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Introduction to Design of


◼ An experiment is a test or a series of tests.

◼ Experiments are used widely in the engineering
❑ Process characterization & optimization
❑ Evaluation of material properties
❑ Product design & development
❑ …
◼ “All experiments are designed experiments,
some are poorly designed, some are well-
DOE Terminology

◼ Inputs/Experimental Setup
❑ Factors
◼ Treatments and levels
◼ Fixed and random factors.
◼ Outputs/Results
❑ Response variable
❑ Interaction
❑ Effect
◼ Basic DOE Principles
❑ Replication
❑ Randomization
❑ Blocking
The Basic Principles of DOE

◼ Randomization
❑ Running the trials in an experiment in random order.

❑ Balance effects of uncontrollable variables.

❑ Use random number generators.

◼ Replication
❑ Sample size (improving precision of estimation, estimation of error or

background noise).
❑ More precision requires more work.

◼ Blocking
❑ A method to isolate controllable nuisance factors.

◼ Example – Measuring Thickness by different operators.

Strategies of Experimentation

• Best guess approach (trial and error)

– can continue indefinitely
– cannot guarantee best solution has been found
• One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach
– inefficient (requires many test runs)
– fails to consider any possible interaction between factors
• Factorial approach (invented in the 1920’s)
– Factors varied together
– Correct, modern, and most efficient approach
– Can determine how factors interact
– Used extensively in industrial R and D, and for process
Types of Factorial Designs
Types of Factorial Designs


Fixed Random Mixed Crossed Nested

(FD) (ND)


Full Fractional
Spray drying is a method of producing a dry powder from a
liquid or slurry by rapidly drying with a hot gas. This is the
preferred method of drying of many pharmaceutical
companies to produce better drugs. The ultra-fast and gentle
drying technology offers unique possibilities for designing
particle size.

The company conducts a pilot lab experimental study to

investigate the effects of four factors on particle size. The
goal is to minimize the particle size

Factor Low High

Inlet Temperature 130 170
Nozzle Rotary Ultrasonic
Flowrate 10 15
Outlet Temperature 60 90
Data Collection
The manufacturer uses four factor, full factorial design
without replication to find settings that minimize the particle
size with not more than 0.15 microns

Dataset: SprayDry.MPJ

1. Create the Design

2. Open SprayDry.MPJ
3. Fit the model
4. Check residual plots
5. Provide recommendation for minimizing the particle