
assembling tools and retrieving data.
b. It is best for the observer to check the condition of the tools and
materials to be used, so that during the practicum there are no
difficulties related to damaged tools and materials.
c. In this interferometer experiment the observer used a gap between 7
cm and 10 cm. The smaller gap between gaps produces higher
accuracy so it is recommended to vary the gap between smaller gaps
so that the experimental data is more accurate.

Interferometer Microwave | 22
Bibliography

Beiser, A. 1992. The Concept of Modern Physics. Erlangga: Jakarta.

Chaudhuri R.N. 2010. Waves and Oscillations. New Age International Publisher:
New Delhi

Giancoli. 2001. Fisika Jilid 1 Edisi Kelima. Erlangga: Jakarta.

Halliday & Resnick. 2011. Fundamentals of Physics 9th Edition. John Wiley &
Sons Inc: United States.

Tipler, P. A. 1991. Physics for Science and Engineering Volume 2 (Interpretation


of Dr. Bambang Soegijono). Erlangga: Jakarta.
ATTACHMENT

Attachment 1st : Tools and Materials

1. Transmitter
The function of the transmitter is to radiate the microwave to the logam
reflector.

2. Receiver
The function of the receiver in this experiment is to receive the microwave
that passed the double slit.

3. Reflector
The function of the reflector is to sparate the microwave wavefront by
illuminating narrow gaps that are parallel to a single light source.
4. Set Up of Experiment
The function of this set up experiment of Interferometer microwave is to
determine the quantity of microwave wavelengths.
Attachment 2nd : Observation

1. Observe the measuring of the results amperemeter scale