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Introduction to Design of

Experiments
Introduction

◼ An experiment is a test or a series of tests.


◼ Experiments are used widely in the engineering
world
❑ Process characterization & optimization
❑ Evaluation of material properties
❑ Product design & development
❑ …
◼ “All experiments are designed experiments,
some are poorly designed, some are well-
designed”
DOE Terminology

◼ Inputs/Experimental Setup
❑ Factors
◼ Treatments and levels
◼ Fixed and random factors.
◼ Outputs/Results
❑ Response variable
❑ Interaction
❑ Effect
◼ Basic DOE Principles
❑ Replication
❑ Randomization
❑ Blocking
The Basic Principles of DOE

◼ Randomization
❑ Running the trials in an experiment in random order.

❑ Balance effects of uncontrollable variables.

❑ Use random number generators.

◼ Replication
❑ Sample size (improving precision of estimation, estimation of error or

background noise).
❑ More precision requires more work.

◼ Blocking
❑ A method to isolate controllable nuisance factors.

◼ Example – Measuring Thickness by different operators.


Strategies of Experimentation

• Best guess approach (trial and error)


– can continue indefinitely
– cannot guarantee best solution has been found
• One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach
– inefficient (requires many test runs)
– fails to consider any possible interaction between factors
• Factorial approach (invented in the 1920’s)
– Factors varied together
– Correct, modern, and most efficient approach
– Can determine how factors interact
– Used extensively in industrial R and D, and for process
improvement.
Types of Factorial Designs
Types of Factorial Designs

FD FD

Fixed Random Mixed Crossed Nested


(FD) (ND)

FD

Full Fractional
Example:
Problem
Spray drying is a method of producing a dry powder from a
liquid or slurry by rapidly drying with a hot gas. This is the
preferred method of drying of many pharmaceutical
companies to produce better drugs. The ultra-fast and gentle
drying technology offers unique possibilities for designing
particle size.

The company conducts a pilot lab experimental study to


investigate the effects of four factors on particle size. The
goal is to minimize the particle size
Example:

Factor Low High


Inlet Temperature 130 170
Nozzle Rotary Ultrasonic
Flowrate 10 15
Outlet Temperature 60 90
Example:
Data Collection
The manufacturer uses four factor, full factorial design
without replication to find settings that minimize the particle
size with not more than 0.15 microns

Dataset: SprayDry.MPJ
Tasks

1. Create the Design


2. Open SprayDry.MPJ
3. Fit the model
4. Check residual plots
5. Provide recommendation for minimizing the particle
size