Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 548

M. A. GANSHINA, N. М.

VASILEVSKAYA

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
NINTH EDITION REVISED

HIGHER SCHOOL PUBLISHING HOUSE


19 6 4
4 И (Англ)
Г 19

Художник В» П. ЗАИКИИ
ОТ АВТОРОВ

Настоящий учебник "English Grammar" для педагогических институ-


тов является нормативным курсом английской грамматики для педагоги-
ческих языковых институтов и для факультетов иностранных языков
педагогических вузов.
В настоящем 9-м издании внесены изменения и дополнения в це-
лый ряд разделов как морфологии, так и синтаксиса: классификация
существительных, выражение числа, возвратные и неопределенные
местоимения, выражение возвратного и взаимного значения в глаголе,
страдательный залог, функции инфинитива, формы и функции при-
частия, классификация наречий, определение как главных, так и вто-
ростепенных членов предложения, обособление второстепенных чле-
нов предложения и др.
Переработан также раздел пунктуации.
В новом издании иллюстративный материал (за немногими исклю-
чениями) взят из произведений классической и современной литера-
туры в основном английских авторов, а также и некоторых американ-
ских. (Несколько примеров взято из цитируемых в грамматиках:
О- Jespersen "A Modern English Grammar" и Foelsing-Koch "Wissen-
schaftliche Grammatik der englischen Sprache".)
Вторая часть учебника — упражнения — также переработана и до-
полнена. В целый ряд разделов внесены новые упражнения, состав-
ленные на материале оригинальной литературы на английском языке
(как отдельные предложения, так и тексты).
В основу ряда разделов настоящей грамматики легли теоретиче-
ские положения проф. А. И. Смирницкого.
Авторы приносят благодарность доценту Б. И. Бирштейн за ряд
ценных предложений, сделанных при подготовке переиздания.
ВВЕДЕНИЕ

ОСНОВНЫЕ ХАРАКТЕРНЫЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ


ГРАММАТИЧЕСКОГО СТРОЯ
СОВРЕМЕННОГО АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Д л я выражения определенных понятий, которыми оперируют


люди при обмене мыслями в процессе общения, в языке имеются
слова, которые образуют словарный состав языка. Но одних слов
еще недостаточно для того чтобы выразить какую-либо мысль;
необходимо придать этим словам определенные формы и сочетать
их по определенным правилам, присущим каждому языку. Грамма-
тика определяет эти правила изменения слов и сочетаний их в
предложении и дает возможность облечь человеческую мысль
в материальную языковую оболочку.
Грамматика и словарный состав языка находятся в постоян-
ном взаимодействии, однако, существует четкая грань между эти-
ми областями языка и каждая из них имеет свою специфику.
Главным предметом ' грамматики как науки является изучение
строя слов и строя предложения. Соответственно грамматика со-
стоит из двух основных разделов — морфологии и синтаксиса.
Морфология изучает правила, по которым образуются грамма-
тические формы слов — формы словоизменения. Сюда относятся
способы выражения категорий падежа и числа у существительно-
го, категории степеней сравнения у прилагательного, категорий
лицп, числа, времени, наклонения у глагола и т. д.
Синтаксис изучает правила соединения слов в словосочетания
и в предложения, а также типы предложений.
Но хотя морфология и синтаксис как самостоятельные разделы
грамматики имеют свои особые предметы изучения, свои задачи,
они взаимосвязаны, взаимообусловлены: морфологические свойства
слова обнаруживаются в синтаксических отношениях данного
слона к другим словам, и, в свою очередь, эти синтаксические
отношения в процессе постепенного исторического развития грам-
5
матического строя языка могут влиять на морфологические ка-
чества того или иного разряда слов.
Каждый национальный язык развивается по внутренним зако-
нам своего развития, и его грамматический строй обладает своими
характерными особенностями.
Рассмотрим основные характерные особенности грамматического
строя современного английского языка.
В области морфологии современный английский язык отли-
чается бедностью, а во многих случаях даже полным отсутствием
синтетических форм словоизменения (формообразования).
Так, например, в системе имени существительного имеется
только два падежа: общий падеж (common case: boy, child) и при-
тяжательный падеж (possessive case: boy's, child's).
Глагол в настоящем времени изъявительного наклонения имеет
особую форму для третьего лица единственного числа (he speaks)
и одну общую форму для всех других лиц обоих чисел (I, we,
you, they speak). Второе лицо единственного числа (thou speakest)
теперь архаично и употребляется только в поэзии и в прозе высо-
кого стиля. В современном английском языке вместо второго лица
единственного числа употребляется второе лицо множественного
числа.
Прилагательное в английском языке утратило все формы согла-
сования с существительным, которое оно определяет: a little boy,
a little girl, little boys.
Однако английский язык це всегда обладал такой бедной син-
тетической морфологией. Мы различаем три периода в истории
английского языка: древнеанглийский (Old English) 700 — 1100 гг.;
среднеанглийский (Middle English) 1100—1500 гг.; современный
английский (Modern English) от 1500 г. до наших дней.
Древнеанглийский язык обладал сложной системой синтетиче-
ских форм словоизменения. В склонении существительных разли-
чалось четыре падежа: именительный (nominative), родительный
(genitive), дательный (dative) и винительный (accusative). Прила-
гательное согласовывалось в роде, числе и падеже с существи-
тельным, которое оно определяло. Глагол имел целый ряд флек-
тивных форм для выражения лица и числа и т. д.
G течением времени в ходе исторического развития английского
языка его структура очень сильно изменилась. Сложная система
синтетических форм словоизменения начала постепенно распадать-
ся. Отпадение окончаний началось в древнеанглийский период и
продолжалось в течение всего среднеанглийского периода. К концу
среднеанглийского периода английский язык стал языком с очень
бедной синтетической морфологией.
Те синтетические формы, которые сохранились в современном
английском языке, образуются следующими способами:
1) При помощи аффиксации, т. е. прибавления к корню или
основе слов особых элементов, аффиксов, указывающих на какое-то
6
грамматическое отношение (падеж, число, время и т. д.). Аф-
фиксы подразделяются на суффиксы (элементы, стоящие после
корня) и префиксы, или приставки (элементы, стоящие перед кор-
нем).
1
Английский язык пользуется суффиксацией для образования
форм словоизменения. Префиксация используется только для сло-
вообразования. Сравните -с русским языком, где для образования
совершенного вида широко применяется префиксация (писать —
написать).
Рассмотрим несколько примеров формообразования при помощи
аффиксации: Boys— здесь окончание -s [z] прибавляется к корню
boy для выражения множественного числа; единственное число
boy имеет нулевое окончание (zero-inflexion). Asked — здесь окон-
чание -ed [t] прибавляется к основе настоящего времени ask для
выражения прошедшего времени изъявительного наклонения. Фор-
ма настоящего времени изъявительного наклонения ask имеет
нулевое окончание для всех лиц единственного и множественного
числа, за исключением третьего лица единственного числа, кото-
рое имеет окончание -(e)s [z, s, iz] (he reads, asks, dresses). Вто-
рое лицо единственного числа, которое имеет окончание -est, -t
[ist.t] (thou askest, art), теперь архаично.
В английском языке очень много омонимических окончаний
(т. е. окончаний, разных по значению, но одинаковых по форме).
Например, -(e)s [z, s, iz] может быть окончанием: а) множествен-
ного числа существительных (boys, books, boxes), б) притяжатель-
ного падежа существительных (boy's, cat's, actress's), в) третьего
лица единственного числа настоящего времени изъявительного
наклонения глагола (he reads, asks, dresses).
-en, -n [эп, n] может быть окончанием: а) множественного чис-
ла некоторых существительных: oxen, children, б) причастия II гла-
гола: written, known, в) так называемой «абсолютной» формы (ab-
solute form) притяжательного местоимения: mine, thine.
В английском языке имеется очень много форм с нулевым
окончанием (zero-inflexion): форма общего падежа единственного
числа существительного (boy), форма положительной степени при-
лагательного (long)-, форма настоящего времени изъявительного
наклонения глагола (speak), за исключением третьего лица един-
ственного числа (speaks) и архаичной формы второго лица един-
ственного числа (speakest), и др.
2) При помощи чередования гласных и согласных (vowel and
consonant interchange), т. е. изменения корневого гласного или
согласного для выражения известного грамматического отношения
(число, падеж, время и т. д.). Этот способ образования граммати-
ческих форм слов носит название внутренней флексии (internal
inflexion):
write — wrote — здесь форма прошедшего времени глагола обра-
зуется путем изменения гласного [ai] в [ou]; foot — feet — здесь
7
форма множественного числа образуется изменением гласного [и]
в [i:].
Часто чередование гласных сопровождается аффиксацией:
tell — told — здесь форма прошедшего времени глагола обра-
зуется изменением гласного [е] в [ои] и прибавлением окончания
-d Id].
Следует отметить, что чередование согласных никогда не вы-
ступает в английском языке в чистом виде, а всегда сопровож-
дается аффиксацией:
wife — wives — здесь форма множественного числа образуется
изменением согласного [f] в [v] и прибавлением окончания -s [z];
make — made — здесь форма прошедшего времени теряет конеч-
ный согласный основы (к чередуется с нулем) и к этой усеченной
основе прибавляется окончание -d [dj.
Кроме этих двух способов образования грамматических форм
слов, аффиксации и чередования, имеется еще особый способ —
супплетивные образования. Супплетивность — это сплетение раз-
ных корней, имеющих тождественное значение, для выражения
грамматических форм одного слова. Супплетивность стоит в тес-
ной связи с синтетическими способами образования форм слово-
изменения.
Глаголы to go и to be образуют супплетивные системы. В гла-
голе to go мы находим сплетение двух корней: go — went (форма
причастия II gone имеет тот же корень, как и go, здесь
мы находим чередование гласных [ои — э] и прибавление оконча-
ния -п). Супплетивная система глагола to be состоит из пяти кор-
ней: 1) be {been), 2) am, 3) is, 4) are, art, 5) was (were).
Падежные формы некоторых личных местоимений также обра-
зуют супплетивные системы:
I (именительный)—те (объектный)
she (именительный) — her (объектный)
we (именительный) — us (объектный)

В современном английском языке аффиксация является живым


способом образования форм словоизменения; чередование гласных
и согласных и супплетивные образования не представляют собой
продуктивного средства формообразования.
Параллельно с утерей окончаний мы наблюдаем другой про-
цесс в английском языке — процесс образования аналитических форм.
Аналитическая форма внешне состоит из двух (или более)
слов, но значение объединяет оба элемента в одно смысловое
целое, в одно слово. Только один из элементов, входящих в ана-
литическую форму, имеет корневое, лексическое значение, второй
же элемент лишен лексического значения и имеет только более
абстрактное грамматическое значение. Возьмем, например, анали-
тическую форму настоящего перфектного времени:
8
He has come — здесь только соте имеет лексическое значение,
has не выражает здесь «обладать» и представляет собой только
грамматический элемент, функция которого — выражать время,
лицо, число и т. д.; это вспомогательный глагол.
Будущее время в английском языке представляет собой тоже
аналитическую форму: I shall соте — здесь лексическое значение
выражено в соте, вспомогательный же глагол shall утерял значе-
ние долженствования и служит только для выражения времени
(будущее) и лица (первое лицо). Ср. с русским языком, где буду-
щее время несовершенного вида является также аналитической
формой: я буду приходить.
Глагол в английском языке особенно богат аналитическими
формами:
будущее время {shall, will -f infinitive);
перфектные времена (to have + participle II);
длительный вид (to be + participle I);
отрицательные и вопросительные формы настоящего и прошед-
шего времени общего вида (to do + infinitive) и т. д.
(Не will come. Не has соте. Не is coming. Не does not come.
Does he come? и т. д.)
Аналитические формы мы встречаем и в системе прилагатель-
ного.
Степени сравнения (сравнительная и превосходная), которые
образуются синтетическим способом при помощи окончаний -ег [э],
-est [ist] обычно только у односложных прилагательных выража-
ются у многосложных прилагательных сочетанием вспомогатель-
ных слов тоге и most с прилагательным в исходной форме (beauti-
ful— more beautiful — most' beautiful).
Сравните с русским языком, в котором степени сравнения то-
же могут выражаться аналитическими формами: сильный — более
сильный (сильнее) — самый сильный (сильнейший).
Таким образом, морфология современного английского языка
включает синтетические и аналитические формы.
Обладая слабо развитой системой словоизменения, современный
английский язык широко использует служебные слова и порядок
слов для выражения различных грамматических значений слов и
их синтаксических функций в предложении.
Таким образом, те грамматические значения и функции суще-
ствительных, которые в языках с развитой падежной системой
(как, например, русский) выражаются падежными формами, в анг-
лийском языке передаются синтаксическими сочетаниями сущест-
вительного в общем падеже с различными предлогами. Например,
значение родительного падежа передается сочетанием существи-
тельного с предлогом of (the leg of the table — ножка стола); зна-
чение творительного падежа передается сочетаниями существитель-
ного с предлогами with и by (The letter was written by my brother
... with a pen — Письмо было написано моим братом . . . пером).
9
Предлоги to и for служат для обозначения отношений, выражае-
мых дательным падежом (I gave some apples to the children — Я дал
яблок детям. / bought some apples for the children — Я купил яб-
лок детям).
Порядок слов является также важным грамматическим сред-
ством в современном английском языке. Синтаксические функции
слов в большой мере определяются в английском языке местом,
которое они занимают в предложении. Например, если мы изме-
ним порядок слов в предложении: The hunter (подлежащее) killed
a bear (дополнение), поставив hunter в конце предложения, a bear
на первое место, функции этих двух слов и, соответственно, зна-
чение предложения совершенно изменятся: A bear killed the hunter.
В русском же языке благодаря богато развитой системе фор-
мообразования изменение порядка слов обычно не меняет синтак-
сических взаимоотношений между словами, и вследствие этого
русский язык широко пользуется порядком слов в целях эмфазы,
экспрессии и т. д. (Охотник убил медведя. Медведя убил охотник.)
Мы понимаем, что слово water является существительным и
имеет функцию дополнения в предложении We drink water благо-
даря месту, которое это слово занимает после переходного глагола
drink, и что слово water является глаголом в функции сказуемого
в предложении We water our flowers daily по месту этого слова
после подлежащего we.
Благодаря скудости формальных средств связи слов в предло-
жении в английском языке очень большую роль играет лексиче-
ское значение слов. Грамматические двусмысленности нередки
в английском языке; в таких случаях только лексическое значение
слов помогает нам разобраться в их связях и делает возможным
понять предложение. Сравните следующие два предложения: His
favourite pastime is playing chess и He is playing chess. Только из
значения слов, выражающих подлежащее (pastime к he) мы пони-
маем, что в первом предложении is playing—составное именное
сказуемое (is — глагол-связка, playing — именной член сказуемого,
выраженный герундием), а во втором предложении — это простое
глагольное сказуемое (настоящее время длительного вида).
Благодаря скудости форм словоизменения и наличию лишь не-
большого количества характерных для определенной части речи
суффиксов, в английском языке часто нельзя определить по фор-
ме слова, к какой части речи оно принадлежит. Так, например,
speak—глагол, bleak — прилагательное, leak — существительное.
Отсутствие форм, характеризующих части речи, которое мы
часто находим в современном английском языке, делает возмож-
ным образование от одной части речи нового слова, принадлежа-
щего к другой части речи без использования каких-лрбо слово-
образовательных элементов (так называемая «конверсия»). В пред-
ложении They water their horses at this well глагол water образован
таким способом от существительного water. В предложении We
10
Jiad a good run слово run является существительным, образован-
ным от глагола to run.
Dew wet the trampled grass under their feet — здесь wet глагол,
образованный от прилагательного wet. I am a native of this town —
здесь native существительное, образованное от прилагательного
native.
Образованное таким образом новое слово приобретает все фор-
мы словоизменения той части речи, к которой оно принадлежит.
Глагол water имеет все формы (синтетические и аналитические)
глагола правильного спряжения: / water, he waters, 1 am watering,
I shall water, I have watered, it is watered и т. д.
Существительное native имеет формы единственного и множест-
венного числа: a native, natives-, формы общего и притяжательного
падежа: native, native's; natives, natives'.
Так как вновь образованное слово приобретает все формы
словоизменения, которые имеет данная часть речи, оно обычно не
во всех своих формах омонимично со словом, от которого оно
образовано.
Сравните следующие примеры:
Существительное water (единственное число, общий падеж);
waters (множественное число, общий падеж); water's (единственное
число, притяжательный падеж), waters' (множественное число,
притяжательный псГдеж), глагол water (настоящее время, изъяви-
тельное наклонение и т. д.); waters (настоящее время, изъявитель-
ное наклонение, третье лицо, единственное число и т. д.); watered
«(прошедшее время и причастие II); watering (причастие I и герундий).
Вышеприведенные примеры показывают, что глагол water, обра-
зованный от существительного water, не омонимичен с существи-
тельным во всех своих формах. Так, форма существительного
waters (множественное число, общий падеж) и форма глагола wa-
ters (третье лицо единственного числа, настоящее время) омонимич-
ны; но формы глагола watered (прошедшее время и причастие II)
и watering (причастие I и герундий) не имеют омонимических форм
в склонении существительного water, а форма существительного wa-
ter's (единственное число, притяжательный падеж) не имеет омо-
нимических форм в спряжении глагола to water.
Имеются случаи традиционной конверсии, когда вновь образо-
гванное слово уже вошло в словарный состав языка как омоним
!исходного слова. Сюда относятся такие слова, как глагол to dress,
образованный от существительного dress, существительное run,
«образованное от глагола to run; прилагательное chance, образован-
ное от существительного chance-, существительное native, образо-
ванное от прилагательного native, и др.
Иногда даже трудно сказать, какое слово является вновь об-
разованным и какое исходным, например, существительное relative
и прилагательное relative (исходным словом здесь является при-
лагательное).
11
Вот несколько примеров конверсии, когда вновь образованное
слово уже вошло в словарный состав языка:
I paced the pavement, fingering the coppers in my pocket.
( G i s s i n g . ) T h e y o u n g m e n eyed him respectfully... ( J o y c e ) .
Jude Fawley shouldered his tool-basket... ( H a r d y . )
Кроме традиционной конверсии, имеется конверсия только на
данный случай: вновь образованное слово выступает как таковое
только в данном контексте и не входит в словарный состав языка.
Вот примеры такой индивидуальной конверсии, такого образова-
ния нового слова только на данный случай:
The draper's shop would not only dress you; post-office you;
linoleum you, rug and wall-paper you; ink, pencil and note-pa-
per you; but would also bury you and tombstone you. ( H u t -
c h e n son.)
В этом предложении от существительных post-office, linoleum,
rug, wall-paper, ink, pencil, note-paper и tombstone образованы пе-
реходные глаголы со значением «снабжать бумагой, конвертами,
марками» и т. д.
We therefore decided that we would sleep out on fine nights
and hotel it and inn it, and pub it like respectable folks, when
it w-as wet, or when we felt inclined for a change. ( J e r o m e . )
Здесь слова hotel, inn и pub являются глаголами, образован-
ными от соответствующих существительных; to hotel, to inn и to
pub означают здесь «ночевать в гостинице».
PART I
MORPHOLOGY

M o r p h o l o g y is that part of grammar which treats of the parts


of speech and their inflexion (словоизменение), that is: the forms
of number and case of nouns and pronouns, the forms of tense,
mood, etc. of verbs, the forms of degrees of comparison of adjec-
tives.

PARTS OF SPEECH
According to their meaning, syntactical functions and morphol-
ogical characteristics, words fall into certain classes called parts
of speech.
The following is a classification of the parts of speech in
English: ,
1. The noun 8. The conjunction
2. The adjective 9. The article
3. The pronoun 10. Particles
4. The numeral 11. Modal (parenthetical) words
5. The verb 12. Words of affirmation and
6. The adverb negation (yes and no)
7. The preposition 13. The interjection

We distinguish between n o t i o n a l parts of speech (знамена-


тельные части речи) and f o r m - w o r d s (служебные части речи).
N o t i o n a l p a r t s of s p e e c h . Notional parts of speech com-
prise words denoting things, their qualities, their actions and states,
etc. N o u n s , a d j e c t i v e s , p r o n o u n s , n u m e r a l s , verbs
and a d v e r b s are notional parts of speech; they have independent
meaning and function in the sentence and sometimes form sentences
by themselves.
13
F o r m-w о г d s. Form-words have no independent function in t h e
sentence; they serve either to connect words or sentences ( p r e p o -
s i t i o n s a n d c o n j u n c t i o n s ) or to specify or emphasize t h e
meaning of other words ( p a r t i c l e s and the a r t i с 1 e).
A special place is occupied by m o d a l w o r d s , w o r d s o f
a f f i r m a t i o n and n e g a t i o n (yes and no) and i n t e r j e c t i o n s .
These words do not enter into the structure of the sentence as
parts of the sentence.
M o d a l (parenthetical) w o r d s are used to show the attitude
of the speaker to the predication expressed in the sentence. They
have no grammatical connection with the sentence in which they
stand:
"...This is, indeed, comfort." ( D i c k e n s . ) "It really isn't a
hundred yards." ( W e l l s . )
W o r d s of A f f i r m a t i o n a n d N e g a t i o n . ' The words
yes and no are quite peculiar words. They serve to affirm or negate
a whole sentence and must be set apart as words expressing a f f i r -
m a t i o n and n e g a t i o n . They may stand alone replacing a whole
sentence:
"You have just come from Paris," said I. "Yes," said she.
"Have you ever been there?" "No." ( D i c k e n s . )
I n t e r j e c t i o n s . Interjections are a specific part of speech;
they express emotion directly but not through the medium of
thought:
"Oh, poor little fellow!" ( D i c k e n s . ) "Ugh! Get along with
you, do!" ( D i c k e n s . ) "Aye!" replied the doctor apparently
wondering. ( D i c k e n s . )
Interjections may also have imperative meaning:
Hallo! (When used to attract somebody's attention.)

THE NOUN

1. The noun is a part of speech which includes words denoting


substances (individuals: a boy, a girl; objects: a book, a tree) or
certain facts or phenomena regarded as substances (qualities: kind-
ness, strength; processes: conversation, writing; abstract notions:
time).
2. The main syntactical functions of the noun in the sentence
are those of the subject and object:
The child (subject) was silent. ( D i c k e n s . ) The school-
master (subject) lighted a candle (object), fastened the window-
shutters (object) and closed the door (object). ( D i c k e n s . )
14
Besides a noun may also be used:
as a p r e d i с a t i v e:
He was a very young boy. ( D i c k e n s . )
As an a t t r i b u t e :
Peter's sister soon heard of all the boys' adventures. (Dodge.)
Asanadverbialmodifier:
The child hesitated for a moment. ( D i c k e n s . ) They stopped
at a cottage-door. ( D i c k e n s . )
3. The noun is associated with the following form-words:
a) the a r t i c l e (definite or indefinite): the house, a house;
b) p r e p o s i t i o n s : in the house, behind Ihe house, about
the house.
4. Another characteristic feature of the noun is its association
with an adjective which serves as its attribute. This is natural,
considering the meaning of these two parts of speech — the noun
expresses substance, the adjective expresses the qualities of the
substance:
The plain, frank kindness of the honest schoolmaster, the
affectionate earnestness of his speech and manner, ...gave the
child a confidence in him. ( D i c k e n s . ) The bright, hot morning
had changed slowly to a grey, oppressive afternoon; a heavy
bank of clouds, with the yellow tinge of coming thunder, had
risen in the south, and was creeping up. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
5. The noun has the following morphological characteristics:
a) It has two numbers: s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l .
Singular: boy; plural: boys.
b) It has two case forms: c o m m o n and p o s s e s s i v e .
C o m m o n c a s e : boy, p o s s e s s i v e c a s e : boy's.
But not all nouns have these two cases; the possessive case is,
as a rule, used only with nouns denoting living beings.
As to word-building, nouns have some characteristic suffixes
such as -ing, ~er, -hood, -ship, -merit, -ion, (-tion, -sion), etc.:
Imildmg, worker, motherhood, member ship, conversation, expression,
government, establishment.
- Nouns are also formed b * means of sound i n t e r c h a n g e (usually
with the addition of a s « i x ) : mirth (from the adjective merry),
length (from the a d j e c t f t long), strength (from the adjective
strong), wisdom (from th™ adjective wise), speech (from the verb
apeak).
There are a great many compound nouns in English such as
15
newspaper, fountain-pen, forget-me-not, passer-by, postman, English-
man, etc.
Nouns are also often formed from other parts of speech by
means of conversion: a run (from the verb to run), a wash (from
the verb to wash), a stop (from the verb to stop), ups and downs
(from the adverbs up and down), a relative (from the adjective
relative), etc.

KINDS OF NOUNS
1. Nouns are divided into: a) c o m m o n n o u n s and b) p r o p -
er nouns.
C o m m o n n o u n s are the names applied to any individual of
a class of living beings or things (a man, a book), materials (snow,
iron) or abstract notions (love, friendship).
P r o p e r n o u n s are names given to individuals of a class to
distinguish them from other individuals of the same class (John,
the Neva, Moscow). Proper nouns may also include a group of
individuals (The Alps, the Balkans, the Urals, the Canaries).
Proper nouns may acquire the meaning of c o m m o n n o u n s :
a Pullman — a sleeping car named after its designer; a mackintosh
— a cloak or coat made of waterproof material patented by
C. Mackintosh; an ulster — a coat named after the province where
such coats were originally made; a Ford — a car named after the
manufacturer. Common nouns may become p r o p e r n a m e s : the
City (the business quarter of London), the Globe (a theatre at the
time of Shakespeare).
2. Common nouns are subdivided into: c o n c r e t e n o u n s and
a b s t r a c t nouns.
C o n c r e t e n o u n s in their turn fall under the following
divisions:
a) c l a s s - n o u n s indicating things belonging to a class, such
as a man, a girl, a book, a chair;
b) n a m e s of m a t e r i a l s which do not express separate things
but the whole mass of matter: iron, snow, air.
A b s t r a c t n o u n s are often the names of actions, states or
qualities formed from corresponding verbs and adjectives: conversa-
tion, reading, love, kindness, strength.
To the class of abstract nouns belong also nouns which are not
derived from adjectives or verbs: time, summer, thunder, day,
night, etc.
N o t e . — Abstract nouns may turn into concrete nouns when they repre-
sent concrete objects; beauty (красота) — a beauty (красавица); youth (юность) —
a youth (юноша).
3. To the class of common nouns bolong also c o l l e c t i v e
n o u n s which denote a number of things collected together so that
they may be regarded as a s i n g l e o b j e c t (family, crew, company).
16
Collective nouns fall under the following divisions:
a) Collective nouns which have b o t h n u m b e r s :
s i n g u l a r : a family, a crew; p l u r a l : families, crews.
My family is small. The two families were close neigh-
bours.
When the subject of a sentence is such a collective noun in the
form of the singular, the predicate verb may be either in the
singular or in the plural. The verb is singular if the collective
denoted by the noun is taken as a whole unit. The verb is plural
if the persons (or things) that form the collective are considered
separately:
My family is small. The crew consists of two hundred sail-
ors. The party was now complete except for two people. (M a z о
d e l a R o c h e . ) My family are early risers. ( J e s p e r s e n . ) The
party were expected to arrive on Thursday afternoon... ( B r o n -
te.) "How are your family?" ( H e m i n g w a y . )
b) Collective nouns (names 9f multitude) such as cattle, poultry,
police, which are always used as plurals (without the s-inflection):
The poultry are in the yard. "You have cattle?" "There they
are," she said pointing with the switch, "...they are the best
cattle in the fair." ( M a c к en.)
N o t e . — The noun people in the meaning of люди is always plural (a name
of multitude).
In the evening some people came to supper; a writer and two painters
with their wives. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) They were still wandering up and down,
with fewer people about them. ( D i c k e n s . )
The noun people in the meaning of народ has both numbers (a people —
народ, peoples—народы).
"The Declaration of Rights of the Peoples of Russia" laid down as a law
the rights of the peoples of Russia to unhampered development and complete
equality. Long live the friendship of all the peoples of our country. Defence of
peace is the cause of all peoples of the world.
The French are a Romanic people. c

c) Collective nouns, such as foliage, leafage, linen, money,


youth (молодежь),' etc., which are always used in the singular:
Her little bit of crockery was ranged on i,he mantlepiece.
( G a s ! ; e l l . ) "Yes," said the child... "what is money?" (Di-
<^0fns.) ...the undergrowth was thick with flowers... (Cu-
^ T c k . ) The air here had a sweetish, earthy odour of too rank
foliage ... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...he saw all the best china and
silver on the table at once. ( M a z o d e l a R o c h e . )
d) Collective nouns which are used only in the plural such as
-3300 17
goods, belongings (вещи, пожитки), sweepings (мусор), tidings
(новости), clothes:
A small closet contained his clothes... ( L o n d o n . ) ...I saw
some goods behind the cart, just now. ( D i c k e n s . ) The good
fellow fetched the greens... ( D i c k e n s . ) ...a labourer came
in a hurry one day to Nicholas's house and brought strange
tidings. ( H a r d y . )
NUMBER
N u m b e r is the grammatical category of the noun which shows
wrhether we speak of one thing or of more than one. Accordingly,
there are two numbers: the s i n g u l a r and the p l u r a l .
The s i n g u l a r is that form of the noun which denotes either
one object (a book, a boy) or an indivisible whole (snow, friend-
ship, foliage ).
The p l u r a l is that form of the noun which indicates more than
one object (books, boys).
When nouns are used only in the plural, the form of the plural
has c o l l e c t i v e meaning (sweepings, belongings, tidings) or
indicates c o m p o s i t e objects (scissors, eye-glasses, trousers).

Formation of Number
1. In Modern English the singular form of the nouns is a bare
stem with a zero-inflexion '(нулевая флексия): book, boy, girl.
The plural is formed by the inflexion -(e)s [z, s, iz]: boy —
boys, book — books, box — boxes.
Compare the Russian noun стол (столы) which also has a zero-
inflexion in the nominative case of the singular, with the noun
река (реки), which has a positive inflexion in the nominative case
of the singular as well as of the plural.
The inflexion -(e)s is a modification of the Old English plural
inflexion -as. In Old English there were several ways of forming;
the plural; th^^as-iiifkxion which was used only with masculine
nouns, later on in its modified form ( - a s > - e s > - s j became the
general inflexion of the plural of nouns.
The plural inflexion is pronounced [iz] after voiced consonants
and vowels: cabs, raids, tables, pens, factories, tractors; [s] after
voiceless consonants: books, pilots, pipes; [iz] after sibilants: classes_
bushes, branches, boxes.
N o t e . —Nouns ending in a mute -e preceded by a sibilant, in spelling -se,
•ce, -ze, -(d)ge, add the inflexion -s [iz] horse — horses; price — prices; size —
sizes; bridge — bridges; village — villages.
2. With some nouns the final voiceless consonant»is changed
into a corresponding voiced consonant before the inflexion -es [zj
is added. To this group belong:
18
a) Nouns ending in -fe or ~f [f]. The f is changed into v (con-
sonant interchange), and the inflexion -es [z] is added: knife—knives';
shelf — shelves; wife — wives.
N o t e . — S o m e nouns ending in -/ or - f f , simply add -s [s] in the plural:
roof — roofs; chief — chiefs; handkerchief — handkerchiefs; cliff — cliffs; cuff —
cuffs; muff — muffs.
The following nouns have double forms: hoof — hoofs, hooves; wharf -—
wharfs, wharves; scarf — scarfs, scarves. . ,
b) Some nouns ending in -th [0], change the [0] into [6]: mouth
[mauS]-—mouths [maudzj; path [pa:0] — paths [pa:5z|; bath [ba:G] —
baths [ba:5z].
In many words, however, there is no change of [0] into [6]
(deaths [deGs]; in some nouns there is fluctuation between the two
sounds — [6] and [5] (truths [tru0s], [truSz], youths [ju:0s], [ju:dz])
c) The noun house [haus] — houses ['hauziz].
P e c u l i a r i t fe s о f S p e l l i n g .
Notice the following:
a) When a noun ends in -y preceded by a consonant, -y is
replaced by -i and the ending -es [iz] is added: city — cities; coun-
try— countries; penny — pennies (when a sum of money and not
separate coins is meant the plural form pence is used: It costs five
pence. But: Five pennies were lying on the table).
b) When a noun ends in -o with a preceding consonant, -es [z]
is usually added: hero — heroes; Negro — Negroes; potato — potatoes;
tomato.— tomatoes. But: piano — pianos; photo -- photos; zero —
zeros. , ,
c) The plural cf proper names and other parts of speech, fig-
ures, letters, etc. when substantivized, are sometimes written in the
ordinary way, sometimes with an 's added:
The two Mary's or the two Marys (y remains unchanged).
Mind your P s and Q's. Cross your t's and dot your i's. Don't
use so many buts.
Oh, no, no, a thousand no's. ( C r o n in.) "...Mr. Copperfield
objected to my threes and fives being too much alike each
other, or to my putting curly tails to my sevens and nines,"
t u r n e d my mother. ( D i c k e n s . )

Ш . Some nouns are survivals of Old English plural forms; they


form the plural:
a) By changing the root-vowel (vowel interchange): man — men,
woman — women, foot — feet, tocth — teeth, goose — geese,
mouse —i mice;
c) By adding the inflexion [эп], in spelling -en: ox — oxen;
2* 19
с) By changing the root-vowel (vowel interchange) and adding the
inflexion [эп], in spelling -en: child — children; brother — brethren.1
4. P l u r a l of C o m p o u n d N o u n s .
a) In compound nouns usually the head-noun takes the plural
form: fellow-worker — fellow-workers; school-mate — school-mates;
air-raid — air-raids; editor-in-chief — editors-in-chief; brother-in-law —
brothers-in-law.
b) Compounds ending in -man change -man into -men > in spell-
ing, but in pronunciation there is no difference between the sin-
gular and the plural: postman ['poustmsn] — postmen ['poustmanj.
Such nouns as German, Roman, Norman are not compounds.
They form their plural in the ' usual way: Germans, Romans, Nor-
mans.
c) When the compound does not contain any noun, the plural
is formed by adding -s to the last word: forget-me-not — forget-me-
-nots; merry-go-round (карусель) — merry-go-rounds; hold-all (порт-
плед) — hold-alls; overall — overalls.
d) Compounds in -ful add -s to the end: handful — handfuls;
spoonful — spoonfuls; but also: columns-full (in newspapers).
e) If a proper noun is preceded by a title, the sign of the
plural'is added either to the title or to the proper noun itself;
in colloquial speech J t is usual t o a d d , . t h e - - 5 tp the proper noun;
in official speech the trtfe4$-piuialIIeHT
C o l l o q u i a l : The two doctor^Thofhsons. The Miss Smiths
' f f i c i a l : Messrs Jones. The Misses Smith.
The Miss Crumptons or to quote the authorities of the
inscription on the garden-gate:. The Misses Crumpton. (Di-
ckens.)
7
f) An adjectivized noun in attributive function (see "Adjectivized
Nouns," p. 44) is, as a rule, Used in the singular even if the mean-
ing is plural: a four-storey house, a five-act play, the printed-book
section of a museum.
It was a three-mile walk along a dry white road, made
whiter to-night by the light of the moon. ( H a r d y . )
There is, however, a growing tendency in recent times to use
the plural f o r m , — H r o f T g official'terms: a two-thirds
majority; the food products department; the sports grounds; the
United Nations Organization; parcels post.

1
The plural forms children and brethren are double plurals: -en was added
in M. E. to the О. E. plural forms cildru and ЬгоЪги.
20
Two powerful engines were pulling a goods train up the
sharp incline... ( C u s a c k . ) Streams of people were pouring out
from the Sports Ground... ( C u s a c k . )
In many instances where the form in -s is used it may be
' understood either as the plural form of the common case or as
the plural possessive. Accodingly, the use of the apostrophe wavers:
a) no apostrophe:
I enjoyed several hours sleep. There is twenty years differ-
ence in their age. I had only two shillings pocket money.
A bridge of only two planks breadth.
b) an apostrophe:
A five years' child. The Seven Years' War. A two months'
baby.
...it was a two-and-a half hours' drive. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
5. P l u r a l Identical in F o r m With the Singu-
l a r . — Some nouns have one form for both singular and plural
(either always or in certain combinations).
Those nouns are partly survivals of the Old English and Latin
uninflected plurals, partly forms which came to be used by the
analogy of the old unchanged plurals.
The following nouns have one form for both singular and plural:
a) Names of some animals: sheep, deer, swine:
... the sheep on the Downs lay quiet as stones. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) 'Oh, Elizabeth, look, IookI The deer!' '...Oh yes!
How funny the little ones are! But how graceful!' ( A l d i n g -
ton.)
b) The noun fish and nouns denoting some sorts of fish, such
as trout, cod, pike, salmon:
One day he caught a beautiful big fish... ( J o y c e . ) In the
water tiny fish swam between the olive growths of seaweed...
( G o r d o n . ) I know where trout are rising and where the sal-
mon leap. ( M a u r i e r . )
ffi denote kinds of fish the form fishes is used:
There were many fishes in the net. She has bought a large
book on our freshwater fishes. These pools swarm with a great
variety of fishes.
c) Names indicating number such as dozen, pair, couple, score
(двадцать), when they are preceded' by a numeral: two pair of
gloves; five score of eggs; three dozen of shirts.
But the plural is also used:
21
He had... two pairs of stockings in his bundle. (Dickens.)
N o t e . — A f t e r many and few both forms are found: so many pair of
wings, a great many pairs of gloves; a few score(s) of heads.
d) We have survivals of the old uninflected plural in kind, sort,
^nd manner. The usual construction is now to keep kind, sort, and
manner unchanged, but to use the plural these (those) if the word
following of is plural (these kind of tools). But this construction
is by many considered grammatically incorrect and therefore in
careful literary speech books of that kind is preferred to the
colloquial those Uind of books:
These kind of pens. Such kind of duties. Those sort of
speeches.
e) The noun foot (measure of length) is feet in the plural. The
plural foot is used when followed by a number indicating inches:
...I'm five foot eleven in my socks. ( B r a i n e . ) And was
she tall enough? Only five foot five. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
f) The noun pound (indicating money) has usually the s-plural
except when followed by a numeral indicating shillings: two
,pounds, but: two pound ten (<£ 2.10.0).
g) .The nouns species and series borrowed from the Latin have
also one, form for both singular and plural:
A series of very interesting experiments has Ьзеп made in
our laboratory. Two admirable series of the masters of Russian
literature have been published recently.. What a pretty species
of roses! Many beautiful species of roses are cultivated in our
garden.
6. F o r e i g n P l u r a l s . — Some nouns keep the plural form of
the language (Latin or Greek) from which they have been borrowed:
memorandum [am] —memoranda [9]; datum [am]— data [9];
phenomenon [an] — phenomena [э]; crisis [iz]—arises [i:zj;
nucleus [ias]— nuclei [iai]; terminus [as]— termini [ai]; stimu-
lus [as] — stimuli [ai ]; formula [9] — formulae [i:]; index —
indices [i:z].
Words that are much used often have an English plural: memo-
randums, formulas, indexes, terminuses.
In all countries the broadest strata of the population have
been mobilized in support of this great cause — the preservation
of peace.
Then the pied wind-flowers and the tulip tall, || And narcissi,
the fairest among them all... ( S h e l l e y . ) ...the rest of the
house had grown, emerging here and there into small oases of
22
modernity. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Shelgrim wrote a few memoranda
on his calendar pad, and signed a couple of letters before turning
to Presley. (N о r r i s.)

Expression of Number in Different Classes of Nouns


Not all nouns have both numbers, singular and plural. There
are nouns which are used only in the singular (snow, water, friend-
ship, bravery) and nouns which are used only in the plural (scissors
[ножницы], eye-glasses [очки]).

Nouns Used in Both Numbers


Singular and Plural
It is quite evident that only those nouns have both numbers
(singular and plural) which denote things that can be counted, that
is, things possessing a certain shape or having precise limits. Such
nouns may be called c o u n t a b l e s or t h i n g - n o u n s . To the
group of nouns which have both numbers belong:
a) C o n c r e t e n o u n s : a girl—two girls; a book — two books;
a flower — two flowers.
He took the loaf back to the scullery. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Brown,
crisp loaves stood on the hearth. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Flowers fell
on her face, and she shut her eyes... One flower had remained
tangled in her hair. ( L a w r e n c e . )
b) A b s t r a c t n o u n s : a day — two days; an event — two
events; a task — two tasks.
Captain Cuttle liked this idea very much. (Di с k e n s . ) A new
generation is growing up in our midst, a generation actuated by
new ideas and new principles. ( J o y c e . ) It was a momentary
thought... ( D i c k e n s . ) Andrew went back to Christine that
evening with his thoughts in a maze. (С г о n i n.) I tried to
shout but my voice was not very loud. ( H e m i n g w a y . ) Voices
and footsteps were heard in the passage... ( C o n r a d . )
Nouns which have both numbers (countables) may be used with
the Adefinite article (in the singular) and associated with the
projJuns some (in the singular or plural), many and few (in the
pl#l):
A ring at the bell, repeated several times, roused him at
last to go to the door. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) What a night to
wander out in! ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Towards the evening of the
following day, ...a letter arrived addressed to herself. ' ( С о p-
p a r d . ) A few early fallen oak-leaves strewed the terrace...
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He had many invitations to dinner some of
23
which he accepted. ( L o n d o n . ) Passing through a sort of porch
made by two yew trees and some flowering-current bushes, the
girl disappeared into the house. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

Nouns Used Only in the Singular


Nouns denoting things which have neither shape nor precise
limits cannot be counted and therefore have no distinction between
singular and plural; they are used only in the singular. Such nouns
may be called u n c o u n t a b l e s or m a s s - n o u n s . To the group
of nouns used only in the singular belong:
a) C o n c r e t e nouns:
1. Names of materials: water, milk, wine, snow, bread, air.
On my breakfast table there is a pot of honey. ( G i s s i n g . )
...there was the cool sound of milk dropping into pails... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) We didn't take beer or wine. ( J e r o m e . ) Seizing
ink and writing-paper, she began to write... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. Some collective nouns: foliage, leafage, shrubbery, brushwood,
linen (белье), machinery, furniture:
Birds fluttered softly in the wet shrubbery... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
H e - h a d chosen the furniture himself. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...he
took a narrow ride up through a dark bit of mixed timber with
heavy undergrowth. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) '
b) A b s t r a c t n o u n s : friendship, joy patriotism, love, kindness,
weather, courage, information, progress, etc.:
There was a great deal of confusion and laughter and noise...
( J o y c e . ) It was beautiful weather. ( L a w r e n c e . ) At parting,
my aunt gave me some good advice... ( D i c k e n s . ) A sudden
tide of joy went leaping out of his heart. ( J o y c e . )
Nouns used only in the singular (uncountables) have no article
where a noun which expresses both numbers (countable) would be
associated with the indefinite article; they may be used with the
pronouns what, some, much or little:
Perfect harvest weather; but oppressively still... ( G a l s w o r -
t h y . ) Everyone gave him advice... ( J o y c e . ) Of course this
was good news. ( L o n d o n . ) "What delightful weather we are
having!" ( W i l d e.) What beauty, what stillness! (G a 1 s w о r t h у.) He
had anticipated much pleasure in this afternoon's reading... ( H a r d y.)
"But have some tea. I've just made it." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Some collective nouns used only in the plural also belong to
the group of uncountables such as: goods, sweepings, tidings, etc.
(See "Nouns Used Only in the Plural", p. 28)
24
The Development or Loss of Plural Forms in Connection
with a Change or Variation of Meaning of the Noun
1. A number of nouns in English which are used only in the
singular (uncountables) may through a change or variation of mean-
ing acquire the forms of both numbers, singular and plural (and
thus become countables). This is found in the following instances:
a) Material nouns which are used only in the singular (uncoun-
tables) express both numbers, singular and plural (countables), when
they denote different sorts:
"This is a very rare and most delicious wine. ( D i c k e n s . )
There are many different wines on this list. The teas (tobac-
cos) of this plantation are of a very good quality. We produce
high quality steels.
N o t e . — When a material noun serves to denote an object made of that
material, it becomes a class-noun and may be used in both numbers:
Give me a glass (two glasses) of water. I have bought a new iron (two-
new irons). A copper, two coppers (медная монета, медяк).
b) The noun hair is used in the singular (волосы); hairs is used
only with the meaning of a few separate hairs (волосок, волоски):
...this girl's hair was chestnut, almost auburn. (La M u r e . )
She has a few grey hairs. She has more hair than wit, and
more faults than hairs. ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
c) The noun fruit is used in the singular. The plural form fruits
denotes different kinds of fruit:
The fruit is not yet ripe. Wq have much fruit this year:
But: The' fruits were local, consisting of apples, pears, nuts, and
such other products of the summer... ( H a r d y . )
The plural form fruits is also used when the meaning is figur-
ative:
Fruits of the workers' toil are buried in the strong coffers
of a few. ( T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e . ) The rich fruits of the •
faroic labour of Soviet people are visible from all corners of
Ж е earth, and they are an inspiration to the citizens of other
Mountries advancing along the path of Socialism.
d) Abstract nouns which are used only in the singular (uncoun-
tables), taken in a general sense, acquire both numbers (and thus.
become countables) when they express concrete instances or special
aspects of the notion which they denote:
It has been such a joy to see you and Holly. ( G a l s w o r -
t h y ) . ...he sympathised with their joys and griefs. (N o r r i s . )
25
...now I remembered that the real world was wide, and that a
varied field of hopes and fears, of sensations and excitements,
awaited those who had courage to go forth into its expense to
seek real knowledge of life amidst its perils. ( В г о п 1 ё . ) ...May
night had fallen soft and warm, enwrapping with its grapebloom
colour and its scents the billion caprices, intrigues, passions,
longings, and regrets of men and women. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Little Sharp, with her secret griefs, was the heroine of the
day. ( T h a c k e r a y . ) When sorrows come, they come, not sin-
gle spies, II But in battalions. ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
N o t e . — W h e n such nouns as beauty, youth, etc. do not denote abstract
qualities but people characterized by those qualities, they become class-nouns
and are used in both numbers (like countable nouns): a beauty (красавица),
•a youth (юноша);
This girl is a real beauty. The youths were marching with red banners-
Some abstract nouns are used in English only in the singular
{uncountables), whereas in Russian the corresponding nouns are used
in both numbers (countables): information, news, business, advice,
work (работа), progress (успех), and others:
"What sort of work did you do?" ( V o y n i c h . ) "You always
give me good advice..." ( D i c k e n s . ) "This news has shaken
me, Eliot." ( S n o w . )
She is making splendid progress in English.
To indicate concrete instances of advice, information, etc., the
words piece or item are used:
You tell them one or two items of news. ( J e r o m e . ) "It is
a very strange piece of business!" I added... ( B r o n t ё . ) "...I'd
like to give you a little piece of advice." (La M u r e . ) She
gave me one piece of intelligence, which affected me very
much... ( D i c k e n s . )
2. Sometimes material nouns and abstract nouns are used in the
plural with emphatic force:
The frozen snows of the Arctic; the sands of the Sahara
Desert; the blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea; a thousand
thanks; a thousand pities.
The thunders bellowed over the wild waste of waters, and
were echoed and prolonged by the mountain waves. ( I r v i n g . )
"Thanks. A thousand and one thanks. ( M a x w e l l . ) Far off,
Tising in an immense slope, ...Etna soars towards the heavens,
sending from the summit, on which the snows still linger, a
steady plume of ivory smoke. ( H i t c h e n s . ) "...it would be
a thousand pities to throw away such a chance of fun." ( B r o n -
t e . ) Far below, ...I heard the unseen tumbling of the waters.
(Cr o n in.) "A thousand pardons?" ( D i c k e n s , ) At sleepy inter-
26
vals the surf flung its foam across the sands to the grass...
( L o n d o n . ) (See "Emphasis," p. 426)
3. A number of nouns which express both singular and plural
(countables) may with a change of meaning be used only in the
singular (thus becoming uncountables). This is the case:
a) When the name of an animal is used to denote its flesh
u s e d as f o o d :
A fat brown goose lay at one end of the table... ( J o y c e . )
(a countable noun) — While Gabriel and Miss Daly exchanged
plates of goose and plates of ham and spiced beef, Lily went
from guest to guest... ( J o y c e . ) "(an uncountable noun) Two
white swans came majestically by... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (a coun-
table noun) "I have n-never eaten roast swan b-before," I stam-
mered... ( M a u r i er.) (an uncountable noun)
b) When the names of trees are used to indicate t h e c o r r e -
sponding kind of wood as m a t e r i a l or as live
plants:
And among the oaks the bluebells stood in pools of azure...
( L a w r e n c e . ) (a countable noun) — "Oak", he exclaimed. "All
carved oak, right up the ceiling..." ( J e r o m e . ) (an uncountable
noun) ...beautiful woods of birch, fir, and pine cast their
shadows through the carriage window as we speed along.
( M a r s h . ) (an uncountable noun) ...a narrow strip of larch and
beech... stretched out towards the valley... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
(uncountable nouns) ...I come into a lane, which winds upwards
between grassy slopes to... woods of noble beech. ( G i s s i n g . )
(an uncountable noun)
c) When the nouns tree, bush, twig, etc., do not indicate sepa-
rate objects but an indivisible whole (compare with the meaning of
such nouns as leafage, blossom, brushwood, also with the Russian
листва, цвет, кустарник — собирательные существительные):
It (the tree) was covered with young blossoms, pink and
white...; and on all this blossom... the sunlight glistened.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (1. a countable noun; 2. an uncountable noun)—
... the may-flower, both pink and white, was in full bloom.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (a countable noun) ...an old orchard of apple-
Jtrees just breaking into flower, stretched down to a stream and
a long wild meadow. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (an uncountable noun)
...a few gold leaves are still hanging... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (a coun-
table noun) The apple-tree was in leaf, and all but in flower — its
crimson buds just bursting. (Galsworthy.) (uncountable
nouns) In that early spring a few buds were showing already.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (a countable noun) — He leaned against one oT
27
the satin-smooth stems, under the lacery of twig and bud.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (uncountable nouns)
d) When the name of an object is used to denote substance,
that is, when it becomes the name of a material:
The summits of these vast mountains were enveloped in
clouds... ( A n g a s . ) (a countable noun) ...the sky was lined
with a uniform sheet of dripping cloud... ( H a r d y . ) (an uncoun-
table noun) Gemma... presently returned with an egg beaten
up in milk. ( V o y n i c h . ) (a countable noun) — Egg is on your
coat, (an uncountable noun) A load that lay on Hood's mind
like a rock suddenly rose like an eagle... ( C h e s t e r t o n . )
(a countable noun) — Grass ceases to grow, and the track is
almost lost to view among piles of loose slaty rock. ( M a r s h . )
(an uncountable noun)

Nouns Used Only in the Plural


1. A number of nouns are used only in the form of the plural.
With these nouns the plural does not indicate several odjects but
denotes a composite whole.
2. To the group of nouns which are used only in the plural form
belong:
a) The names of things which consist of t w o s i m i l a r h a l v e s
such as scissors, trousers, spectacles, scales (весы), eye-glasses, tongs
(щипцы);
These scissors are sharp. Your spectacles are on the table.
Your opera-glasses are very good.
b) Nouns which have c o l l e c t i v e meaning (concrete or ab-
stract):
1. C o n c r e t e : stairs, goods, eaves, slums, outskirts, tropics„
memoirs, victuals [vitlz] (провизия), supplies, clothes, sweepings,
slops (помои), preserves (консервы), parings (кожура), sweets, lodgings
(sometimes) lodging-, but always board and lodging), etc.:
The car went smoothly and swiftly through the outer suburbs...
( C u s a c k . ) Beads of water still dripped from the eaves... (La
M u r e . ) At last they reached the outskirts of the forest...
( W i l d e . ) "Got any lodgings —"No." ( D i c k e n s . ) "Come, hand
• in eatables." ( D i c k e n s . ) My clothes were my Sunday best.
( B r a i n e . ) "I say, can you let a lodging?" ( L o n d o n . )
2. A b s t r a c t : holidays, tidings, goings-on (поступки), begin-
nings (also beginning), earnings, wages (often in the singular,
especially in the following combinations: a living wage, a fixed
wage, a minimum wage), contents, etc.:
28
She tried to adjust herself to her new surroundings. (Cu-
s a c k . ) These are indeed happy tidings. We get good wages.
They spent their holidays . in the mountains. Bad beginnings
make good endings (первый блин комом). "Well," said Wardle,
"'here are pretty goings-on..." ( D i c k e n s . ) He told me of
some of his doings. ( S n o w . )

3. In some nouns the final -s loses the meaning of the plural


inflexion and the noun is treated as a singular. This is the case
with the names of sciences and occupations in -ics: mathematics,
phonetics, optics, which are usually considered as singular:
Phonetics is the science of sounds. Mathematics-is his strong
point. Optics is a branch of physics; it treats of light.
These nouns are treated as plurals when practical application is
meant:
His phonetics are excellent. The acoustics of this hall are
good.
Politics, tactics, gymnastics, athletics are -generally regarded as
plurals. I
"The only politics I understand," answered Magnus sternly,
"are honest politics." ( N o r r i s . )
4. With fcme nouns the usage wavers, and the noun is treated
either as a s j g u l a r or as a plural:
The gas-works is (are) situated on the river. Price's works
was small. ( B e n n e t t . ) To-day we are going to visit a great
smelting-works... ( M a r s h . )
It should be noted that with regard to nouns used only in the
plural the English and the Russian usage sometimes. differ. Thus the
noun opera-glasses is used in English only in the plural, whereas in
Russian бинокль has both numbers. The' noun сани is used in
Russian only in the plural, in English sledge has both numbers.
Other nouns are used in one language only in the plural, in the
other — only in the singular. Thus in Russian the noun сумерки
is used only in the plural, whereas in English the noun twilight is
used only in the singular.

Nouns Used in the Plural in a Special Sense

In some cases the plural form If the noun does not express
mere plurality (as in tables = table + table...) but acquires a special
meaning. Very often the plural form, j besides this specific meaning,
29
may also retain the exact meaning of the singular thus resulting in
two homonymous words:
colour— tint, colours— 1) plural of tint, 2) flag:
"I do not mean regimental colours, but the watercolours."-
(Shaw.)
custom — habit, customs= 1) plural of habit, 2) duties:
Many old customs are dying out. Customs (пошлины) are
duties imposed by law on goods imported and exported.
pain = suffering, pains= 1) plural of suffering, 2) effort:
She enlivened our journey by describing to us... the various
• pains she had in her back. ( J e r o m e . ) "I have examined Adele,
and find you have taken great pains with her... ( B r o n t ё . )
quarter = fourth part, quarters= 1) plural of fourth part, 2)
lodgings:
I have read three quarters of the book. We found hiin in
his old quarters. -
work = toil, labour; works in various senses: the works of a
watch (механизм часов), works of art, etc.

Double Plural Forms


Some nouns have double plurals used with some difference of
meaning:
( 1) brothers (sons of one mother)
brother \ 2) brethren (members of one community)
/ 1) geniuses (men of genius)
genius \ 2) genii (spirits)
( 1) pennies (number of coins)
penny \ 2) pence (amount of pennies in value)
f 1) staffs (military staffs [штаб], staffs [штат] of an
staff { institution)
{ 2) staves (sticks)
/ 1) cloths (kinds of cloth)
cloth \ 2) clothes (articles of dress)
f 1) indexes (tables of contents)
index \ 2) indices (in mathematics)
Case

C a s e is the form of the noun (or pronoun) built up by means


of inflexion, which indicates the relations of the noun (or pronoun)
30
to the other words in • the sentence. Thus case-inflexion is ' one of
the means of showing the syntactical function of the noun (or pro- .
noun), in the sentence.
In the earlier stages English had a more developed system of cases by means,
of which the various syntactical functions of nouns or pronouns in a sentence
were marked. In Old English there were the following four cases: n o m i n a -
tive, genitive, dative'and accusative.
When a noun was used as the subject of a sentence, it was in the n o m i -
n a t i v e case, the indirect object was in the dative; certain adverbial relations
were indicated by means of the a c c u s a t i v e case, while others required the
g e n i t i v e , etc. But in the course of time the original nominative, dative and
accusative merged into one uninflected form, the c o m m o n c a s e (boy, book),
except in some pronouns which have still preserved distinct forms for the nomi-
native and objective (personal pronouns I — me, etc., and the interrogative pro-
noun who — whom). The old genitive case is represented in Modern English by
the inflected p o s s e s s i v e c a s e of nouns (boy's, bird's) and some pronouns
(ones, somebody's). Thus we see that Modern English has two systems of cases,
one for nouns, another for some pronouns.
In place of the old case inflexions certain prepositions are used in Modern
English to render some of the meanings expressed in other languages by the
genitive, dative, accusative and instrumental cases. The prepositions thus used
are: of, to, for, with, and by.
Thus the preposition of may te used to render some relations expressed by
the Russian genitive case (the leg of the table — ножка стола); the prepositions
to and for may indicate some relations of the dative case (He gave the book to
the boy. He bought a book for the boy он дал (купил) книгу мальчику); the
prepositions by and with may render some meanings of the instrumental case (The
exercises were corrected by the teacher — упражнения были исправлены препода-
вателем; I usually write with a fountain-pen — я обычно пишу авторучкой).
When prepositions are thus employed, their lexical meaning usually weakens-
(For the lexical meaai^£ of the prepositions of, to, by, with see "The Preposition",
p. 308).
Besides prepdSTTions, the fixed word order of the English sentence is also an
important means of denoting the various syntactical functions of a noun in the
sentence; the subject regularly precedes the predicate-verb, whereas the direct
object follows iit. The indirect object precedes the direct. A change of word
order brings about a corresponding change of the syntactical relations and gives
the sentence another meaning:
The teacher (subject) helped the pupil (direct object). — Учитель помог'
» ученику. The pupil (subject) helped the teacher (direct object). — Ученик
помог учителю. The pupil handed the teacher (indirect object) his exercise
(direct object).
The noun in Modern English has two cases: t h e common
c a s e and t h e p o s s e s s i v e c a s e .

The Common Case


The c o m m o n c a s e in English is characterized by the zero-
inflexion: a girl, a child, a garden, a tree.
The common case has a very general and indefinite meaning.
The noun in the common case may have various functions in the
sentence, which are defined syntactically by means of word order
and prepositions.
31
Thus when a noun in the common case precedes the predicate
. verb, it usually is the s u b j e c t of the sentence; when it follows
the predicate verb, it usually is the d i r e c t o b j e c t :
The old woman (subject)... lifted the child (direct object)...
(Galsworthy.)
Placed after a link-verb it is a p r e d i c a t i v e :
It was a rainy evening. ( L a w r e n c e . )
Placed between the transitive verb and its direct object it is the
indirect object:
I wish Jane success with all my heart. ( A u s t e n . )
Preceded by the preposition to the noun may be:
a) a p r e p o s i t i o n a l i n d i r e c t o b j e c t :
I hand the first book to my mother. ( D i c k e n s . )
or b) an a d v e r b i a l m o d i f i e r indicating the place towards
which the action of the verb is directed:
Paul went... to the orchard. ( L a w r e n c e . )
When used with the preposition by it is a p r e p o s i t i o n a l
o b j e - c t indicating the agent of the action expressed by the passive
predicate verb:
...he was suddenly awakened by a loud knocking at his cham-
ber-door... ( D i c k e n s . )
With the preposition of it may be an a t t r i b u t e to another
noun: i
...at last they reached the outskirts of the forest... ( W i l d e . )
Compare with the Russian, where these various relations would
jbe expressed by different case-forms without or with a preposition:
Старуха подняла ребенка. От всего сердца я желаю Джейн
успеха. Был дождливый вечер. Я даю первую книгу моей ма-
тери. Поль пошел в фруктовый сад. Он был внезапно разбу-
жен громким стуком в дверь комнаты. Наконец, они достигли
рпушки леса.

The Possessive Case

1. T h e p o s s e ' s s i v e c a s e represents in Modern EnglishtheOld


English genitive case but it is much narrower in its meaning and
function.
In Old English the genitive case had * a very wide range of
,meaning and function and was freely used with all nouns, denoting
32
living beings as well as lifeless things (compare with the Russian
genitive case). A noun in the genitive case was not only used as an
attribute to some other noun, but also as an object to some verbs
and adjectives (compare with the Russian ножка стола, не хватает
времени, стакан полный воды) and as an adverbial modifier as well.
2. In Modern English the use of the possessive case is restricted
chiefly to nouns denoting living beings and its syntactical function
is exclusively that of an attribute:
The Blind Girl, greatly agitated, rose, and led the Carrier's
little wife aside. ( D i c k e n s . ) Annette's clear eyes opened...
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Martin ran out of money, and publishers' checks
were far away as ever. ( L o n d o n . ) Irene's lips quivered... ( G a l s -
worthy.)
But even within the attributive function, with nouns expressing
living beings, the possessive case cannot render all the meanings of
the genitive case. The meaning of the possessive case is much narrow-
er than that of the genitive case. The possessive case expresses
p o s s e s s i o n with various shades of meaning depending on the
lexical meaning of the words:
Compare: the bo\^s book; the boy's head; the boy's mother.

All the other meanings of the genitive case are not expressed by
the possessive case. For example: Группа детей играет в саду — the
so-called "genitive of composition" (родительный состава) which
expresses the relation of the whole (группа) to the component , parts
(детей) is rendered in English not by the possessive case, but by the
so-called "of-phrase" (a noun with the preposition of):
On the shore was a group of fishermen... ( H i t c h e n s . ) One
evening, ... a flock of large beautiful birds rose out of the brush-
wood. ( A n d e r s e n . )
Neither can the possessive case express the relation of the so-called
"objective genitive" (родительный объекта), which indicates that the
person (or thing) denoted by the noun in the genitive case is the
object of the action expressed by the root of the governing noun:
Его рисунки детей очень хороши (ср.: Он рисует детей очень хо-
рошо). This relation is also rendered in English by the of-phrase:
His drawings of children are very good.
With nouns denoting inanimate things and abstract notions the
possessive case relation is rendered by the of-phrase (which then is
an equivalent of the possessive case):
...the first light of the winter dawn crept round the edges
of the blinds. ( S n o w . ) The door of his room was open... ( G a l s -
worthy.)
3—3300 33
The o/-phrase may also be used with nouns denoting living
beings:
The father of Keesh had been a very brave man... ( L o n d o n ) .
3. The possessive case is formed by the inflexion 's.
The possessive case inflexion is pronounced: [z,s,iz]
[z[ after voiced consonants and vowels: man's, dog's;
[s] after voiceless consonants: Frank's, cat's;
[iz] after sibilants: actress's, Jame's, fox's.
The noun in the possessive case precedes the noun which it mod-
ifies.
The possessive case inflexion is the only case inflexion which has survived
in Modern English (the common case has the zero-inflexion). The 's may be only
conditionally called an inflexion. This ending does not merge so closely with
the stem of the noun as does the inflexion of the noun in Russian. The 's
expresses only case, whereas the inflexion of the noun in Russian combines the
expression of case, number and gender. In English the 's is independent of num-
ber: the child's toys — the children's toys.
This independence of the 's, its loose connection with the noun, is especially
clear in the so-called "group-possessive", where 's is added only to the last of
the nouns (Helen, Mary and Ann's teacher) and in some cases even not to a
noun, if the last word of the group happens to be another part of speech (The
man who called yesterday's son — here 's is added to the word yesterday, which
is not a noun, but an adverb).

4. The possessive case inflexion -s [z, s, iz}: is added:


a) To the stem of the noun in the singular: the pupil's exer-,
cise, the actress's voice, the child's mother.
b) To the stem of those nouns in the plural which do not form
their plural by adding the inflexion -(e)s: children's voices,
women's rights.
If the plural of the noun is formed by the inflexion -(e)s, the
possessive case inflexion blends into one with the plural inflex-
ion, and -(e)s, [z, s, izl represents both the plural and the possessive
case. The apostrophe is placed after the noun: the students'
exercises, workers' tools, actresses's voices.
After supper Mary came into the boys' room. ( G o r d o n . )

5. When a proper name ends in -s only an apostrophe is usually


added in spelling, but the full inflexion [iz] is pronounced:
R. Fox' I'foksiz] letters, Wells' Workst Burns' poems. But it
is also correct to add 's; Burns's poems.
It was a fine afternoon, and he walked across the Park to-
wards Soames' where he intended to dine. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Biggs's boy... came round the corner. ( J e r o m e . )
34
6. In case of a compound noun, the possessive case inflexion is
added at the end:
The Soviet Union's peace policy follows logically from the
progressive nature of the Soviet system, Soviet society, and the
whole Soviet way of life.
She had put her arm through Tod's, but never removed her
eyes from her brother-in-law's face. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
(Compare: possessive case son-in-law's — common case plural
sons-in-law).

f "Group-Possessive"

The possessive case inflexion ('s) may be added to a whole


group of words. In such cases the last element of the group may
even not be a noun.
Ifhe smile soon faded from Aunt Julia's face... ( J o y c e . ) It
"Was four and a half miles' drive. ( L a w r e n c e . ) The rest of
the house was in the French taste of Charles the Second's
tii-пё. ( I r v i n g . ) Everybody drank to everyone - else's hap-
piness. ( C u s a c k . ) The Pyramids stand at the edge of the
desert, ...an hour or two's distance from the city. ( S t a n l e y . )
Diana and Mary's general answer to this question was a sigh,
and some minutes of apparently mournful meditation. ( B r o n t ё . )
Murdstone and Grinby's warehouse was at the water side. ( D i c k -
ens.)
In the last two examples the "group-possessive" expresses that two persons
possess something in common.

Independent Use of the Possessive Case


1. If the noun which is modified by the possessive case has
already been mentioned and is clear from the context, it may be
omitted:
He saw Irene's face alive with startled feeling, gave the
slightest shake of his head, and slipped his arm through Fleur's.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Among the laughter none was more loud and
frequent than the old man's. ( D i c k e n s . ) And suddenly, with
her other hand she caught John's. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...Jon handed
the cigarettes.. He lighted his father's and Fleur's, then one for
himself. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. A special case of the use of the i n d e p e n d e n t p o s s e s s i v e
present instances when the noun in the possessive has l o c a l
m e a n i n g (house, place of business, shop, etc.): at the baker's, at
St. Paul's, at the doctor's, at Timothy's, at my brother's.
In a number of cases the noun acquires a new meaning (bak-
3* 35

£
er's— булочная, butcher's — мясная, chemist's — аптека, florist's —
цветочный магазин, hairdresser's — парикмахерская, etc):
On her way home she usually bought a slice of honey-cake
at the baker's. ( M a n s f i e l d . ) We went into a florist's and
picked out an orchid. ( W i l s o n . ) One week's end Jude was as
usual walking out to her aunt's at Marygreen... ( H a r d y . ) He
was trimming the top of the tall hedge outside the doctor's.
( W e l l s . ) She must go to Mrs. Wilkinson's. ( G a s k e l l . ) He was
on his way to his tutor's to read an essay on Oliver Cromwell...
(Galsworthy.)

The Use of the Possessive Case

1. As a general rule, the possessive case is used with nouns de-


noting l i v i n g b e i n g s (in all other cases the possessive case
equivalent of + common, case [the of-phrase] is used: a boy's leg —
the leg of a table; a man's foot — the foot of a mountain):
Sophia's features were less striking. ( G o l d s m i t h . ) Her
mother... lays her hand upon the girl's shoulder. ( K i n g s l e y . )
; Richard's entrance stopped the conversation. ( D i c k e n s . ) The
young farmer's face lighted up as he saw his friend. ( L a w -
r e n c e . ) It seemed we had moored close to a swan's nest...
(Jerome.)
2. In the following instances the possessive case may be used
with names denoting l i f e l e s s t h i n g s and a b s t r a c t n o t i o n s :
a) With nouns expressing t i m e or d i s t a n c e :
The village Hurley, five minutes' walk from the lock, is as
old a little spot as there is on the river... ( J e r o m e . ) "A good
day's work! The best for many a long month!" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
After some quarter of an hour's absence he returned. ( D i c k e n s . )
Next morning he rose early after a good night's rest. ( C r o n i n . )
All through that two hours' drive in a hired car Jon thought
and thought. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Over the coffee, in his little room
Martin read next morning's paper. ( L o n d o n . ) There was a mo-
ment's silence. ( V o y n i c h . ) .
N o t e . — The possessive case is used with some adverbs of time derived
from nouns — to-day, yesterday, to-morrow:
We have a splendid morning after yesterday's rain. Have you to-day's
newspaper? Yesterday's wireless program was very interesting.
b) Sometimes with names of s e a s o n s , months and days:
It was the dusk of a winter's day. ( C o n r a d . ) We had a
glorious still summer's day without a cloud in the blue sky.
( M a u r i e r . ) In December's dusk the children liked to sit by
the fire.
36
But these nouns are generally used without any inflexion (see
"Adjectivized Nouns"):
He went out and down to the river and stood watching it
flow, tranquil and bright in the golden autumn weather...
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) We got up tolerably early on the Monday
morning at Marlow. ( J e r o m e . ) We are playing in the winter
twilight, dancing about the parlour. ( D i c k e n s . ) It is a fine
summer morning — sunny, soft, and still. ( J e r o m e . )
c) Often with the nouns town, city, country, river, water, ocean,
world, wind, etc.:
She had wandered about the woods by the river's brink all
day... ( J e r o m e . ) He cut a short pole at the water's edge...
( L o n d o n . ) And the wind's rustle was so gentle... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) We wandered to the Pine Forest|| That skirts the
Ocean's foam. ( S h e l l e y . )
During the vacation period the Soviet schoolchildren have a good
rest in the country's numerous summer camps, health resorts and
playgrounds. We went through the town's business streets.
d) In a few set expressions which are a survival of the old time
when the genitive case was freely used with all nouns in English:
To one's heart's content. At one's wit's end. At one's fingers'
ends. To a hair's'breadth. Out of harm's way. For old acquaint-
ance's sake. For appearance's sake, etc.:
...the Doctor, leaning back in his chair, ...held a book from
him at arm's length and read. ( D i c k e n s . ) Jude leaped out of
arm's reach... ( H a r d y . ) When Saturday came round I was at
my wit's end. ( C r o n i n . ) Thedaughterslightlyturned her grace-
ful head, and raising her eyebrows by a hair's breadth, ...turned
her eyes again towards Mr. Domby. ( D i c k e n s . )
3. In the following instances the use of the possessive case is
closely connected with p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n (reference to the pro-
nouns he or she):
a) With the nouns sun, moon, earth:
Soon the pink blazes to gold and the sun's rim gleams along
the horizon. ( G o r d o n . ) And each flower and herb on Earth's
dark breast Ц Rose from the dreams of its wintry rest. ( S h e l l e y . )
b) With the nouns ship, boat, vessel, etc.:
The boats drew away from the ship's side... ( M a u r i e r . )
Bart Templeton leaned on the ship's rail... ( C u s a c k . ) A boat's
trail was left on the water. He stood on the vessel's deck.
c) With the n a m e s of c o u n t r i e s and towns:
87
They [the trees] too, meet the eye everywhere; but what
stands out even more boldly against Moscow's skyline are "iron
trees" — the giant cranes on top of great new buildings. ( J o h n s -
t o n e . ) The sheep are still the great asset in Australia's wealth...
( M a r s h a l l . ) "I am not a sea captain: I can't stand on bridges
in typhoons, or go slaughtering seals and whales in Greenland's
icy mountains." ( S h a w . )
d) With a b s t r a c t n o u n s (especially in poetry):
Duty's call. Music's voice.
Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day|| Stands tiptoe
on the misty mountain top. ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )

The Combination "o/-f-Possessive"

The combination "of + possessive case" (a friend of my broth-


er's) or " o / + possessive pronoun" (a friend of mine) has usually
partitive (разделительное^ meaning, denoting "one of ...":
He is a friend of my brother's ( = one of my brother's friends).
It is a book of mine ( = one of my books). It is a novel of
Galsworthy's ( = one of his novels). But: It is a novel by Gals-
worthy ( = a novel written by Galsworthy).
He was brought up by an old college friend of his father's...
( M a u g h a m . ) A friend of hers had shown her his review of
Browning's poems. ( J o y c e . ) "... Fleur's a cousin of ours, Jon."
(Galsworthy.)
But sometimes the partitive meaning is lost and the construc-
tion acquires e m o t i o n a l force (denoting praise, pleasure, des-
pleasure, etc.) or becomes purely d e s c r i p t i v e :
Do look at this silly wife of yours. ( D i c k e n s . ) Margaret...
was taken by surprise by certain moods of her husband's. ( G a s -
k e l l . ) He hated that pride of hers and secretly dreaded it.
(Galsworthy.)

Objective and Subjective Genitive

When a noun which is modified by the genitive case (the govern-


ing noun) is of verbal origin, the noun in the genitive case (the
governed noun) has the meaning either of the subject or of the ob-
ject of the action expressed by the governing noun and is called
" s u b j e c t i v e g e n i t i v e " or " o b j e c t i v e g e n i t i v e " . T h u s i n
Russian, in the word-combination: приказание отца—-we have the
subjective genitive (отец приказывает — отец is the subject of the
action expressed by the noun приказание); in: наказание ребенка —
38
we have the objective genitive (ребенок is the object of the action
expressed by the noun, наказание).
The possessive case in English usually expresses the .subjective
!genitive relation (His children's drawings are very good = His
very well), whereas the o/-phrase represents the ob-
jective genitive (His drawings of children are exceptionally good =
He draws children exceptionally well). Compare with the Russian
where both meanings are rendered by the genitive case: рисунки его
детей and его рисунки детей:
...he knew that Henry's hatred for him was still deeper.
( G o r d o n . ) [subjective genitive—Henry hated him]. As Anthony
sat in the cafe, he experienced a cold fear of this man. ( G o r -
d о n.) [objective genitive = Anthony feared this man].
With nouns denoting inanimate things, which are not used in
the possessive case, both the subjective and objective genitive are
rendered by the o/-phrase:
Far below, ...I heard the unseen tumbling of the waters.
(Cr o n in.) (subjective genitive.) A padding of unshod hoofs came
up the lane... — ponies on an evening march. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
(subjective genitive.) The fluttering of the leaves had ceased.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (subjective genitive.)
The reading of the article took me a whole hour (objective
genitive).
The o/-phrase may also be used with nouns denoting living
beings to express the subjective genitive relation:
The entrance of the lost child made a slight sensation, but
not much. ( D i c k e n s . ) I opened it [the packet], and read the
writing of Agnes. ( D i c k e n s . )
Traces of the old use of the possessive case to express the ob-
jective genitive are found in poetry: Joy's recollection is no longer
joy.
But usually: ...recollections of pleasure in which he had not
shared... (K i n g s 1 e y.)

A Genitive Governing Another Genitive

If a genitive governs another genitive, as we see in Russian in:


комната жены моего брата, the former is expressed in English by
the of-phrase, the latter by the possessive case: The room of my
brother's wife. The wedding of Brown's sister.
The use of the possessive of both nouns is rare:
Scrooge's niece's sister... expressed the same opinion. (D i с k-
39
e n s ) . "Arabella wrote... to say she had made a stolen match
without her husband's father's consent..." ( D i c k e n s . )
Instances when the Possessive Case Is Not Used with Nouns Denoting
Living Beings

With nouns denoting l i v i n g beings the of-phrase is used


instead of the possessive case:
1) When the indefinite article or a pronoun precedes the govern-
ing noun:
Among the company ...was an old acquaintance of Harry
Esmond... ( T h a c k e r a y . )
These achievements of the late explorer will never be for-
gotten.
The construction "of -f- possessive" is often used in such cases:
Tom had a profound contempt for this nonsense of Maggie's.
(Eliot.)
2) When the governing noun has an attribute expressed by a
noun with a preposition or a subordinate clause:
She is the sister of the girl with whom we were at school
together. The children of the collective farmers from the
neighbouring village spend the summer in this camp.

GENDER
1. In Russian the category of gender is a grammatical division of nouns
into three classes: m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e and n e u t e r shown by the
form of the noun itself: стол (masculine), доска (feminine), окно (neuter).
Adjectives do not form any gender classes by themselves, they agree in gender
with the noun which they modify: большой стол, большая доска, большое окно.
The same concerns pronouns: мой стол, моя дочка, мое окно.
Nouns denoting living beings refer to the masculine or feminine gender
according to the natural sex distinctions. Names of things and abstract notions
may refer to all the three genders: neuter, masculine or feminine. When they
belong to the masculine or feminine gender, the indication of gender is merely
formal (grammatical) without any reference to actual sex distinctions.
2. In Modern English there is no g r a m m a t i c a l g e n d e r .
The noun does not possess any special gender forms, neither does
the accompanying adjective, pronoun or article indicate any gender
agreement with the head-noun: a little boy a little girl, a little
room.
What is still traditionally called gender in English is a division
of nouns into three classes according to their lexical meaning: m a s -
c u l i n e (referred to as he)— names of male beings;' f e m i n i n e
(referred to as she) — names of female beings; n e u t e r (referred t o
as it) — names of lifeless things and abstract notions:
40
M a s c u l i n e : father, boy, brother.
F e m i n i n e : mother, girl, sister.
N e u t e r : table, lamp, kindness, friendship.
The only exceptions are the nouns child and body which are
sometimes referred to as it:
The child has broken its toy.
...she took the baby out of its cradle, and nursed it. ( D i c k -
ens.)
Thus we see that gender in English is expressed lexically by
means of different words: father, mother, book.
There is practically only one gender-forming suffix in English p
the suffix -ess expressing feminine gender. Its chief use is to distin-
guish persons (host — hostess, heir — heiress) and a few animals
(lion — lioness, tiger — tigress).
3. There are nouns which may be applied to both males and
females: "
a) h u m a n b e i n g s : teacher, doctor, friend, servant, parent
neighbour, stranger, student, clerk, novelist, etc.;
b) a n i m a l s : wolf, elephant, bear, sparrow, eagle, etc.;
When it is desirable to restrict those nouns to one sex, a word
is added denoting the sex and thus forming a compound:
a) girl-friend, boy-friend; man-servant, maid-servant; girl-student;
woman (or female)-novelist, women-voters, woman-clerk;
b) he-wolf, she-wolf\ male-elephant, female-elephant; cock-sparrow,
hen-sparrow.
Sometimes proper nouns are used with the names of animals to
show the sex: jack-ass, jenny-ass; billy-goat, nanny-goat; tom-cat. •
In this case the proper name is not capitalized.
Ruth's two girl-cousins were visiting her... ( L o n d o n . ) A large
she-Bear, with a couple of cubs appeared... ( S e t o n - T h o m p s o n . )
Words indicating professions which formerly were used with
reference only to male beings are now used as well when speaking
of women owing to the extension of the activities of women in all
fields: doctor, engineer, journalist, foreman, director, tractor-driver,
mechanic:
My daughter is a mechanic. Ann is a pilot.

Gender of Nouns Denoting Animals '

1. All nouns denoting animals may be considered neuter (re-


ferred to as it):
41
The horse stood where it was stopped, without movement...
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...a large old pointer dog rested its massive
head on the knee of one girl... ( B r o n t ё . ) In its natural state
the hedgehog is nocturnal. ( C h a m b e r s . ) He pushed the dog
aside, but it came leaping back. ( L a w r e n c e . )
Nouns denoting birds, fishes, insects and reptiles are generally
considered as neuter:
A moth has just flown into my candle before I could stop
it! ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Felix saw, the little bird move its head...
(Galsworthy.)
2. In spoken language there is a tendency to associate the names
of animals with the feminine or masculine gender:
a) When the noun indicates the sex of the animal it is generally
spoken of as he or she:
M a s c u l i n e : lion, tiger, bull; also with proper names of ani-
mals: Rover, Jack.
F e m i n i ne: lioness, tigress, cow; Jenny.
...the lion roared again and Francis thought he was just at
the.edge of camp. ( H e m i n g w a y . ) On the window-sill, ...the
little dog Carmen was rolling her eyes. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The
bull lowered his head and-made rumbling noises in his throat.
( O ' F l a h e r t y . ) Pilot pricked up his ears when I came in...
( B r o n t ё . ) Old Tom went to his mare, took up her hoofs one
at a time and examined each shoe. ( S e t o n - T h o m p s o n . )
b) When the sex of the animal is not indicated by the noun,
nouns denoting the l a r g e r and s t r o n g e r animals are generally
associated with the masculine gender, nouns denoting the s m a l l e r
and w e a k e r with the feminine:
M a s c u l i n e : elephant, horse, dog, eagle.
F e m i n i n e : cat hare, parrot.
But: canary — he, fly — he.
The elephant lifted his mighty trunk. The cat has upset her
milk.
The eagle left his rocky nest. ( B y r o n . ) "Try to get hold of
my horse's bridle and lead him to me." ( В г о п ^ ё . ) The air was
so clear and pleasant, and the horse seemed to like the idea of
the ride so much himself, as he stood snorting and pawing at
the garden gate, that I had a great desire to go. ( D i c k e n s . )
Names of animals are associated with feminine gender when their
maternal instinct is referred to:
42
The mother Bear, still on her hind legs, came slowly to-
wards me... ( S e t o n - T h o m p s o n . ) ...her Ithe duck's] attention
was wholly taken up by her nest and her brood. ( S e t o n -
T h o m p s o n . ) ...a bird||Betrays her nest by trying to conceal it.
{В у r on.)
c) In fairy tales and fables the gender of nouns denoting animals
depends on the general characteristics ascribed to the animals:
"Wait a minute", said the monkey proudly, "I can climb."
He ran quickly up the tree and threw the rich ripe fruit to the
ground. There was once a fat old cricket, who thought a good
deal of himself. He had such a big, shining body, and a way of
chirping so loud, that no one could ever forget where he lived.
Next day the Rabbit went to see his friend the Sable (соболь):
she had many daughters and forest people always came to
see her.

Gender of Nouns Denoting Inanimate Things and Abstract


Notions (Personification)
1. Sometimes inanimate things and abstract notions are person-
ified and the nouns denoting them are referred to as belonging to
the masculine or feminine gender. Here are some traditional asso-
ciations:
a) The nouns moon and earth are referred to as femini^, sun
as masculine:
It is pleasant to watch the sun in his chariot of gold, and
the moon in her chariot of pearl. ( W i l d e.) At first the earth
was large and shone in the heavens filling a great part of them,
but every moment she grew smaller and more distant. ( W e l l s.)
People need to rise early to see the sun in all his splendour,
for his brightness seldom lasts the day through. ( I r v i n g . ) The
earth awoke from her winter sleep.
b) The names of v e s s e l s ship, boat, steamer, etc.) are fem-
inine:
...I walked to the boat, which waited with her nose on the
beach. ( C o n r a d . ) The ship moved so smoothly that her onward
motion was imperceptible to the senses of men ... ( C o n r a d . )
As I saw the ship staggering among .-these roaring caverns, it
seemed miraculous that she retained her balance. ( I r v i n g . )
c) The names of other v e h i c l e s (carriage, coach, car) are also
sometimes made feminine by those who work on them:
Off she [a carriage] goes! ( D i c k e n s . ) "Young gent'man —
goes up by her [a coach]". ( H u g h e s . ) ,
43
d) The names of c o u n t r i e s are usually referred to as fem-
inine, especially when the country is not considered as a geographical
territory:
As a fruit-growing country, the Crimea is especially distin-
guished for her grapes; she can also grow peaches, pears, and
plums. France sent her representative to the conference.
But: Ireland is an island; on three sides it is washed by the
Atlantic Ocean.
e) When abstract notions are personified, the masculine gender
is given to nouns suggesting such ideas as s t r e n g t h , f i e r c e -
n e s s , etc.. while the feminine is associated with the idea of
g e n t l e n e s s , b e a u t y , etc.:
Masculine: anger, death, fear, war.
F e m i n i n e : spring, peace, kindness, dawn.
As I heard the waves rushing along the sides of the ship,
and roaring in my very ear, it seemed as if death were raging
round this floating prison seeking for his prey. ( I r v i n g . ) So
the Hail (град) came... He was dressed in grey and his breath
was like ice. ( W i l d e . ) The Autumn gave golden fruit to every
garden, but to the Giant's garden she gave none. ( W i l d e . ) Re-
membrance wakes with all her busy train. ( G o l d s m i t h . )
2. Where there are no traditional associations, English poets are
free to refer nouns of lifeless things and abstract notions to any
gender (masculine or feminine) in case of personification. For instance
O. Wilde in The Happy Prince makes the swallow (ласточка) of
masculine gender and the reed (тростник) of feminine:
One night there flew over the city a little Swallow. His
friends had gone away to Egypt six weeks before, but he had
stayed behind, for he was in love with the most beautiful Reed.
He had met her early in the spring as he was flying down the
river after a big yellow moth... ( W i l d e . ) Once there grew a
beautiful toadstool (мухомор). He grew in the wood under a
large tree.

ADJECTIVIZED NOUNS

As the English language has very few suffixes forming relative


adjectives it freely uses a d j e c t i v i z e d n o u n s to indicate that
the object denoted by the noun is characterized through its relation
to another object (see "The Adjective", p. 81).
An adjectivized noun is a noun turned into an adjective only in
a given sentence, so to say, for the time being, without entering
the vocabulary of the English language as a newly-formed regular
44
adjective. It is an instance of provisional conversion, conversion for
the occasion.
In the sentence It was a purely family gathering the word family
is an adjectivized noun, but in the dictionary this word is marked
as a noun. Similarly, in the sentence They receive evening and weekly
papers the word evening is an adjectivized noun; in the dictionary
it is listed as a noun.
But there is, of course, no hard and fast line of demarcation
between an adjectivized noun and a regular adjective formed from a
noun by means of conversion, such as chief, choice, gold, cotton, etc.;
an adjectivized noun may in the course of time turn into a regular
adjective, may develop degrees of comparison as is the case with
such converted adjectives as chief and choice (originally only nouns):
the chief est trouble, the choicest company.
An adjectivized noun used attributively may be c o - o r d i n a t e d
with r e g u l a r a d j e c t i v e s (asyndetically or by means of a co-
ordinative conjunction) which shows that it is treated as an ad-
jective:

He said it in a brisk, business tone (the adjectivized noun


business is co-ordinated asyndetically with the adjective brisk).
They receive London and provincial papers (the adjectivized
noun London is co-ordinated with the adjective provincial by
means of the co-ordinative conjunction and). Do you prefer
country or urban life? (the adjectivized noun country is co-ordi-
nated with the adjective urban by means of the co-ordinative
conjunction or). Mounted and foot militia kept order in the
streets. The children greatly enjoyed the open air, healthy life
of the camp.
The prop-word one which is used in English when an adjective
used as an attribute stands without its head-noun, may also follow
an adjectivized noun which thus clearly shows its adjectival nature:
That muslin dress is my best summer one. The house was a
four-storey one. In place of the old wooden house they have
built a beautiful stone one.
Her lower lip had a way of thrusting the middle of her top
one upward. ( H a r d y.)
Adjectivized nouns may be modified by adverbs as regular ad-
jectives are: ,
It was a purely family gathering (the adjectivized noun fam-
ily is modified by the adverb purely). He wrote some really
first-class plays (the adjectivized noun first-class is modified by
the adverb really). We objected on purely business grounds. The
best books by Soviet writers are of truly worljl significance.
45
In such cases as a brick house, a stone bridge, an oak table, the
words brick, stone, and oak are regarded as adjectivized nouns anal-
ogous to regular adjectives denoting the material of which the
thing is made: a woollen dress, a wooden house, an oaken chair
(now rare).
Some of these words denoting material, formerly adjectivized
nouns, have now turned into regular adjectives, and are marked as
such in the dictionary: silk, cotton, gold, silver. These may be used
not only attributively but also predicatively:
The ring is gold. The dress is silk. The shirt is cotton. (But
not: The house is stone. The chair is oak.)
In all the attributive phrases (adjectivized noun + head-noun) the
two elements are regarded as two separate sense-units, as two words:
the adjectivized noun, as a word denoting quality, the head-noun,
as a word denoting substance:
It was a delicious winter night. ( H e n r y . ) Barbara sat by the
oak library table. ( H e n r y . ) The deep-green meadows shone
in the morning dew... ( D i c k e n s . ) He then took from his
waistcoat pocket a little paper... ( J o y c e . ) The farm buildings
were all dim and bluish. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) I looked out and saw
below me smooth grass lawns... ( M a u r i er.) The hawthorn hedg-
es 'are a mass of gleaming blossom... ( G i s s i n g . ) ...soon he
saw slate roofs glittering in the moori light. ( K i n g s l e y . )
But there are instances when both elements are thought of as
constituting one idea, when they are blended into one sense-unit.
Then we speak of a c o m p o u n d n o u n :
When is the post-office open? I want to post a letter. The
nearest savings bank is round the corner. The automobile drew
up at a railroad station. ( L o n d o n . )
An attribute expressed in English by an adjectivized noun is
usually rendered in Russian by a corresponding relative adjective:
It was a purely family gathering.-—Это было чисто семей-
ное собрание. It^ was a warm summer evening. — Был теплый
летний вечер.

THE ARTICLE
The article is a form-word of the noun, and serves to specify it.
There are two articles in Modern English: the indefinite article
and the definite article.
The Indefinite Article. The indefinite article has the forms a or
an and is used with a noun in the singular. The form а [э] is used
before words beginning with a consonant: a book, a house. The form
46
an [эп] is used before words beginning with a vowel: an apple, art
orange.
The indefinite article originated from the numeral one (Old
English an), but not directly from that numeral. The numeral one
acquired the meaning of an indefinite pronoun = a certain (compare
with the Russian: Один товарищ сказал мне это, where один has
also the meaning of a certain — некий, какой-то). The indefinite
article developed from this pronominal one ( = a certain). The orig-
inal numerical meaning is still preserved in the indefinite article
in such expressions as: not a ( = one) word did he say, in a ( = one)
minute; at a blow, at a stretch, of an age, at a time:
They are of an age. Don't speak two at a time. Rome was
not built in a day. His character may be seen at a glance.
A stitch in time saves nine.
Owing to its origin from the numeral one, the use of the indef-
inite article is limited to countable nouns in the singular.
In the plural the noun has n o a r t i c l e in a similar situation:
A drop of rain fell on my hand. Drops of rain fell on m y
hand.
The indefinite article is used before a noun in the singular to
indicate that the object denoted by the noun is one of a class or
group without defining what particular place it occupies in that
class or group. Thus, the indefinite article is used to refer a thing
to a certain class and is therefore a c l a s s i f y i n g article:
Give me a pencil (some pencil or other, it does not matter
which, any pencil will do; the speaker does not point out a
particular object, but only indicates that it is one of a class).
A girl wants to see you. (The speaker merely informs that the
person in question is one of those human beings whom we call
"girls.")
The noun which is used with the indefinite article may have
a descriptive attribute. A descriptive attribute describes the person
or thing denoted by the noun or gives some additional information.
Such an attribute only narrows the class to which the object denot-
ed by the noun belongs but does not show that the speaker singles
out one particular object within that narrowed class:
Give me a red pencil (any pencil out of the class of red
pencils). A young girl of about seventeen wants to see you.
(The person in question is one of those human beings whom
we call "young girls of about seventeen.")
The Definite Article. The definite article has two pronuncia-
tions: [5i] before a vowel [3i aspl] and [9э] before a consonant [Зэ
'buk].
•47
The definite article the is a weakened form of the Old English
demonstrative pronoun (nominative se; dative ']эает; accusative '|эопе,
etc.) which in Old English, besides the function of a demonstrative,
had also the function of the article. The demonstrative force of the
definite article is still felt in such expressions as nothing of the
«(that) kind; at the (that) time; under the (those) circumstances; for
the (that) purpose.
The definite article is used before a noun to show that in the
mind of the speaker and the hearer the object denoted by the noun
is marked as a definite object, distinct from all other objects of a
class or group of objects of a certain description. That is why the
definite article is an i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g or l i m i t i n g article. This
article is used before nouns in. the plural, as well as before nouns
in the singular number:
Give me the pencil. (The speaker indicates that he has a
definite pencil in mind, that which is on the table, in the hand
of the person addressed, etc.) The girl has come. (The speaker
points out a particular girl, that girl who was expected to come,
who has already been spoken about, etc.)
When the noun is used with the definite article the context
or the whole situation shows that the mind of the speaker is con-
centrated on that particular object:
..".the sharp wind beats, the windows rattle and the chimneys
growl. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...she ran so fast that we were very near
. the cottage before I caught her. ( D i c k e n s . ) He wheeled his
bicycle into the barn. ( L a w r e n c e ) . Stars were sparkling out
there over the river... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The use of a l i m i t i n g a t t r i b u t e is a means to show in
the context of the sentence that the object denoted by the noun is
singled out by the speaker from all objects of the same description
and is therefore used with the definite article:
...at last they reached the outskirts of the forest, and saw,
far down in the valley beneath them the lights of the village
in which they dwelt. ( W i l d e . ) Both uncles then began to talk
about the years they had spent in England... ( M a z o d e l a
R o c h e . ) The room where we sat was small and dingy...
( L e a c o c k . ) ...the song of birds... filled the air... ( D i c k e n s . )
The room in which the boys were fed, was a large stone hall...
(Dickens.)
The definite article is also used to refer back to an object which
has already been mentioned:
Peggotty had a basket of refreshments on her« knee, ...Peg-
gotty always went to sleep with her chin upon the handle of
48
the basket, her hold of which never relaxed... ( D i c k e n s . )
...she... brought out... a purse which she put into my hand,
...1 had now leisure to examine the purse. ( D i c k e n s . )
Absence of the Article. In a number of cases the noun is
associated neither with the definite nor with the indefinite article.
But not every absence of the article is a mere omission of it. We
can speak of the omission of the article when it is dropped in
newspaper headings (The local weekly newspaper came out in ban-
ner headlines: uHeroic Act of Local Boy") ( G o r d o n ) , in stage
remarks (Crossing to window and looking out). ( G a l s w o r t h y ) ,
in telegrams (Wire definite answer), in dictionaries, etc. Here the
omission of the article is a question of conciseness of style and
the definite or indefinite article may easily be inserted without
affecting the meaning (Att Heroic Act of a Local Boy. Crossing
to the window... Wire a definite answer.)
But very often the absence of t|pe definite or indefinite article
has definite meaning and is an established rule in the language.
Here the insertion of the definite or indefinite article would bring
about a change of meaning.
Compare the following examples:
This book deals with the problem of language. (Here lan-
guage is used in its most general sense, the abstract idea of
language as such, but not one of the existing languages.)
French is a Romanic language. (Here a Romanic language
is one of the existing languages.)
The language of the people who live in Holland is called
Dutch. (Here the language means a particular language, that is
spoken by the Dutch.)
The apple-tree was in full blossom. (We do not think of the
separate little blossoms, but of the process of blossoming which
made the tree look quite white.)
Compare: A white blossom fell on her shoulder. (One of the
many white blossoms that covered the apple-tree.)
The little blossom that I picked from the tree was like a
snow flake. (That particular blossom that I picked from the tree,
a definite blossom out of all the blossoms covering the tree.)

From the above-mentioned examples we see that the! absence of


the article has generalizing force; it shows that we do not have in
view an individual object (definite or indefinite) belonging to a class
of similar objects, but express more abstract, more general ideas.
Thus we find the absence of the article with nouns used in a gen-
eral sense, which are the names of materials, such as water, snow,
bread, or the names of abstract notions, such as friendship, love,
science (uncountable nouns):
1—3300- 49
Deep snow covered the ground. What fine weather we are
having!
In a similar situation a class-noun (countable) would have the
indefinite article:
A white blossom lay on the ground. What a fine day it ist
A noun used without an article may have discriptive attributes
which narrow the meaning of the noun but do not affect the gen-
eralizing force of the absence of the article:
This cupboard is made of hard polished oak. (Hard polished oak
indicates a special sort of oak, but the noun remains a name of
material [uncountable] and the absence of the article marks it.)
Thisstatue is a masterpiece of ancient a.rt. (Ancient art is narrow-
er in its meaning than art in general, but the noun remains an
abstract noun, an uncountable.)
Compare: It is a real pleasure to see you well again. (Here the
indefinite article is used to show that the noun pleasure denotes
one of the concrete manifestations of the feeling of pleasure and
thus is treated as a countable.) It is a very good wine. (Here the
noun wine denotes one particular sort of wine out of the many
existing sorts and is therefore a countable.) I hope we shall soon
have the pleasure of seeing you again. (The pleasure means that
particular pleasure which we derive from your company.) The coffee
we drank was very strong. (The coffee means that particular coffee
which we drank on that particular occasion.)

THE USE OF THE ARTICLE WITH


DIFFERENT CLASSES OF NOUNS

COMMON NOUNS
CLASS-NOUNS
C l a s s - n o u n s (which belong to the group of countable nouns)
are used with the definite or indefinite article; the choice of the
article depends on the context or the general situation:
A little lighthouse began to shine. ( G i s s i n g . ) Manson leaped
from the train and walked quickly down the platform...
(Cr o n in.)

The Use of the Indefinite Article with Class-Nouns


When a class-noun in the singular denotes an object which is
considered as one of a class of similar objects, no matter which,
the indefinite article (a, an) is used; a noun in the plural indicating
50
an indefinite number of objects of a certain class is used without
an article.
A class-noun used with the indefinite article has either no
attribute at all or a descriptive attribute.
Here are some examples when the noun has no attribute what-
soever:
She walked on and reached a station, hot and cross. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) Near at hand, upon a shelf, were his books.
( N o r г is.» I leaned against a gate... ( B r o n t ё . ) ...here and
there a star shone. ( L o n d o n . ) A goldfish rose to the surface
of the little pond... ( N o r r i s . l It was Presley's work table, and
was invariably littered with papers, ...notebooks, pens... (Nor-
ris.)
Here are some examples when the noun has a descriptive attri-
bute.* The examples are classified according to the type of the
descriptive attribute.
a) The noun has a descriptive attribute expressed by an
a d j e c t i v e or a p a r t i c i p l e . An adjective has usually descrip-
tive force. Though in some cases it may be a limiting attribute
(see the example with the adjective soft given in the footnote):
It was a glistening, white-and-blue day. ( L a w r e n c e . )
Soft white clouds began to spread their wings over the roads.
(Galsworthy.) We could see a wild stone-walled park.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) A little, round clock ticked solemnly. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) It was a glorious morning, late spring or early
summer... ( J e r o m e . ) What a still, hot, perfect day! What
a golden desert this spreading moor! ( B r o n t e . ) It was a cold
dark night. ( D i c k e n s . ) The boys were glad to find a blazing
fire... ( D o d g e . )
b) The noun has a descriptive attribute expressed by a noun
w i t h a p r e p o s i t i o n (especially the preposition of):
A long soft ripple of wind flowed over the corn, and brought
a puff of warm air into their faces. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) And now
his eldest daughter, a girl of fifteen, ...looked after the two
younger children. ( L a w r e n c e . ' A woman with dark hair and
a thin, straight face and figure was arranging some flowers in

* It should he noted, however, that one and the same attribute may be
descriptive in one context and limiting in another
Thus in the sentence / like to draw with a soft pencil the adjective soft is
a descriptive attribute. But if you offer two pencils to a person, one of which
Is hard and the other soft, and the person says, "/ should like to take the soft
pencil," the adjective soft is a limiting attribute.

51
the hall. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) On the shore there was a group of
fishermen... ( H i t c h e n s . )
c) The noun has a descriptive attribute expressed by a p a r-
t i c i p l e p h r a s e placed after the noun:
On the terrace was a broad wooden bench running round
the walls. ( V o y n i c h . ) He entered the home covert by a path
leading through a group of pear trees just coming into bloom.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It was a low room, ceiled with dark beams...
( K i n g s l e y . ) Yesterday Ipassed by an elm avenue, leading to
a beautiful old house. ( G i s s i n g . ) There were pears and
apples clustered high in blooming pyramids... ( D i c k e n s . ) As
I rode past an orchard, an apple, loosened by the rainstorm,
came down with a thud. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
d) The noun has a descriptive attribute expressed by a n i n f i n -
i t i v e placed after the noun:
"Do you know a new song to teach me?" said Edgar. ( L a w -
r e n c e . ) "Here's a peg to hang your cap on." ( L a w r e n c e . )
She asked him for a book to read. ( L a w r e n c e . ) I was never
allowed a candle to light me to bed. ( D i c k e n s . )
e).The noun has a descriptive attribute expressed by an a t t r i b -
utive clause:
A great lamp, with' a green shade, hung over an easel,
where the artist had been sketching in crayon. ( H e n r y . ) At
last they came to a point where they could descend no fur-
ther... ( K i n g s l e y . ) In May we had a late frost followed by
a thaw which turned everything to slush. ( C r o n i n . )
As has already been stated (see "Expression of Number in Dif-
ferent Classes of Nouns," p. 27) many class-nouns which have both
singular and plural (countables) may through a change of meaning
turn into names of materials or acquire a more general collective
meaning (собирательное значение.) Then they are used only in the
singular (uncountables.) This change of meaning affects the use of
the article. A noun which is used only in the singular (uncountable)
has no article where a noun which expresses both numbers (count-
able) has the indefinite article.
Compare the following:
A beautiful birch (береза) grew at the water's edge. The
frame (рамка) is made of birch. A golden leaf fluttered in the
air and fell to the ground. The tree was in leaf. A fish splashed
on the still surface of the water. We had fish for dinner. An
old oak was struck by lightning last night. This bookcase is
made of oak. It is all oak in this locality.
52
The Use of the Definite Article with Class-Nouns
When a class-noun denotes an object which is regarded by the
speaker as a definite object distinct from all other objects of a
certain class, it is used with the definite article. The definite
article is also used with class-nouns in the plural to distinguish a
definite group of objects belonging to a certain class.
As had already been stated, the context or the whole situation
shows that the speaker has a definite object in mind and therefore
uses the definite article:
And she walked fast between the flowers... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
A minute later the door was unlocked... ( L o n d o n . ) Voices
and footsteps were heard in the passage... ( C o n r a d . ) The tall
white lilies were reeling in the moonlight... ( L a w r e n c e . )
Stars were sparkling out there over the river. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The child sat on the table looking at him... ( D i c k e n s . ) Paul
went with the boys into the orchard. . ( L a w r e n c e . ) As she
entered the lounge, she was called to the telephone. She hurried
across and lifted the receiver. ( G o r d o n . ) And slowly she be-
gan mounting the stairs. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It was on the beach,
close down by the sea, that 1 found them. ( D i c k e n s . )

A class-noun used with the definite article has often a l i m i t -


i n g a t t r i b u t e . Here are some examples classified according to
the type of the limiting attribute:
a) The limiting attribute is expressed by a n o u n with a
p r e p o s i t i o n (most often the of phrase):
An enormous orange moon was staring at them from the
rim of the sandhills. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Outside, on the landing,
he kicked the snow from his shoes and then came back to the
armchair opposite mine. ( S n o w . ) The afternoon was golden
over the hills of Derbyshire. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Gradually, I be-
came used to seeing the gentleman with the whiskers. ( D i c k -
e n s . ) The studio was filled with the rich odour of roses,
and when the light summer wind stirred amidst the trees of
the garden, there came through the open door the heavy scent
of the lilac, or the more delicate perfume of the pink-flower-
ing thorn. (W i 1 de.)
But as we have already seen, not every o/-phrase is a limiting
attribute; there are instances when the o/-phrase has purely de-
scriptive force (see "The Use of the Indefinite Article with Class-
Nouns," p. 51):
b) The limiting attribute is expressed by a subordinate
a t t r i b u t i v e clause:
53
But she handled the car with skill in the narrow involved
streets that led to Jan's flat... ( C u s a c k . ) The room where we
sat was small and dingy, with little furniture except our chairs
and the little table at which we filled and arranged our pipes...
(Le a c o c k . ) In going towards the door, I passed the person
who had come in, and saw him plainly. ( D i c k e n s . ) The cloud
which came on, now was like an April cloud... ( G a l s w o r -
thy.) In the perfect calm that had fallen, I heard breakers
murmuring softly upon the beach. ( G i s s i n g . ) Here and there
I strayed through the orchard gathering the apples with which
the grass round the tree roots was thickly strewn. ( B r o n t ё . )
The wind roared high in the great trees which embowered the
gates... ( В г о п 1 ё . ) "She is not the girl she was at all."
( J o y c e . ) She and the aunt (by marriage) with whom she lives
are coming from Ireland to spend part of the summer with me.
(Mazo de la R o c h e . )

Compare with attributive clauses of descriptive character which


modify nouns used with the indefinite article:
...I sat down on a stile which led... into a field. ( B r o n t ё . )
...a little carriage was got for him, in which he could Iie at
his ease... ( D i c k e n s . )

c) The limiting attribute is expressed by a p a r t i c i p l e phrase


placed after the noun which it modifies:

This was the morning appointed for Richard's departure.


( D i c k e n s . ) And in the straight, narrow road, leading up the
hill their feet kicked up a yellow dust. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The
pool formed by the damming of a rock had a sandy bottom...
' (Galsworthy.) ...I like the clear rough waves dashing
against the rocks in Cornwall. ( A l d i n g t o n . )

d) The limiting attribute is expressed by an a d j e c t i v e ,


although an adjective has usually descriptive force. It becomes
limiting only when contrast or choice is implied (also with such
adjectives as very, only):

Give me the red pencil (but not the blue one).' Let us take
the narrow path. Put on the blue dress. Pass me the big cup.
* It was the only misprint I found in the text.
It was the very thing he liked. ( D i c k e n s . )

But: It was a grey, cold day, with a sharp wind... (Law


r e n c e . ) It was a lovely landscape. ( J e r o m e . ) And a little
cold, talkative wind had risen... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
54
The definite article is used to indicate a p a r t i c u l a r
p l a c e in the room (by the window, at the door, in the corner, at
the table, etc.):
She stood at the window. A little sofa stood in the corner.
There was a looking-glass on the wall. They were sitting at the
table engaged in a lively conversation.
"I was in my own room, and sitting by the window..."
( B r o n t ё . ) He went to the window and looked out... (Gor-
don.)
When we want to stress that there are several objects and we
mean one of them we say:
A single sunbeam was slanting across one of my windows
to the other... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) We did not stay there, after
dinner, but came upstairs into the drawing-room again: in one
snug corner of which, Agnes set glasses for her father, and a
decanter of port wine. ( D i c k e n s . )
The definite article is also used with class-nouns to show that the
speaker r e f e r s b a c k t o a n o b j e c t a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d :
We went to a hotel by the sea... we came back to the
hotel to an early dinner. ( D i c k e n s . ) He... put a tin pot of
water on to boil. Then he drank the pot of water, steaming
hot. ( L o n d o n . )

The Article with Generic Singulars and Plurals

1. The definite article is used with a class-noun in the singular,


if the noun represents a whole class ( g e n e r i c s i n g u l a r ) . A
certain class is contrasted here to other classes:
The horse is a useful domestic animal. (The horse marks
a particular class of domestic animals as distinct from other
classes, such as the dog, the cow, etc.)
...we often had the traveller or stranger visit us. ( G o l d -
s m i t h . ) ...the most juicy of all fruits, the water-melon, is
found in astonishing profusion... (R. E l i o t . ) It is only on the
east coast south of the Zambesi... that the wild elephant can
now be found. ( B r у с е . ) ...the primeval forest lies before the
traveller in all its height and depth and solemnity. ( T h o m -
s o n . ) To-day, if the lion is found at all within the limits of
Cape Colony, it is only in the wilderness along the banks of
the Orange River. ( B r у с е . ) Thus, in the making of him had
gone land and sea, the Norseman and the Celt. ( G a l s w o r -
thy.)
55
The nouns man and woman used in the singular in a generic
sense have no article. They closely approach here the meaning of
the abstract nouns mankind and womankind:
The victory of Socialism in the USSR did away with the
exploitation of man by man once and for all. Never was woman
so independent as in the Soviet Union.
And in all that mighty sweep of earth he saw no sign of
man nor the handiwork of man... ( L o n d o n . ) At that hour
when man was still abed and the land lived its own life, how
full and sweet and wild that life seemed... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
I fought for freedom, for the brotherhood of man. ( G o r d o n . )
2. Sometimes the indefinite article also serves to mark the
generic use of a noun in the singular. A horse means any horse
but not a particular individual horse, and therefore it may be used
to represent the whole class:
A horse is a useful domestic animal. A cat is not so vigilant
as a dog. A squirrel can jump very high.
A wounded deer usually works downhill, a hunted Grizzly
[a bear] climbs. ( S e t o n - T h o m p s o n . )
Notice the difference in . the use of the definite and indefinite
article with generic singulars in the following instances:
The telephone is very useful (the whole class as compared
to other classes, such as the telescope, the microscope, etc.)
A telephone is very useful (any telephone — therefore the whole
class).
But we can only say:
The telephone was invented by Bell (not any telephone, no
matter which, but that class of instruments as compared to
other classes, such as the telescope, the microscope, etc.)
The elephant can carry heavy loads or An elephant can carry
heavy loads.
But a teacher of natural science will say to his pupils:
To-day the topic of our lesson will be the elephant (not
an elephant which would mean any elephant and therefore the
whole class; but just that species of animals set apart from other
species such as the ape, the tiger, etc.).
3. Nouns in the plural representing a whole class are used
without an article:
There are several ways of capturing wild horses. (Seton-
T h o m p son.)
56

in
Compare:
A tiger is a ferocious beast (any tiger and therefore the
whole class). Tigers are ferocious beasts (any indefinite number
of tigers and therefore the whole class).
4. The definite article may serve to mark a generic plural with
partially s u b s t a n t i v i z e d adjectives and participles
such as the brave, the young, the old, the blind, etc. (See "Substan-
tivized Adjectives," p. 87)
The wicked always think other people are as bad as them-
selves. ( S c o t t . ) How foolish the old were, thinking they could
tell what the young felt. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The besieged passed
an anxious night. ( M a c a u l a y . )
N o t e . — The use of the definite article before the names of nations
emphasizes the idea of collectiveness, the whole body of... etc.:
The Belgians live in Belgium. The Norwegians are a seafaring nation.
But only: Norwegians may be found all over the globe (because we do not
mean here the nation as a whole.)

The Article with Nouns Considered to Be Unique


The definite article is used with class-nouns which denote things
considered to be unique, such as the earth, the sun, the moon, the
world, the sky, the universe. Here we have a special case: the class
consists only of one representative, and therefore the object denoted
by the noun is always definite in our mind:
The earth and the sky were already beginning to be enriched
with the evening. ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) And suddenly the moon
appeared, young and tender, floating on her back. (Ga l s w o r -
t h y.) The sky was cloudless; the sun shone out bright and
warm... ( D i c k e n s . ) When she woke early on Sunday morning
the world sparkled as though it had been newly born. (Cu-
sack.)
Compare with nouns denoting other celestial bodies such as
stars and planets. Here the definite and the indefinite article or
no article is used as with any other class noun:
Looking through the black mist he could see a star. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) Stars were sparkling out there over the river...
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...the stars very high and white, the flowers
glimmering in the garden-beds... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
But we may also find these unique nouns associated with the
i n d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e . This takes place when we consider the
different^ aspects in which the sun, the moon, etc., may appear; the
noun is шиаПу associated with a descriptive attribute indicating
that special aspect: a full moon, a pate moon, a brilliant red sun.
57
a dark blue sky, etc. In this case the class no longer comprises
a single representative but includes several. Occasionally we find
even the plural:
The moon! He could just see it over the bank behind: red,
nearly round — a strange moon! ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The rays
of a bright morning sun had a dazzling effect among the glit-
tering foliage. ( I r v i n g . ) ...a pale, crystalline sky arched over
the valleys. ( C u s a c k . ) A splendid Midsummer shone over
England: skies so pure, suns so radiant as were then seen in
long succession, seldom favoured, even singly, our wave-girt
land. ( B r o n t ё . ) Beyond the closed window the moon rode up,
a full and brilliant moon... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) June had come
in with skies of blue that not even London glare and dust could
pale. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
N o t e . — In some set phrases earth is used without an article because the
aoun acquires abstract meaning:
"How on earth," I said, "do you manage to keep cats and dogs in one
room?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "What on earth do you mean?" she asked. ( L o c k e . )

The Use of the Article in Some Syntactical Relations


1. The indefinite article is used before a n o u n p r e d i c a t i v e
and this is one of the most characteristic functions of the indefinite
article, as the noun predicative shows that the subject is one of г
class:
Janet was a pretty blooming girl... ( D i c k e n s . ) Her hus-
band was a miner. ( L a w r e n c e . ) ...it was a lovely summer
morning. ( B r o n t ё . ) The parlour was rather a small room
very plainly furnished... ( B r o n t ё . )
When a noun predicative indicating rank, state, occupation, etc.,
is used without an article, it shows that the noun has acquired
abstract meaning: He is rector of Moscow University. (Here rector
does not mean one of the class but denotes a certain state or office
conferred on the subject and becomes similar in meaning to the
abstract noun rectorship.)
The predicative usually acquires this meaning when the rank,
state or occupation is unique:
He is president of the Academy of Sciences (Presidentship
has been conferred on him). He is secretary of our Party organ-
ization. During the last ten years she has been head-teacher
of an elementary school. He is director of our Institute. "He was
assistant professor of Romanic languages at Yale or something
like that." ( M a u g h a m . ) Stoke was appointed Surgeon General.
(L. S i n c l a i r . ) Miss Temple, through all changes, had thus far
continued superintendent of the seminary... ( B r o n t ё . )
58
The same abstract meaning is associated with the noun predi-
cative in such instances as:
Her father, Robert Evant, was son of George Evant, г
builder and carpenter in Derbyshire. (E 1 i о t.)
The abstract meaning of state, occupation, etc., is also implied
in a noun predicative when the predicative is introduced by as
used without an article.
He went on board a ship as cabin boy.
When the noun predicative identifies the subject, that is, shows
that the subject is the very person or thing expressed by the pre-
dicative, the latter is used with the definite article:
He is the man who brought the letter. This is the book
I mentioned. This is the article which has to be translated. She
was the person responsible for the work. I presume that you
are the director of this Institute. Is this comrade the secretary
of your Party organization? Jack London is the author of this-
novel.
The same rules for the use of the article apply to a noun in
the function of an o b j e c t i v e p r e d i c a t i v e . (See "The Com-
plex Object," p. 371)
I consider this picture a masterpiece of art (—one of a
class). Old Mr. Thomas Cardew... made me in his will guardian
to his granddaughter, Miss Cecily Cardew. ( W i l d e . ) (— the
state is unique).
2. The indefinite article is used with a n apposition which
denotes that the head-noun is one of a class:
Only one picture was in any way noticeable, a portrait
admirably executed in pen and ink. ( L e a c o c k . ) There was
one flower, an orchid, that grew alone... ( M a u r i e r . ) "She was
seventeen then — a beautiful young creature." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Gulls swooped by us — ghosts of the old greedy wonders of the
sea. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...I see a light glimmering in the farm
house window — a little ray against the blackness of the great
hillside, below which the water sleeps. ( G i s s i n g . )

The definite article is used before an apposition when it refers


to a well-known person:
War and Peace was written by Leo Tolstoy, the great Rus-
sian writer. Tschaikovsky, the great Russian composer, is known
all over the world. Lebedev, the great physicist, was born in
1866. The chief ornament of this street is the Scott monument
commemorating the life and work of Sir Walter Scott, the
59
first great historical novelist of the English language and
Edinburgh's most famous son. ( P a t t e r . )
An apposition is used without an article when it denotes dignity,
rank, etc. used as a title and either 1) follows a proper noun (its
head-noun) or 2) precedes it:
1) I have bought a pronouncing dictionary by D. Jones,
professor of phonetics in the University of London. Mr. Mer-
win, president of the club, will be in the chair.
2) Headly began quietly talking to Major Cambell... ( K i n g -
si e y.) "I have just seen Professor Grant." (С г о n i n.) Cap-
tain Musgrave entered the room swiftly... ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) .
We find the same meaning in such cases as:
Brown married Mary Godwin, daughter of the late professor
Godwin. (Her being the daughter of a well-known professor is
regarded as a kind of rank characterizing Mary Godwin.) We
saw a piece of sculpture by Mrs. Scott, wife of the late explorer.
But: Mrs. Mowit, the wife of the artist, Mr. Jackson, his brother,
and two of his daughters were a few others with whom I rubbed
shoulders in the crowd (at the exhibition).
The definite article is used with an apposition when it precedes
a proper noun and denotes state, speciality, profession, etc., not
used as a title:
The composer Glinka. The physicist Lebedev. The hunter
Davidson. The girl Megan seemed the only active figure...
(Galsworthy.) The boy Jack approached the tea-table...
(Galsworthy.)
There is no article before nouns denoting title, rank or dignity,
when these nouns follow the nouns rank, title, etc., as appositive
^/-phrases:
The title of Hero of Socialist Labour was conferred upon
him. The University conferred the dignity of Doctor on the
celebrated scientist.
3. H o m o g e n e o u s p a r t s of a s e n t e n c e expressed by
class-nouns connected by the conjunctions and, either... or, neither...
nor have no article in lively speech, also in descriptive style to
stress their close connection:
Rider and bicycle, cart and horse were all in a heap (It
was impossible to distinguish the separate objects in the colli-
sion.) ...the Green Park, under breeze and sun, smelled of grass
and leaves. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Both window and door stood
open, still there was no draught... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Now over
wood and river the evening drew in fast. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
60
With them, or near them, are two children: boy and girl.
( D i c k e n s . ) Neither tree nor bush grew on that slope. (Lon-
don.)
4. There is no article before a class noun i n enumeration
when the noun serves merely to name a thing:
Day after day it was the one topic of conversation, at street
corners, at cross-roads, over dinner-table, in office, bank and
store. ( N o r r i s . ) She drew from the box teapot, sugar-bowl,
milk-jug, ... hot-water jug, and cake-stand. (Bennett.)
"Telephone, safe, ticker, ... well, that's progress, isn't it?"
(Norris.)
5. The indefinite article is used with a class-noun (countable)
i n a n e x c l a m a t o r y s e n t e n c e beginning with the exclama-
tory what:
"What a lovely instrument the violin!" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
What a night to wander out in! ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) What a
still, hot, perfect day! What a golden desert this spreading
moor! ( B r o n t e . )
Compare with interrogative sentences where a noun modified by
the attributive pronoun what has no article:
What book are you reading? What question did he put you?
6. The article is absent in a d v e r b i a l prepositional
phrases (phraseological combinations) where the nouns have acquired
abstract meaning of state, position, manner, etc., such as by land, on
shore, at sea, on deck, by train, by railway, etc.:
Peter has gone to sea — he is a sailor. (But: In summer
I shall go to the sea — here the noun sea has its concrete
meaning.) They all stood on deck. (But: The heavy chests were
put on the deck.)
He went hastily on deck. ( C o n r a d . ) Well, I worked my
way to Suez on board a ship whose doctor had fallen ill...
( K i n g s l e y . ) Leaving Invercargill by train, I had a somewhat
tedious and uninteresting ride for six hours... (Pa у t o n . ) When
he came on deck next morning they were close to land. (Mau-
gham.)
Some prepositional phraseological combinations connected with
the parts of the body have the same abstract adverbial meaning
marked by the absence of the article, such as: by hand, at hand,
on foot, from head to foot, from top to toe, off-hand, etc.
About noon he set out on foot across Richmond Park.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Her invincible repugnance to this man... made
61
Florence shake from head to foot. ( D i c k e n s . ) A little electric
bell on the wall near at hand trilled a warning. ( N o r r i s . )
The article is also absent in the following phraseological com-
binations used adverbially: by chance, by mistake, by name, at home,
at present, at first sight, for ages, etc.
Some prepositional phraseological combinations used adverbially
have the definite or the indefinite article: in the main, on the one
hand... on the other hand, in the original, at the time, etc; at a
glance, in a load {low) voice, in a whisper, in a hurry, etc.
7. There is no article in the so-called r e p e t i t i o n g r o u p s
when a noun is repeated and connected by a preposition. Here we
clearly see the abstract meaning of the state or manner expressed
by these adverbial phrases: hand in hand, day by day, arm in arm,
from rock to rock, from tree to tree, etc.:
Some of these repetition groups have become phraseological
combinations such as: day by day, year by year, arm in arm, hand
in hand, side by side. Also when the noun is connected with an
adverb: day in day out (изо дня в день), year in year out (из года
в год).
They went side by side, hand in hand, silently towards the
hedge, where the may-flower, both pink and white, was in full
bloom. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "And day by day we passed in the
snow..." ( L o n d o n . ) And there before him, mile after mile,
illimitable, covering the earth from horizon to horizon, lay the
wheat. ( N o r r i s . ) The forces of the peace camp are growing in
numbers and strength from day to day.
8. The article may be absent in n o m i n a t i v e a b s o l u t e
constructions used as adverbial modifiers of attending circumstances,
such as:
Annixter bore the case into the sitting-room of the house
and, hammer in hand, attacked it vigorously. ( N o r r i s . ) And,
cigar in mouth, old JoIyon said: "Play me some Chopin.''
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Crouching, hand round knees, she turned her
face to get the warmth of the sun... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
9. Sometimes a v e r b is so closely connected with its o b j e c t
(direct or prepositional) as to form a p h r a s e o l o g i c a l c o m b i -
nation.
Notice the use of the article in the following phraseological
combinations: - *

A transitive verb with its d i r e c t object

a) The noun is used with t h e indefinite a r t i c l e : to have


€2
a swim (a washJ, to have a shave, to have a smoke, to have a walk
(to take a walk), to have a headache (a toothache) (but to have
earache), to have a cold, to have a (good) time, to have a look, to
have a mind (иметь желание или намерение что-либо сделать), to
pay a visit, to give a dry (высушить), to give a start, to take a
fancy, to make a beginning, etc.
b) The noun is used with t h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e : to take
the trouble, to play the piano (the violin), ("but to play chess, foot-
bait), to tell the truth (по правде говоря), to speak the truth (гово-
рить правду), etc.
c) The noun is used w i t h o u t a n a r t i c l e : to take place,
to take part (in...), to take notice (of...), to take interest (in...), to
take care (of...), to take advantage (of...), to catch sight (of...), to
lose sight (of...), to catch hold (of...), to take hold (of...), to make
haste, to make use (of...), to give (get) permission, to give birth
(to...), to give way (to...), to give proof (of...), to change counte-
nance (измениться в лице), to pay attention (to...), to cast anchor,
to restore order, to send word to keep pace (with...) (идти наравне
с кем-нибудь).
An i n t r a n s i t i v e verb with a prepositional object
The noun is used w i t h o u t a n a r t i c l e : to take to heart,
to put to flight, to set at liberty, to set on fire, to go to war
(battle), etc.
10. The verb to be followed by a p r e d i c a t i v e (a n o u n
w i t h a p r e p o s i t i o n ) may also form a p h r a s e o l o g i c a l
combination.
a) The noun is used with t h e i n d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e : to be
in a hurry, to be at a loss, to be in a rage (a fury), to be at a dis-
advantage, etc.
b) The noun is used with t h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e : to be on
the safe side, to be out of the question, etc.
c) The noun has n o a r t i c l e : to be of opinion, to be of inter-
est, to be in debt, to be at work, to be at peace, to be at fault, to
be on leave, to be at stake, to be at war, etc.

NAMES OF MATERIALS
1. Names of materials have no article when they are used in a
general sense, as uncountables. In this case they have either no
attribute whatsoever or have a descriptive attribute:
Jan spread butter on thick slices of fresh bread... ( C u s a c k . )
...his mother... gave us hot bacon for supper... ( J e r o m e . ) As
the iron casks reach the top, they pour iron-ore, coke, and lime
63
into the blazing inside of the furnace. ( M a r s h . ) He gathered an
armful of dry wood... ( L o n d o n . ) Coffee, without cream or
milk, he had twice a day, in the evening substituting tea...
( L o n d o n . ) It was wet snow... and the flakes were large and
s
°ggy- ( L o n d o n . )
2. The definite article is used with names of materials when
they are narrowed in their meaning. This narrowing of meaning is
shown by the context or the whole situation. Sometimes a limiting
attribute is used to show that the meaning of the noun is narrowed:
But suddenly he heard steps on the snow (on which the man
was walking). ( L o n d o n . ) The ice was a little rough and broken
just there... ( D o d g e . )
All this is known with certainty from the remains which
actually exist deep under the sand on which you stand. ( S t a n -
l e y . ) They waded into the shallow water at the edge of the
lake... ( C u s a c k . ) It [the elkj crashed down to earth on the
snow beyond... ( L o n d o n . )
3. Both the indefinite and the definite article may be used with
names of materials when they denote different sorts. In such a case
they become countable nouns:
It is a very good cheese. It is a very rare wine. The wines
of the Crimea are excellent.
4. When a noun of material serves to denote an object made
of that material, it turns into a class-noun (a countable noun) and
may accordingly be used with the definite or indefinite article:
...George drew out a tin of pineapple from the bottom of the
hamper... ( J e r o m e . ) — ^tin — жесть, a tin — жестянка, банка).
She then proceeded to fill a glass with water... The tray shook
as I held it; the water spilt from the glass... ( B r o n t e . )

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

1. Such collective nouns as linen, crockery, pottery, machinery,


leafage, foliage, etc. (uncountables) have no article when they are
used in a general sense. In such cases they have either no attribute
whatsoever or a descriptive attribute:
The plant produces agricultural machinery. You can get
excellent linen in our shops. They made a fire of brushwood.
The darkness, strange with exotic foliage, glimmering with gold-
en lamps... had deeply impressed him. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
64
2. The definite article is used with this group of collective
nouns when their meaning is narrowed (by a limiting attribute or
the whole situation):
I hear a pattering upon the still leafage of the garden...
( G i s s i n g . ) He traversed the shrubbery, glanced into the walled
garden — no Jon! ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (The shrubbery of that partic-
ular place which he traversed).
3. The definite article is used with c o l l e c t i v e nouns
expressing p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l n o t i o n s such as the Commu-
nist Party, the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, the proletariat,
the working class, the bourgeoisie, the press, the public, etc.:
It is notable that the Central Committee of the Communist
Party pays far more attention... to the work of its student mem-
bers than any other political body gives to its student section.
( C o r n f o r d . ) The need of a constantly expanding market for
its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the
globe. ( T h e C o m m u n i s t M a n i f e s t o . ) ...the true history of
capitalist society can only be written by the proletariat. ( C o r n -
f o r d . ) On either side of the chamber are galleries for the Press
and the public. ( P o t t e r . )

ABSTRACT NOUNS
1. Abstract nouns have no article when they express abstract
notions in a general sense. In this case they belong to the group of
uncountable nouns.
They are used without any attribute whatsoever or with a
descriptive attribute:
Poetry, like music, stirred him profoundly... ( L o n d o n . ) Life
at the farm goes on as usual. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It was cold,
bleak, biting weather. ( D i c k e n s . ) There is no month in the
whole year, in which nature wears a more beautiful appearance
than in the month of August. ( D i c k e n s . ) A single distant clap
of thunder came from the sea like a gun of distress. ( C o n r a d . )
Strange delight inspired me: I hastened. ( B r o n t ё . ) "I don't know
what fear is," pursued the engineer... ( C o n r a d . )
2. The definite article is used with abstract nouns when they
are narrowed in their meaning.
The context or the whole situation shows that the meaning of
the noun is narrowed. Very often a limiting attribute indicates that
the abstract notion is taken in a narrowed sense:
The result was not altogether the success that Harris had
anticipated. ( J e r o m e . ) She closed the window again, and
sitting down upon the bed, thought of the life that was before
5—3300 65
them. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...the freshness of the woodflowers attested
that foot of man seldom pressed them... ( В г о п Ч ё . ) ...the distant
trees were lost in the gloom of a starless night. ( C o l l i n s . )
3. The indefinite article is used with abstract nouns when they
express concrete instances or special aspects of the notion which
they denote. In such cases they belong to countable nouns. This
change of meaning is usually marked by a descriptive attribute:
A quiet happiness, as of old recollections, came into her
eyes. ( K i n g s l e y . ) Under a glowing sky of summer, this air of
the uplands has still a life which spurs to movement, which
makes the heart bound. (G i s s i n g.) He was haunted by a fear
that the food would not last. ( L o n d o n . ) ...a sweet fragrance
rose from the wild grasses. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It was a wonder-
ful experience. ( C o n r a d . ) A dead silence prevailed. (Lon-
don.)
4. T h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e is used with p a r t i a l l y s u b -
stantivized a d j e c t i v e s expressing a b s t r a c t notions
such as the beautiful, the picturesque, the impossible, etc. (See "Sub-
stantivized Adjectives," p. 87)
The mirth of Tom Sawyer was rapidly ripening into the
furious; Mr. Ben Allen was fast relapsing into the sentimental.
(Dickens.)
5. A number of abstract nouns are usually treated as countables
and used with the definite or indefinite article according to the
general rules of the use of these articles (see "The Indefinite Article
and The Definite Article." p. 50-55):
As I walked to-day in the golden sunlight — this warm still
day on the far verge of autumn—there suddenly came to me a
thought... ( G i s s i n g . ) "But, mother, do you really think it's a
good idea?" said Laura. ( M a n s f i e l d . )

The Use of the Article with some Abstract Nouns


1. Nouns denoting the p a r t s of t h e d a y : morning, day,
evening, night, afternoon, noon, midnight, are used with the definite
article when a particular morning, evening, etc. is meant.
The night was fine but very dark... ( M a x w e l l . ) ...the
morning passed just as usual... ( B r o n t ё . ) The day... was damp,
dark cold and gloomy. ( D i c k e n s . ) in the afternoon Dinny lay
down on her bed and went to sleep. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) In the
morning the alarm-clock woke her at seven. ( S a x t o n . )
Used with the preposition in the nouns morning, day, evening,
etc. may refer to a part of the day in general:
66
"When it's fine, and we go out for a walk in the evening,
the streets abound in enjoyment for us." ( D i c k e n s . )
The nouns day, night, etc. have no article when they are used
in a more general abstract sense.
This is found:
a) When the nouns day, morning, night, etc. are used as p r e -
d i c a t i v e s , sometimes as o b j e c t s :
It was midnight. It was evening and dew was falling. I like
early morning — especially in spring... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
b) In o n e - m e m b e r sentences such as:
Morning, cold and grey... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
c) In a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e o l o g i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n s of
these nouns with t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s at and by: at night, at
midnight, at noon, by day:
She woke at midnight. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Owls sleep by day.
I usually rode back at night... ( D i c k e n s . ) At noon our young
friends poured forth from the schoolhouse... ( D o d g e . )
Sometimes the article is also absent with other prepositions. But
in these cases both absence of the article and the definite article
may be found depending on the meaning implied:
We reached home towards evening (time); towards the eve-
ning (the evening of that particular day). I slept undisturbed
till morning (time); till the morning (the morning of that par-
ticular day). Till evening the wind whistled above our heads...
( G i s s i n g . ) Towards the evening of the following day... a letter
arrived addressed to her. ( C o p p a r d . )
Also in such cases when nouns denoting the parts of the day
are connected with each other by means of prepositions and have
the function of a d v e r b i a l m o d i f i e r s of t i m e :
...I was termed naughty and tiresome, sullen and sneaking,
from morning to noon, and from noon to night. ( B r o n t ё . )
Morning after morning of late I have taken my walk in the
same direction... ( G i s s i n g . )
~ d) When day or morning means "light" and evening or night
means "darkness":
I rose as soon as day dawned. ( B r o n t ё . ) "Evening approach-
es," said I, as I looked towards the window. ( B r o n t § . ) Night
came on slowly. ( T h o m s o n . ) He saw day coming. ( G a l s w o r -
t h y . ) He had walked no more than twelve miles when night
closed in again. ( D i c k e n s . )
5* 67
2) When the nouns day, evening, night, etc. have a descriptive
attribute, they are used with the indefinite article (in plural without
an article):
We met on a bright sunny day (one of the bright sunny
days of the year). It was winter, and a night of bitter cold.
( W i l d e . ) We decided that we would sleep out on fine nights...
{ J e r o m e . ) I cannot honestly say that we had a merry evening...
( J e r o m e . ) A wonderful warm, black, grape-bloom night, ex-
quisitely gracious and inviting... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) I t w a s a rainy
evening. ( L a w r e n c e . ) It was a warm, cloudless, enticing day.
(Hardy.)
Notice that the nouns morning, evening, etc. have no article
when modified by the adjectives early or late. These adjectives do
not give a qualitative characteristic to the noun but merely a tem-
poral one:
I like early morning — especially in spring... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
It was early afternoon. ( L o c k e . )
2. The names of m e a l s (dinner, breakfast, lunch, supper, tea)
have no article when they are treated as abstract nouns used in a
general sense. The definite or the indefinite article is used with
these, nouns when the contents of the meal or a definite meal is
meant:
He had many invitations to dinner, some of which he ac-
cepted. ( L o n d o n . ) Lunch succeeded to our sight-seeing... (Di-
c k e n s . ) "Tea is ready, mother." ( L a w r e n c e . ) We went down-
stairs to breakfast. ( J e r o m e . ) "Shall we go down to tea?" said
Soames. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Then we thought we were going to
have supper (we had disposed with tea, so as to save time)...
(J e г о me.)
But: Harris said: "The great thing is to make a good break-
fast..." ( J e r o m e . ) We had made the tea, and were just set-
tling comfortably to drink it... ( J e r o m e . ) After a scanty supper
she and the old man lay to rest. ( D i c k e n s . )
The nouns dinner, lunch, etc. are used with the definite or the
indefinite article when they denote official meals (dinner-parties,
banquets, etc.)
...Mr. Merdle... had signified to the chief butler his intention
to give a special dinner... The day of the dinner was now come.
^ D i c k e n s . ) ...a small dinner for this club and its friends was
.announced for the first Thursday in December. ( D r e i s e r . )
,"3. The nouns school, college, market, prison, jail, court, hospital,
(Camp, !bed, table have no article when they are treated as abstract
inouns denote the state or activities associated with these places
68
or the aim they serve. This is usually the case when these nouns
are associated with the prepositions at, after, in, to, from. The ab-
stract meaning has developed from the concrete meaning of these
nouns:
Anthony was five when he went to school. ( G o r d o n . ) An-
thony's letters from school were now short and hurriedly written.
( G o r d o n . ) She went to bed soon after this... ( D i c k e n s . ) ...they
were back in camp. ( H e m i n g w a y . ) We were only three at
table... ( C o n r a d . ) "Have you ever seen him since?" — About a
month afterwards, in returning from market... ( B r o n t ё . ) On
the first of May, after their last year together at college, Frank
Ashurst and his friend Robert Carto were on a tramp. ( G a l s -
worthy.)
But when the nouns school, college, etc., are used in their origi-
nal concrete meaning and indicate a particular institution, a con-
crete building or object, they are used with the definite or indefi-
nite article:
"Mine is not a nice school," he said suddenly. ( G o r d o n . )
Suppose the court... accepted the story of Bosman? ( G o r d o n . )
The school, thus improved, became in time a truly useful and
noble institution. ( B r o n t ё . ) Cedric was at the head of the
table carving the chicken... ( B r a i n e . ) He flung himself down
on the bed... ( G o r d o n . ) Anthony joined them, and the three
men walked away from the court together. ( G o r d o n . ) It was
a college, as he could see by the gateway. ( H a r d y . )
N o t e . — The_ words university and institute always take the article like
other singular class-nouns:
"He'll be back at the University soon..." ( B r a i n e . )

No article is used with the noun town preceded by a preposition


when the abstract idea of t o w n l i f e is implied. Such meaning
is usually associated with the town we live in, or the nearest town
if we live in the country:
I drove back to town the same afternoon. ( C o n r a d . ) "I'm
going up to town." ( G o r d o n . )
But when the noun town is used in its original concrete mean-
ing, it may be associated with the definite or indefinite article.
...he gazed for the last time at the little town where he was
born. ( G o r d o n . ) It was a nice-looking little town. ( H e m i n g -
way.)
5. T h e n a m e s of l a n g u a g e s have no article:
"That doesn't mean anything in correct English"; she ob-
jected. ( L o n d o n . ) ...with Sophie I used to talk French...
69
( В г о п Л ё . ) ...her husband taught English at the Grammar
School... ( B r a i n e . )
The definite article is used with the names of languages when a
noun is felt to be missing:
As we trudged along he would tell me the German (words)
for the various objects we passed, a cow, a horse, a man and
so on... ( M a u g h a m . ) They discussed a novel... which had just
been translated from the Italian (language.) ( N o r r i s . )
It may also be used on the cover of the book:
Translated from the German.

PROPER NOUNS
1. Proper nouns are used without an article because they are
unique names and mark a particular person or thing without im-
plying that this person or thing is one of a class. The idea of indi-
vidual and class disappears:
June contemplated the picture for a moment. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"I'd rather go to Spain, Mum; you've been to Italy so many
times..." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He took a return berth from London
to Liverpool... ( J e r o m e . ) I went away from England... (Di-
ckens.)
2. But there are instances when proper nouns are used with an
article.
In some cases the article is used because the proper noun loses
its unique character and the contrast between individual and class
appears:
And every now and then a Forsyte would come up, sidle
round and take a look at him. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (a Forsyte
means "one of the Forsytes".)
In other cases the use of the article with proper nouns is now
purely traditional. For example the use of the definite article with
the names of rivers (the Thames), chains of mountains (the Alps),
ships (the "Alice"), etc.

The Use of the Article with Names of Persons


1. Proper names of persons are used without an article:
Kate saw me to the door. (Cr o n in.) John Ford came in at
last. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. The definite article is used before the names of persons in
the plural if they denote a whole family; the indefinite article is
used to denote one member of the family:
. 70
The Macdonalds lived in the next-door house. ( M a n s f i e l d . )
The Browns, who lived in the adjoining house, had been dining
with the Joneses. ( L e a c o c k . ) ...no daughter of that house
could be indifferent to the privilege of having been born a
Dodson, rather than a Gibson or a Watson. ( E l i o t . ) When a
Forsyte was engaged, married or born, all the Forsytes were
present. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
„ N o t e . — The indefinite article may be used before the name of a person
with the meaning of a certain:
"He made me write to a Mr. Jackson, of some theatre or other." (Gals-
worthy.)

3. The definite article is used before proper names of persons


when they have a limiting attribute:
He walked as if he felt himself to be another man from the
Jude of yesterday. ( H a r d y . ) Goldsmith's father was no doubt
the good Doctor Primrose, whom we all of us know. ( T h a c k -
eray.)
4. The proper name of a person is also used with the definite
article when it has an attribute showing the person in a particular
state or mood, or giving it a permanent characteristic:
The startled Jolyon set down his barley water... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) The impatient Granby... called out to his compa-
nion... ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) I was about to revert to the probability
of a union between Mr. Rochester and the beautiful Blanche...
( B r o n t ё . ) The dreamy Caleb still stood, watching his blind
daughter, with the same expression on his face. ( D i c k e n s . )
When the attribute is closely connected with the noun and has
emotional colouring, the noun has no article as the whole phrase
(the adjective with the noun) is treated as a kind of proper noun.
Such adjectives as young, old, little, poor, dear, honest often form
close groups with the noun they modify:
Under all this air of merriment, honest PeregiI has his cares
and troubles. ( I r v i n g . ) Poor Fanny was morbidly sensitive;
always imagining insults. ( L a w r e n c e . ) "Dad, I've been down
to see young Fleur." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) A'relative, kind uncle
Contarine, took the main charge of little Noll. ( T h a c k e r a y . )
And Old Jolyon... stole on tiptoes towards the nursery... ( G a l s -
worthy.)
The same with alliteration:
...and back came Tiny Tim before another word was spoken...
( D i c k e n s . ) Simple Simon is a simpleton (простак) in a well-
known nursery rhyme.
71
But the definite article is used when a limiting attribute follows
the name of a person preceded by one of the above-mentioned ad-
jectives:
He was never to see again the poor Dick of his schooldays.
The poor Tilly Slowboy of Dickens' story was a foundling
brought up by public charity.
5. Nouns in direct address have no article as the noun also
becomes here a kind of proper name:
"Your name, little girl?" ( B r o n t ё . ) "I respect you very much,
doctor." (M a u g h a m.) "Come in, child." ( D i c k e n s . )
6. When nouns indicating relationship, such as father, mother,
sister, brother, aunt, etc., are used by the members of the family or
by intimate friends, they are treated as proper names and are used
without an article:
"What's the matter with Father?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) One morn-
ing, my mother, who had not seen aunt for nearly a month,
made up her mind to go and take a cup of tea with her...
(Greenwood.) Mother trimmed both the hats... ( L e a c o c k . )
Also with the nouns: nurse, baby, cook, master, mistress:
"But what about baby?" asked Frederic. "...Nurse won't be
back till ten o'clock." ( B e n n e t t . ) "Ah, but you haven't seen
the ice pudding," said Cook. ( M a n s f i e l d . )
Or when a proper name is added to the nouns aunt, sister,
cousin, etc.:
And suddenly he was caught by a memory of Aunt Ann—dear
old Aunt Ann... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "It's only Cousin Nedda!"
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Uncle Benjamin and Aunt Eliza lived in fur-
nished apartments... ( G r e e n w o o d . )
N o t e 1. — A proper name of a person is used as a common noun when
applied to some other person possessing one or more of the most characteristic
qualities of the bearer of that name. In this sense it may be associated with
both the definite and the indefinite article depending on the context or t h e
situation:
He w a s the Byron of his age- He has the humour of a Dickens. Virgil was
the Homer of the Romans. Mary was too slim for her height; but Blanche was
moulded like a Diana. ( B r o n t § . )

N o t e 2. — A proper name also becomes a common noun when the name of


a painter, writer, sculptor, etc., is used to denote his work:
"I saw a Goya in Munich once..." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He opened the
little window of his blue store w i t h unframed Cezannes that no one ever
saw. ( L a M u r e . )

72
The Use of the Article with Geographical Names
1. The names of t o w n s and c o u n t r i e s are used without
an article:
Soames returned to England the following day... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) I asked him how he liked Paris. ( M a u g h a m . )
2. The definite article is used with the names of t o w n s and
c o u n t r i e s when they have a limiting attribute:
Chaucer would have had difficulty in recognizing the London of
Queen Elizabeth, just as Shakespeare would have been lost in the
brick-and-stone London of Dr. Johnson, while Dickens, well as he
knew London, would have been bewildered by the steel-and-concrete
London of to-day. ( M o r t o n ) .
Did Bart quite understand the England of to-day? (Gals-
worthy.)
3. The article is not used with the names of towns and coun-
tries when they have a g e o g r a p h i c a l or h i s t o r i c a l at-
tribute:
Southern France. Ancient Egypt. Feudal Europe. Ancient
Rome.
Our old neighbours, Mr. and Mrs. Grayper, were gone to
South America... ( D i c k e n s . ) He went to the hills in Northern
England, to a place that he knew as a child... ( H i t c h e n s . )
Also when English people call their country Old England and
Merry England.
4. The definite article is used with the names of some countries:
the USSR, the Transvaal, the Netherlands (the Low Countries), the
U.S.A., the West Indies, etc.
Also with provinces: the Ruhr, the Riviera, the Tyrol, with
towns; the Hague', with groups of islands: the Canaries, the Hebrides;
with the names of deserts: the Sahara, the Gobi:
Also with the Crimea, the Ukraine, the Caucasus:
The Caucasus is very rich in mineral springs. New areas for
cotton growing have developed in the Ukraine and the Crimea.
Tropical Africa extends from the middle of the Sahara.
( H a r t w i g . ) De Gama finds his course to the West Indies...
( F y f e . ) He quitted the Hague the next day. ( M a c a u l a y . )
5. The definite article is used with the names' of chains of
mountains (the Alps, the Urals). Single mountain peaks generally
have no article:
73
On the balcony a young lady... is gazing at the snowy Bal-
kans. ( S h a w . ) Above us towers the great long ridge of Snow-
dan... ( M a r s h . ) A bitingly cold south-westerly gale was blow-
ing sharp with snow from the Alps... ( C u s a c k . ) Far off, rising
calmly in an immense slope... Etna soared towards the heaven...
(Hitchens.)
Notice: the North Cape, the Cape of Good Hope; but Cape Horn,
Cape Cod:
Cape Horn was named after the Dutch mariner who first
doubled it. They picnicked on the rugged cliffs overlooking the
Cape of Good Hope. ( G o r d o n . )
6. The definite article is used with the names of oceans and
seas, lakes and rivers, straits, channels and bays:
The Baltic Sea is stormy in winter. The liner crossed the
Atlantic Ocean in seven days. Geneva is situated on the shores
of the Leman (a lake). A remarkable feature of the Pacific
Ocean is the vast groups of small islands with which it is
crowded. This is the valley of the Blythe. ( G i s s i n g . ) Cairo
lies on the east bank of the Nile... ( W o r s f o r d . ) Let us hire
a boat and go for a row down the River Lee which is here
twice as broad as the Thames at Waterloo Bridge. ( M a r s h . )
The English Channel, the Straits of Dover, the Suez Canal, the
Gulf of Mexico. But: Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait.
N o t e 1. — The word sea or ocean may be dropped with some adjectival
names of seas and oceans: the Atlantic, the Pacific; the Baltic, the Caspian, the
Mediterranean:
...the Atlantic heaved and sobbed after its turmoil of the day before.
( L o c k e . ) The Southern Pacific is beyond... (W i 11 о u g h b y . )
N o t e 2 . — Names of rivers sometimes take the word river a f t e r the first
element whether it is a proper name, a common name, or an adjective: the
Amazon River, the Illinois River, the Orange River, the Yellow River.

The part of the River Cam used by oarsmen is at some little distance
from the Down. ( M a r s h . )
N o t e 3. — The article is absent w h e n . the words lake, loch (Scotch),
lough (Irish) precede the name:

Lake Leman lies by Chillon's walls. ( B y r o n . ) ...we soon emerge from


the narrow artificial canal and enter the broad waters of Loch Ness.
(Marsh.)
N o t e 4. — The name of a river has no article when it is joined by
t h e preposition on (upon) to the name of a town:

Shakespeare was born at Stratford-on-Avon. Newcastle-upon-Tyne had


a strong fortress.
But: Frankjort-on-(the)-Main, Rostov-on-(the)-Don.

74
N o t e 5 . — T h e article is absent in some adverbial expressions up Thames,
South Thames, beyond Trent:
We spent the summer in a little bungalow down Thames. A large part
of the country beyond Trent was in a state of barbarism. ( M a c a u l a y . )
The Alice was steaming full speed up Thames.

7. Compound names of places, buildings, monuments, etc., the


first part of which is a proper name, and the second, a common
noun, have no article: Eddystone Lighthouse, London Bridge,
Cawsand Bay, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, Cleopatra's Needle.
8. The definite article is used with the names of buildings,
town districts, parks, etc., formed in a different way from that
mentioned in § 7: The Tower, The British Museum, The Kremlin,
The Hermitage, The City, The East End, The Green Park.
9. The names of streets have generally no article: Oxford
Street, Broad Street, Chancery Lane, Charing Cross.
. But: the Strand, the High Street, the Mall.
10. Geographical proper names often present an appositive of-
phrase following such a common noun as city, town, isle, lake,
republic, straits, etc.: the Town of Forres, the Isle of Man, the Lake
of Geneva, the Straits of Dover, the Bay of Biscay.
The common noun governs the proper noun by means of the
preposition of. .
v
In Russian in город .Москва the proper noun (Москва) is not
governed by the common noun город, but agrees with it in its
case form.
With the names of rivers, lakes and mountains the English and
the Russian constructions coincide: the river Thames — река Темза;
Lake Ontario — озеро Онтарио; Mount Everest — гора Эверест:
... they retraced their steps — their course lying through the
town of Alfredston. ( H a r d y . ) The hill of Dunsinane is upon
one side of the great valley and the forest of Birnam upon the
other. When Macduff got into his province of Fife... he rode on
faster than before towards his own castle of Kennoway.
( S c o t t . ) At sunset we entered the port of Brindisi. (Gi s-
•sing.)
11. The definite article is used before the names of the four
cardinal points — the north, the south, the east, the west:
The British Isles are bounded on the north and west by the
Atlantic Ocean, on the east the North Sea separates , them from
Germany. The twilight lay over the east... ( C o n r a d . ) Turning
to the west he saw that the sun had disappeared. ( H a r d y . )
N o t e . — The names of the cardinal points have no article when used
adverbially indicating direction:

75
This ancient track ran east and west for many miles... ( H a r d y . ) T h e
boy had never before strayed so far north as this from the nestling hamlet...
(Hardy.)

12. The names of seasons, months, and days are used without
an article.

Two days of rain, and summer set in blank and sunny.


( G a l s w o r t h y . ) W i n t e r w a s coming... ( L o n d o n . ) I scarcely
marked when July passed into August, August into September.
( G i s s i n g . ) "AndwhenareyougoingP15-uOnMonday." ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) Spring fled swiftly by and summer came. ( D i c k -
ens.)
The definite article is used with these names when there is
a limiting attribute pointing to a definite season, month or day.
Sometimes, the attribute is not expressed but only understood:
...the cold damp autumn that year told heavily on the old
man... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) In the spring of the following year
we went abroad... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It was the Saturday before
the August Bank Holiday. ( J e r o m e . ) I don't suppose I shall
be back till the summer. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It was a few days
later in the October of 1924... ( S n o w . )

Notice the use of the a p p о s i t i v e of-p h r a s e with the names


of months: the month of May.'
The indefinite article is used with the names of days, months
and seasons when they have a descriptive attribute:
It was a hot summer. It was a sparkling, cold Saturday in
March. ( J o h n s o n . )
Also in: I got there on a Wednesday. ( F a u l k n e r . ) — on one of
the Wednesday of the year.

N o t e 1. — The definite article is often used in connection with the prep-


ositions in and during:
It is pleasant to live in the country during the summer. ...there were t w e l v e
peach-trees t h a t . . . in the autumn bore rich fruit- ( W i l d e . )

N o t e 2 . — No article is used with the names of seasons, months and days


when the word last or next (with t h e meaning of t h e Russian прошлый and
будущий) is added:

The conference will take place next autumn. I spent last summer at the
seaside. I saw her last Monday. I hope to see you next Sunday.

The definite article is used when last and next are considered in relation t o
a past moment:

They met on the last Friday of the old year. On the next Sunday Timothy
was thronged from lunch to dinner. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

76
The Use of the Article with Names of Ships, Hotels, Inns,
Newspapers, Magazines and Clubs
The definite article is used with the names of ships, hotels,
newspapers, magazines and clubs:
The "Patna" was a local steamer as old as the hills...
( C o n r a d . ) "What was the name of that inn?" said Harris. "The
Pig and Whistle," said George. ( J e r o m e . ) A shady road,
dotted here and there with dainty little cottages, iuns by the
bank up to the "Bells of Ousley," a picturesque inn, as most up
river inns are... ( J e r o m e . ) He picked up the Times again
and ran his eye over its columns. ( W e l l s . ) I sat on a bench
by the river and took out the Warley Courier. ( B r a i n e . ) He
mailed the bulky manuscript to the Youth's Companion... ( L o n -
d o n . ) Soames belonged to two Clubs, "The Connoisseurs"...
...and "The Remove"... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

The Use of the Article with Certain Historical Events and Epochs
The definite article is used with the names of c e r t a i n h i s -
t o r i c a l e v e n t s and e p o c h s such as the Great October So-
cialist Revolution, the French Revolution, the Renaissance (эпоха
Возрождения), the Age of Enlightenment (эпоха Просвещения), the
Middle Ages (Средние Века), etc.:
The delegation visited Moscow on the anniversary of the
Great October Socialist Revolution. Have you visited the exhi-
bition of some masterpieces of the great painters of the Renais-
sance? ...during the Middle Ages London increased in size and
wealth... ( H o r n b y . )

The Use of the Article with the Names of Organisations and


Institutions]
T h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e is used with the names of o r g a n i -
s a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the League of Nations, the
United Nations Organisation, the Royal Academy, the London County
Council, etc.:
The United Nations Organisation was founded in 1945. The
London County Council... is responsible for housing in the Lon-
don area... ( H o r n b y . )

Place of the Article


1. The article is generally placed before the n o u n or i t s
attribute:
I hear a pattering upon the still leafage of the garden.
77
(Gi s s i n g . ) Thefading moonlight vanished, and the distant
trees were lost in the gloom of a starless night. ( C o l l i n s . )
2. In the following cases the article is placed after the
attribute:
a) The definite article follows the pronouns all and both:
...all the birds were asleep... ( G r e e n w o o d . ) Mother
trimmed both the hats, and they looked fine. ( L e a c o c k . )
b) The indefinite article follows the demonstrative pronoun such
and the exclamatory what:
She answered with such a start, that it quite awoke me
( D i c k e n s . ) "What a beautiful room!" ( B r o n t ё . ) I never saw
such a beautiful colour on my mother's face before. ( D i c k -
e n s . ) What a lovely day! (La Mure.)
c) The indefinite article is placed b e t w e e n a n a d j e c t i v e
u s e d as an a t t r i b u t e and i t s n o u n if the adjective is
preceded by one of the following adverbs: as, so, too, how:
She had never heard any one say so much in so short a
time. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Olivia was often affected from too
great a desire to please. ( G o l d s m i t h . ) How long a time lies
in a little word! ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
d) The indefinite article follows the adverbs rather and quite:
You are quite a woman, little Fan. ( D i c k e n s . ) He lived...
in rather a lonely part of the country. ( I r v i n g . )
e) Both articles are used after half:
It took him half the morning. ( G a s к e l l . ) "If the grass
is dry," said Fleur, "let's sit down for half a minute." ( G a l s -
worthy.)
N o t e . — If half forms a compound with some nouns, the article is put
before the compound noun or its a t t r i b u t e :
The clock struck the half-hour... ( B r a i n e . ) We have a good half-hour
and more. (M a г г у a t.) The end of the half-year was drawing near.
(Huges.)

THE ADJECTIVE
1. The a d j e c t i v e is a part of speech which includes words
expressing the attributes of substances (good, difficult, green).
2. The main' syntactical function of an adjective in the sentence
is that of an a t t r i b u t e :
A glitter of sunshine made the early winter more like late
78
autumn, and the dark woods were touched here and there with
red and golden leaves like the last rays of a lost summer. ( C h e s -
terton.)
The adjective may also be used as a p r e d i c a t i v e in a nomi-
nal (compound) predicate:
The argument became lively. ( S n o w . ) The weather was
warm... ( D i c k e n s . ) Now in the fall the trees were all bare
and the roads were muddy. ( H e m i n g w a y . ) He looked so
beautiful and peaceful sitting in that chair under the tree.
(Galsworthy.)
3. Adjectives with the prefix a- such as alive, awake, aware,
asleep, afraid, etc. have usually the function of p r e d i c a t i v e s
(subjective or objective). When YKey are used as a t t r i b u t e s they
follow their head-nouns, thus preserving their predicative character. 1
Their synonyms in pre-position are live or living (for alive),
waking or wakeful (for awake), slanting (for aslant),- stray (for
astray), etc.:
I lay awake a long while... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) H e w a s asleep
in the dining-room, in his own comfortable chair. (G a s k e l l . )
Ruth was aghast. ( L o n d o n . ) And here I've been keeping you
awake. (Mansfield.) (an objective predicative) Mary
rubbed her eyes and sank back on her pillow, awake, and know-
ing it was a dream. ( G a s k e l l . ) (an attribute)
The adjectives ill and well. же. not used attributively in Modern
English, they have only the function of a predicative:
I'm feeling very well, Aunt Augusta. ( W i l d e . ) . . . my poor friend
Bumbary is very ill again. ( W i l d e . )
Survivals of the old attributive use of ill are found in .some
phraseological (set) combinations: ill luck, ill news, ill wind:
111 news travels fast. It is an ill wind that blows no good.
The adjective well is homonymous in form to the adverb well:
All is well (adjective) that ends well (adverb).
4. The adjective is modified by an adverb which has the syn-
tactical function of an adverbial modifier to the adjective:
The sky... was very gloomy... ( D i c k e n s . ) Mrs. Steerforth

1
Some grammarians consider that these words are a separate part of speech
similar to the part of speech in the Russian language termed категория состоя-
ния. However this question needs further study-
(See Б. А. И л ь и ш , «Современный английский язык»; В. Н. Ж и г а д л о,
И. П. И в а н о в а , Л. JI. И о ф и к, «Современный английский язык».)

79
was particularly happy in her son's society. ( D i c k e n s . ) "I
have had a very pleasant evening." ( D i c k e n s . )
5. The adjective may be associated with an object, usually a
prepositional one. Only three adjectives like, busy and worth have
direct objects:
...the air was full of butterflies... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He was
very fond of opera... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Tom was good to her...
(E1 i о t.) There was a wind like ice. ( M a n s f i e l d . ) He was
conscious of a faint rustling Denmd him. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"She's more like your mother — the same eyes and hair." ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) A boy and two men were busy hanging the great
sliding door at the south end... ( N o r r i s . )
N o t e . — like is either an adjective or a preposition.
Like as an adjective is used in the function of 1) a p r e d i c a t i v e or
2) an a t t r i b u t e in post-position. It is always followed by a "direct object:
a) "You are like your brother Bevil after all," I said. ( M a u r i e r . )
b) " W h a t is that exquisite flower, like a ball of gold hanging just over
the water?" ( K i n g s l e y . )
Like as a preposition placed before a noun forms an a d v e r b i a l
p h r a s e used as an adverbial modifier of comparison or manner:
...it [the buttercup] drooped into the foam from its narrow ledge, ...its
golden petals glowing like a tiny sun... ( K i n g s l e y . ) The snowflakes
whirled round the corner of the house, like pigeons dashing by. ( L a w -
rence.)

In Modern English adjectives have no inflexions of case, number


or gender.
The only change of form that adjectives undergo is for de-
g r e e s of c o m p a r i s o n : long, longer, longest (synthetical forms),
beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful (analytical forms).
6. In Old English, adjectives were inflected for case, number
and gender, agreeing with the noun they modified. But in the
course of time these inflexions were levelled to -e and finally
discarded (at the end of the Middle English period, 1400-1500).
7. As to word-building, the adjective possesses some typical
suffixes such as -ful, -less, -ish, -ous, -some, -Iy, etc.: beautiful,
sunless, numerous, childish, troublesome, lively.
There are also compound adjectives such as ice-cold, life-long,
breast-high, heart-rending, upright, inborn.
8. Adjectives make our speech more expressive and precise.
The role of adjectives is especially great in fiction. Compare the
following descriptive passages:
The moon rose above the tops of the mountains. The sea
was flooded with light.
80
A brilliant moon rose above the craggy tops of the distant
mountains. The calm sea was flooded with silvery light.
9. According to their meaning and grammatical characteristics,
adjectives are divided into:
a) q u a l i t a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s (качественные прилагатель-
ные).
b) r e l a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s (относительные прилагательные).
Q u a l i t a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s denote qualities of size, shape,
colour, etc., which an object may possess in various degrees. There-
fore qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison:
The pavement under our feet grew colder and muddier, and
the wind more and more foul. ( G r e e n w o o d . ) "...though
I am the youngest, I am the talfest." ( A u s t e n . )
N o t e . — The qualitative adjective little has no degrees of comparison, smaller
and smallest being used to indicate an increase of quality:
Two little girls were standing in the lane before... The elder... had her
smaller chubbier sister by the hand... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Qualitative adjectives have corresponding adverbs derived by
means of the suffix -Iy (quick — quickly, bright — brightly) or
homonymous in form with the adjective ( f a s t — fast, loud — loud
Cly]).
R e l a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s express qualities which characterize
an object through its relation to another object: woollen gloves
(gloves made of wool), wooden houses (houses made of wood),
Siberian wheat (wheat from Siberia).
Relative adjectives have n o d e g r e e s of c o m p a r i s o n .
In English the number of relative adjectives is limited.
A few relative adjectives are formed from nouns by means of
the suffix -en (wooden, woollen)-, some relative adjectives are formed
from nouns by the suffix -Iy (daily,„„.motherly); many relative
adjectives are converted fromTTSuns (silk, gold, cotton). Adjectivized
nouns are also freely used with the meaning of relative adjectives:
a summer day, a wood flower, the Moscow theatres. See "Adjectiv-
ized Nouns," p. 44) .
There is no hard and fast line of demarcation between qualita-
tive and relative adjectives; a relative adjective may acquire the
meaning of a qualitative one:

a silver watch (relative) an iron bridge (relative)


a silver stream (qualitative) an iron will (qualitative).
Note the use of the forms in -en when the relative adjectives
gold, flax, wax, silk acquire qualitative meaning:
6—3300 81
a gold chain ^ g o l d e n hair a flax flower—flaxen hair
a wax candle — waxen cheeks a silk dress ^-silken hair.
Some of the forms in -en are now archaic: an oaken chair.

Degrees of Comparison
1) There are two degrees of comparison: t h e c o m p a r a t i v e
and t h e superlative, in contrast to which the adjective
expressing the simple quality without comparison is said to be in
the p o s i t i v e degree.
2. The adjective in the positive with the conjunction as ... as
expresses an equal degree:
My task is as easy as yours. My room is as large as hers.
The third man was no other than his old friend Dr. Horace
Hunter, as healthy and hearty as ever... ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) Al)
the way home in the carriage he felt at least as happy over
her good fortune as over his own... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "If you
ever live to be as old as I am you will find many things
strange." ( H e m i n g w a y . ) •
In a corresponding negative sentence i}ot so.,, as is used:
My task is not so easy as yours. My room is not so large
as hers.
Farther off were hills: not so lofty as those round Lowood...
( B r o n t e . ) "He's... not so pleasant as he might be." ( D i c k -
ens.) "I am not so brave, so good, so strong as you.*
(Gaskell.)
3. Comparison of s u p e r i o r i t y is expressed by the compara-
tive or the superlative degree of the adjective; the comparative is
followed by the conjunction than:
,\
Now I am in the garden at the back, ...where the fruit
clusters on the trees, riper and richer than fruit has ever been
since, in any other garden... ( D i c k e n s . ) Tall and slight,
thinner than he remembered her, she stood there. ( C u s a c k . )
When thus gentle, Bessie seemed to me the best, prettiest,
kindest being in the world... ( B r o n t e . )
To express an inferjor degree of quality the adjective is con-
nected with the adverb little in the 'comparative or superlative
degree (less, least), which is a free syntactical word-combination
(свободное синтаксическое словосочетание):
The instigators of war are weak, less numerous than the
partisans of peace.
But in spoken language this combination is usually replaced by
the negative of the comparison of equality:
82,
It is less cold than it was yesterday. — It is not so cold as
it was yesterday.
4. The comparative and the superlative degrees are formed in
two ways:
a) by the inflexions -er [ej, -est [istj (synthetical forms): long,
longer, longest;
b) by adding more and most (analytical forms): interesting, more
interesting, most interesting:
She is the most active member of our circle. I suppose he
had been more talkative and lively, once. ( D i c k e n s . )
Adjectives in the superlative degree always imply limitation and
thus a noun with an adjective in the superlative degree has the
definite article:
The carrier's horse was the laziest horse in the world...
( D i c k e n s . ) The eldest, a fair-haired English boy, lingers...
(Galsworthy.)
Notice the use of the definite article with a comparative:
He is the taller of the two. She was an inch or so the
taller. ( J o y c e . )
5. The following adjectives form their degrees of comparison by
the inflexion -er [a], -est [ist]:
a) all adjectives of o n e s y l l a b l e : tall, taller, tallest; large,
larger, largest; slow, slower, slowest, dark, darker, darkest.
b) adjectives of t w o s y l l a b l e s ending in -y, -er, -cm, -ble:
happy, happier, happiest; clever, cleverer, cleverest', narrow, narrower,
narrowest; able, abler, ablest.
c) adjectives of two syllables which have the stress on the last
syllable: complete, completer, com pletest;~'concise, conciser, conctsest:
When the style requires, all these adjectives may form their
degrees of comparison by adding more and most:
The roar soon grew more IoudI the passengers more numer-
ous, the shops more busy... ( D i c k e n s . ) It appeared to me
that he was more clever and cold than they were... ( D i c k -
ens.)
6. All other adjectives form their degrees of comparison analyt-
ically by adding more and most: famous, more famous, most famous-,
productive, more productive, most productive-, successful, more success-
ful, most successful.
7. In compound adjectives the first element is compared by
6» 83
means of the inflexions -er, -est, as long as the two elements
preserve their separate meaning: well-known, better-known, best-known.
But forms with more and most are also used: far-fetched, more far-
fetched, most far-fetched.
The change is even deeper-rooted than that. A prouder-
hearted man I never met. A better and more kind-hearted man
does not exist.
8. S p e l l i n g r u l e s . Adjectives ending in -y with a preced-
ing consonant change -y into -i before -er and -est: easy, easier,
easiest; happy, happier, happiest. But: shy, shyer, shyest; sly, slyer„
slyest (where :y belongs to the root of the word).
Adjectives" encfing in -e drop this letter before -er and -est:
wise, wiser, wisest; brave, braver, bravest.
Adjectives of one syllable which end in a single consonant
preceded by a short vowel d o u b l e t h i s c o n s o n a n t before -er,
-est: big, bigger, biggest; dim, dimmer, dimmest, hot, hotter, hottest:
sad, sadder, saddest.
9. When t w o t h i n g s are compared, t h e c o m p a r a t i v e
degree should be used; when m o r e t h a n t w o , t h e s u p e r -
lative: •
.Fanny was just a little taller than Elisabeth. ( A l d i n g -
t o n . ) I remember the smallest details of that afternoon. ( C o n -
r a d . ) Mrs. Septimus Small was the tallest of the four sisters...
(Galsworthy.)
But in colloquial English t h e s u p e r l a t i v e degree is some-
times used instead of t h e c o m p a r a t i v e :
This is the shortest of the two roads.
10. When two things are compared, the word-jpther^h. sometimes
used with the name of the second object to make the expression
more precise:
Sparrows are more common than any other birds. His study
is larger than any other room in the house.
In the superlative degree, all is used, as in:
This is the finest picture of all.
11. Comparatives may be intensified by means of:
a) r e p e t i t i o n :
The song grew fainter and fainter... ( L o n d o n . ) ...Caleb's
scanty hairs were turning greyer and more grey... ( D i c k e n s . )
b) such words or phrases as far, still, ever, much, a great, deal,
etc.:
...and Peggotty's love is a great deal better than mine,
Davy. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...I found the task much more difficult
than I had anticipated. ( G r e e n w o o d . )
The superlative degree is emphasized by placing very, by far,
etc., before the superlative, or tiy means of the adjectives possible,
imaginable, etc., placed after the noun:
It is the best means possible. He is by far the best worker
at our factory.
That is among my very earliest impressions. ( D i c k e n s . )
We find a d o u b l e c o m p a r a t i v e in lesser which has the
meaning of "less important," "smaller": Lesser~7fsia (usually Asia
Minor — Малая Азия), the Lesser Bear (Малая Медведица), lesser
lights (smaller lights). Lesser is rarely used now.
Then the glory of sun banished the lesser glory of moon.
(N о r r i s.)
12. The superlative degree is sometimes used when the thing
spoken of is not compared but is regarded as possessing a certain
quality in a very high degree. In such cases the definite article is
sometimes omitted:
I shall do it with the greatest ( = very great) pleasure.
...the night crept gently into the hollows of the hills, which
now were coloured the deepest, richest green. (G i s s i n g . )
The clouds were low over the high buildings, hanging in a
smooth unbroken dome of palest blue. ( C u s a c k . )
N о t e. — In such sentences as It is a most interesting book, the word most
does not form the analytical superlative degree of the adjective, but is used to
show a high degree of the quality possessed by the noun book. In such a case
most is unstressed or medium-stressed, whereas when it forms the analytical
superlative degree of the adjective, most and the adjective have even stress.
Compare:
It it the most interesting book I have ever read (самая интересная книга из
всех мною прочитанных). It is a most interesting book (весьма интересная
книга).
In the sentence It is the most interesting book I have ever read, the word
most is not part of the sentence (член предложения): it is only a part (часть)
of the analytical form of the superlative degree of the adjective interesting. In
the sentence It is a most interesting book the word most is an adverb; it is an
adverbial modifier of degree to the attribute interesting (a most interesting=very
interesting).

Irregular Forms of Comparison

1. Some adjectives have i r r e g u l a r forms of comparison,


a) A few adjectives have s u p p l e t i v e forms of comparison:
85
rf®—
Positive Comparative Superlative

good \ better
well / best
bad worse worst

b) A few adjectives have t w o f o r m s of comparison. The


second form has a special meaning and is actually a separate
word:

Positive Comparative Superlative .

( farther ( farthest
far
\ further \ furthest

near ( nearest
nearer
\ next
/ later / latest
late
X latter X last
( older Г oldest
old
. X elder \ eldest

2. Late and later refer to time. Latest has also the meaning of
"most recent". Latter and last are used with reference to o r d e r .
This is the latest edition of the book. The last edition of
this book is sold out. That is the last news we heard of him
(we have heard no more of him). This is the latest news we
have heard of him (we expect to hear something more). The
Carrier and his wife exchanged a look of perplexity. The strang-
er raised his head; and glancing from the latter to the former,
said, "Your daughter, my good friend?" ( D i c k e n s . )
3. Nearest refers to d i s t a n c e , next is used when o r d e r is
meant:
My next care will be to find the nearest way to the next
village. He is my nearest relation. Next day; next year; next
door.
The nearest village — at the shortest distance (ближайшая).
The next village immediately following another (следующая)
4. Older and oldest denote a g e and l o n g d u r a t i o n :
"Susan... the oldest friend I have", said Florence, "is about
to leave here suddenly, and quite alone, poor girl." ( D i c k e n s . )
She was older than Jan, darker, not so tall... ( C u s a c k . ) Although
86
you are a little older than I, you belong essentially to the same
generation... ( A l d i n g t o n . )
Elder and eldest are used to distinguish members of the same
family, also when speaking of people higher in rank and authority.
Elder is never followed by than:
When 1 met her she'd lost her elder child. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
He was their favourite nephew, the son of their dead elder
sister... ( J o y c e . ) The eldest boy ran out to fetch some milk.
(Dickens.)
He is the eldest and the most respected member of our
kolkhoz.
Elder can be used as a noun:
...she was sensible enough to see that her elders had reason
on their side. (M a u g h a m.)
Older is always an adjective.
Note that when Than is used, older is required when referring
to members of the same family: ^
He is older than his sister.
But: He is the elder of the two brothers. She is the eldest
of the three sisters. This boy is the elder of the two (brothers).
5. Farther, farthest — further, furthest are used with reference to
distance. But only further is used to express that s o m e t h i n g
w i 11 f о 11 о w:
The school is at the farthest (furthest) end of the village.
From the furthest west to the furthest east stretched fields and
meadows. Further discussipn will follow. Further details are
unnecessary.

Substantivized Adjectives
1. In languages in which adjectives are inflected they are freely substan-
tivized. The inflected form of the adjective shows whether a singular or a
plural is meant, masculine, feminine or neuter gender. Compare the Russian:
Прекрасное должно быть величаво. ( П у ш к и н . ) Отважные не знают преград.
Сытый голодного не разумеет.
In the earlier periods of the English language adjectives were freely sub-
stantivized with singular and plural meaning. We still find the singular in:
None but the brave deserves the fair. ( D r у d e n . )
But in Modern English, where adjectives have lost number inflexions, the
use of substantivized adjectives is limited.

2. In Modern English substantivized adjectives are:


a) Either w h o l l y s u b s t a n t i v i z e d (converted into nouns),
that is, they acquire all the characteristics of nouns: they have
plural and possessive case inflexions and may be associated with
87

the definite and indefinite articles (a native, two natives, the native'ъ
hut).
b) Or p a r t i a l l y s u b s t a n t i v i z e d , that is, they take only
the definite article, but are neither inflected for the plural, nor can
they be used in the possessive case (the young, the old, the future,
the useful.)

Partially Substantivized Adjectives

1. Partially substantivized abjectives denote:


a) A l l t h e p e r s o n s possessing the quality mentioned by
the adjective as a group, but not separate individuals:
Books for the young. Schools for the deaf and dumb. ...a
large proportion of his time appeared devoted to visiting the sick
and poor... ( B r o n t e . ) The rich were my enemies, I felt...
( B r a i n e . ) The lower path was shorter than the road but steep
and rocky... only the foolish or the reckless ever came back
that way. ( C u s a c k . )
И separate individuals are meant, some noun (man, person,
people) must be added: a rich man, an idle person.
The same applies to substantivized adjectives ending in -sh and
-ch denoting nations. Used with the definite article they denote the
whole nation:
The English and the French were in arms against each
other. (M а с a u 1 a y.)
If separate members of the nation are meant, the nouns man
(men), woman (women) or people are'added:
There used to come to that house a little Frenchman...
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) There were English people, Irish people,
Welsh people and Scotch people there... ( D i c k e n s . )
N o t e . — T w o partially substantivized adjectives connected by and have
generally no article:
...I saw a vast field on which young and old were playing cricket. (M о r ! о п.}

Some p a r t i c i D l e s mav also be partially substantivized:


Ernest was speaking. He was describing the sufferings of
• the unemployed... ( L o n d o n . ) Derek and Sheila have been
brought up to be in sympathy with the poor and oppressed.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Geibel and his daughter were again among
the invited. ( J e r o m e . )
b) A b s t r a c t n o t i o n s : the useful, the beautiful, the pictur-
esque, the agreeable, etc.:
88
...the simple-minded uncle in his secret attraction towards
the marvellous and adventurous—...had greatly encouraged the
same attraction in the nephew... ( D i c k e n s . ) The wind had
dropped, and after the cold of the night the birds were singing
their clearest in the sunshine. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Miss Widding-
ton... did not allow the sentimental to weaken the practical»
( L o c k e . ) He lost his direction in the dark. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The mirth of Mr. Bob Sawyer was rapidly ripening into the
furious; Mr. Ben Allen was fast relapsing into the sentimental.
(Dickens.)
2. We have also substantivized adjectives used with a singular-
meaning in the following s e t p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s :
The other answered in the negative. ( N o r r i s . ) Her laugh
cut Soames to the_aui£j{. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "The fire broke out
at dead of night..." ( B r o n t ё . ) ...the flowers you would expect
to see in a greenhouse are growing in the open. (E1 к i n g-
ton.)
Also in: on the whole, in the main, in short, in general, etc.
3. A c o m p a r a t i v e is substantivized in the phrases: to get
the better of something; a change for the better.
4. S u p e r l a t i v e s are substantivized in the following expres-
sions:
It is all for the best. He was at his best. Are you tired? —
Not in the least. "I'll do my best to make you comfortable."
( G a s k e l l . ) All was solid and of the best... (Galsworthy.)

Wholly Substantivized Adjectives


(Adjectives Converted into Nouns)

1. A number of adjectives have been w h o l l y substanti-


v i z e d ; they have acquired all the characteristics of nouns: a native,
a relative, a savage, a criminal, a black, a white, a liberal, a radi-
cal, a conservative, a European, proletarian, a weekly (еженедель-
ник), a monthly, etc.:
"How did she like her relatives?" ( B r o n t § . ) 'Isn't she
a dear?' said Elisabeth. ( A l d i n g t o n . ) "Are you a relative
of theirs?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Having been a Conservative Lib-
. eral in politics till well past sixty, it was not until Disraeli's
time that he "became a Liberal Conservative. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
He passed two or three natives... ( M a u g h a m . ) "The best
flower I can show you", he added, with a sort of triumph, "is
my little sweet." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) 'Don't laugh at me, Т о т Г
she burst out angrily; 'I'm not a stupid!' ( E l i o t . )
89
2. To the same group belong the following substantivized
adjectives denoting nationality: a Russian, an American, a Norwe-
gian, a Belgian, a German, an Italian, a Greek: (A Russian, two
Russians; a Norwegian, two Norwegians).
N o t e . — Names of nations ending in -ss, -se have one form for both numbers: a
•Chinese, two Chinese, the Chinese; a Swiss, two Swiss, the Swiss.

The names of languages Russian, Norwegian, English, etc., also


belong to wholly substantivized adjectives:
...he spoke German, if not more fluently, with a better
accent than he spoke French. ( M a u g h a m . )
3. To the same group belong some substantivized participles Il
which are used in the singular and pluraTTiJut have one form
for both numbers:
"I appear for the accused." ( G o r d o n . ) "...the deceased's
finger-prints ought to be on it somewhere." ( G o r d o n . ) Marga-
ret and her husband looked — as if they had been the accused.
(Gas к ell.)
4. N a m e s of c o l o u r s also belong to wholly substantivized
adjectives. When used in a general sense, they are treated as uncount-
ables; when denoting shades of colours, they are treated as count-
r i e s "and may be used with the indefinite article and in the
plural:
The grey of earth and sky had become deeper, more pro-
found. ( L o n d o n . ) ...scarce a sprinkle of yellow mingled with
the hues of summer... ( D i c k e n s . ) He watched the white
clouds so bright against the intense blue. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The first tints of the flowers had deepened... Pink became a
royal red. Blue rose into purple. Yellow flamed into orange.
( N o r r i s . ) The trees in the garden were turning yellows and
browns. ( D i c k e n s . )

THE NUMERAL
1. The n u m e r a l is a part of speech which includes words
denoting number.
2. Numerals may be used in the same functions in which
n o u n s and a d j e c t i v e s are used:
Twelve were absent (noun function — subject). The first is
mine (noun function — subject.) Give me the second (noun func-
tion— object). There are five chairs in the room (adjective
function — attribute). It was the first English book I read
(adjective function — attribute).
3. The chief classes of numerals are c a r d i n a l s and o r d i n a l s .
90
Cardinal Numerals
1. C a r d i n a l n u m e r a l s (one, two, three, four, etc.) are
used in counting, answering the question "How many?":
Two or three days went by. (Maugham.) Mr. Bucket
makes three distinct different bows to these three people. ( D i c k -
e n s . ) Janet was a pretty blooming girl, of about nineteen or
twenty... ( D i c k e n s . ) A young woman still — twenty-eight,
perhaps. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Nineteen persons were gathered here.
(Hardy.)
2. Notice the vowel and consonant interchange in five — fifteen
<fif'ti:n], fifty ['fifti].
Pay attention to the spelling of forty (cp. four, fourteen).
The fem-numerals have stress o n t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e if
they are not followed by a noun (thirteen, fifteen). When they
are used with a noun, the stress is on the first syllable ('thirteen
books, 'fifteen pencils).
3. All the cardinal numerals may become nouns and may take
a plural ending:
The nine played an excellent game. They formed by fours.
Thousands went to the meeting.
...they found the two stretched side by side in their deck-
chairs. ( M a z o d e l a R o c h e . ) "...Mr. Copperfield objected
to my threes and fives being too much like each other, or to
my putting curly tails to my sevens and nines," resumed my
rpother. ( D i c k e n s . )
Million is the only numeral that can take the plural form when
multiplied and not followed by another numeral, but then it is used
as a noun and followed by the preposition of: Five million inhab-
itants or five millions of inhabitants.
The plural form of hundred and thousand is used when no nu-
meral precedes or when the pronoun some is used: in these cases
the numerals hundred and thousand are substantivized: Thousands
of workers. Some hundreds of schoolchildren.
The whole region here was dotted with marshy ponds...
Their sedgy margins were the nestling grounds of thousands of
birds... ( S e t o n - T h o m p s o n ) .
N o t e : — Hundred, thousand and million must always be preceded by a or
one; one is generally used when smaller numbers follow: a hundred, one hundred
ind forty-five.

4. Notice the following:


a) To count by tens, hundreds, thousands-, also by the hundred„
by the thousand, etc.
91
b) a dozen— 12, a score — 20, three score — 60.
c) hatf-an-hour; three miles and a half or three and a half
miles; a quarter of an hour.
In chronology we generally count by hundreds: In 1930 — in
nineteen hundred and thirty or in nineteen thirty.

Fractional Numbers

In fractional numbers the n u m e r a t o r is a c a r d i n a l and


the d e n o m i n a t o r is an o r d i n a l (used as a noun): two-thirds,,
three-sixths.
Notice the following: Decimal fractions: 1.62 = one, point
(decimal) six, two.
Ordinal Numerals
1. O r d i n a l n u m e r a l s (first, second, third, fourth, etc.)
denote the position or order of persons or things in a series; they
answer the question "Which?" Most of the ordinal numerals are
formed from cardinal numerals by means of the suffix -th, (seventh,
fourteenth, twentieth) except first, second, and third. Notice also
the spelling of fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth:
• It was the first walk we had ever taken together... ( D i c k -
e n s . ) The second day was exactly like the first. ( J e r o m e . )
The weather changed on the third day. ( J e r o m e . )
2. Ordinal numerals are usually preceded by the d e f i n i t e
article: the first, the second, the tenth, the one hundred and
twenty-fifth:
Besides these, there were the young ladies' father and the
young ladies' brother; the first engaged in mercantile affairs;
the second, a student at college... ( D i c k e n s . )
The i n d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e may also be. used with first>
second, third, etc.: A second voyage = an additional voyage = one
more. The second voyage = out of a definite number of voyages.
The second voyage he made was the most adventurous one.
In 1920 he went to explore the sources of the Nile; two years
later he made a second voyage to Africa. May I ask you for
a second cup of tea? The second cup of tea I prefer to drink
without sugar. Couldn't you read it a third time? I hope you
will read it more fluently the third time.
3. In ordinal groups only the last member of the group takes
the ordinal forms: thirty-fifth, two hundred and second.
4. Notice the following: Chapter 1, page 20 — the first chapter,
92
chapter one; but: page twenty. Moscow, July 15th, 1951 (in writing)
«= Moscow, the fifteenth of July, nineteen hundred and fifty-one
-(in spoken language). In every-day speech: January first, July
41
fifteen. In correspondence often: 15/7/51. —

THE PRONOUN

1. Pronouns are specific words with regard to both meaning and


form. They point out things and qualities of things without naming
or describing them (as nouns and adjectives do).
Pronouns have very general, relative meaning. Thus, the indica-
tion of a person by means of a personal pronoun varies depending
on the speaker, e.g., one and the same person may be denoted
by 1, you or he: when a person speaks of himself, he calls
himself /; addressing him, we call him you\ speaking about him,
we refer to him as he. In the same way possessive pro-
nouns indicate relative possession depending on the actual
speaker, and one and the same thing possessed by a certain
person may be referred to as my book, your book or his book.
The indication of a thing by means of the demonstrative pro-
nouns this and that is determined by the whole situation — any
object which is near the speaker is referred to as this, any object
which is far from him is referred to as that.
Compare with the indication of things and qualities by means
of nouns or adjectives. The indication of an object by means of
the noun table does not depend on the actual speaker or situation —
this object will always be called table, by any speaker and in any
situation. The same with the indication of qualities by means of
adjectives: a square table, a large room, a clever boy.
2. The syntactical functions of pronouns are similar to those
of nouns and adjectives, accordingly pronouns are classed as
n о u n-p г о n о u n s and a d j e c t i v e - p r o n o u n s :
a) N o u n - p r o n o u n s :
I am reading (subject). Charles can do this (object). It is he
(predicative).
b) A d j e c t i v e - p r o n o u n s :
My book is here (attribute). Give me some sugar (attribute).
Some pronouns are used only as noun-pronouns (personal pro-
nouns, the interrogative who, the reciprocal each other, one another,
etc.); other pronouns are used only as adjective-pronouns (possessive
pronouns in the conjoint form, the indefinite pronoun every).
But the majority of pronouns have both noun and adjective
functions.
93
3. In common with nouns, noun-pronouns have n u m b e r and
c a s e forms.
C a s e . The case system of pronouns differs from that of nouns.
Some pronouns have the nominative and the objective case (personal
pronouns, thfe interrogative who). Some pronouns have the common
and the possessive case (somebody, each other, etc.). But most
pronouns have no case form whatsoever.
The case system of personal pronouns (and the interrogative
who) which comprises the nominative and the objective is at present
in a state of transition. There is a strong tendency to use the nom-
inative case when the pronoun precedes the verb even if its
function is that of an object:
"Who is Margaret talking to?" said Mrs. Munt... (Forster.)
Who can he mean by that? ( S h e r i d a n . )
When the pronoun follows the verb, there is a pronounced
tendency in colloquial speech to use the objective case, even if the
function of the pronoun is that of a predicative:
"Who's there?" — "It's me," she said. ( G r e e n e . )
In careless speech It is him (her, us) is also frequent.
N u m b e r . Pronouns also express number: singular and plural.
But with a few exceptions- (one — ones, other — others, yourself —
yourselves) pronouns do not indicate the plural by the genera)
plural inflexion of the noun ~(e)s [z -s-iz]). The demonstrative pronouns
this and that have quite peculiar plural forms: these and those.
There are pronouns which are only singular in meaning (each,
every, somebody, something, much, little); others are only plural
(many, few, both, several). Many pronouns have one form for the
singular and plural meaning (all, any, some, who, which). In
personal pronouns number is expressed by different words: singular:
I, plural: we. Singular: thou, plural: you. Singular: he, she, it.
plural: they.
U s e of t h e A r t i c l e . Most pronouns are used without an>
article, though some pronouns are associated with it (the other,
a little, a few):
The others waited for the rest of the story. ( N o r r i s . ) ...a
few white clouds floated amid the blue... ( G i s s i n g . ) "If you
don't mind, I'd like to have a little of your time." ( S a r o y a n . )
P l a c e of A d j e c t i v e s U s e d a s A t t r i b u t e s . Pro-
nouns are rarely associated with adjectives used as attributes. If
they are qualified by an adjective, the latter is placed after the
pronoun:
94
...Christine noticed that something unusual had upset him.
(Cr o n in.) "What a dull creature he is, never has anything
interesting to say." ( M a u r i e r . ) "There was nothing strange
in your dream." ( M a r r y a t . )

CLASSIFICATION OF PRONOUNS

Personal Pronouns
1. T h e personal pronouns are used only as n o u n -
pronouns:

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person


Case
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural

Nominative I we thou you he, she, it they


Objective me us thee you him, her, it them

2. As is seen from the table above, the personal pronouns have


two cases: n o m i n a t i v e and o b j e c t i v e (the latter corresponds
to the old dative and accusative). The old genitive case of the
personal pronouns is now a p o s s e s s i v e pronoun.
There is no uniform inflexion for the objective case of personal
pronouns: / — me, we — us, she —her present suppletive systems; in
thou — thee there is a vowel interchange; in he — him, they — them
there is a vowel interchange and the inflexion -m; it — it, you — you
have homonymous forms for both cases.
When a personal pronoun is used as the subject or predicative
of a sentence, it is in the nominative case:
"I'm ready to do it to-morrow;,." ( H u x l e y . ) "You speak
excellent French..." (La M u r e . ) XHe was not very tall...
( L a w r e n c e . ) "Who's that?" — "It's K" ( D i c k e n s . )
• . But as has already been stated, in colloquial speech the use of
the objective case of the 1st person singular me я* я predicative
more common than the nominative case I:
...he said: "Yes, it's me." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The same when the pronoun is used as the second subject in
such combinations as:
"...you and me can mark out the beds, and make holes and
plant the roots." ( E l i o t . )
As for the other persons, the use of the objective, case in these
instances is still considered as careless speech:
95
"...it's quite certain that it was her..." ( B r o n t e . ) "Well,
well! So this is him, at last." ( C r o n i n . )
When a personal pronoun has the function of an object (direct,
indirect or prepositional), it is in the objective case:
He... led her about the ground, showed her everything.
( L a w r e n c e . ) ...she was waiting for me. ( D o y l e . ) He led
them into the further gallery... ( C h e s t e r t o n . )
4. The pronouns of the third person singular discriminate gender;
masculine (he), feminine (she), neuter (it); but in the third person
plural the form they serves for all three genders.
5. In Old English thou was used in addressing a single person
Now it it used only in poetry and high prose:
Tell me, thou, star, whose wings of light
Speed thee in thy fiery flight,
In what cavern of the night
Will thy pinions close now?
(Shelley.)

6. In ordinary prose, you is used for the second person, whether


singular or plural. Yet you always takes a plural verb-form:
"Hallo, Father! Here you are!" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "You are
my comfort," said Soames suddenly. (G a 1 s w о r t h у.)
7. Ye was once the form of the nominative and you of the
objective. Now you is both nominative and objective and ye is used
only in poetry:
I fear ye not, I know ye. ( B y r o n . )
"Arise, ye prisoners of starvation!
Arise, ye wretched of the earth!"
(The Internationale.)

Possessive Pronouns
1. T h e p o s s e s s i v e p r o n o u n s are exactly parallel to the
personal pronouns and distinguish number, gender and person in the same
way as the personal pronouns do: I — my; thee — thy; you — your;
he — his; she — her; it — its\ we — our; they — their.
2. The possessive pronouns are t h e old genitive case of the personal pro-
nouns (Old English: Ie gemunde Jiis=I remember him or it). In Middle English
t h e genitive of personal pronouns began to be used only as a possessive pronoun.
3. The possessive pronouns have special forms when used as
a d j e c t i v e - p r o n o u n s ( c o n j o i n t f o r m — присоединяемая фор-
ма) and as n o u n - p r o n o u n s ( a b s o l u t e f o r m — абсолютная
форма).
96
Conjoint Form

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Singular my thy his, her, its

Plural our your their

Absolute Fo r m

1st Person • 2nd Person 3rd Person

Singular mine thine his, hers,* its

Plural ours • yours theirs

The c o n j o i n t forms are used when a noun follows the pro-


noun; the a b s o l u t e forms cannot be followed by a noun, and
are usually predicatives; its and his may be used in either way.
Use of the Conjoint Form Use of the Absolute Form
My brother has arrived. The fault is mine.
His hair is black. The book is not his.
Our work is done. These seats are ours.
I have taken your book. This pencil is yours.
Their turn has come. That book is theirs.
The absolute forms (mine, yours, etc.) may also have other
functions (subject, attribute, object):
Yours is a long life to look back upon. ( D i c k e n s . ) Jon
looked at his watch. "By Jove!" he said, "mine's stopped too."
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Ours is but a short and strange acquaintance.
( M a r r y a t . ) "...Fleur's a cousin of ours, Jon." ( G a l s w o r -
t h y . ) I like much that great river of yours. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
N o t e . — T h e forms mine and thine were used in Old English both in the
conjoint and the absolute function. In Middle English the inflexion n began to
disappear before a consonant b u t was retained before a vowel (and h): To slay
mine enemies and ayde my friends.
The inflexion n was also retained when the pronoun was used absolutely.
Later on, the forms my and thy began to be used in conjoint function before
consonants and vowels as well and the use of mine and thine was restricted only
to the absolute function. We still find survivals of the old conjoint use of mine
and thine occasionally in nineteenth-century poets:

7—3300 • • 97
Like mine own life. ( T e n n y s o n . ) Mine ear. (Byron.) Thine heart,
thine eyes. ( S w i n b u r n e . )

4. In a number of cases the possessive pronoun is used before


nouns denoting parts of the body, clothing, etc., where in corre-
sponding Russian constructions there is no possessive pronoun:
"I thank you with all my heart." ( D i c k e n s . ) ...he took
off his hat. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) She had turned her head to
speak to her boy. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The small creature and her
smaller brother shook their heads. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) She held
out her hand.... ( A l d i n g t o n . ) The man opposite me had taken
off his spectacles. ( H e m i n g w a y . ) He came in with his hair
all ruffled and his face hot, and his hands in his trousers pockets,
in the way he had repeatedly been told not to. ( W e l l s . )
But: Wind blew him in the face. He patted the boy on the
shoulder.
Notice that in corresponding expressions in Russian there is
generally no possessive pronoun.
5. When there are two objects in the sentence, the possessive
pronoun must precede each, if there is danger of misunderstanding:
. I will send for our secretary and our librarian (two persons).
I will send for our secretary and librarian (one person). I have
brought his cream and his cheese (two things). I have brought
her cream and cheese (a mixture).

Reflexive Pronouns

1. The r e f l e x i v e pronouns are parallel to the personal pro-


nouns; they distinguish p e r s o n , n u m b e r and g e n d e r in the
same way as the personal pronouns .do. They are used only as
n о u n-p г о n о u n s.

Indefinite 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

myself yourself himself, herself,


oneself itself,
ourselves yourselves themselves

To the class of reflexive pronouns belongs also the indefinite-


reflexive oneself which has no parallel pronoun in the personal
pronouns:
98
"But you might remember that one respects oneself more
afterwards if one paves one's own way." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. Reflexive pronouns may be used in the function of a d i r e c t
object to some transitive verbs imparting to them r e f l e x i v e
m e a n i n g (compare with Russian where reflexive verbs have the
suffix -ся, -сь: Мыться, бриться). In this function reflexive pro-
nouns are unstressed:
I was in several minds how to dress myself on the impor-
tant day. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...the young couple settled themselves
into the little room. ( W e l l s . ) ...he warmed himself over the
remnants of the fire. ( S n o w . )
3. Reflexive pronouns may also be used as an o b j e c t (direct
or prepositional) without imparting reflexive meaning to the verb:
She saw herself in the mirror (direct object). She is too
young to look after herself (prepositional object). He thinks
too much of himself. ( S w e e t . )
When adverbial relations of place are indicated, pej^onal pro-
nouns are used:
The boy... stared before him with big brown eyes. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) "Now, don't stare about you all afternoon," cried
Jiidy... ( D i c k e n s . )
A reflexive pronoun may also be used as an a t t r i b u t e :
He looked at the photograph of himself and some fellow
soldiers... ( G o r d o n . )
Notice the use of the reflexive pronoun in the function of a
predicative:
I am by myself (alone). "I am not quite myself," returned
the trooper; "I have been a little put out, Mrs. Bagnet." ( D i c k -
ens.)
Also in the function of an a d v e r b i a l m o d i f i e r :
He gets thoughtful, sitting by himself so much. ( D i c k e n s . )
She was used to wandering about the fields by herself. (E1 i-
ot.) The horses, handsome and brown, went on by themselves...
(Lawrence.) .
Emphatic Pronouns
E m p h a t i c pronouns coincide in form with reflexive pronouns.
They are used in apposition to nouns or personal pronouns serving
to emphasize them (cp. with the Russian сам, сама, само, сами).
Emphatic pronouns are placed either after the word which they
emphasize or at the end of the sentence:
99
- Jolyon himself lit a cigarette. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) At our feet
lie the terrible precipices... of Snowdon itself. (Marsh.) I have
thought of it myself. ( H a r d y . )
Sometimes an emphatic pronoun is used independently, there is
no noun (or pronoun) in the sentence with which it might be cor-
related:
Wickham was not at all more distressed than herself... (Aus-
t e n . ) Who suffers by his ill whims? Himself, always. ( D i c k e n s . )
"My friend and myself would be so much obliged if you would tell
us how you caught that trout up here." ( J e r o m e . )

Reciprocal Pronouns
1. The group-pronouns each other and one 'another are called
r e c i p r o c a l pronouns: They help each other means "A helps В, B
helps A. Each other generally implies only two; one another, more
than two, but this distinction is not always strictly observed:
R e c i p r o c a l pronouns are used as n о u n-p г о n о u n s. They
distinguish case: c o m m o n : each other, one another; p o s s e s s i v e :
each other's, one another's:
The two stood gazing at each other for a minute in silence...
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Still they worked on, taking turns and whis-
pering cheerfully to one another. (Dodge.) Once in a while
they would tell a story—.but they knew each other's stories too
well... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) They looked into each. other's eyes,
laughing. ( L a w r e n c e . ) "They resemble each other in some
measure", said Mrs. Pryor... ( B r o n t ё . ) They held each other
. in highest esteem, or as they would probably have put it, swore
by one another. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

Demonstrative Pronouns

1. The demonstrative pronouns this (plural — these), that (plural —


those) may be used either as a d j e c t i v e - p r o n o u n s or as n o u n -
p r o n o u n s . Both these pronouns can be used for persons and
things.
This (these) and that (those) change their form for number not
only when they are used as noun-pronouns, but also as adjective-
pronouns:
N o u n-p r o n o u n s :
1 "That's the only problem." ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) "This is curious,"
said he. ( D o y l e . ) "These are bathrooms," he said... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y ) . "You needn't worry about that." ( M a u g h a m . )
That was what I meant ( D i c k e n s . )
100
Adjective-pronouns:
That night he slept like a top... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) This con-
versation had taken place in the little room... (Doyle.) Florence
stole into those rooms at twilight... ( D i c k e n s . )
2. This (these) is used for what is close by in space or time;
that (those), for what is farther off:
By the end of that time he read another speech by the same
statesman... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I like wilder and more primitive
country, the Downs and those great round empty Exmoor hills."
( A l d i n g t o n . ) "What do you think of this?" said Soames
pointing to the Gauguin. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "That is Sirius, a
gigantic sun, many millions of miles distant from us." ( A l d i n g -
ton.) The old man cast a glance this way and that before he
answered... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
3. A demonstrative pronoun may be used with reference to a
p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d noun:
Compare these maps with those on the blackboard.
That (those) referring to a preceding noun (or nouns) is often
followed by a participle, an adjective, an o/-phrase or another pre-
positional phrase, or an attributive clause:
Her sleep must have been like that of a baby. ( G a l s w o r -
thy.) The Tempest contains the noblest meditative passages in
all the plays; that which embodies Shakespeare's final view of
life... ( G i s s i n g . ) She's at another gate now — that leading into
Fir-tree Groove. ( E l i o t . )
4. That is also used to refer to a whole preceding statement:
I had a severe cold; that was my reason for not coming.
As for going down there with no weapons in their hands,
that was asking too much. (N o r r i s . )
5. This (that) is used to point out a person or thing expressed
in the sentence by a predicative noun: This is a pen. That is a
pencil. Compare with the Russian это (то) in similar function:
"So this is my prospective sister-in-law?" ( W e l l s . ) That
was the text of the letter. ( W e l l s . )
6. Same and such are also demonstrative pronouns. Such means
of this {that) kind:
From the day she left I was no longer the same... ( B r o n t ё . )
I never saw such a beautiful colour on my mother's face before.
( D i c k e n s . ) Such was the individual, on whom Mr. Pickwick
Wl
gazed through his spectacles... ( D i c k e n s . ) They had engaged
rooms at the same hotel where once they had been familiar
guests. (Mazo de l a R o c h e . )

Interrogative Pronouns
1. The i n t e r r o g a t i v e pronouns are: who, whose, what, and
which. They are used in forming s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s :
"What is the matter?" he inquired. ( B r o n t ё . ) "Whose child
are you?" he said. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Who were they? (Вгоп1ё.)
2. The pronoun who is used only as a n o u n - p r o n o u n and
refers to persons. It has two case-forms: n o m i n a t i v e — who,
o b j e c t i v e — whom. The corresponding interrogative possessive
pronoun is whose:
Who is this man? (Gas к ell.) "Whom do you want me to
talk to now?" ( L o n d o n . ) "Whose writing is that?" ( D i c k e n s . )
The objective whom in spoken English is often replaced by who:
"Who am I talking to?" ( S h a w . ) "Who is that letter from, dear?"
(Hemingway.)
3. What is used both as a noun-pronoun and as an a d j e c -
tive-pronoun. It has no case-forms. It usually refers to things but
may also be applied to persons. When applied to persons, it inquires
about occupation, character," etc.:
"What do you mean by that?" ( M a u g h a m . ) What excuse
shall I make? ( I r v i n g . ) "What does she want?" ( B r o n t ё . )
"What was he?" — "A painter." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (But: , Then
someone cried, "Who are you?" — "John Ford.") ( G a l s w o r -
t h y . ) Upon seeing a stranger enter she asked him who and
what he was. ( S c o t t . )
4. Which is used both as a noun-pronoun and as an a d j e c -
tive-pronoun. It has no case-forms. It may refer to persons and
things as well. Which as a noun-pronoun for persons is often fol-
lowed by an o/-phrase (which of you). Which implies choice among
& certain number of persons or things:
"I see several difficulties," said Granby, "which one do you
mean?" ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) "Do you like the chrysanthemums?" he
asked... "Which sort do ycu like best?" ( L a w r e n c e . ) "Whom
are you talking about? Which of them, I mean?" ( C h e s t e r -
ton.) "Which is Joe? With the blue eyes and red face?" ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) "Which room did you put her into?" ( B r o n t ё . )
5. Distinguish between: Who is he (what is his name)? What
is he (what is his profession)? Which is he (point him out in the
group)? .
102
6. The compound interrogatives with ever are used for the sake
of emphasis; they often express i n d i g n a t i o n , s u r p r i s e , eic.:
Whoever would have thought it? Whatever are you doing?
Whichever can it be?
Compare with the Russian кто бы (ни), что бы (ни) in: Кто бы
мог это подумать!
7. If an interrogative pronoun is used with a preposition the
latter is often placed at the end of the sentence:
"What did you want to see me about?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"What train are you going home by?" ( L a w r e n c e . ) What was
she thinking of? ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "...What were you opening
the window for?" ( B r o n t ё . ) What are you looking at? ( S h a w . )

Relative and Conjunctive Pronouns


1. Pronouns may serve to connect subordinate clauses with the
principal clause. C o n n e c t i v e p r o n o u n s are s e m i - a u x i l -
i a r y words: they have an auxiliary function in so far as they
connect clauses, but at the same time they have an independent
function (that of subject, object, etc.) in the clause which they
introduce:
...Mrs. Gummidge was the widow of his partner in a boat,
who had died very poor. ( D i c k e n s . ) (subject.) ...carriages
often came to Gateshead, but none ever brought visitors in whom
I was interested... (Вгоп1ё.) (object.)
Connective pronouns are divided into r e l a t i v e and c o n j u n -
c t i v e pronouns.
2. R e l a t i v e pronouns introduce subordinate a t t r i b u t i v e
clauses: .
^ I was to leave Gateshead that day by a coach which passed
the lodge gates at six a. m. ( B r o n t ё . )
The noun or pronoun to which the relative pronoun refers is called its
a n t e c e d e n t . Sometimes the whole of the principal clause is the
antecedent of the relative pronoun; in this case only the pronoun
which mav be used:
At first I did not recognize the person who called me.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) I said nothing, which I thought a suitable
reply... ( D i c k e n s . )
a) Who, whose, which and that are used as r e l a t i v e pro-
nouns. Who (whom) is used in reference to human beings and
occasionally to the higher animals (usually when the animal is
referred to as he or she):
103
One Adams, who was the head-boy, then stepped out of his
place and welcomed me. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...Ham and Em'ly were
an orphan nephew and. niece, whom my host had at different
times adopted in their childhood... ( D i c k e n s . ) He... whistled
down to the dog, Balthasar, who lay for ever under the clock
tower. The old dog ,looked up and wagged his tail. (Gals-
worthy.)
b) Which is used in reference to things and animals (when the
animal is referred to as it):
All things shone softly in the sun, which was wonderfully
warm and enlivening. ( L a w r e n c e . ) I believed, from the soli-
tary and thoughtful way in which my mother murmured her
song, that she was alone. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...the little brown birds
which stirred occasionally in the hedge, looked like single russet
leaves that had forgotten to drop. (Вгоп1ё.) The dogs, not one
of which he recognized, ...barked at him. ( I r v i n g . )
c) Whose may be used with reference to animated objects:
History knows of no other epoch, no other people, whose
younger generation has been such a mighty creative force as our
Soviet generation, the youth of the Land of Soviets. Beside him
was a little bespectacled journalist whose pen was flying fren-
ziedly across the white sheets before him. ( G o r d o n . ) I have a
dog whose name is Toby:
In the case of inanimate things of which and whose are both
common:
Little birds were just twittering in the blossom-blanched
orchard trees whose baughs dropped like white garlands.
( B r o n t ё . ) His forehead was covered by the visor of his fur
cap, the flaps of which went over his ears. ( L o n d o n . ) A little
before dark I passed a farmhouse, at the open door of which the
farmer was sitting, eating his supper of bread and cheese...
(Bronte.)
d) Thnt is the oldest of the relative pronouns. It may refer both
to persons and things. That is generally restrictive: The book that
is on the table is new, but the others are not.
Therefore that is the r e l a t i v e pronoun preferred after super-
latives and words of. superlative force:
...the leaves of the trees that grew in the wood were very
dark and thick... ( J e r o m e . ) "Your're the best friend that he's
got". ( W a l p o l e . ) "...Ъ/e have now exhausted all that his room
can teach us". (Doyle.) "I'm just the same Elaine that you
have always known." ( M a x w e l l . )
104
e) If a r e l a t i v e pronoun is associated with a preposition, the
latter may be put a t t h e e n d of the sentence:
There's the saucepan that the gruel was in. ( D i c k e n s . )
I... saw the singer, not the child whom I had often played with,
but a tall, grown girl... (Cr on in.)
N o t e . — T h a t never has a preposition placed before it; the preposition is
put at the end of the clause:
"... you've got to look after the things that you care for, yourself."
(Wells.)
3. The interrogative pronouns what, who, and which are also
used as со n j un с t i v e pronouns. Conjunctive pronouns introduce
subordinate subject, predicative and object clauses: ;
Whatever I can do for you will be nothing but paying a
debt... ( E l i o t . ) (subject.) "That's what I don't understand."
(M. W i l s o n . ) (predicative.) "Do you know what that star is,
my boy?" ( A l d i n g t o n . ) (object.) "May I ask what he is pro-
fessor of?" asked Martin. ( D i c k e n s . )
If a conjunctive pronoun is preceded by a preposition, the latter
may be put at the end of the sentence.
Well, what I was trying to get at was what had become of
them. ( L o n d o n . ) "Do you know which of the towers he is in?"
(V о у n i с. h.)
Indefinite Pronouns
1. The i n d e f i n i t e pronouns are: all, each, either, neither,
both', some, any, every, no (and their compounds with -body, -one and
-thing); none, much, many, little, few, other (another), one:
"Oh!" she said. It was all, but it was much. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"They tell me there was no one here." ( D i c k e n s . ) ...there
were a few trees on the summit. ( C o n r a d . ) He laughed again,
and the other boys joined. ( L a w r e n c e . ) There were two cow-
sheds, one on either side of the barn. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Another
silence fell. ( L o n d o n . ) Everybody had something to say.
( D i c k e n s . ) Elizabeth and George talked and found each other
delightful. ( A l d i n g t o n . )
Most indefinite pronouns may be used both as n o u n - and as
ad j eс ti veTpronouns. But none and the compound pronouns some-
body, everybody, etc., are always noun-pronouns, and every is always
an adjective-pronoun.
2. The following noun-pronouns have inflected forms: other
(another), one, somebody, anybody, nobody (and the corresponding
compounds with -one) have two case-forms: the c o m m o n (unin-
105
fleeted), and the p o s s e s s i v e (-'s[izj: other's (another's), one's,
somebody's, etc.; other, and one have plural forms in -s [z]: others,
ones:
"Let us get down to the facts" — "I think that you will find
all the main ones in the press reports." ( D o y l e . ) "...I ran out
with the others." (Doyle.) When one loves one's Art no serv-
ice seems too hard. ( H e n r y . ) They looked into each other's
eyes as they shook hands. ( D r e i s e r . )
3. Both
Both indicates that two objects (persons or things) are regarded
in conjunction. It is used either as a noun-pronoun or as an
adjective-pronoun:
Both were again silent. ( B r o n t e . ) Both girls liked to be
upstairs... ( L a w r e n c e . )
Both may be used in opposition to personal pronouns:
"...I saw them both." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) They both turned
and looked towards the door. ( C a l d w e l l . )
When the verb-predicate is in an analytical form or when the
predicate comprises a modal verb or the verb to be, both is placed
after- the' finitej&rm of the verb:
They can both play .tennis well. They have both made help-
ful^ suggestions. "You are both young — you two." ( C o n r a d . )
But in questions: Can you both play tennis?
4. All
All may refer to persons and things expressing unity, collective-'
ness. All may comprise all the objects in a given situation or it
may have generalizing force.
...all the ladies present expressed the same opinion. ( D i c k -
ens.) All that glisters is not gold. ( P r o v e r b . )
All may be used both as an a d j e c t i v e - p r o n o u n and as a
noun-pronoun.
As a noun-pronoun all may be singular or plural. In the plural
all usually refers to people, in the singular to things and abstract
notions:
All sent love to all. (Fox.) All was lost. ( G r e e n e . ) All
was dark in the house. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
All (singular) is sometimes preceded by a possessive pronoun:
We have v,ery little to venture: but it is our all. Thou art
my all. ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
106
All (plural) may be used in apposition to personal pronouns:
We all agreed to start at 7. They all went home.
When the verb-predicate is in an analytical form or when the
predicate comprises a modal verb or the verb to be, all is placed
after the finite form of the verb:
TfTey have all gone. You may all go now. They were all
glad to see us.
But in questions: Have they all gone?
As the pronoun all may be either singular or plural, to make
the meaning clear in some cases everybody, all of us, etc. or every-
thing are used respectively:
All will be ready by that time (1) everybody, (2) everything.
All as an a d j e c t i v e - p r o n o u n refers both to p e r s o n s and
things:
...all the ladies present expressed the same opinion. (Dick-
ens.) All the furniture is shaken and dusted... ( D i c k e n s . )
All as an adjective-pronoun is rarely used before singular class-
nouns (countables), the whole being more usual in this connection:
The whole house wants painting. He read the whole book
through from beginning to end.
The whole is also often used with abstract nouns and n^mes of
materials (uncountables):
"Travelling all the time?" — "The whole time." ( D i c k e n s . )
The whole difficulty was to prove anything. ( M a n s f i e l d . )
N o t e . — All is an adverb in such set phrases as all round, all through, all
over, all about, all the better:
You'd be all'the better for it. ( D i c k e n s . ) All about my garden to-day
the birds are loud. ( G i s s i n g . ) She looked all round it in silence for a mo-
ment... (E 1 i о t.)
5. Each and every
If all refers to the members of a group collectively, every and
each refer to the members taken one by one. But every is mostly
used when the members of a group have something in common.
Each is used when attention is drawn to some point of difference
between the members of a group:
Each is used both as a n о u n - p r o n o u n and as an a d j e c t i v e -
p r o n o u n ; every is used as an a d j e c t i v e - p r o n o u n :
Give these boys a lump of sugar each. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
- The bridge had a tower at each end. Every bough was swinging
in the wind, every spring bird calling... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...home-
going crowds crammed every tram and bus. ( C u s a c k . )
107
The compound pronouns (noun-pronouns) everybody and everyone
are used with reference to p e r s o n s , everything is used with ref-
erence to t h i n g s :
The Prig knows everybody, has a story about everyone.
( T h a c k e r a y . ) "I'll see that everything is ready." ( M a u g h a m . )
Notice the following expressions for place and time: every twenty *
years (каждые двадцать лет); every other day (через день); every
ten miles (через каждые десять миль).

6. Either and neither.


Either has two meanings:
a) One or the other (but not both):
Bring me a pen or a pencil; either will do. You can take
either book: I don't mind which.
b) Both:
Beside us there was a long, reedy pool... swelling into small
lakes on either side. ( D o y l e . ) I have not seen either of them.
(Murray.)
The- negative form either is neither:
Neither of my friends was ,there. ( M u r r a y . ) Neither spoke
again till they were close to the station... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The pronouns every, each, either and neither are singular and
therefore require a verb in the singular:
7. Other and another.
Other is used both as an a d j e c t i v e and as a n о u ri-pronoun.
It is uninflected as an adjective-pronoun but takes the noun inflex-
ions when used as a noun: possessive case: other's, others'; plural:
others:
They found the others there... (Mazo de la R o c h e . ) He
turned toward the other room... ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) ...all the other
ladies expressed the same opinion. ( D i c k e n s . ) The others had
risen and were gathered in a knot at the other end of the table.
(Galsworthy.)
Another means:
a) A different one:
Give me another book (not this one). Give me another cup,
this one is too small.
b) An additional one:
108
"Another cup of tea?" he suggested, ''there's still plenty here."
( G o r d o n . ) There was another silence. ( C h e s t e r t o n . )
Notice the following expressions: the other day, the other night
(quite recently): We had a long talk the other day.
8, Some and any.
Some and any are used both as a d j e c t i v e - and as n o u n -
pronouns:
They spent some time there... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Tell the
housekeeper to give you some tea. ( H u g h e s . ) The ship remained
some months at the Brazils. ( M a c a u l a y . ) Some hay was
stacked and some still lay out and the midsummer air was full
" of its scent. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Is there any gentleman of the
name of Tupman here?" ( D i c k e n s . ) "Are any of your younger
sisters out?" ( A u s t e n . )
Compounds with -body and -one — somebody, anybody, someone,
anyone — are used when speaking of persons; compounds with -thing
refer to things; they are used only as noun-pronouns.
The pronouns somebody, anybody, someone, anyone distinguish
c a s e : c o m m o n (anybody, etc.), p o s s e s s i v e (anybody's, etc.):
She was expecting some one. ( D i c k e n s . ) Rip was ready to
attend to anybody's business but his own. ( I r v i n g . ) "Anybody
been here this afternoon?" — "June." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He had
x expected something more than this. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...an
immense pair of gates... a disused entrance to somebody's sta-
bles. ( D i c k e n s . )
Some and its compounds are used:
л) In a f f i r m a t i v e sentences:
"But have some tea. I've just made it..." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
A woman was arranging some flowers in the hall. ( G a l s w o r -
t h y . ) Somebody knocked at the door... ( L o n d o n . ) "Something
must be done," he said. ( L o n d o n . )
b ) I n n e g a t i v e sentences where some is affirmative in mean-
ing:
He never writes without making some mistakes. She never
writes on the blackboard without omitting some letter.
But: She never omits any letters when she writes.
c ) I n i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences if the question does not refer
to some:
Why are there so many mistakes in some of your exercises?
But: Have you written any exercises?
109
d) In i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences when o f f e r i n g s o m e -
t h i n g or when some refers t o a d e f i n i t e p o r t i o n of t h e
thingspokenof:
"Would you like some coffee?" ( B r a i n e . ) "Mr. Pickwick,
some wine, Sir?" ( D i c k e n s . ) "Don't you want to eat some-
thing?" ( H e m i n g w a y . ) Have you some money? (a portion or
quantity of money)
But: Have you any money? (money at all)
Any and its compounds are used:
a) In n e g a t i v e sentences:
He didn't ask me any questions (=he asked me no ques-
tions).
"I don't know anything about that." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Prom-
ise you won't tell anyone." ( H u x l e y . ) He did not wish to
have any conversation with her. (Gask e l l . ) "Nobody knows
anything about him." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
b) In i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences and i n d i r e c t questions:
"Is there any gentleman of the name of Tupman here?" (Dick-
ens.) Do you wish to see anybody? ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Is
there anything you want...?" ( D i c k e n s . ) I asked Richard if
any one knew of their coming down together. ( D i c k e n s . )
c) In a f f i r m a t i v e sentences usually with the meaning no
matter who or which:
You may take any book you like. Rip was ready to attend
to anybody's business but his own. ( I r v i n g . ) I can explain
anything to anybody; and I love doing it. (S h a w.)
d) In c o n d i t i o n a l clauses introduced ,by the. conjunction if
or when the conjunction is omitted:
If you have any letters, post them now. Had I any spare
money, I should buy this book. Should anyone call on me, tell
them to wait for me. "I'll offer to go, if anybody else will."
(Dickens.)
N o t e . — Any before a comparative is used as an adverb meaning "at all";
some before a numeral is also used as an adverb and has the meaning of "about":
...is will never be of much use to you any more. ( P u s k i n ) . ...accord-
ing to their map they had still some seven miles to go. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
9. No and none.
No and none are the negative forms of any. The form no is the
conjoint form used before a noun; none is the absolute form used
when there is no accompanying noun; none is more categorical.
1W\
"And had you got no friends?" ( V o y n i c h . ) Irene made no
reply. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He had no more to tell her... ( H a r d y . )
...none of us dared to speak. (Doyle.) ...he met a number of
people but none whom he knew... ( I r v i n g . ) "Have you any
doubt about that?" — "None whatever." ( G o r d o n . ) ...he wanted
work and could find none. (F. H a r d y . )
The negative forms of anybody, anyone, anything are nobody $ no
one, nothing:
Does nobody here know Rip Van Winkle? ( I r v i n g . ) ...no
one knew his name. ( D i c k e n s . ) But really I know nothing
of the details. (Doyle.) I had nothing to say against it. ( D i c k -
ens.) ...but no one's face changed its expression quicker...
(S n о w.)
In colloquial speech the negative form of any — not any is more
common than the form no:
I have no tickets for to-night = I haven't got any tickets for
to-night. There are no books on the top shelf = There aren't
any books on the top shelf.
10. The pronouns everybody (-one), anybody (-one), some-
body (-one), each, either and neither do not discriminate gen-
der and therefore difficulties arise when they have to be combined
with the personal pronouns he or she and the corresponding .pos-
sessive pronouns his or her. He (his) is used in such cases:
If anybody calls tell him to wait for me. Everybody must
hand in his composition to-day.
Often, however, he is. felt as onesided and we use he or she (his
or Her):
Everybody is to do as he or she likes. Every pupil must
hand in his or her composition to-day.
In colloquial speech the plural they (their) is often used although
the pronouns either, neither, everybody, etc., are singular in meaning:
If anybody calls, tell them to wait for me. Everybody was
in their best looks. "Anybody can see it." — "They cannot!"
(Galsworthy.)
A
11. Much, many, few, little.
Much, many, few and little are used both as a d j e c t i v e - and
as n о u n-pronouns:
The river up to Sonning winds in and out through many
islands...' ( J e r o m e . ) He had anticipated much pleasure in this
afternoon's reading... ( H a r d y . ) I had thought little or nothing
about my home. ( D i c k e n s . ) A great many were missing.
/7/
Used as adjective-pronouns they form d e g r e e s of c o m p a r i -
son.
Many, much and little have irregular forms of comparison:
many 1 .
much J more most
little — less — least
The pronoun few has regular forms:
few — fewer — fewest
After many days on the schooner, and after beholding more
land and islands than he had ever dreamed of, he was landed
on New Georgia... ( L o n d o n . ) ...fewer and fewer people were
visible. ( H a r d y.) There was so much he wanted to study.
( L o n d o n . ) ...he made a fire and boiled more water. ( L o n d o n . )
When a noun is preceded by most, no article is used:
a) when the noun is taken in a g e n e r a l s e n s e :
Most sand is yellow. Most leaves are green. Most mistakes
are made through carelessness. He finds most pleasure in reading.
A good rule must cover all or most individual cases.
b) When the statement is made about a considerable majority;
in such a case most is followed by an o/-phrase:
Most of the parachutists landed safely. The men have been
hard at work most of the day. Most of the sand is quite wet.
Most of his mistakes are made through carelessness. He was
known to most of them. ( G o r d o n . )
But when the highest degree of some quantity is expressed, most
must be preceded by the definite article:
In summer we have the most thunderstorms. The subject
requires the most knowledge. The last two days I had the most
time.
Much and little are used with names of materials and nouns
denoting abstract notions (uncountables) and are s i n g u l a r s :
There was little tea left in the canister... ( L o n d o n . ) It
gives me much pleasure to see you well again. She poured more
jmilk into the cup. ( C u s a c k . ) When there is little wood, the
fire burns low and the cabin grows cold. ( L o n d o n . ) The dogs
had little strength in them... ( L o n d o n . )
Many and few are used with class-nouns (countables) and are
plurals:
"Have you many books?" (E 1 i о t.) There were many fishing-
boats along the quay and nets were spread on racks. (H e-
112
m i n g w a y . ) Few leaves were left upon the trees... ( G a l s -
worthy.)
In spoken English we do not find many and much in affirmative
sentences without some adverbs such as very, too, so or rather.
Instead of many and much in affirmative sentences we use different
expressions, such as a lot of..., lots of..., plenty of..., a great (good)
deal of... . Except for a great (good) deal of, they can be used
both with class-nouns (countables) and with names of materials
and abstract nouns (uncountables); a great (good) deal of can be used
only with names of materials and abstract nouns (uncountables):
There were lots of interesting books in the bookcase. There
was a lot of snow last winter. A great many workers took part
in the demonstration. There is plenty of such work. (G a s k e l l . )
"We have a great deal of reading to do." (M a u g h a m.) I picked
up a good deal of information during the afternoon. (T w a i n.)
In spoken English much and many are usually used in interrog-
ative and negative sentences:
Have you much work to-day? Has she many English books?
You haven't much work to-day. She hasn't many English books.
Compare: Have you much work to-day? — Yes, I have a lot
of work to-day. No, I haven't much work to-day.
When few and little are used without the article, they have a
negative meaning (мало). When they are used with the indefinite
article, they have a positive meaning (немного, несколько):
There are few books on history in this library. A few books
were on the table. Give me a little bread. She eats little bread.
I have little time, I must hurry. I have a little time, I can
help you with your translation. ...a few Icelandic poppies were
blooming. ( C u s a c k . ) Few people were about, for it was really
cold. ( G o r d o n . ) The secret was only known... to a few of his
most intimate'friends. ( G a s k e l l . )
Much and little may also be used as pronominal adverbs:
I read much less than I used to; I think much more. (G i s-
sing.)
12. One
One is used both as a n о u n-pronoun and as an a d j e c t i v e -
pronoun:
Used as a noun-pronoun it distinguishes c a s e and n u m b e r :
c o m m o n case — one, p o s s e s s i v e case — one's; p l u r a l — ones:
Here one could wander unseen. ( B r o n t ё . ) One must da
one's duty.
8—3300 113
One used as a noun-pronoun refers to persons in a very gen-
eral way.
In direct speech one gives the exact words of the speaker, in
indirect speech one reports in one's own words what somebody has
said.
I felt for many days like one in a dream. ( D i c k e n s . )
...one may anticipate large results if one never stops working.
( M a x w e l l . ) He has certainly a knack of turning one's anger
to curiosity. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
N o t e . — The little one, the young one means the child:
"By the way, I heard you putting the little ones to bed last night." ( G a l s -
worthy.)
Also the young of animals:
The little ones [the ducklings] now toddled along after their mother...
(S e t о n-T h о m p s о n.)
One as an a d j e c t i v e - p r o n o u n is used with the meaning of a
certain
One autumn morning I was with my mother in the front
garden... ( D i c k e n s . ) The old gentleman asked me if I knew
one Solomon Flamborough. ( G o l d s m i t h . ) °
One is used to replace a noun which has just been mentioned
to avoid its repetition. One, referring to a preceding noun, may stand
for both persons and things:'
Laura was a very different woman from the one who an
instant before had spoken so gravely. (N о r r i s.) He was com-
paring the home he had brought her to with the one she had
left. ( G a s k e l l . )
N o t e . — I n some cases both the indefinite one and the demonstrative that
may be used:
Open another drawer, the one (or that) on the left.
The p r o p-w о r d one. One is used as a p r o p-w о r d a f t e r
a n ad j e с f i v e , to avoid the repetition of a preceding noun. This
use O i w i t r i s later development. In Modern English the adjective
does not indicate number and the addition of one (ones) shows
whether we mean singular or plural:
"The problem is certainly a very interesting one." ( D o y l e . )
"Poor little rabbit! It was such a little one!" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The fire-place was an old one. ( D i c k e n s . ) There was a
silence, but not an uncomfortable one. ( B r a i n e . ) ...I saw at
a glance that the last two months had been very trying ones
for him. ( D o y l e . ) "Pines; I mean the big ones with reddish
stems and branches pretty high up." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
114
R e s t r i c t i o n s in the use of the p r o p - w o r d one:
a) As the prop-word one originated from the numeral one, it can
replace the names of such things as can be counted. Therefore it
cannot substitute names_of materials and abstract nouns (uncount-
ables):
"Please do drink your tea — it is getting cold. Shall I get
you some fresh?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Of tea he was particularly
fond, and always consumed the very best Indian, made with
extreme care... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He had known good luck and
bad. ( H e n l e y . )
b) After adjectives in the comparative and the superlative degree
the use of one fluctuates.
Instances with one:
Doctor Brown and his wife had to leave their house and to
go to a smaller one. ( G a s k e l l . ) The elder ones resumed their
happy talk. ( G a s k e l l . )
Instances without one:
Your younger sisters must be very young? —Yes, my young-
est is not sixteen. ( A u s t e n . ) Presently more boys and bigger
came in. ( H u g h e s . ) "Give those boys a lump of sugar each and
let Dick's be the largest." ( G o l d s m i t h . )
N o t e . — One may be used after the first, the next, the last:
...we had a blazing sunny day — almost the first one without a cloud for
three weeks... ( H e m i n g w a y . )
c) One is generally not used when one adjective is contrasted
with another:
Two sorts of pencils — good and bad. ...I... gathered up the
apples with which the grass round the tree-roots was thickly
strewn: then I employed myself dividing the ripe from the unripe.
(Вго^ё.)
d) One is not used when adjectives follow in enumeration:
I have three pencils — a red, a blue and a green.
e) One is not used after a possessive pronoun followed by own:
It isn't your book, it is my own. His departure only prepared
the way for our own. ( G o l d s m i t h . )
13. The indefinite pronouns both, all, each, either, some, any,
someone, anyone, no, none, no one, nothing, neither, much, many,
few, little, one may be connected by means of the preposition of
with a personal pronoun or a noun: all of us, some of them, much
of it, few of the boys, each of the students, etc.:
8* 115
These combinations are used syntactically as o n e m e m b e r of
,the sentence (subject or object). (See "The Subject", p. 335, the "Object",
p. 363):
THE VERB

The v e r b is a part of speech which includes words expressing


actions or states conceived (воспринимаемые) as processes.

FINITE AND NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB

1. The various forms that a verb can take fall under two main
divisions: f i n i t e and n o n - f i n i t e ( v e r b a l s ) .
2. In the f i n i t e form the verb has the function of the pred-
icate in the sentence. It is limited by or bound to some subject
with which it agrees in person and number:
"I'm ready to do it to-morrow..." ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) "And
what is he to do then...?" ( D i c k e n s . ) "We're very much
obliged to you for taking us in at all." ( M a u g h a m . ) ...the
ticking of clocks and the crisp burning of the fires alone disturb
the stillness in the rooms... ( D i c k e n s . ) v

3. The n o n - f i n i t e forms of a verb (or the v e r b a l s) are


three in number: t h e I n f i n i t i v e , t h e p a r t i c i p l e , the
g e r u n d . None of these three forms can have a grammatical sub-
ject with which they agree in number and person. Hence, got one
of them can be used ^ as__ihe_predicate of a sentence. Theysf^HTTil
various tuiliiHelms 111 The sentence which''willbe discussed further:
"We are so awfully sorry to hear of Kit's illness." ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) (infinitive) He did not remember ever having seen
her in black. ( G a l s w o r t h y . . ) (gerund) He stood on the
porch sunning himself. (Mazo de la R o c h e . ) (participle)
3. M o r p h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
The f i n i t e forms of the verb express the following grammat-
ical categories: p e r s o n , n u m b e r , mood, a s p e c t , tense
and v o i c e .
These categories are expressed partly by synthetical forms
(inflexion, and vowel or consonant interchange): 1 ask, he asks,
I asked,-, 1 sing, I sang; / make, / made; partly by analytical forms: /
am reading, 1 have read, I shall read. It has been read.
The system of all the synthetical and analytical forms, which
We used to indicate person, number, aspect, tense, mood and voice
is called t h e c o n j u g a t i o n o f . t h e v e r b .
In common with the finite forms of the verb the n o n - f i n i t e
. 116
' forms express the following grammatical categories: a s p e c t (only
the infinitive), t e n s e (relative) and v o i c e .
4. S y n t a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :
The verb (both finite and non-finite) is associated with a d v e r b s
! qualifying the action or indicating various circumstances in which
j the action occurs:
Winter set in early and unexpectedly... ( C r o n i n . ) Hans
looked up hurriedly. (Dodge.) But what passed between them
further, I never knew. ( M a u r i e r . ) The candle, wasted at
last, went out. ( B r o n t ё . ) ...Soames stood in the dining-room
window gazing gloomily into the square. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) At
this moment a striking incident made the boys pause suddenly
in their walk. ( E l i o t . ) ...another thought, too, kept him from
seriously contemplating any desperate act. ( H a r d y . )
5. Another characteristic feature of the verb (both finite and
non-finite) is its a s s o c i a t i o n with an o b j e c t (if the verb is
transitive — with a d i r e c t o b j e c t ) :
He lent her books. ( M a x w e l l . ) Clare glanced up at the
clouds. ( M e r e d i t h . ) Gradually I became used to seeing the
gentleman with black whiskers. ( D i c k e n s . ) Everyone came
out of the home to admire the new car. ( M a z o de la Ro-
che.) She walks off, swinging in her rounded hand a little
strap-full of books. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ,

VERB-FORMS OF THE ENGLISH CONJUGATION


The conjugation of the English verb is based on three forms
at most:
a) The p r e s e n t t e n s e s t e m , \yhich occurs in the p r e s e n t
t e n s e of the i n d i c a t i v e mood, s u b j u n c t i v e I, the imper-
a t i v e mood, the i n f i n i t i v e , p a r t i c i p l e I, and the g e r -
und: live, living; speak, speaking.
b) The p a s t t e n s e s t e m , which occurs in the p a s t t e n s e
of the i n d i c a t i v e mood and the p r e s e n t t e n s e of s u b -
j u n c t i v e II: wrote, told.
c) P a r t i c i p l e II s t e m , whicli occurs in p a r t i c i p l e II:
sung, written.
The various forms of the three stems are marked by a v o w e l
i n t e r c h a n g e : write — wrote — written; sing — sang — sung.
But the bulk of English verbs have only one c o m m o n s t e m
which may occur as a plain stem (live, put), or may be inflected
(lived, living).
In many verbs the stem of participle II coincides either with
that of the present tense (come, run), or with that of the past
117
tense (bound, kept). Accordingly, these verbs have actually only
two stems.
The p r e s e n t t e n s e of the i n d i c a t i v e mood is the plain
present tense stem, or the common stem, except for the third person
singular which has the inflexion -s, -es [z, s, iz] after voiced con-
sonants and vowels (runs, plays), [s] — after voiceless consonants
(speaks), [iz] — after sibilants (finishes, dresses).
The inflected form of the second person singular -est, -st
[ist, st], (singest), is now used only in high style prose and poetry.
The form of the third person singular -th (speaketh) is now
archaic.
S u b j u n c t i v e I is the plain present tense stem or the com-
mon stem without any inflexion for person (speak, enter).
The i m p e r a t i v e mood and the i n f i n i t i v e represent an
uninflected present tense or common verb stem (speak, enter).
P a r t i c i p l e I and the g e r u n d have the present tense or
common verb stem with the inflexion -ing (speaking, entering)
The p a s t t e n s e of the i n d i c a t i v e mood as well as p r e s -
e n t s u b j u n c t i v e II is either a plain past tense stem (wrote)
or an inflected past tense stem (told, kept), or it is a common verb
stem, uninflected in such verbs as put, cut, inflected -ed [d, t, id]
in the class of the so-called "regular verbs" (lived, entered). The
past tense has no inflexion for person.
P a r t i c i p l e II is either a plain participle II stem (sung, be-
gun) or an inflected stem (written), or presents an uninflected com-
mon verb stem (put, cut), or an inflected common verb stem (lived,
entered). In some verbs participle II is a present or past tense stem,
uninflected (come, got, met) or inflected (spoken).
N o t e . — The verbs to be and to go present an exception in the conjugation
of the English verb (see "Suppletive System" p. 120). The peculiarities of the
forms of a u x i l i a r y and d e f e c t i v e verbs are treated in sections "Auxiliary
Verbs" and "Modal (Defective) Verbs" (see p. 121; 129).

MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS

Regular and Irregular Verbs

All verbs in Modern English are divided into two main classes,
r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r , distinguished by the formation of the
p a s t t e n s e and p a r t i c i p l e II.
Regular verbs are those which form their past tense and par-
ticiple II by means of the inflexion -ed [d, t, id] (love —loved —
loved; ask — asked — asked; end — ended — ended).
Verbs which form the past tense and participle II by adding -ed
Id, t, id] are called regular because the bulk of verbs in Modern
English belong to this class and the mode of forming the past
118
tense and participle II by adding -ed. [d, t, id], has become the
general standard for Modern English.
Verbs which do not form the past tense and participle II accord-
ing to that general standard are called i r r e g u l a r . Irregular
verbs are subdivided into the following three classes: c o n s o n a n -
t a l , v o c a l i c and u n c h a n g e a b l e .
1. C o n s o n a n t a l V e r b s . Consonantal verbs are those which
form the past tense and participle II by adding the consonantal
inflexion -d [d], -t [t] to the stem with or without a change**of the
root-vowel.
Here are some typical classes of consonantal verbs.
a) Verbs which add -t [t] without changing the root-vowel: to
burn — burnt —* burnt; to dwell — dwelt — dwelt; to spell — spelt —
— spelt; to learn — learnt — learnt.
All these verbs are also found with the spelling -ed: learn —
learned — learned, etc.
b) Verbs in which the addition of -d [d], -t [t] is accompanied
by a change of the root-vowel; some verbs also drop the final
consonant (or consonants) of the stem: to buy — bought — bought-,
to think — thought — thought; to sell — sold — sold; to tell — told —
told; to creep — crept — crept; to feel — felt — felt.
N o t e . — The defective verbs can — could; shall — should; will — would;
may — might also belong here.
c) Verbs in which the final consonant of the root is dropped
and -t ft], is added; the root-vowel remains unchanged: to send —
sent — sent; to build — built — built.
N o t e . — T h e verbs to have and to make also drop the final consonant of
the stem and add the ending -d or -de [d] without changing the root-vowel:
to have — had — had; to make — made — made.
2. V o c a l i c V e r b s . Vocalic verbs are those which form their
past tense and participle II by a vowel-change without the addition
of any consonant, except that participle II of some of these verbs
adds -en (n) [эп, n], as: to speak — spoke — spoken; to run — ran —
run; to read — read — read.
Notice the following typical classes of vocalic verbs:
a) Verbs in which the past is formed by a vowel-change and
participle II has the same vowel as the infinitive, but adds -en, -n
[эп] or [n]: to give — gaye— given; to eat — ate — eaten; to see —
saw — seen; to grow — grew — grown; to take — took — taken.
b) Verbs in which the past is formed by a vowel-change, but
participle II has the same vowel as the infinitive and has lost the
ending -en [-an, nj: to. become — became — become; to come — came —
come; to run — ran — run.
119
c) Verbs in which the vowel-sound of the past is assimilated to
that of participle II. Participle II has the ending -en or -n [an, n]:
to break — broke — broken-, to speak — spoke — spoken-, to tear —
tore — torn; to forget — forgot — forgotten.
d) Verbs in which the form of the past is similar to that of
participle II. Participle II has lost the ending -en: to shine —
shone — shone; to stand — stood — stood; to sit — sat — sat.
The verbs to read — read — read and to meet — met — met never
had the ending -en in participle II.
e) Verbs which change the root-vowel in forming the past tense
and participle II. Participle II has lost the ending -en or -n: to
begin — began — begun; to ring — rang — rung; to sing—sang — sung;
to drink — drank — drunk.
M i x e d V e r b s . Mixed verbs show a mixture of consonantal
and vocalic inflexion:
a) Verbs which have vocalic inflexion in the past and conso-
nantal inflexion in participle II: to crow — crew — crowed; to
(a)wake — (a jwoke—(a)waked.
To crow has also a consonantal past crowed. To (a)wake has
also a consonantal past (a)waked and a vocalic participle II (a)woke.
To (a)'wake generally adds -ed in the causative meaning (to make
somebody wake lip); I (a)woke, but nobody (a)waked me.
The verb to (a)waken adds -ed: (a)wakened.
b) Verbs which belong to the consonantal class in the past and
to the vocalic class in participle II: to mow — mowed — mown; to
show — showed — shown; to sew—sewed — sewn.
In these verbs the consonantal inflexion -ed [dj in participle II
is also used: to mow — mowed — mowed.
3. U n c h a n g e a b l e V e r b s . Some verbs do not undergo any
change in the past tense and participle II, as: to cut — cut — cut;
to put — put — put-, to let — let — let.
4. S u p p l e t i v e S y s t e m . Suppletive systems are formed by
combining different roots. The verbs to be and to go present an
example of suppletive verbs: to go — went — gone.
To be presents a combination of a number of different roots
(see "The Verb to be", p. 124).

Notional, Semi-Auxiliary and Auxiliary Verbs


1. According to their meaning and syntactical functions verbs
may be divided into three classes: n o t i o n a l (полнозначные),
s e m i - a u x i l i a r y (служебные) and a u x i l i a r y (вспомогатель-
ные).
120
2. A n o t i o n a l verb is a verb which has an independent
meaning and function in the sentence; it is used as a v e r b a l
p r e d i c a t e and expresses an action (or state) of the person or
thing denoted by the subject:
Peggotty said nothing for a little while; and I warmed my
hands as silent as she. ( D i c k e n s . ) There was a heavy dew...
( H e m i n g w a y . ) The night crept gently into the hollows of
the hills... (G is s i n g . ) I woke and looked at my watch...
(Galsworthy.)
3. A s e m i - a u x i l i a r y verb has no independent meaning and
consequently no independent function in the sentence. It is used
as p a r t of a p r e d i c a t e (nominal or verbal). The main lexical
meaning is comprised in the s e c o n d e l e m e n t of the predicate
which is expressed by a n o u n , a d j e c t i v e o r v e r b a l . How-
ever, the semi-auxiliary verb has an important syntactical function:
it is used in a f i n i t e form and expresses the predicative categories
of p e r s o n , n u m b e r , m o o d and t e n s e .
A s e m i - a u x i l i a r y verb may be used:
a) As a l i n k v e r b i n a compound nominal predicate (to be,
to become, to get, to remain, to appear, etc.) (see "The Nominal
Predicate", p. 346).
The grass was young velvet. ( L o n d o n . ) ...it was a very
fine day... ( B r o n t e . ) The path grew steep... ( G o r d o n . )
...he did not seem in the least tired. (Snow.) Outside it was
getting dark. ( H e m i n g w a y . )
b) As part of a c o m p o u n d v e r b a l p r e d i c a t e expressing
either supposition, assurance, ability, obligation, etc. (modal verbs,
also to be and to have used as modal equivalents, and such verbs
as to intend, to want, etc.) or the beginning, duration, repetition or
end of the action (to begin, to continue, to stop, etc.) (see "The
Compound Verbal Predicate", p. 343):
"I can carry it quite easily, thanks." ( B e n n e t t . ) "You
ought to take care of yourself." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Oh Mama,
what can I do, what should I do, to make us happier?" (Dick-
e n s . ) They were to go on Sunday morningby the seven o'clock
train. ( L a w r e n c e . ) But she must have seen him. ( C u s a c k . )
I wanted to tell her of the incident. (Cr o n in.) Peggotty
continued to stand motionless in the middle of the room...
( D i c k e n s . ) We are just beginning to understand each other a
little. ( H a r r a d e n . )
4. An a u x i l i a r y verb has no lexical meaning; its meaning
is purely grammatical, it serves to build up the a n a l y t i c a l
f o r m s of theTEhglish verb.
Accordingly ^there are auxiliaries:
121
a) O f t e n s е:
1) The f u t u r e or the f u t u r e - i n - t h e - p a s t — shall (should)
and will (would):
"We shall have rain to-morrow..." ( A l d i n g t o n . ) I'm afraid
you will miss the last bus... ( A l d i n g t o n . ) Miriam came for
him a little later to know if he would go with her for a walk.
( L a w r e n c e . ) "I knew I should find you there." (Locke.)
2) The p e r f e c t — to have:
This has been a year of long sunshine. (Gissing.)
b) Of a s p e c t : the c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t — to be:
"...the peaches are ripening." ( B r o n t ё . )
c) Of v o i c e : the p a s s i v e v o i c e — to be:
"Rip's story was soon told." ( I r v i n g . )
d) Of mood: '
1) The s u p p o s i t i o n a l — should:
She proposed to my aunt that we should go upstairs and
see my room. ( D i c k e n s . )
2) The c o n d i t i o n a l — should and would:
"If I were you," she said, "I should not worry." (Har-
r a d e n . ) "What would uncle Reed say to you, if he were
alive?" ( B r o n t ё . )
e) Of the n e g a t i v e and i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms of the
p r e s e n t and p a s t ( c o m m o n a s p e c t ) and the n e g a t i v e
form of the i m p e r a t i v e mood — to do:
"Do you know where Arthur is?" ( L a w r e n c e . ) "I don't
understand," said I. ( B e n n e t t . ) "Don't stay up too late."
( B e n n e t t . ) She did not speak ... ( S n o w . )
f) Of the e m p h a t i c forms of the p r e s e n t and p a s t
( c o m m o n a s p e c t ) and of the i m p e r a t i v e mood — to do:
I said I didn't mind, though I did mind a very great deal...
( G r e e n w o o d . ) "I say, Fanny, do come and have dinner with,
us." ( A l d i n g t o n . )
One of the peculiarities of auxiliary verbs is that they have
w e a k and s t r o n g forms in their conjugation ([aem] — [эш,
m]; liz] — [z, s]; [hasv] — [hav, v]; [fael] — Цэ1, Jl], etc.)
They have also another peculiarity — they may be fused into
one word with the negative not (he isn't; he wasn't, he won't,
he wouldn't, etc.).
122
Auxiliary verbs may be used i n a n s w e r t o a q u e s t i o n :
Do you know her? — Yes, I do. Have you seen him? — Yes,
I have.
Auxiliary verbs are also used to form d i s j u n c t i v e q u e s -
t i o n s (see "Syntax: Interrogative Sentences," p. 324):
We are not going out, are we? ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "You
haven't injured the fish, have you?" I cried in alarm, rushing
up. ( J e r o m e . )

Auxiliary Verbs

Of Negative
and Interro- Of Emphatic
Of Tense Of Aspect Of Voice Of Mood gative Forms
Forms

The future The contin- The passive The suppo- The present The present
shall — uous as- to be sitional and past and past
will. pect should. common common
The perfect to be The condi- aspect. aspect.
to have tional The imper- The imper-
should — ative ative
would mood mood
to do to do

5. There are a number of verbs which have two or even three


functions.
Some verbs may be used as a) n o t i o n a l and as b) s e m i -
a u x i l i a r y : to turn, to get, to keep, to remain, etc.:
Mary did not turn her head... ( G o r d o n . ) (notional) The
night had turned cold. (Mazo d e l a R o c h e . ) (semi-auxil-
iary) "You have grown" ( G o r d o n . ) (notional) The path grew
steep... ( G o r d o n . ) (semi-auxiliary) He looked at his watch...
( H a r d y . ) (notional) The woman did not look gay, for she was
tired. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (semi-auxiliary)
The verbs shall (should), will (would) which belong to the class
of modal verbs, may be used as a) s e m i - a u x i l i a r y or as
b) a u x i l i a r y (see "Modal Verbs", p. 239-244):
"...what should I do, to make us happier?" ( D i c k e n s . )
(semi-auxiliary) "If I were you", she said, "I should not worry."
( H a r r a d e n . ) (auxiliary — suppositional) "You certainly shall^
not go till you have told me all!" ( B r o n t ё . ) (semi-auxiliary)
"I shall come at once." ( B e n n e t t . ) (auxiliary — future) His
123
aunt would not give him the photograph. ( H a r d y . ) (semi-
auxiliary) Arabella said she would like some tea. ( H a r d y . )
ч (auxiliary — future-in-the-past)

The verbs to be, to have and to do have all the three functions:
n o t i o n a l , s e m i - a u x i l i a r y and a u x i l i a r y .

The Verbs to be, to have and to do


The Verb to be

1. The verb to be belongs to the s u p p l e t i v e s y s t e m , that


is, it takes its forms from different roots:
a) am; b) is; c) art, are, d) was, wast, were, wert; e) be, been,
being.
2. Questions and negative sentences with the verb to be in the
p r e s e n t and p a s t (common aspect) are formed without the
auxiliary verb to do:
"Where is he?" I demanded. "Is he in England?" (Вгоп1ё.)
It was not late... ( S e t o n - T h o m p s o n . ) It is not funny at
all. ( D i c k e n s . )
3. The n e g a t i v e form of the i m p e r a t i v e is formed by
means of the auxiliary verb to do:
"Don't be alarmed," He said... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Don't be
in a hurry, Christopher... ( D i c k e n s . )
4. The verb to be used as a n o t i o n a l verb means to exist,
to take place, to happen, to go (= to visit, to attend):
"Where have you been?" ( D i c k e n s . ) There was sunlight
upon the blinds... (G is s i n g . ) There was no one in the sit-
ting-room... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Mary is in the kitchen," I
answered. ( B r o n t ё . ) Now I am in the garden at the back
beyond the yard where the empty pigeon-house and dog-kennel
are... ( D i c k e n s . ) There was a fine gentle wind... ( D i c k e n s . )
To be or not to be, that is the question. ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
N o t e . — When the verb to be has the meaning of to go, to visit, it is used
only in the p e r f e c t tenses:
I have heen to see John. I have been to the theatre twice this month.
In other tenses to go or another v e r b of m o t i o n is used:
I went to see John last week.
5. The verb to be as a semi-auxiliary is used: v
a) As a 1 i nk-ve;r b:
Labour is a matter of honour in the. Soviet Union. The
124
spring was late that year. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The fields were
golden with evening. ( L a w r e n c e . ) The hawthorn hedges are
a mass of gleaming blossom... ( G i s s i n g . )
b ) A s p a r t of a c o m p o u n d v e r b a l predicate, when
it acquires modal force and denotes:
1) M u t u a l arrangement:
Remember that we are to meet at nine o'clock sharp. We
were to meet under the Big Clock at the station; we promised
each other to be punctual.
...Fleur was to meet him at the Gallery at four o'clock...
(Galsworthy.)
2) An a r r a n g e m e n t m a d e b y o n e p e r s o n f o r a n -
o t h e r , a n i n d i r e c t o r d e r (in reported speech):
"Matron said you were only to stay out here half an hour."
( C u s a c k . ) Peter had brought word from Haarlem that young
Brinker was to commence working upon the summer-house door
immediately. (Dodge.) "But I tell you, you're to come down,
miss, this minute: your mother says so," said Kezia... ( E l i o t . )
3) Something d e c i d e d u p o n or p l a n n e d for the
future:
They were to be only a week in town... (Mazo de l a
R o c h e . ) ...it was all arranged that night, and my board and
lodging during the visit were to be paid for. ( D i c k e n s . ) My .
dear girl was to arrive at five o'clock in the afternoon. ( D i c k -
e n s . ) ...Large sums are now being spent on education and
still larger sums are to be spent in the nearest future. A new
reader is to appear in the near future.
4) Something thought of as u n a v o i d a b l e in the future:
)
He was never to look on old Ireland more. ( T h a c k e r a y . ) 1
"And, Caroline, are we never to see you at Hollow's cottage
again?" '(Bronte.)
5) Something that is p o s s i b l e or s u i t a b l e :
"What am I to do?" shouted Mr. Wincle. ( D i c k e n s . )
"Then what are we to do?" ( C o p p a r d . ) "What was he to do?7'
( G o r d o n . ) The door was locked and I did not know how I Was-
to gain admission to the house. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...nobody in par-
ticular is to blame... ( B r o n t ё . )
We find the same meaning when to be is followed by a pas-
siveinfinitive:
The cat, and Paul, and Mrs. Pipchin, were constantly to be
found in the usual places after dark. ( D i c k e n s . ) Next morn-
125
ing there was not a carriage to be had... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"What was to be done? ( I r v i n g . ) ...Bosinney was nowhere to
be seen. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Not a sound was to be heard.
(Conrad.)
6) Something that is n e c e s s a r y due to r e g u l a t i o n s or
circumstances:
The luggage is to be examined at the custom-house (таможня).
You are to get out by the front door. The girl was to prepare the
dinner because the mother was ill. The traffic regulations are to be
observed.
6. When the p a s t t e n s e of the verb to be is followed by a
p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e , it shows that the action was not carried
out:
He was to have left home at nine o'clock (but he did not).
He had been on a whaling voyage that was to have been for
three years and which had terminated in shipwreck at the end
of six months. ( L o n d o n . ) \ "v
7. The verb to be used as an a u x i l i a r y forms:
a) The c o n t i n u o u s aspect:
She is going home... ( D i c k e n s . ) The moon was shining
on the snow. (Snow.) "What have you been doing during my
absence?" ( B r o n t ё . )
b) The p a s s i v e voice:
...the children were sent off to bed. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...her
own motherly heart had been touched no less than the child's...
( D i c k e n s ) . Since the victory of Soviet power, millions of wom-
en have been brought to the fore in various spheres of Social-
ist construction.
8. The verb to be is used in a n s w e r t o a question:
Was she pleased? — Yes, she was. Are you ready? — No, I
am not.
9. The verb to be is used to form a d i s j u n c t i v e q u e s t i o n :
"Oh! yes, he's a painter — isn't he?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "You
were an orphan, weren't you?" ( D i c k e n s . ) ' >

The Verb to have

1. The verb to have used as a notional verb means to possess, to


hold, to experience:
He had a room at the top of the hotel... ( H a r r a d e n ) . She
had a pale, composed face,dark hair turning grey. ( B r a i n e . ) "Have
126
you many friends here?" Henry asked... ( G o r d o n . ) "We have a
very good Little Theatre in Warley," Mrs. Thompson said.
( B r a i n e . ) ...her hair had a white rose in it. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
In Russian in corresponding constructions we use the verb быть
(in the present there is usually no verb at all):
She had many friends. —У нее было много друзей.
You have some mistakes in your exercise. — У вас есть не-
сколько ошибок в упражнении.
She has many friends. — У нее много друзей.
Sometimes the verb иметь is used:
The boy had a good influence on his friends. — Мальчик
имел хорошее влияние на своих товарищей.
Have patience! — Имей терпение.
But: Не had no patience. — У него не было терпения.
In Modern English the verb to have (if it is not an auxiliary
verb) is often used in n e g a t i v e and i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences
with the verb to do:
"I'm awfully hungry. I didn't have any dinner." ( B r a i n e . )
"Do you ever have time to do anything for yourself?" ( G a l s -
worthy.)
2. The verb to have as a s e m i - a u x i l i a r y is used as p a r t
of a c o m p o u n d v e r b a l p r e d i c a t e (when it acquires modal
force and expresses duty or necessity imposed by circumstances):
Steve had to leave that morning. ( G o r d o n . ) "I have to get
back to dinner." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "We shall have to stay here
for ten days at least." ( M a u g h a m . ) "We had to run for the
train." ( L a w r e n c e . )
In negative and interrogative constructions the auxiliary to do
is used:
"I didn't have long to wait." ( G r e e n w o o d . ) "You don't
have to go in of course..." ( H e m i n g w a y . ) "... did you have
to make a very early start? ( M a u r i e r . )
Compare:
We are to finish our work at four o'clock. Нам нужно кон-
чить работу в 4 часа (so it has been planned).
We have to finish our work at 4 o'clock. Нам придется (мы
будем вынуждены) кончить работу в 4 часа (whether we want
it or not).
3. The verb to have is used as an a u x i l i a r y v e r b to build
up the p e r f e c t tenses:
127
I have written nothing for seven days, not even a letter.
( G i s s i n g . ) Steerforth... had been strolling about the beach be-
fore I was up... ( D i c k e n s . ) The gale had freshened since
noon. ( C o n r a d . ) "You'll have forgotten me by then." ( G a l s -
worthy.)
4. The verb to have is used in a n s w e r to a q u e s t i o n :
Have you ever been there? — Yes, I have. Had she any mis-
take in her dictation? — No, she hadn't.
5. The verb to have is also used to form d i s j u n c t i v e q u e s -
tions:
"It hasn't been my fault, has it?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "It has
been nice, hasn't it?" ( L a w r e n c e . )

The Verb to do Л

1. The verb to do when used as a notional verb (transitive) has


a great variety of meanings: to perform, to execute, to carry into
effect, to bring about, to produce, to finish, etc.:
They did as they had often done in like circumstances.
(L ос к e.) "I'll do my best to make you comfortable." (G a s к e 11.)
"I'm off to do some shopping, Joan," I said. ( B r a i n e . ) "What
does your brother do?" he. asked... ( D r e i s e r . ) "Fleur does what
she likes." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Mrs. Morel did her work. (Law-
rence.)
When used with intransitive meaning the verb to do means to
suffice, to be suitable, to dispense with...-.
Will this pencil do? (Will it suit you?) — Any pencil will do.
Will a glass of milk do? (Will it be sufficient?) We tried the
new method but it wouldn't do (it wouldn't work). Have you
got a piece of wire for me? If you haven't, a piece of string
will do (it will suffice). You have left your work unfinished;
that won't do (that isn't proper). "I'm afraid what you say
wouldn't do." ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) Would half-past five do? ( W i l d e . )
N o t e . — T h e idiomatic have done has the meaning of have finished,
have no more need (use) for have no more interest in...:
Have you done with this paper? (Have you finished reading it?) "You
had better let me teil him, and have done with it." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. The verb to do as an a u x i 1 i a г у is used:
a) To form the n e g a t i v e and the i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms of
the p r e s e n t and p a s t tenses (common aspect) and the n e g a -
t i v e of the i m p e r a t i v e mood:
128
"Why don't you play with us?" asked Anthony. ( G o r d o n . )
"Don't trouble to ask me that now." ( D r e i s e r . ) "You didn't
tell us that before." ( G o r d o n . ) "What time does she come
here as a rule?" ( D r e i s e r . )
N o t e . — The beginning of the auxiliary use of to do can be traced back
to Old English, where it was used in affirmative sentences for emphasis. Since
the time of Shakespeare to do began to be used regularly in negative and inter-
rogative sentences without any emphatic meaning.
The use of to do to form interrogative and negative constructions may be
explained as follows:
The auxiliary to do helps to give the interrogative sentence the usual form
of the Modern English question (auxiliary verb-fsubject-fnotional verb):
Do you sing? Did he come? (Compare: Are you reading? Has he come? Will
she go?)
It also helps to preserve the connection of the transitive verb with its direct
object:
Do you take lessons? Did he see her yesterday? (Compare: Has she read
this book? Is he preparing his lessons? Will she do the work to-morrow?)
The old form without to do separated the direct object from the transitive
verb (Speaks he French? Takes the boy lessons?).
Besides, it placed the notional verb before the subject (Came he? Compare:
Will he come? Has he come?).
In negative constructions to do also helps to preserve the connection of the
transitive verb with its direct object: He did not bring the books. I do not
see her. (Compare with the old form where the negative particle not separated
the transitive verb from its object — He brought not the books).
The construction with to do makes it also clear that the negative particle
not belongs to the verb. In the old form without to do it was not clear whether
the negative particle not was connected with the verb or with the object, that
is, it was not clear whether the action did not take place at all, or whether it
took place, but did not affect the object mentioned in the sentence:
I saw not her=I did not see her, or I saw not her = but somebody else.

b) To make the m e a n i n g of the v e r b in the present and


past i n d i c a t i v e (common aspect) and the i m p e r a t i v e more
emphatic:
"But I do mean it!" retorted Kit. ( D i c k e n s . ) "Fleur, you do
look splendid!" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Do come," Alice said. ( B r a i n e . )
Mary did look up, and she did stare at me... ( B r o n t ё . )
Life did change for Tom and Maggie... ( E l i o t . )
c) When there is i n v e r s i o n of the usual order of s u b -
j e c t and v e r b :
Not a hint, however, did she drop about sending me to
school... ( B r o n t e . ) Nor do I recollect that Mr. Murdstone
laughed at all that day... ( D i c k e n s . ) Well did I remember that
day! Not a single word-did Peggotty say. ( D i c k e n s . )
9-3300 129
3. The verb to do is used as a v e r b - s u b s t i t u t e (глагол за-
менитель) to avoid the r e p e t i t i o n of the m a i n v e r b .
I had forgotten to draw my curtain, which I usually did.
(В г о n t ё.) He slept soundly, so did Gretel. (D о d g e.) ...and she felt
as the child did, that there was something of confidence and
interest between them from that moment. ( D i c k e n s . ) The old
gentleman received him very kindly, and so did the old lady...
( D i c k e n s . ) "You know her as well as I do. " ( B r o n t ё . )
4. The verb to do is used in a n s w e r to a q u e s t i o n :
"Do you like to come home?" "I think I do..." ( B r o n t ё . )
"Did you ever leave him alone?" — "Perhaps I did." ( G a s k e l l . )
"Do you like this sunrise, Jane?" "I do, very much." ( B r o n t ё . )
5. The verb to do is used to form d i s j u n c t i v e q u e s t i o n s :
"You don't think we have lost our way, do you?" ( J e r o m e . )
"It doesn't matter, does it?" ( L a w r e n c e . )

Subjective and Objective, Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


1. A verb which denotes an action associated only with its s u b j e с t
is called a s u b j e c t i v e v e r b . All_ subjective verbs are i n t r a n -
s i t i vej
...little Florence... sat down on a stool at the nurse's feet...
( D i c k e n s . ) The river... glistened and sparked as it flowed
noiselessly on... ( D i c k e n s . )
2. A verb which expresses an action connected not only with
its subject but also with an o b j e c t is called an o b j e c t i v e
v e r b ; objective verbs may be t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e :
I've just had a letter from Aunt Augusta. ( M a z o de la
R o c h e . ) Look after the child. ( B e n n e t t . )
3. An objective verb which requires a direct object to complete
its meaning is a t r a n s i t i v e v e r b . All other verbs are i n t r a n -
s i t i v e , that is, all subjective verbs and those objective verbs
which do not require a direct object.
a) T r a n s i t i v e :
"I've known these people a long time." ( C r o n i n . ) "I've seen
a good many things in my time." ( C h e s t e r t o n . )
b) I n t r a n s i t i v e :
The moon rose very late that night. (Dodge.) ... he went
down to the margin of the ocean every day... ( D i c k e n s . ) The
cuckoos were still calling when he awoke... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
130
Mr. Peggotty and Ham waited for us at the old place. (Dick-
ens.)
4. Many transitive verbs may be used a b s o l u t e l y , that is,
simply to express actions without any indication of the direct ob-
ject. This takes place:
a) When the o b j e c t is c l e a r f r o m t h e c o n t e x t :
I wrote (a letter) to him a month ago, but he hasn't an-
swered (my letter) yet. He left (the place) yesterday.
b) When the o b j e c t is of g e n e r a l m e a n i n g ; then the
verb denotes to have the faculty of... :
She reads and writes well. The child speaks already.
Charles draws very well. "Can you read?" asked Mr. Domby.
(Dickens.)
The same absolute use of transitive verbs may be found in Rus-
sian: Лошади пьют воду, but: Лошади пьют у этого колодца.
The difference between a transitive verb used absolutely and an
intransitive verb is as follows: the former may be used with a di-
rect object, the latter can never have a direct object:
She reads and writes well. In this sentence the verbs to read
and to write are transitive verbs used absolutely. In other sen-
tences these verbs may have a direct object: She reads English
books. He wrote a good composition.
Compare: He sat at her side while she played. (La M u r e . )
t4
Play some Chopin." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
But such intransitive verbs as to live, to come, to go, to Sleept
to rest, to swim, etc., can never have a direct object:
"Have you lived here long?" — "Seven years." ( G a l s w o r -
t h y . ) "I shall come at once." ( B e n n e t t . ) By that time the
sun had set. ( C o n r a d . ) Life at the farm goes on as usual.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Beads of water still dripped from the eaves
... (La Mure.)
5. There are many more transitive verbs in English than in
Russian. As we know, in Russian, where there are six cases, only the.
a c c u s a t i v e o b j e c t . In Old
English where There were four cases (nominative, genitive, dative,
accusative), the case of the direct object was also the accusative
cnly, the dative case being the case of the indirect object. In Mod-
ern English the Old English dative and accusative are represented
by one form — the common case with nouns and the objective case
with pronouns (personal and the infprrngative mhri\. Therefore, if a
9* 131
verb has only one object in the common (or objective) case, this
object is a direct object and the verb is transitive.
Thus, many verbs which were intransitive in Old English and
are intransitive in Russian as well, have become transitive in Mod-
ern English:
I see the boy (him) — transitive in English.
Я вижу мальчика (его) — transitive in Russian.
I help the boy (him) — transitive in English.
Я помогаю мальчику (ему) — intransitive in Russian.
He followed the boy (him) — transitive in English.
Он следовал за мальчиком (за ним) — intransitive in Rus-
sian.
He answered the letter at once — transitive in English.
Он тотчас же ответил на письмо — intransitive in Russian.
6. A peculiarity of Modern English is that the same verb may
be transitive in one of its meanings and intransitive in another. In
a great many cases the intransitive meaning is the result of the
omission of the reflexive pronoun (see Verbs with reflexive mean-
ing, p. 134). In Russian these two meanings (transitive and intran-
sitive) are expressed by two different verbs: to stop — а) останавли-
вать, b) останавливаться; to close — а) закрывать, b) закрываться.
Transitive Intransitive

Herrison at once began a third ...a faint humming of gnats


book. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) began... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
John Ford himself opened the At length the door opened ...
door to me. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (Dickens.)
"No, no; good-bye," said he turn- Tom... turned towards Maggie.
ing his horse's head and (Eliot.)
fiding away. ( E l i o t . )
He stopped the car and studied The car stopped. (Heming-
the opening with his field way.)
glasses. ( H e m i n g w a y . )
7. There are still a few cases in English where intransitive and
transitive verbs have different forms. An intransitive verb some-
times becomes transitive:
д) Through a c h a n g e in the r o o t vowel:
Intransitive Transitive

to sit to set
to lie to lay
to fall to fell
to rise to raise
132
"Won't you sit down?" ( V o y n i c h . ) He lifted the boy in
his arms... and, ...set him down on the wide stone balustrade.
( V o y n i c h . ) The farm lies in a sheltered spot. ( G a l s w o r -
t h y.) She silently laid down her knitting. ( V o y n i c h . ) Edith
... rose up in her place, but made no advance towards him
... ( D i c k e n s . ) Florence raised her eyes quickly... ( D i c k e n s . )
b) Through the a d d i t i o n of a p r e f i x :
Intransitive Transitive
to moan to bemoan
to speak to bespeak
to live to outlive
to walk to outwalk
I walked so fast that even he could hardly have overtaken
me... ( B r o n t § . ) T m a pretty good walker, but he could out-
walk me any day." ( M a u g h a m . )
8. Sometimes the transitive meaning of the verb is the primary
meaning: She opened the door. — The door opened softly. In
other cases the intransitive meaning is the primary one: He walks
fast. — He walks the horse up and down the yard.
9. An intransitive verb acquiring a transitive meaning very often
turns into a c a u s a t i v e verb. A causative verb shows that the
subject makes the direct object perform the action implied in the
verb-stem:
Intransitive Intransitive (causative)

They stood for a few seconds Mr. Domby... stood his pipe
looking at the ground. (Dick- on its head against the door-
ens.) post... ( D i c k e n s . ) [made his
pipe stand]
...she approaches me — she, the There was a pretty woman at
eldest Miss Larkins! — and the back of the shop, danc-
asks me pleasantly, if I dance. ing a little child in her
(Dickens.) arms... ( D i c k e n s . )
To-day I have walked far... He walked the horse to and
(Gissing.) fro. ( B e n n e t t . )
Transitive verbs formed from intransitive through a change of
the root-vowel have also causative force: He felts the trezs with an
axe (he makes the trees fall...). He lays his books on the table (he
makes his books lie...).
10. Sometimes a transitive verb becoming intransitive acquires
p a s s i v e m e a n i n g without changing from the active voice into
the passive.
133
In Russian these verbs correspond to intransitive verbs in the
middle voice (средний залог) with a reflexive-passive meaning:
The dirt rubs off easily (may be easily rubbed off) — Грязь
легко стирается. This cloth does not tear (cannot be torn) —
Это сукно не рвется.
All these figures add up quite correctly. ( M c C a r t h y . ) "I
guess all the pictures he'll paint won't sell for much." ( T h a c k -
e r a y . ) "It is only cotton, and washes better than any other
colour" ( B r o n t e . ) Thisscientific paper reads like a novel. ( J e s -
p e r s e n . ) The suitcase would not lock. ( J e s - p e r s e n . )
11. R e f l e x i v e me a n i n g is not expressed by a special form
of the verb in English (compare with Russian where reflexive verbs
have the suffix -ся, -сы мыться, одеваться). This meaning is ren-
dered by the a s s о с i a t i о n of а with a r e f l e x -
i v e p r o n o u n (myself, yourself, etc.TirTlhe function "o f i t s T f i -
r e с t object. The specific meaning of this object shows that the action
performed by the subject does not pass over to a person other than
the doer, but back again to the doer himself.
Ichabod prided himself upon his dancing as much as upon
his vocal powers. ( I r v i n g . ) "Yes, sir," replied Oliver who had
carefully kept himself out of sight during the interview... ( D i c k -
ens.) ...the great white clouds mirror themselves in the wa-
ter as they pass above... ( G i s s i n g . )
There is a tendency in Modern English t o d r o p t h e s e l f -
p r o n o u n . This takes place when the reflexive meaning of the verb
is clear from the context; it is chiefly the case with verbs express-
ing h a b i t u a l a c t i o n s such as to wash, to shave, to dress, etc.
When used without a reflexive pronoun, the verb acquires a n e w
intransitive-reflexive meaning.
Compare: In the morning she washes herself with cold water (a
transitive verb, "herself" is its direct object). In the morning she
washes with cold water (an intransitive verb with reflexive meaning
which corresponds to the Russian reflexive verb мыться).
Some verbs are used with or without reflexive pronouns:
I wash (wash myself). I dress (dress myself). He shaves
(shaves himself).
I... washed myself in the scullery and came back. (Cr on i n.)
...she fastened up her hair and began to wash. (E 1 i о t.) He dressed
fiimself for going out... ( D i c k e n s . ) As I rose and dressed,
' I thought over what had happened... (В г о n t ё.) "I've almost decid-
ed to give it to Dick — that is, if he behaves himself." (В e n-
n e t t . ) "But you behaved well, Dinny, though your eyes looked
very green at first." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Iol
With other verbs the reflexive pronoun is no longer used:
"How do you feel, James?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The fog lifted
a little. ( S t e v e n s o n . )
Bad news spreads like oil.
12. R e c i p r o c a l m e a n i n g , similar to reflexive meaning, is
not expressed by a special form of the verb in English. (Compare
with Russian where reciprocal verbs have the suffix -ся: встречать-
ся, ссориться, etc). This meaning is expressed by the a s s o c i a -
t i o n of a transitive verb with a r e c i p r o c a l p r o n o u n (each
other, one another) in the function of its d i г e с t o b j e c t . The mean-
ing of this object shows that the action performed by two or
more persons passes from each person to the other:
Mr. Omer and I nodded at each other... ( D i c k e n s . ) Two
wood-pigeons were crooning to each other... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Still they worked on, taking turns and whispering cheerfully to
one another. (Dodge.) They kissed each.nlher. and Lucy went
away... ( E l i o t . )
The reciprocal pronoun i s often d r o p p e d when the reciprocal
meaning of the verb is clear from the context or situation:
The two had not met for fourteen years. (Ga 1 s w o r t h y . )
They [the two sisters] looked at each other again, with timid
affection. They did not kiss. ( B e n n e t t . )
When the verb is used without a reciprocal pronoun, it acquires
a new i n t r a n s i t i v e — r e c i p r o c a l meaning:
Compare: They meet each other every day (a transitive verb,
each other is its direct object). They meet every day (an intran-
sitive verb with reciprocal meaning).

Terminative. Durative and Mixed Verbs


1. According to their l e x i c a l e h j i r a c t e r verbs in English may
be classified into two grenpsr te ПтГиГа 11 v ё "v e r b s (предельные
глаголы) and d u r a t i v e v e r b s (непредельные глаголы). Be-
sides these two main groups there is an extensive group of verbs of a
m i x e d (or d o u b l e ) c h a r a c t e r (terminative and durative).
2. A t e r m i n a t i v e verb expresses an action which has a final
aim in view, a certain limit beyond which the action "cannot be
continued. For instance the final aim of the action expressed by
the verb to close is to have something closed; after you have closed
it you cannot continue closing — this is the limit beyond which the
action of the verb to close does not go.
To the class of terminative verbs belong such verbs as to close,
to open, to come, to bring, to build, to settle, to find, to lose, to
135
break, etc. Also compound verbs (verb -f adverb) such as to sit down,
to stand up, to ИешШп, to take o f f , to look out, etc. Here also
belong verbs expressing point actions (мгновенные действия) such
as to throw, to jump, to Hrop, to burst, to clap, to seize, to catch,
to nod, etc.:
"But I have not finished my story," she - said. ( L o n d o n . )
Heopened the door with a latch-key... ( L o n d o n . ) Tom stopped
immediately in his walk. (Eliot.) Her eyes dropped before
his searching gaze. ( L o n d o n . ) ... the boy opened his eyes and
sat up with a bewildered air. ( V o y n i c h . ) They sat down by a
clump of gorse bushes... ( M a u r i e r . ) Martin seemed immediate-
ly to wake up. ( L o n d o n . )
A terminative verb may be used in both aspects —copimon and
continuous, but independent on the aspect form the verb always"
preserves Its Jgrmiriative lexical c^racter. When a terminative verb
is in the continuous form action which has still a final aim in
view is represented either a) in its progress:
...some alterations were being made in the interior of the
shop. ( D i c k e n s . )
or b) in its repetition:
All the morning the gardeners were bringing flowers... ( M a u r i -
er.)
3. A d u r a t i v e v e r b expresses an action which has no final
aim in view, no limit beyond which the action cannot be continued.
To the class of durative verbs belong such verbs as to like, to
love, to admire, to esteem, to hate, to detest, to hope, to wish, to
want, to possess, to sleep, to lie, to move, to work, to watch, to
shine, to smoke, etc.:
He loved the Old Masters of painting... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"I wish you wouldn't smoke any more." ( L o n d o n . ) Luisa Rat-
terer worked in a drygoods store... ( D r e i s e r . ) A little light-
house began to shine. ( G i s s i n g . ) "How do you like Thorn-
field?" ( B r o n t e . ) The man did not move. ( G o r d o n . ) Hewatched
the two of them... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Well, you ought to
sleep..." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
4. Verbs of a m i x e d (or d o u b Ie) l e x i c a l c h a r a c t e r are
such verbs which may have durative meaning in one context and
terminative meaning in another. Thus in the sentence... I stood at
the head of the stairs. ( M a u r i e r . ) (Я стояла...) the verb to stand
has durative meaning. In the sentence He went and stood by the
window. ( M a u r i e r . ) (Он пошел и встал...) the verb to stand has
terminative meaning.
To the class of mixed verbs belong such verbs as..Jo.._s#>to
stand, to kneel, to know, to remember, etc.
Compare the following:
136
Durative meaning Terminative meaning

He sat very still a moment. I went and sat beside him.


( M a u r i e r . ) (Он сидел...) ( M a u r i e r . ) (Я пошла и се-
ла...)
Meggie stood motionless... He came and stood before me.
( E l i o t . ) (Мегги стояла...) ( M a u r i e r . ) (Он подошел и
встал...)
I knelt there watching his face. I went and knelt beside him.
( M a u r i e r . ) (Я стояла на (Maurier.) (Я пошла и
коленях...) встала на колени...)
I remember every detail of that Then he remembered his Iong-
evening. (Maurier.) (Я burried past... (London.)
помню...) (Тогда он вспомнил...)
To the class of mixed verbs belong also such verbs as to see, to
hear, to read, to write, to sing, to play, to draw, etc. These verbs
have durative meaning when they denote actions of a general char-
acter (the ability of seeing, writing, etc.) and terminative meaning
when they are used with reference to concrete instances (to hear a
noise, to read a book, to write a letter, etc.).
Compare the following:
Durative meaning Terminative meaning

"Can you read?" asked Mr. Dom- He longed to read his stories
bey. (D i с k e n s.) (Вы уме- to Ruth... ( L o n d o n . ) (Он
ете читать...?) жаждал прочесть...)
"Do you draw?" ( A u s t e n . ) I took a sheet of fine card-
(Вы рисуете?) board, and drew a careful out-
line. ( B r o n t ё . ) (Я... нари-
совала...)
'Do you play and sing, Miss "Play me some Chopen." (Gals-
Bennet?" ( A u s t e n . ) (Вы w o r t h y . ) (Сыграйте мне
играете и поете...?) Шопена.)
"I'll get him to sing a song
before he goes." ( J o y c e . )
(Я заставлю его спеть...)

THE FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB


The verb in the finite form expresses the following categories:
p e r s o n , n u m b e r , aspect, t e n s e , v o i c e and mood.

Person and Number


1. There are t w о n u m b e r s in the verb: s i n g u l a r and
p l u r a l , and t h r e e p e r s o n s : f i r s t , s e c o n d a n d t h i r d .
137
The second person singular (thou speakest) is not used in Modern
English, it has been replaced by the second person plural (you
speak). Survivals of that form are found only in poetry and
high prose:
From the earth thou springest
Like a cloud of fire.
(Shelley. Ode to a Skylark.)
2. The only personal inflexion of the verb in Modern English
is the inflexion -s, -es [z, s, lz] of the third person singular in the
present tense of the indicative mood; [z] after voiced consonants and
Vowels (he reads, he plays), [si after voiceless consonants (he
writes, he stops), [iz] after sibilants (he dresses, he brushes).
The archaic second person has the inflexion in spelling -est, -st
[ist, st] (thou speakest).
3. The verb to be has three forms for person and number, in
the present indefinite: I am, he (she, it) is, we (you, they) are;
and two forms for the past indefinite: singular — was (I, he, she,
it), plural — were (we, you, they).
4. In all other cases only the combination of the verb with the
personal pronoun indicates the person and number of the verb.
Therefore the personal pronoun is hardly ever dropped in English as
it often is in Russian where the inflexion of the verb indicates
number and person:
Will you go with me? Yes, I shall. (Вы) пойдете со мной?
Да, пойду. Was he present at the meeting? Yes, he was. Он
был на собрании? Да, был. To-morrow I shall go to the theatre.
Завтра (я) пойду в театр.

Aspect
In Russian the verb possesses two clear-cut aspect forms: the
i m p e r f e c t i v e which considers the action in its progress (читать,
садиться, вставать) and the p e r f e c t i v e which shows the action in
its entirety (прочесть, сесть, встать).
In English the verb has also two aspect forms: the c o n t i n u -
o u s a s p e c t (длительный вид) and the c o m m o n a s p e c t (об-
щий вид).
The c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t : I am writing, I was writing,
I have been writing; etc.
The c o m m o n a s p e c t : / write, I wrote, I have written,
etc.
The difference between the two forms is not a temporal one,
the time indication being the same in both; the forms differ in the
manner^ in which the, action is presented. Compare the following:
138
She is carrying water from the She always carries water from
well (present). this well (present).
What were, you doing at two When did you have your din-
o'clock? ner?
I was having my dinner (past). I had my dinner at two o'clock
(past).
I shall just be leaving home I shall leave home at nine
at nine (future). (future).
The continuous aspect in English considers the action in its pro-
gress, thus corresponding to the Russian imperfective aspect (несо-
вершенный вид).
I was writing a letter when she Я писала письмо, когда она
came. пришла.
They will be preparing their Они будут готовить уроки в 7
lessons at 7 o'clock. часов.
She is reading. Она читает.
But the English continuous aspect has a much narrower mean-
ing thaa_.the Russian imperfective aspect. The continuous aspect
expresses a coifcTeTe^action in its development at a g i v e n
m o m e n t (present, past or future), whereas the Russian imperfect-
ive aspect shows an action in its development without concretizing
it. Therefore the imperfective aspect may, depending on the context,
express concrete actions in progress at the given moment and also
actions of a more abstract, more general character (actions perma-
nently characterizing the subject, general statements and universal
truths).
Compare the following:
Take the kettle off the stove, Снимите чайник с плиты, во-
the water is boiling. да кипит.
Here we have a concrete action developing before the eyes of
the speaker. In English it is rendered by the continuous aspect, in
Russian by the imperfective aspect.
Water boils at IOO0 С. Вода кипит при 100° Цельсия.
Here we have a general statement. The action is not developing
before the eyes of the speaker; therefore it cannot be rendered by
the continuous aspect in English but requires the common aspect. In
Russian the verb is here also in the imperfective aspect.
Here are some more examples:
Are the children already sleep- Дети уже спят?
ing?
The children always sleep in Дети всегда спят летом при
summer with the windows открытых окнах,
open.
139
She always slept on the bal- Она всегда спала на балконе
cony in summer. летом.
She was sleeping when I came Она спала, когда я вернулась
home. домой.
As the continuous aspect represents an action as a process going
on at a given moment, it may be used only with verbs expressing
actions of a certain duration (such as to read, to write), but not
point-actions such as to jump, to drop, to bur$t^M-j£&p.
We say: He was reading when I came in, but not: He was
jumping to his feet when I came in.
With point-actions the common aspect is used: He jumped to
his feet when I came in.
The continuous aspect is employed only when point-actions are
repeated: The child was throwing its toys on the floor and then
picking them up again.
But as the continuous aspect gives the subject only a tempo-
rary, limited characteristic through an action or state going on at the
moment of speaking, it is not usgd_with verbs expressing actions or
states of unlim]ted_duration, such as to love, to hate, to possess, to
have, to contain, etc., which characterize the subject in general and
therefore require the common aspect:
The book contains short stories. She has (possesses) many
good qualities. "How do you like Thornfield?" she asked. I told
her I liked it very much. ( B r o n t ё . ) "He is a very nice boy. I
love him." ( B e n n e t t . ) "I hate your city. It has standardized all
the beauty out of life." (L. S i n c l a ir.)
The continuous aspect is used with such verbs as to love, to
hate, etc., when we want to express that the feeling is only tempo-
rary or_to emphasize Jts .character:
I asked her how Gray was liking Paris. ( M a u g h a m . ) ...she
was loving уhim with greater and greater force. ( M a x w e l l . )
Neither is the continuous aspect used with such verbs as to
hear, to see, to understand, to remember, etc., with reference to a
concrete action taking place at a given moment. With these verbs
we mark the action as merely occurring (see the use of the com-
mon aspect), but not as developing before our eyes because we are
more interested in what we hear, see, etc. (in the object of the ac-
tion) than in the action itself*.
It is so dark that I don't see the lines. I quite understand you.
What do you mean to say? I feel the ground tremble: the train
is approaching. "Do you hear me?" he asked. ( B r o n t e . ) "The note,
I remember, was quite short". (Doyle.)
140
In this connection, notice the two meanings of the verb to think,
and accordingly the two aspect forms:
"I was thinking of these things to-night, dear, when I
sat expecting you..." ( D i c k e n s . ) I thought I had taken
a wrong direction and lost my way. ( B r o n t § . ) ( = I supposed.)
Compare with the two meanings of the Russian verb думать in
the following sentences: Я думаю ( = полагаю), что пора идти до-
мой; and Я не об этом сейчас думаю.
The use of the link-verb to be injthe continuous aspect is becom-
ing more and more frequent in Modern English:
"I am sorry if you think I am being ungrateful." (Gals-
w o r t h y . ) Dodo was making an^tforTTo read, but she was not
being very successful. ( B e n s o n . ) You will be glad to hear...
how diligent I have been, and am being. ( K e a t s . )
Very often the continuous aspect is used to show that the state
denoted by the predicative rrmtra%tfl fhp п.чия!flftflfflrtpfistiV.of the
subject:
He was only being kind for the moment. ( W a l p o l e . ) "Was
he only being friendly because he was happy?" ( W a l p o l e . ) Don't
be horrid... I am not being horrid. I am not going to be hor-
rid. (Sh aw).
The same refers to the verb to feel when it is used as a link-
verb. The continuous aspect stresses that the state is only tempo-
rary:
"How are you feeling?" — "Marvellous," she said. ( H e m i n g -
way.) I was feeling slightly annoyed. (M. W i l s o n . )
In the case of some verbs the use of the continuous aspect de-
pends on the verb. For example,^ s j Sggjnay be used
in the continuous aspect when meaning to visit, VTTnterview:
I shall be seeing him to-morrow at five. She is seeing her
friend who is seriously ill.
Also in such cases as to see to... to see about (= to take
care of ... to attend), to see o f f :
He is seeing to it now. He is seeing about this affair now-
I'm just seeing my friend off.
The verb to have is used in the continuous aspect when it
means to enjoy, to experience, to partake of, to cause to:
I hope you are having a good time here. We are having
nasty, rainy weather and we don't enjoy our time here at all. "I
am having a great holiday, am I not?" said Maggie. ( E l i o t . )
141
On the following morning while I was having breakfast I was
called on the telephone. ( M a u g h a m . )
When the continuous aspect is used with actions permanently
characterizing the subject, it acquires emotional force. The speaker
represents the action as if it were going on before his eyes and
gives it an emotional colouring (praise, blame, indignation, etc.)
The adverbs always, continually, forever, perpetually, etc., which
are often used in such cases, are emotionally coloured:
He is always thinking about other people. ( M a x w e l l . ) Poor
Traddles! ...He was always being caned... ( D i c k e n s . ) "You are
always thinking of that." (Hardy.)
Verbs which are generally not used in the continuous aspect
may be used in this aspect form in the above-mentioned function:
To be: He was continually being angry about nothing.
To differ: He is always differing from his colleagues.
To distrust: He is continually distrusting his own judgment.
To doubt: You are always doubting my words.
To find: She is forever finding fault with whatever I do.
To foresee: He was continually foreseeing difficulties which nev-
er arose.
To-hope: He is always hoping that her son will recover.
To imagine: He is continually imagining dangers.
Compare with the Russian вечно in: Он вечно что-нибудь те-
ряет. Она вечно ворчит без причины.
As contrasted with the continuous aspect the c o m m o n as-
p e c t represents an action as simply occurring (in the present, past
or future), makes a bare statement of an action.
Compare the following:

a) The action is marked as mere- b) The action is represented in


ly occurring: its progress:
Here he comes! Here he is coming through the
garden.
There she goes! There she is going along the
street.
When did you take your lesson? What were you doing at ten
o'clock?
I took it at ten o'clock. I was taking my lesson.
I worked in the garden for two I was working in the garden
hours and then went for a the whole morning, that is
walk. why you couldn't get me on
the telephone.
142
In n a r r a t i o n when actions follow in succession, one beginning
after the other, the common aspect is used. But when the writer or
speaker begins to describe a certain scene, when the actions are
already in progress before his eyes, the continuous aspect is used:
a) Night comes on, and everything is quite dark until the
moon slowly rises and casts its pale, silvery light over the
fields. ( P o t t e r . )
b) Dew was already on the paths. In the old oak-wood a mist
was rising... The evening was deeping over the earth. (Law-
rence.)
As the common aspect represents an action as simply occurring
(but not in its concrete development) it may refer to concrete ac-
tions and to actions of a more abstract, more general character as
well. These two functions depend on the context:
Why don't you answer my question? (a concrete action). She
always answers very laconically (an action of a more general
character permanently characterizing the subject). He spoke at
the last meeting (a concrete action). He spoke English in his
childhood (an action permanently characterizing the subject).
Actions of a more general, more abstract character [a) actions
which give the subject a more or less permanent characteristic,
b) habitual or recurrent actions, c) general statements and universal
truths] are expressed by the common aspect because we do not rep-
resent those actions as going on before our eyes but mark them as
merely occurring:
a) The farm lies in a sheltered spot... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "My
mother has lived here half a century..." ( D i c k e n s ) . The Pyra-
mids stand at the edge of the desert, on the western side of the
Nile... ( S t a n l e y . )
Notice the use of the common and continuous aspects in the fol-
lowing sentences:
A few early fallen oak-leaves strewed the terrace already
[a more or less permanent characteristic], and were rolling round in
the wind fan action in its progress at a given past moment].
(Galsworthy.)
b) He did everything quietly now, because his heart was in
a poor way... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...in the evenings he installed
himself in the window seat in the kitchen, smoking and chatting
• with the lame man Jim, or Mrs. Narrowcombe, while the girls
sewed, or moved about, clearing the supper things away. (Gals-
worthy.)
143
с) The dew and rain which fall sink in part into the soil,
and are thence drunk in by the roots of growing plants. ( J o h n -
s t o n e . ) When the sun goes down the fire ceases; then the
dry land commences to give off its surplus heat by radiation...
As has already been stated, when the continuous aspect is used
with reference to actions giving the subject a permanent character-
istic, it acquires emotional force (see examples given on page ...).
The common aspect is rendered in Russian by the perfective or
imperfective aspect, depending on the context and the general sit-
uation.
Compare the following:
She usually sat at the window. Она обычно сидела у окна.
She came and sat by my side. Она подошла и села возле меня.
She slept with the children. Она спала с детьми.
She went to bed and slept the Она легла спать и проспала
clock round. двенадцать часов.
I read Pushkin's poems last Я читала стихотворения Пуш-
night. кина вчера вечером.
I read only a few pages last Я прочла только несколько
night. страниц вчера вечером.

TENSE
Tense is the form of the verb which indicates the time of the
action. Themaindivisionsoftime — p r e s e n t , p a s t and f u t u r e ,
are represented in English by the three primary tenses: present,
past, and future.
These three tenses are expressed in two aspect forms: the common
and the c o n t i n u o u s :
The c o m m o n a s p e c t :
"We have a good deal of reading to do," explained Mrs. Da-
vidson. ( M a u g h a m . ) They talked for a long time... ( M a x w e l l . )
"I shall act and I shall act promptly." ( M a u g h a m . )
The c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t :
What are you talking about? ( M a u g h a m . ) The light was
just failing when they went back into the music room. (Gals-
w o r t h y . ) Sybil will be coming to see you at the end of this
term. (С г о n i n.)
But besides these three primary tenses the English tense system
comprises three secondary tenses: the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t , the p a s t
p e r f e c t and the f u t u r e p e r f e c t .
The perfect tenses are also expressed in two aspect forms: the
common and the continuous:
144
The c o m m o n a s p e c t :
"I think her voice has greatly improved." (Joyce.) He had
been there more than once, and knew the place and the people...
( K i n g s l e y . ) "I shall soon have finished with the books..."
(Dickens.)
The c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t :
"I've been thinking it over, Mr. Holmes..." (Doyle.) The
band had been having a rest. Now they started again. (Mans-
f i e l d . ) By the first of August we shall have been living at
the seaside for a whole month.
The perfect tenses do not merely indicate that the action refers
to the present, past or future (as do the primary tenses) but show
that the action is brought into relation with some other action or
situation in the present, past or future, that it took place before
that action or situation. Therefore the p e r f e c t tenses are г e 1 a-
t i v e t e n s e s (относительные времена).
P r e s e n t p e r f e c t : I have written my exercise — the action
of writing is viewed back from the present situation.
P a s t p e r f e c t : I had written my exercise by 5 o'clock —
the action of writing is viewed back from the past situation.
F u t u r e p e r f e c t : I shall have written my exercise by 6
o'clock — the action of writing is viewed back from the future sit-
uation.
But besides a purely temporal element (relative time indication)
which characterizes all the three perfect tenses, the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t
contains also some other meaning — it shows that the action which
took place before the present situation is c o n n e c t e d in its con-
sequences with this situation. The character of this connection de-
pends on the lexical meaning of the verb.
For example: I have torn the paper in two — here the action
of tearing gives concrete results (the paper is now torn in two) and
the relation between the action and the present situation is that of
c a u s e and r e s u l t .
We find a similar relation in: I have opened the window (now
the window is open). They have built a new school (now there is
a new school).
Another kind of relation between the accomplished action and the
present situation is found in: / have read this book — here the ac-
complished action gives the subject a c e r t a i n e x p e r i e n c e in the
present. The same in: She has seen that film. I have heard that
story.
This connection between the accomplished action and the present
situation expressed by the present perfect draws a line of demarca-
tion between the present perfect and the past. Both tenses refer the
in—3300 145
action to the past; but when we use the verb in the past tense, we
wholly disconnect the action from the present, we do not look upon
that past action in the light of its present results or consequences.
Compare the following:
What have you written on the blackboard? (when the word is
still there).
What did you write on the blackboard? (when the word is rubbed
out).
I have opened the window (when the window is still open).
I opened the window (when the window is already closed).
The past perfect and the future perfect may also comprise an ad-
ditional meaning similar to that of the present perfect but very of-
ten they are purely temporal, that is, they only show that the ac-
tion took place~before a given situation without establishing any
connection between the accomplished action and the given situation.
This is especially clear when we turn into indirect speech such sen-
tences as:
He said, "I lost my tram ticket to-day." He said that he had
lost his tram ticket on that day (purely temporal). He said, "I
have lost my favourite book to-day." He said that he had lost
his favourite book on that day, (resultative temporal).
When the past perfect (indirect speech) corresponds to the past
(direct speech), it is purely temporal, that is, it only refers the ac-
tion to a moment in the before-past. When the past perfect (indirect
speech) corresponds to the present perfect (direct speech), it not only
refers the action to the before-past but also shows that the action
in the before-past affects the state of things existing at the given
past moment.
The perfect tenses may also express an action begun before the
given present, past or future moment and still going on at that mo-
ment. This meaning of the perfect is characteristic of the perfect of
the continuous aspect. As the continuous aspect shows the action in
its progress and not in its completion, the perfect tenses of this as-
pect are used to denote that the past (before-past or before-future)
is connected with the present (past or future) not through the con-
sequences of an accomplished action but through the uninterrupted
progress of an action begun before the given moment and still con-
tinuing at that moment.
She has been working at her English since the morning. By
the time she came home, I had been working at my translation
for two hours. By the first of May he will have been working
at this office for six months.
Depending on the context the perfect tenses of the common aspect
may also express this meaning:
146
I have known him since my childhood (the action of knowing
began in the past and has been continued into the present, Istill
know him).
Compare: I have known such cases (here the action of know-
ing is already accomplished, but I still profit [извлекаю пользу]
by this experience).
The same difference of meaning depending on the context is found
in the following examples:
"Have you been long here?" "Two years." ( B r o n t e . ) "But
haven't you been to Paris?" ( A l d i n g t o n . ) I have heard this
noise going on for some time. I have heard this song.

THE USE OF THE PRIMARY TENSES

THE COMMON ASPECT*

The Present Tense (Common Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I write I do not write do I write?


he writes he does not write does he write?
we write we do not write do we write?
you write you do not write do you write?
they write they do not write do they write?

1. The s h o r t e n e d n e g a t i v e forms, in which the negative


not is used with the auxiliary to do are: I don't write, he doesn't
write, etc.
2. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Do I not
write? or shortened: Don't I write? Does he not write? or
Doesn't he write?, etc.
From the above table we see that only the affirmative form of
the present is a simple form: the negative and the interrogative forms
are compound (analytical) forms consisting of the auxiliary verb
to do in the finite form (I do..., he does..., etc.) and the infinitive
of the conjugated verb to write: I do not write. Do I write?,
etc.
3. S p e l l i n g r u l e s :

* xhe primary tenses of the common aspect are often called the present
i n d e f i n i t e , p a s t i n d e f i n i t e and f u t u r e i n d e f i n i t e .

10* 147
a) Verbs which end in -y preceded by a consonant change у into
i and add -es [z] in the third person singular: I cry—he cries. But:
I play — he plays (because -y is preceded by a vowel here);
b) Verbs which end in a sibilant represented in spelling by -ss,
-ch, -sh, -x, -dge add -es [iz] in the third person singular: I dress—
he dresses; I push — he pushes; I change — he changes; I judge —
he judges.

The Use of the Present Tense of the Common Aspect

1. The p r e s e n t t e n s e of the common aspect refers an action


to the p r e s e n t :
"I think we're fellow lodgers here," she said... ( M a u g h a m . )
*Who are your parents?" — "I have none." (Bront§.) "...I like
the clear rough waves, dashing against the rocks in Cornwall."
( A l d i n g t o n . ) The stream ripples and glances over its brown
bed warmed with sunbeams... (Gi s s i n g . )
2. As the common aspect represents an action as sim-
ply occurring without concretizing it (see "Aspect", p. 142), actions of a
more general, more abstract character referring to the present are
expressed by the present tense of the common aspect.
Compare with the use of the present tense of the continuous as-
pect which denotes a concrete action in progress at the moment of
speaking (see "The Use of the Present Tense of the Continuous As-
pect", p. 159)
The present tense of the common aspect is used to express:
a) Actions p e r m a n e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e s u b j e c t :
"That's where Sue Brown lives," Alice said. (Braine.) A
low ridge of hills runs along the bank, clothed to the summit
•with trees... (Marsh.) The river rises far inland, up among high
mountains. (Wil I o u g h b y . ) "Fleur does what she likes." (Gals-
w o r t h y . ) " ...the little one with black hair is Miss Scatcherd;
-she teaches history and grammar..." ( B r o n t ё . ) r

?b) H a b i t u a l or r e c u r r e n t actions:
"What time does she come here as a rule?" ( D r e i s e r . ) Bright
afternoon thus wears into soft evening, and she comes home
Io a late tea... After tea Sherley reads... Sherley's mind is given
, to her book... she neither stirs nor speaks... ( B r o n t ё . ) "I gener-
ally return at seven." ( B r o n t ё . ) "I never meet anyone here."
((Eliot.) Of course I eat an apple every evening — a n apple a
day keeps the doctor away. (L. S i n c l a i r . )
i , c) Statements of a general, character or universal
truths:
148
Hail is frozen rain. ( P o t t e r . ) Light travels more quickly
than sound. ...with a higher pressure a thing melts at a cooler
temperature... So an ice-skate blade melts a small narrow groove
for itself and then it can't slip sideways. (M. W i l s o n . ) It
had been a mild, serene spring day: one of those days which, to-
wards the end of March or the beginning of April rise shining
over the earth as heralds of summer. ( B r o n t ё . )
3. Depending on the context and the general situation the present per-
fect of the common aspect may also refer to a c o n c r e t e a c t i o n t a k -
i n g p l a c e a t a g i v e n m o m e n t . In such a case the action
is not considered in its progress but is stated as merely occurring.
(Compare with the present tense of the continuous aspect)
You answer much better than you answered at the last les-
son. Why do you speak so fast? Why don't you illustrate your
report with examples?
Judy... sets one of the sheet-iron tea-trays on the table, and arranges
cups and saucers. (D i с к e n s.) A female figure, closely veiled, stands
in the middle of the room, where the light falls upon it. (Dick-
ens.) Light mists arise and dew falls... And now the moon
rises... ( D i c k e n s . )
The present tense of the common aspect is used in stage remarks
where the playwright does not wish to stress the actions then
in progress, but merely states them as directions to the actors:
Goes down the garden with Dr. Chasuble. ( W i l d e . ) Loaks
at her in amazement. (Wilde.) The street bell rings. (Shaw.)
4. With verbs which are not used in the continuous aspect (to
see, to hear ,to understand, etc.; see "Aspect," p. 140) the present tense
of the common aspect is used to express concrete actions taking place
at the moment of speaking as well as actions of a more general
character. These two functions depend on the context:
I hear a knock at the door (a concrete action taking place at
the moment of speaking). In spite of her old age she hears very
( well (an action permanently characterizing the subject). Do you
' see what I have written on the blackboard? I see them every
Sunday. I don't understand your remark. She understands Eng-
lish but she does not speak it. "Do you hear me?" ( D r e i s e r ) .
"Jane, do you hear that nightingale singing in the wood? Lis-
ten!" ( B r o n t ё . ) I see trees laden with ripe fruit. I hear a
nightingale warbling in a wood half a mile off... ( B r o n t ё . )
5. The present tense of the common aspect is used with reference
to an action in the future in adverbial clauses of t i m e and
c o n d i t i o n introduced by the following conjunctions: after; as,
149
before, when, as soon as, directly, while, till, until, i f , in case,
• suppose (supposing), on condition, etc.:
But when it [the snow] melts, it will leave the snowdrop.
( G i s s i n g . ) ... Keep straight on till you see me..." (D i c k e n s . )
"You will change your mind, I hope, when you grow older..."
( B r o n t ё ) . ...before Mr. Westlook comes this afternoon, I think I
may as well prepare a little description of myself and my qualifications.
( D i c k e n s . ) "If you want me, just call," said Mrs. Macphail...
( M a u g h a m . ) ... you must remain alone here until I return.
( D i c k e n s . ) ...if I walk for an hour or two, Ishallcomeoutupon
the sandy cliffs of Suffolk, and look over the northern sea.
(Gissing.)
N o t e . — In object clauses introduced by when and if (whether) the fu-
S u r e tense is used when there is reference to the future.
"He only asks if you and Barbara will be ready at four o'clock this after-
noon for an automobile drive over to Long Island." ( H e n r y . ) "I wonder if he
w i l l understand, even now, Jolyon?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Go and ask if she
wants anything, and when she will come down." ( B r o n t e . )
Compare the following:
I do not know when he will come (object clause), but when he comes
(adverbial clause of time), I shall speak to him. I don't know if he will bring
me the article, but if he brings it, I shall translate it into English.
6. The present tense is also used to express an action in the fu-
ture when the action is p l a n n e d o r a n t i c i p a t e d . The present
tense has this function usually with verbs expressing m o t i o n , such
as to go, to come, to leave, to start. The present tense of the con-
tinuous aspect is more common here (see "The Use of the Present
Tense of the Continuous Aspect," p. 159):
"What time do we start?" — "Noon: it's about an hour ride by
the woods." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I do not dine at home," she an-
swered. ( D i c k e n s . ) "To-morrow," she continued, "I set out for the
Continent." ( B r o n t ё . ) "Jane, I go in six weeks..." ( B r o n t ё . )
"To-morrow I leave home for Cambridge..." ( B r o n t ё ) .
7. The present tense of the common aspect is used with reference
to actions in the past to express v i v i d n e s s in narration
( h i s t o r i c o r d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t ) . In using the present instead
of the past the speaker or writer represents what happened in the
past as if it were present before his eyes:
Let me remember how it used to be, and bring one morning
back again. I come into the second-best parlour after breakfast,
with my books, and an exercise book, and a slate. My mother
is ready for me at her writing-desk, but not half so ready as
Mr. Murdstone in his easy-chair by the window (though he pre-
tends to be reading a book), or as Miss Murdstone, sitting near
150
my mother stringing steel beads. The very sight of these two has
such an influence over me that I begin to feel the words I have
been at infinite pains to get into my head, all sliding away, and
going I don't know where. ( D i c k e n s . )
8. The present tense is used instead of the p r e s e n t perfect
with such verbs as to learn, to tell, to hear, to forget:
I learn that yoTThave been ill. I am told that he has gone
abroad. "I hear that you are going away." ( N o r r i s . ) "Well,
then, what are we talking about?" — "I forget." ( S h a w . )

The Past Tense (Common Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I wrote I did not write did I write?


he wrote he did not write did he write?
we wrote we did not write did we write?
you wrote you did not write did you write?
they wrote they did not w r i t e did they write?

1. The s h o r t e n e d negative forms are: I didn't write, he


didn't write, etc.
2. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Did I not
write? or Didn't I write? Did he not write? or Didn't he
write? etc.
3. N e g a t i v e and i n t e r r o g a t i v e constructions in the past
tense of the common aspect are formed by means of the past tense
of the auxiliary verb to do (did) and the infinitive of the conjugat-
ed verb: I did not write. Did I write?, etc.

The Use o! the Past Tense of the Common Aspect

1. T h e p a s t t e n s e of the common aspect refers an action to


the p a s t . Therefore it is primarily the tense of n a r r a t i o n :
Bosinney and June entered the theatre in silence, and mount-
ed to their seats in the upper boxes. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Little
Dorrit became a very good dress-maker. ( D i c k e n s . ) Dawn
opened a sleepy eye; a bird cheeped and daylight came in. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) Moving homeward by a new way, I presently found
myself on the side of a little valley, in which lay a farm and
an orchard. The apple trees were in full bloom, and, as I stood
gazing, the sun, which had all that day been niggard (скупой)
of its beams, burst forth gloriously... ( G i s s i n g . )
151
2. The past tense is often associated with the following adverbs
and adverbial expressions of past time: yesterday, a week ago, last
night, last week, last year, this morning (when the morning is al-
ready past), etc., which indicate more precisely the past moment to
which the action expressed by the past tense refers:
On November 7, 1917, the guns of the Aurora trained on the
Winter Palace heralded the beginning of the Great Socialist Rev-
olution, which opened a new era in the history of mankind.
Midway in my long walk yesterday I lunched at a wayside inn.
( G i s s i n g . ) This morning I awoke just before sunrise. (Gis-
s i n g . ) That evening after supper Anthony waited until his fa-
ther was alone. ( G o r d o n . ) "I learnt many years ago on a farm,"
he said. ( G o r d o n . ) I did not sleep a single moment that night.
( T w a i n . ) I told you as much yesterday. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The past tense is used in special questions beginning with when
if reference is made to the past:
"When did she go?" ( H e m i n g w a y . ) "When did he come
from London?" I asked. ( D i c k e n s . )
3. As the common aspect makes a bare statement of an action
without concretizing it, the past tense of this aspect may refer to
actions of a more general character and to concrete actions as well.
When it refers to concrete actions, it presents them not in their pro-
gress, but as merely occurring in the past (see the similar use of the
present tense of the common aspect — p. 149, point 3). Thecontext
usually shows whether the past tense refers to a concrete action or
to an action of a more abstract character:
a) She wrote a letter to her friend yesterday (a concrete a c - ,
tion in the past).
b) She wrote English very well (an action of a more general
character giving a permanent characteristic to the subject).

a) She came and stood by the window (concrete actions in


the past).
b) The house stood on a hill (an action permanently charac-
terizing the subject.) .
a) Traversing a long and matted gallery, I descended the
slippery steps of oak; then I gained the hall: I halted there a
minute; I looked at some pictures on the walls... ( B r o n t § . )
b) She cooked, and all ate, in the kitchen, where she like-
wise washed, starched, and ironed clothes on all days of the
week except Sundays; for her income came largely from taking
washing from her more prosperous neighbours. ( L o n d o n . )
152
When the past tense of the common aspect is used to express
r e c u r r e n t a c t i o n s , the repetition of the action is also marked
by the context:
For years she called on us daily (compare: She called on us
yesterday — where the past tense denotes a single action in the
past). When we lived in the country, we went to town very of-
ten (compare: She went to see her friend last night). ...he went
down to the margin of the ocean every day. ( D i c k e n s . ) He al-
ways made his own breakfast. ( L a w r e n c e . )
N o t e . — A habitual or recurrent action in the past is sometimes expressed
by combining:
a) Would with the i n f i n i t i v e; the infinitive is used without the parti-
cle to:
In the afternoon he would go out alone and walk for hours. ( G a l s w o r -
t h y . ) He would come tired out, and sit watching her cook their little dinner.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The girls would gather wild flowers, and press them after-
wards. ( G a l s w o r t h y.)
Occasionally will -f- i n f i n i t i v e expresses a habitual action in the pres-
ent:
He will experiment for hours.
b) Used to... with the i n f i n i t i v e :
And he remembered the holidays they used to have, the four of them, with
a little farm girl, Rose, to look after the children. ( M a n s f i e l d . ) "When I was
a child I used to play there." ( H a r r a d e n . ) 4
Interrogative and negative constructions are usually formed without the aux-
iliary to do:
I used not to bathe till after breakfast. Used you to make the fairy stories
up out of your own head? ( S h a w . )

4. The past tense is used to express an action planned or antici-


pated in the future when that future is viewed from a past moment
(see "The Use of the Present Tense of the Common Aspect,"^ p. 150):
We had very little time that evening as we started the next
day. He told me that school opened on the following morning.
He told me that he started for London in a week's time.
5. In adverbial clauses of time and condition introduced by the
conjunctions after, when, before, till, i f , etc., the past tense is also
used with reference to an action in the future when that future mo-
ment is viewed from the past (sequence of tenses). (See "The Use of
the Present Tense of the Common Aspect," p. 149).
They told us that they would come on the following day if
they were not too busy. She asked me to keep an eye on the
child while she was away. She determined not to go to bed un-
til Edith returned... ( D i c k e n s . ) "He told me to return directly
I had the answer." ( D i c k e n s . )
153
The Future Tense (Common Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I shall write I shall not write shall I write?


he will write he will not write will he write?
we shall write we shall not write shall we write?
you will write you will not write shall (will) you write?
they will write they will not write will they write?

1. The s h o r t e n e d a f f i r m a t i v e forms are: Г Il write, he'll


write, etc.
2. T h e s h o r t e n e d negative forms are: I shan't write,
he won't write, etc.
3. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Shall I not
write? or Shan't I write? Will he not write? or Won't he
write?, etc.
4. The future tense of the common aspect i$ a compound tense
(analytical form); it is formed by means of the auxiliary verbs shall
and will followed by the inf i n i t i v e of the conjugated verb.
In Old English there was no special form for the future tense, an
action in the future was generally expressed by the present tense.
This usage still survives in such sentences as: We return tomorrow,
where the adverb to-morrow shows that the action is referred to the
future.
Shall and will were originally notional verbs only, will denoting
v o l i t i o n or d e t e r m i n a t i o n , shall — c o m p u l s i o n or о b-'
l i g a t i o n . But as an action which a person intends to do or is
obliged to do usually refers to the future, these' verbs losing their
original meaning turned into mere auxiliaries of the analytical fu-
ture tense. Shall is used for the first person singular and plural:
"I shall sit here." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Shall we go down to
tea?" said Soames. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
But in contemporary English (especially in the U.S.A.) there is a
strong tendency to use will for all persons, singular and plural:
"It may be that I will be able to do something for you."
(Dreiser.) •
In direct questions shall in the 1st person singular usually asks
about the w i l l of the person spoken to:
"Shall I give you some coffee?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Where
shall I take you? To the little inn yonder?" ( D i c k e n s . )
154
Sometimes shall may express mere f u t u r i t y :
Shall I catch cold if I put on this light coat? Shall I be late
if I walk there?
Will is used for the second and the third person, singular and
plural:
"He'll be late for dinner." ( H a r d y . ) "Will you come in please."
( M a n s f i e l d . ) "They will soon be back." ( L a w r e n c e . )
In questions in the second person, that auxiliary is ised which
Is expected in the answer. Thus, we use shall when the question is
about a mere future action without any reference to the will of the
person addressed:
Shall you be twenty next year? — Yes, I shall. "Shall you
be late?" ( B r o n t e , )
But: "Will you have a little more water, sir?" (do you want
to?) ( B r o n t e . ) "...on the ninth of June I shall be in front of
the Bacchus and Ariadne at three o'clock; will you?" "I will."
(Galsworthy.)
But in present-day English the tendency is to use both auxiliaries
indifferently:
Will you (shall you) be angry if I talk to you about it? —
No, I shan't.
Such constructions as: you and / , we two, we three etc., take
will instead of shall:
"You and I will have time for thinking about those things
later on." ( V o y n i c h . )
We two will be able to manage it quite well.
In subordinate clauses, in the 3rd person, that auxiliary is com-
monly used which reflects the form of the direct speech:
John said that he should not set out on the following day
(1 shall not...). He said he was afraid he should not be able to come
(I shall not be able...). He was afraid he should be drowned (I
shall be drowned...).
When shall is used for the second and the third person and will
for the first person, these verbs acquire to a degree their original
full meaning forming with the infinitive which follows them a
compound verbal predicate.
Will in the first person may express i n t e n t i o n or d e t e r -
mination:
"Call me, if anything's wanted".—"I will." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
. "And I will take care of you, I promise, Megan." ( G a l s w o r -
thy.)
155
Shall in the second and the third person expresses:
a) O r d e r :
"You shall tell me this part of the story another time," I
said... ( B r o n t e . ) "Then I will say nothing, and you shall judge
for yourself." ( B r o n t e . )
b) T h r e a t or warning:
If you sit in the draught you shall catch cold, "...you shall
be answerable for it." ( B r o n t e . ) "You certainly shall not go
till you have told me all!" I said. ( B r o n t e . )
c) P r o m i s e :
"Cease to look so melancholy, my dear master; you shall not be'
left desolate, so long as I live." ( B r o n t e ) "...and if you like
you shall have another walk with me after breakfast." ( M e r e -
d i t h . ) "...you and Ada shall see what I c a n r e a l l y be!" ( D i c k -
ens.)
N o t e . — The following phraseological combinations: to be on the point of -f-
g e r u n d , to be about fo -{- i n f i n i t i v e express actions in the immediate
future:
It was this time half-past five, and the sun was on the point of rising.
( В г о п 1 ё . ) He was about to proceed on his way when a piano organ across the
road "burst into song. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He was on the point of resuming his
promenade when a blackbird close by burst into song. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

The expression to be going to+ i n f i n i t i v e also refers an action


to the immediate future:
*•

"I think it's going to rain." ( L o n d o n . ) The clock is going


to strike.
The expression to be going to + i n f i n i t i v e may also have
modal force (to intend to do something — собираться сделать что-то):
"What are you going to do?" ( M a u g h a m . )

The Use of the Future Tense of the Common Aspect

1. The f u t u r e t e n s e of the common aspect is used to express


actions which refer to a f u t u r e t i m e :
"He will think it over, Jolyon." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "What
will you have?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "We'll have tea on the veran-
dah, please," said Fleur. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I shall be back long
before then." ( V o y n i c h . ) "I shall set aside a certain number
of hours to study, and a certain number to exercise...''
(M a u g h a m.)
2. The future tense is often associated with the following adver-
bial modifiers of time: to-morrow, next month, in a week, etc., which
156
indicate more precisely the future moment to which the action
expressed by the future tense refers:
"Bye, bye, Candy. I'll look in again later on." ( S h a w . ) "We
shall have rain to-morrow..." ( A l d i n g t o n . ) "...we shall not be
ready till the first week in July." ( V o y n i c h . ) "I shall be back
long before them." ( V o y n i c h . )
3. The future tense of the common aspect may express actions
of a general character or concrete actions depending on the context
(compare with the use of the past tense of the common aspect):
"I shall want nothing more to-night." ( D i c k e n s . ) (a con-
crete action in the future) "I'm afraid you will miss the last
bus..." ( A l d i n g t o n . ) "He will make an excellent cook..."
( S h a w . ) (an action of a more general character giving a per-
manent characteristic to the subject)
Depending on the context, the future tense of the common
aspect may express r e c u r r e n t a c t i o n s :
We shall go to the library twice a week. I shall come to
see you every Sunday. He will go to the swimming-pool every
other day (через день).
Occasionally the future tense is used to ftxpress g e n e r a l s t a t e -
m e n t s and u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s (see "The Use of the Present
Tense of the Common Aspect," p. 148):
A flower will die without water. Water will boil at IOO0
Centigrade. Boys are boys and when they quarrel they will
fight.

The Use of the Future-in-the-Past

The English language has a special form of the future, the f u-


t u r e - i n-t h e - p a s t , to express a f u t u r e a c t i o n viewed from a
p a s t m o m e n t (sequence of tenses). Thefuture-in-the-past is formed
by means of should {would) with the i n f i n i t i v e of the main
verb:
I said I should be delighted to see her. ( D i c k e n s . ) It was
nearly bed-time and when they awoke next morning land would
be in sight. ( M a u g h a m . ) Leaving a message that he would
return in the morning; he went home. ( V o y n i c h . ) "...I knew
Aaron would dig it for us," she went on... ( E l i o t . )
N o t e . — The experession I was going to i n f i n i t i v e refers an action to the
immediate future (viewed from the past) (see "The F u t u r e Tense of the Common
Aspect", p. 156):
He (the horse) was f u l l of promise, but of no performance. He was always,
in a manner, going to go, and never going. ( D i c k e n s . )

157
THE CONTINUOUS ASPECT

Origin of the Continuous Form

The origin of the continuous form is as follows: in Old English the verb to
be followed by a p r e s e n t p a r t i c i p l e formed a compound nominal predi-
cate; the present participle had the function of a predicative, the verb to be w'as
a link-verb. He is singende had the meaning of Он есть поющий.
Together w i t h the participle construction there existed another construction,
the combination of the verb to be with the v e r b a l n o u n (later the g e r -
u n d ) He is on (= in) singing• This construction emphasized the p r o c e s s
and had the meaning of "He is in the action of singing."
Originally the present participle and the verbal noun had different forms,
the participle ending in -ende, the verbal noun in -ung. In the course of time
through being used in similar constructions, the present participle and the verbal
noun assumed one form -ing. As the result of this blending, a new verb-nouns,
the gerund, originated (see "Gerund," p. 268). In the construction of the verb to
be with the verbal noun > gerund, the preposition on became reduced to a and
later on disappeared altogether.
The gerundial and the participial constructions became blended into one:
He is on singing >Яе is a-singing > He is singing.
Influenced by the gerundial construction, the construction with the present
participle which originally indicated state (a compound nominal predicate), began
to express the p r o g r e s s of an action at a given moment and thus turned into
the c o n t i n u o u s f o r m — an analytical a s p e c t f o r m of the Modern
English verb.
The tenses of the continuous aspect are built up by combining
the auxiliary verb to be (in the finite form) with the p r e s e n t
p a r t i c i p l e of the main verb.

The Present Tense (Continuous Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I am w r i t i n g I am not writing am I writing?


he is writing he is not writing is he writing?
w e are writing we are not writing are we Writing?
you are writing you are not writing are you writing?
they are writing they are not writing are they writing?

1. The s h o r t e n e d a f f i r m a t i v e forms are: I'm writing,


he's writing, we're writing, etc.
2. The s h o r t e n e d n e g a t i v e forms are: He isn't writing,
we aren't writing, etc.
3. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Am I not
writing? Is he not writing? or Isn't he writing? Are we
not writing? or Aren't we writing?, etc.
158
The Use of the Ргезёгй Tense of the Continuous Aspect

1. As the continuous aspect shows a concrete action in its dev-


elopment at a given moment, the p r e s e n t t e n s e of that aspect
represents an action going on at the m o m e n t of s p e a k i n g :
Spring is shining upon these lanes and meadows... ( G i s -
s i n g . ) "Miss Dale is waiting in the hall," said Vernon. ( M e r e -
d i t h . ) ...the clouds are gathering, and threaten to discharge them-
selves in hail! ( D i c k e n s . ) "My dear Mr. Holmer, you are joking."
( D o y l e . ) "Julia! Julia! Where are you going?" ( J o y c e . ) Snow
is still falling. To-morrow it will be thick upon my garden.
(Gissing.)
2. When the present tense of the continuous aspect is used, there
is usually r£o indication of time in the sentence as it is clear from the form
of the verb itself that the action refers to the moment of speaking.
Sometimes such adverbs or adverbial expressions as now, at the
present moment, etc., are used:
I am quite sure she is working in her garden now. At the
present moment she is hurrying to her institute.
3. Sometimes the present tense of the continuous aspect expresses
an action characteristic of the subject at t h e g i v e n pe-
r i o d . This is shown by the context:
"I am also practising hard on my violin. I have a new one
with a lovely tone." ( G o r d o n . ) "I'm taking special courses in
English". ( L o n d o n . )
The large army of intellectuals is devoting all its efforts to
promoting the welfare of our people. Millions of Soviet women
are working for the glory and prosperity of their Socialist Home-
land. The call to defend peace is eliciting an evergrowing
response from ordinary people the world over.
4. The present tense of the continuous aspect is sometimes used
with reference'to an a c t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e , especially with the
verbs to go, to come, to stay, to leave, to start (see "The Use of the
Present Tense of the Common Aspect," p. 150):
"I'm going away to Glasgow," said she. ( C o p p a r d . ) "Are
you still going on Tuesday?" ( M a u g h a m . ) "Edgar and Miriam
are coming to tea to-morrow." ( L a w r e n c e . ) I'm leaving again
for Port Elisabeth by car to-morrow at down. ( G o r d o n . )
For the use of the expression I am going to + i n f i n i t i v e see "The
Future Tense of the Common Aspect," p. 156.
5. The present tense of the continuous aspect may be used to
express actions permanently characterizing the subject. In this func-
tion it acquires emotional colouring. This use is closely connected
159
with the progressive character of the continuous aspect. When we
contemplate an action unfolding before our eyes, it naturally arouses
in us certain f e e l i n g s (praise, blame, impatience, etc.):
"That's what you are always saying," George. ( G o r d o n . )
You are always finding fault with me. (J e s p e r s e n . ) He is
always (constantly) laughing at everything. ( J e s p e r s e n . ) "He
is always thinking about other people." ( M a x w e l l . )

The Past Tense (Continuous Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I was writing I was not writing was I writing?


he was writing he was not writing was he writing?
we were writing we were not writing were we writing?
you were writing you were not writing were you writing?
they were writing they were not writing were they writing?

1. The s h o r t e n e d n e g a t i v e forms are: I wasn't writing,


he wasn't writing, we weren't writing, etc.
2. T-he n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Was I not
writing? or Wasn't I writing? Was he not writing? or
Wasn't he writing? Were we not writing? or Weren't we
writing?
The Use of the Past Tense of the Continuous Aspect

1. The p a s t t e n s e of the continuous aspect denotes a con-


crete a c t i o n i n i t s p r o g r e s s a t a g i v e n p a s t m o m e n t :
The night was starless and a cold rain was spattering down'.
( S n o w . ) ...Adele was drawing; I bent over her and directed her
pencil. ( B r o n t § . ) The last chimes of twelve were still falling
on the court. ( S n o w . ) Outside the sunrise was gilding the ruf-
fled clouds... ( C u s a c k . ) Before the cottage-door in the sunshine,
a great fishing-net was drying, fastened to two wooden stakes.
( H i t c h e n s . ) Irene was bending over the flowers when the two
men came in. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. If the given past moment at which the action denoted by the
past tense of the continuous aspect is in progress is not clear from
the context, it may be fixed:
a) By an a d v e r b or a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n of definite
time, such as then, at 7 o'clock, at that Umei etc.: .
On a bright December morning long ago, two thinly-clad
children were kneeling upon the bank of a frozen canal in

, < Holland. ( D o d g e . ) Every house is smothered in roses and now,
in early June, they were bursting forth in clouds of splendour.
( J e r o m e . ) I had come back from the East and was spending
some time in London just then. ( M a u g h a m . ) Rain was falling
heavily by that time... ( D i c k e n s . )
b ) B y a n o t h e r a c t i o n . The action which fixes Wie given
moment is in the common aspect. The action in the past tense of
the common aspect may be either in the principal or in the subor-
dinate clause.

"As I was sitting at breakfast this morning, there came a


knock at my door." ( D i c k e n s . ) "Peggotty," said I one morning,
when 1 was warming my hands at the kitchen fire... (D i c k e ns.)
She stole home another way, and was laughing at the door when
I came back. ( D i c k e n s . ) She was pouring tea when he went
into the dining-room... ( M a z o de l a R o c h e . ) The cuckoos
were still calling when he woke... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) I was
walking along the Strand one day... when I heard my name
called. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

Notice that in s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s of t i m e beginning


with the conjunctions as and while, the commort aspect is commonly
used, as the meaning of these conjunctions already implies a certain
duration: """
He gazed at his mother while she played... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Paul cleared the table whilst his mother and Clara talked. ( L a w -
r e n c e . ) As he spoke he wa'ked up and down the room. (Gor-
d o n . ) As we walked we spoke of the performance we had just
seen. ( M a u g h a m . )
Sometimes if two actions are p a r a l l e l , the continuous aspect
is used in both the principal and the subordinate clause:
I was preparing dinner while she was tidying the room.
...Maggie, who was bending over her sewing while her mother
was making the tea. ( E l i o t . )
But: the repetition of the same form in both clauses is usually
avoided.
While we dined, the band was playing, or: While we were
dining, the band played. And while she was speaking thus she
watched Kirsteen. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
3. The past tense of the continuous aspect may also be used to
express an action characteristic of the subject at a g i v e n p e r i o d
of t i m e in the past (compare with a similar use of the present
tense of the continuous aspect):
11—3300 Ш
At that time I was translating one of Galsworthy's novels
into Russian. I was very busy at the end of June, I was preparing
for my last examination then. "They were living here at that
time." ( H a r d y . )

4. Sometimes the past tense of the continuous aspect denotes an


action filling up a w h o l e p e r i o d of t i m e , but only when the
action is considered in its p r o g r e s s :

What were you doing all day yesterday? — I was working in


the garden. What were you doing yesterday? Reading the whole
day, I suppose? ...they were whispering together for half an
hour... ( B r o n t § . ) All the morning the gardeners were bringing
flowers... ( M a u r i e r . )

Compare the use of the continuous aspect with the use of the
common aspect when we do not consider the action in its pro-
gress, but merely state that an action of a certain duration took
place in the past:

I watched her for nearly half an hour... ( В г о п 1 ё . ) They


smoked in silence for a few minutes, and then began to talk of
business details. ( V o y n i c h . ) It rained all morning and turned
the rain to slush. ( H e m i n g w a y . )

5. With the verbs to start, to go, to leave, to come, to stay the


past tense of the continuous aspect is used to express an action in
the immediate future when that future moment is viewed from the past
(see "The Use of the Present Tense of the Continuous Aspect," p. 159).
To-morrow early, he was going back to his peaches at South-
ern Pines! ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...you wrote that you were coming
this evening. ( V o y n i c h . )

(For the use of the expression I was going to -f- infinitive see
T h e Future-in-the-Past" of the Common Aspect, p. 157)
6. The past tense of the continuous aspect may be used with
e m o t i o n a l c o l o u r i n g to express certain feelings (impatience,
blame, praise, etc.). This function is closely connected with the
meaning of the continuous aspect. Actions going on before our eyes
naturally arouse in us certain feelings (see "The Use of the Present
Tense of the Continuous Aspect," p. 159):

"At last, Sophie! I thought you were never coming." (H u x-


Iey.)
162
The Future Tense (Continuous Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I shall be Xdj0 1 shall not be \ shall I be \ ^


he will be 1 .5 he will not be ^ will he be I g5
we shall be J- ^ we shall not be IS shall we be 1 £
you will be I £ you will not be i ^ shall (will) you be i |
they will be / they will not be / will they be >

1. The s h o r t e n e d a f f i r m a t i v e forms are: Г Il be writing,


he Il be writing, we'll be writing, etc.
2. The s h o r t e n e d n e g a t i v e forms are: I shan't be writ-
ing, he won't be writing, we shan't be writing, etc.
3. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Shall I not
be writing? or Shan't / be writing? Will you not be writ-
ing? or Won't you be writing? Shall we not be writing?
or Shan't we be writing?, etc.

The Use of the Future Tense of the Continuous Aspect

1. The f u t u r e t e n s e of the continuous aspect denotes a con-


crete action going on at a g i v e n f u t u r e m o m e n t :
Don't disappoint me, I shall be expecting you. If I am late,
Mother will be getting uneasy. I don't want to disturb you, I'm
sure you will be having your dinner. We shall be having break-
fast in a minute. "I shall be sitting for my second portrait then,"
she said, smiling. ( E l i o t . )
2. The f u t u r e m o m e n t at which the action will be in its
p r o g r e s s may be fixed:
a) By an a d v e r b o r a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n of d e f i -
n i t e t i m e such as then, at 7 o'clock, by this time, etc.:
By this time to-morrow we shall be near ing home. What
shall you be doing at seven o'clock? — I'll be preparing my les-
sons.
b) By a n o t h e r a c t i o n . The other action which fixes the fu-
ture moment is in the p r e s e n t t e n s e of t h e c o m m o n as-
p e c t (see "The Use of the Present Tense of the Common Aspect,"
p. 149):
"I shall be sleeping if you come so late. He will be taking
his lesson if you come at seven. "I shall be cleaning up when you
come with my things." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
il* 163
Sometimes the continuous aspect is used in both the principal
and the subordinate clause to represent a c t i o n s going on at t h e
s a m e m o m e n t . The verb of the subordinate clause is in the
p r e s e n t t e n s e of t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t (see "The Use
of the Present Tense of the Common Aspect," p. 163).
I shall be preparing my lessons while he is typing his re-
port. She will be writing while I am putting my notes in order.
But the repetition of the same form in both clauses is usually
avoided:
I shall prepare my lessons while he is typing his report.
< 3. The future tense of the continuous aspect may, depending on
the context, express an action characteristic of the subject at the
g i v e n p e r i o d of t i m e in the future (compare with a similar
function of the present and past tense of the continuous aspect):
I'll be very busy at the end of May. I'll be preparing for
Г , my examination then. <
Sometimes the future tense of. the continuous aspect is used to
express an action filling up a w h o l e p e r i o d of t i m e , but only
when the action is considered in its p r o g r e s s :
•I shall be packing all day to-morrow. He will be working
in his garden from nine till twelve, so it's no use trying to get
him on the telephone. (Compare: He will work in his garden
from nine till twelve and then he will go for a walk.)-
4. The future of the continuous aspect is used to express an
action which is s u p p o s e d , p l a n n e d , or a n t i c i p a t e d in the
future: i
"Dunsey will be coming home soon..." ( E l i o t . ) "Finish your
breakfast and we'll be starting". ( H e m i n g w a y . ) "When shall
you be going?"—'To-morrow." ( G a l s w o r t h y 1 ) t l l W i l l you be
going to a dance tonight?" he asked. ( M a c k e n z i e . )
The future continuous may also express supposition refer-
ring to the present:
"He is waiting for us downstairs. He will be wondering where
we are." ( W a l p o l e . ) "...she'll be sleeping now." ( H e w l e t t . )

•h The Use of the Future-in-the Past of the Continuous Aspect

The f u t u r e - i n - t h e - p a s t of t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t (/
should be writing, he would be writing, etc.) is used to express
a c o n c r e t e a c t i o n g o i n g on at a d e f i n i t e f u t u r e
m o m e n t (occasionally covering a whole period of time in the
future) when t h a t - f u t u r e m o m e n t is viewed from the p a s t :
164
I told him not to come at six o'clock because I should be
having my lesson at that time. He told me that it was no use
trying to get him on the telephone in the morning, because he
would be working in his garden from nine till twelve.

THE SECONDARY TENSES


THE PERFECT TENSES

Origin of the Perfect Form


In Old English the verb to have, used as the predicate of a sentence, was
sometimes followed by a direct object with participle II of a transitive verb
attached to it in the function of a predicative adjective. The participle agreed
in number, gender and case with the direct object. He haefp p a boc 3ewriten (=he
has that book written) = «Он имеет ту книгу написанной». As the state of the
object (written) was tl^e result of an accomplished action, the mind of the
speaker began to be interested in that action. This construction did not show
whether the action expressed by participle 11 was performed by the subject
of the sentence or by some other agent. It was from constructions where the
subject of the sentence was the doer of the action denoted by the past parti-
ciple, that the Modern English perfect form developed. The participle lost its
forms of agreement with the noun-object and, changing its place (He has
Written...), became closely connected with the verb to have. Bothelements lost their
independent meaning and merged into one sense unit — the analytical form of
the Modern English p e r f e c t . He has written that book — the action of writing
Is accomplished by him at present and as a result of it the book is in a written
state.
Thus, what was originally a free syntactical combination has now turned
Into an analytical tense form.
Such constructions, in which the do^r of the action expressed by the parti-
ciple was not the subject of the sentence, have still survived in Modern English
as free syntactical combinations: He had three horses killed under him. I have
my dresses made here Killed and made are still predicative adjectives to the
direct objects horses and dresses.
In constructions with the verb to be, participle II of an intransitive
verb was used as a predicative to the subject with which it agreed in number,
gender and case, and the verb to be had the function of a link-verb in a com-
pound nominal predicate: He is Зеситеп ( = Он есть пришедший). When the
have- and the be-forms turned into the perfect, the verb to have began gradually
to be used as an auxiliary with both transitive and intransitive verbs: I have
seen her. I have come.
As a survival of the old construction, to be is still used when the s t a t e
is stressed:
May Fielding was already come; and so was her mother. (D i с k e n s.) When
he was gone, my mother asked me all about the day I had had... ( D i c k e n s . )
"He is gone to the Leas..." ( B r o n t § . )

THE USE OF THE PERFECT TENSES


THE COMMON ASPECT

The perfect tenses are compound (analytical) tenses. They are


formed by means of the auxiliary verb to have and the p a s t p a r t i -
c i p l e o M h e conjugated verb.
165
The Present Perfect (Common Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I have w r i t t e n I have not written have I written?


he has written he has not written has he written?
w e have written we have not written have we written?
you have written you have not written have you written?
they have written they have not written have they written?

1. The s h o r t e n e d a f f i r m a t i v e forms are: I've written,


he's written, we've written, etc.
2. The s h o r t e n e d n e g a t i v e forms are: I haven't written,
he hasn't written, etc.
3. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Have I not
written? or Haven't I written? Has he not written? or
Hasn't he written?, etc.
The Use of the Present Perfect of the Common Aspect

The p r e s e n t p e r f e c t of the common aspect is used to con-


nect a past action with the present time:
a) as h a v i n g r e s u l t s or c o n s e q u e n c e s bearing on the
present moment:
I have opened the window. This means that I opened the win-
dow at some time in the past and that it is still open. The train
has arrived. This means that the train arrived at some time in
the past and that it is still at the platform.
b) as c o n t i n u e d up to t h e p r e s e n t moment:
He has studied English for two years. This means that he be-
gan to study English at some time in the past and that he is still
studying it. I have lived in Moscow for ten years. This means that
I came to live in Moscow at some time in the past and that I am
still living in Moscow.
In both cases the present perfect connects the past with the
present. The present perfect is not used when the action is not con-
nected with the present. In such a case the past tense is used.
Compare the following:
I have turned on the light — means that the light is
still on.
I turned on the light — means only that the action was performed
at some time in the past without implying its connection with
the present.
166
He has lived in Moscow for two years — means that he is still
living in Moscow.
He lived, in Moscow for two years — means that he is no longer
in Moscow.

The Use of the Present Perfect of the Common


Aspect to Express Actions Already Accomplished

1. The p r e s e n t p e r f e c t of the common aspect is used to


express an action a l r e a d y c o m p l e t e d b e f o r e t h e p r e s e n t
s i t u a t i o n but connected with the present situation in its conse-
quences.
The character of this connection depends on the lexical character
of the verb and on the general situation. (See "Terininative, Dura-
tive and Mixed Verbs," p. 135).
With terminative verbs in case of a single action the relation
between the accomplished action and the present state is that of
c a u s e and r e s u l t , — the accomplished action is the cause of the
present state which is its result:
I have torn the paper in two (now the paper is torn in two).
I have broken my pencil (now the pencil is broken). She has
written the word table on the blackboard (rfow the word table
is written on the blackboard). I have come (now I am here). The
rain has stopped (now it is not raining any longer).
"You have brought Caddy back, I see," observed Mrs. Jelly-
by... ( D i c k e n s . ) "Have you arranged everything?" she asked.
( V o y n i c h . ) "I have just brought you a message from Zita Reni.
( V o y n i c h ) . "...this plant, hidden from the light, has kept its flow-
ers till the autumn." ( K i n g s l e y . )
In Russian this present perfect corresponds to the past tense of
the perfective aspect (прошедшее время совершенного вида):
I have torn the paper in two. — Я разорвала бумагу на две
части.
I have broken my pencil. — Я сломала карандаш, etc.
With durative verbs the relation between the accomplished action
and the present state is of a different character. The accomplished
action has certain consequences in the present, it gives the subject
a certain experience:
"I've seen a good many things in my time," said the old
man... ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) He has travelled a great deal, and seen
a great deal of the world, I should think. ( B r o n t § . ) "...Has
Miss Summerson IogJ s ,both her parents?" ( D i c k e n s . ) "I have
been an apprentice, and a workman. I have lived on workman's
167
wages, years and years, and.., have had to educate myself.
(Dickens.)
The present perfect of durative verbs is rendered in Russian by
both the imperfective and the perfective aspect depending on the
situation:
He has travelled a lot. — Он много путешествовал.
I have already spoken to her. — Я уже говорила (поговори-
ла) с ней.
Depending on the context, the present perfect of terminative
verbs may lose its resultative character and become similar in mean-
ing to the present perfect of durative verbs. This is the case when
the context shows repeated actions:
She has often opened the window and sat for hours looking out
into the garden (it does not mean that the window is open now.
Compare with a single action when the results of it are seen in the
present — She has opened the window, that is why it is rather cold
in the room—the window is still open). She has often gone to the
Zoo with the children (it does not mean that she is there now. Com-
pare with a single action: She has gone — which means that she is
no longer here).
2. When the present perfect is used, there may be no time indi-
cation in the sentence at all:
"How late you are! Where have you been?" ( D i c k e n s . )
a
Have you heard anything of Fleur?"— "Yes." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"You have chosen a fine day," he said. ( L a w r e n c e . ) "Have
you been in England?" asked Martin. ( D i c k e n s . )
The cultural revolution accomplished in the Soviet Union has
led to the formation of a vast army of Soviet intelligentsia.
But often we find the following time indication in the sentence
in connection with the present perfect:
a) The action is associated with a p e r i o d of t i m e which
h a s n o t y e t e n d e d : to-day, this week, this month, this year,
e'
"To-day I have read The Tempest(G is s i n g . ) "Your advice
has helped me to-day." ( M e r e d i t h . ) "Have you seen Mr. Wood-
court this morning, Guardian?" ( D i c k e n s . ) I have never
' heard Mr. Rochester's voice or step in the house to-day." ( B r o n -
t§.) This has been a year of long sunshine. Month has followed
month with little unkindness of the sky... ( G i s s i n g . )
v
N o t e . — But sentences containing such adverbial expressions as to-day, this
week, etc., may refer to some definite part of the period, mentioned or implied;
then the p a s t t e n s e is used.

168
1 saw him to-day engaged in a lively conversation (when I saw him, he
was engaged in a lively conversation). / was late to-day (meaning a certain
fixed time when I was to be at that place). / lost my tram ticket to-day (when
I was riding in the tram). Л friend, who called to-day, told me this (when he
called).
In all these sentences the action is not regarded from the point of view of
its present result.
A period of time which is still lasting may also be indicated by
since (a preposition, an adverb or a conjunction introducing a subor-
dinate clauseJT"smce denotes from (Гcertain moTKent in the past up
to now:
"You have changed since your accident." ( S a r o y a n . ) (a
preposition) "Since I saw you last, Jan had been desperately ill."
( C u s a c k . ) (a conjunction) I have often thought about the mat-
ter since. ( J e r o m e . ) (an adverb)
Notice the use of the p a s t t e n s e in the subordinate clause
introduced by since which marks the beginning of the period of
time.
b) The time is indicated by means of an adverb of i n d e f i n i t e
t i m e or f r e q u e n c y : often, seldom, rarely, never, sometimes, gen-
erally, just, already, etc.:
"I've never seen the boy in my life," replied Soames with
perfect truth. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I have just opened this window,
to let in a little air and sunshine..." ( B r o n t e . ) I have not yet
looked at the newspaper. ( G i s s i n g . ) "I've just had a letter
from Aunt Augusta." ( M a z o de l a R o c h e . ) "I've always
admired your pluck..." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...already... the first
radiant verdure, has begun to pass into summer's soberness.
(Gissing.)
N o t e 1 . — B u t if those adverbs refer to a definite p a s t time, the pas I
tense is used:
I often went there last year. I seldom met her when we lived at the
seaside.
Note 2.— In connection w i t h just now the p a s t tense is always used:
I told you so just now. The postman was here just now.
N o t e 3. — Once (twice, etc.) may be combined with both the p a s t tense
and t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t .
Past tense: I saw him only once (when he was here).
"I heard her twice in Budapesht... A perfect soprano." ( H i t c h e n s . )
P r e s e n t p e r f e c t : I have seen him only once (in the whole of my life).

3. The present perfect is not used when speaking about people


who are dead, except when something is stated as the present result
of their activities:
169
Dickens died in London. Byronleft England never to return
But: Newton has explained the movements of the Moon.
Shelley has left us many beautiful poems.
4. In special questions beginning with where, how and why either
the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t or the p a s t is used:
Where have you put my key (the key is still supposed to be
in that place)? Where has she gone (when the person is away)?
Where did you go (when the person is back again)? Where did
you buy this book (you are no longer associated with that place)?
How did he paint the wall (standing on a ladder or on a chair)?
How has he painted the wall (well or badly, white or blue)?
Why have you turned out the light (it is dark in the room)?
Why did you turn out the light (when the light is switched on
again)? /
5. The present perfect is used to express an action already ac-
complished at a given future moment in adverbial clauses of time
and condition (see "The Use of the Present Tense of the Common
Aspect," p. 149):
I cannot give you a definite answer before I have spoken to him.
We shall move in directly the walls have been papered. I shall
write to you after I have seen her.
We'll talk about that when we've had a cup of tea. ( C u s a c k . )
When I have finished speaking I shall put the receiver on the rest...
{Potter.)
ii
To Have Got
To have got has sometimes the meaning of the p r e s e n t :
"I've got a brother down in the country, Miss — a farmer in
Essex..." ( D i c k e n s . ) ( = I h a v e a brother...) "Have you got
brothers and sisters?" "I've got two tickets for the ballet on
Saturday night. (В r a i n е.) I have got a couple of coats at home
that I don't want, Sam. ( D i c k e n s . )
Compare with the following sentences where the present perfect
could not be replaced by the present:
I have got a letter from my brother this week. I have got
the books you sent me.
The use of to get with the verb to have may be the result of a
desire to strengthen the meaning of possession not sufficiently expressed
in the verb to have. When the verb to have is used as the pred-
icate, it often weakens its meaning to the meaning of a semi-aux-
iliary serving only to indicate person, number, tense, aspect, etc.,
while the significance of the predication lies in the object of the
verb to have: ч

170
She had a ringing voice, full of warmth. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
...her hair had a white rose in it. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The pool
...had a sandy bottom... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The frequent use of the verb to have as an auxiliary may have
led to the weakening of its meaning.

The Use of the Present Perfect of the Common Aspect to Express Actions Con-
tinued into the Present

1. The p r e s e n t p e r f e c t of the common aspect is also used


to denote an a c t i o n b e g u n in t h e p a s t a n d continued
into the present (inclusive present perfect).
As has already been stated (see "Tense," p. 146) this function of
the present perfect depends on the context.
In such a case either the starting point of the action is indicated
or the whole period of duration.
a) The s t a r t i n g p o i n t of the action is indicated by means
of since (ever since), which may be an adverb, a preposition, or a
conjunction introducing a subordinate clause of time. The verb in the
subordinate clause is usually in t h e p a s t te v nse:
"I have been in that room ever since," said Horn Fisher.
( C h e s t e r t o n . ) "Mama has been dead ever since I was born,'
she said in her quiet way. ( D i c k e n s . ) "We've known each other
since we were children." ( B r a i n e . )
But the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t is used with b o t h v e r b s (in
the principal and in the subordinate clause) if they denote actions
begun in the past and continued into the present:
"The rooks — what has become of them?" asked Miss Betsey.—
"There have not been any since we have lived here," said my
mother. ( D i c k e n s . ) How stuffy it is here! Haven't you had
a window open since I've been here?" ( O n i o n s . )
b) T h e w h o l e p e r i o d of d u r a t i o n is often indicated by
means of the preposition for:
I have known her for two years. She has been with us for
a fortnight. I have heard this noise going on for half an hour.
For more than a week my pen has lain untouched. ( G i s s i n g . )
But also: "How long has he been married?" — "Twelve years..."
( C o p p a r d . ) "I've known these people a long time." ( C r o n i n . )
"My mother has lived here half a century..." ( D i c k e n s . ) "Is
the breakfast ready, Hortense?" — "Certainly, it has been ready
half-an-hour." (В г о n t ё.)
2. In Russian this present perfect is rendered by the present tense
(the verb быть is usually omitted in Russian), the adverb уже is
often added:
171
I have been here for two hours. — Я здесь уже два часа.
I have known her since my childhood. — Я ее знаю с дет-
ства.
3. The i n c l u s i v e present perfect may also express r e p e a t e d
actions:
For many and many a year these letters have made a pleasant
incident in my life; more than that, they have often brought me
help and comfort. ( G i s s i n g . ) For the last few days I have
seen the swallows gathering... ( G i s s i n g . ) "They say," said Mary
Jane, "we haven't had snow like it for thirty years..." ( J o y c e . )
I have often thought about the matter since... ( J e r o m e . ) "I have
had all this upon my mind for a long time: and have often meant
to speak to you, and have sometimes wanted opportunity and
; sometimes courage". ( D i c k e n s . )
4. Sometimes the present perfect expresses an action which comes
very close up to the present but is no longer going on at the pres-
ent moment. This meaning also depends on the context ( e x c l u s i v e
present perfect):
At last you have come: I have waited for you for about an hour.
I have heard that noise going on for half an hour; luckily it has
stopped now.
This present perfect is rendered in Russian both by the present
and the past tense: |
At last you have come: I have waited for you for half an
hour. — Я жду (ждал) вас полчаса.

The Past Perfect (Common Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

V
I had written 1 had not written had I written?
he had written he had not written had he written?
we had written we had not written had we written?
you had written you had not written had you written?
they had written they had not written had they written?

1. The s h o r t e n e d a f f i r m a t i v e forms are: Vd written,


he'd written, we'd written, etc.
2. The s h o r t e n e d negative forms are: I hadn't written,
he hadn't written, we hadn't written, etc.
172
3. The negative-interrogative forms are: Had I not
written? or Hadn't I written? Had he not written? or Hadn't
he written? Had we not written? or Hadn't we written?,
etc.
The Use of the Past Perfect of the Common Aspect

1. The p a s t p e r f e c t of the common aspect indicates an


a c t i o n which took place b e f o r e a g i v e n p a s t moment
and is viewed back from that moment. By that time / had already
written the letter. This means that the action of writing took place
before the given past moment and was already accomplished at that
past moment. The letter was already written at thaJk time. When I
came home the children had already returned from school. This
means that the action of returning took place before the action of
coming. The children were already at home when I came home.
2. Similar to the present perfect, the past perfect may express an
a c t i o n b e g u n b e f o r e a g i v e n p a s t m o m e n t and con-
t i n u e d i n t o t h a t p a s t m o m e n t ; this meaning depends on
the context: She had been ill for two days when we learnt about it.
This means that she had fallen ill two days before and was still ill
at the time we learnt about it.

The Use of the Past Perfect of the Common Aspect to Express an Action Accom-
plished before a Given Past Moment

1. The p a s t p e r f e c t of the common aspect expresses an


.action accomplished before a given past moment
and viewed back from that moment:
The snow had only just stopped, and in the court below my
rooms all sounds were dulled. ( S n o w . ) He looked at his watch.
Five minutes had passed. ( M a z o d e l a R o c h e . ) They had hardly
gone when AuntJuliawandered slowly into the room... ( J o y c e . )
Just at this moment a boy and a girl came and sat down where
the old couple had been. ( M a n s f i e l d . ) Julia, who had gone
half way down one flight, came back... ( J o y c e . )
2. The p a s t p e r f e c t may be a p u r e l y t e m p o r a l p a s t
p e r f e c t , indicating merely that the action took place before a giv-
en past moment without connecting it in its results or consequences
with that past moment (see "Tense," p. 146). In the following
examples the past tense would be used in direct speech:
He told me that he had had his dinner at six o'clock on that
day. (Compare: I had my dinner at six o'clock to-day.) She said
that her brother had left Moscow on the 2nd of September. (Com-
pare: My brother left Moscow on the 2nd of September).
173
But the past perfect, like the present perfect, may express an
action which is connected in its results or consequences with the given
past moment from which the action is viewed back.
She said that she had finished her work. (Compare: I have
finished my work.) He told me that his friend had already left
Moscow. (Compare: My friend has already left Moscow.) He knew
hardly any books, but he had travelled far, had seen much of
the world, and had remembered all that he had learned. ( D o y l e . )
3. The past moment from which the accomplished action is
viewed may be indicated: /
a) By means of an a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n : by four o'clock,
by that time, by the end of the week, etc.: .
By the end of the week we had already done half of the
work. By that time the sun had set. ( C o n r a d . ) . T h u s t h e y h a d
often finished their breakfast, and were out in the summer air,
by seven o'clock. ( D i c k e n s . )
b) By a n o t h e r a c t i o n (in the past tense):
The guests had arrived before the rain began to fall... ( H e n r y . )
When she awoke, the rain had stopped. (La M u r e . )
Notice that the tense does not change depending on the positive
or negative meaning of the sentence:
We had gone far when we suddenly noticed that dark clouds
were beginning to gather. We had not gone far when we suddenly
noticed that dark clouds were beginning to gather. I had not
read two pages of the thirty-five before I started up, sat down
again and feverishly read on. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He had not
been here five minutes, when a vivid flash of lightning was
followed by a loud peal of thunder... ( D i c k e n s . )
4. The past tense is sometimes used instead of the past perfect in
clauses introduced by befonuand after owing to the lexical meaning
of these conjunctions:
After he left the house, he recollected that he had not locked
the door. That happened before I met you.
After Pearl grew big enough to run about, she amused herself
in gathering flowers. ( H a w t h o r n e . ) He stood motionless after
she disappeared. ( S h a w . )
But also: After I'd finished my shopping I went into Snow
Park. ( B r a i n e . ) After they had left the room together he thought
he heard a soft voice singing... ( D i c k e n s . )
5. With verbs which have terminative meaning such as to arrive,
to enter, to look in, to open, etc. the past tense is used when two
actions closely follow each other. The past perfect is used here only
to stress the completion of action:
174
When I entered the room, I noticed that somebody was sitting
at the table.
But: I noticed that somebody was sitting at the table only
when I had already entered the room (but not when I was in the
doorway).
When we arrived at the station, we learnt that the train had
already gone.
But: We sat down to table only when all the guests had
arrived. When they turned the corner of the path she stood still.
(Lawrence.)
Notice the use of the p a s t p e r f ec t and the p a s t in the fol-
lowing examples:
a) He had closed the window and was sitting in his armchair,
reading a newspaper.
b) He closed the window, sat down in the arriTchair and be-
gan reading his newspaper.
a) The rain had stopped and the sun was shining brightly.
b) The rain stopped and the sun came out again.
a) He had turned on the light and was sitting at his desk
writing letters.
b) He turned on the light, sat down at his desk and began
writing letters.
6. The past perfect is used in adverbial clauses of time and con-
dition to express an action already accomplished at a given future
moment when that future moment is viewed from the past (sequence
of tenses). (See "The Use of the Present Perfect of the Common
Aspect," p. 149):
He promised to ring me up when he had got a definite answer.
...in any case he should not answer this letter until he had seen
Uncle Jolyon. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

The Use of the Inclusive Past Perfect of the Common Aspect to Express an
Action Begun before a Given Past Moment and Continued into That Past
Moment

1. The p a s t p e r f e c t of the common aspect is also used to


denote an a c t i o n b e g u n b e f o r e a g i v e n p a s t moment
a n d s t i l l g o i n g o n at that past moment ( i n c l u s i v e p a s t
p e r f e c t ) . This meaning is shown by the context. (Compare with a
similar use of the present perfect).
The starting point of the action is indicated by since (a preposi-
tion, an adverb, or a conjunction introducing a subordinate clause);
175
the whole period of duration is usually indicated by the preposition
for.
Notice the use of the p a s t t e n s e in the subordinate clause
introduced by since:
She told me that she had been ill since she came back from
the seaside.
Since the first days of their acquaintanceship they had always
been confidential. ( B e n n e t t . ) She and Erik were smiling at
each other for a moment with the kind of understanding they
hadn't shared for a long time. (M. W i l s o n . ) "I was surprised
when one afternoon, after I'd been there at least a month, he
asked me if I'd care to take a walk with him." ( M a u g h a m . )
The gale had freshened since noon... ( C o n r a d . )
But the p a s t p e r f e c t is used with botji^xerbs (in the princi-
pal and in the subordinate clause) if they denote actions begun before
a given past moment and continued into that past moment:
Ever since I had known him... he had thrown the whole of
his nature into everything he felt. ( S n o w . )
An inclusive past perfect may also express r e p e a t e d ac-
tions: : .
For nearly a month I had never been called to Mrs. Reeds
presence... ( B r o n t e . ) She had not looked at him once since they
sat down. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. Sometimes the past perfect denotes an action coming very close
up to a given past moment but no longer going on at that past
moment ( e x c l u s i v e p a s t p e r f e c t ) ; this is also shown by the
context: j
I woke, and looked at my watch; it was five o'clock. I had
been asleep four hours. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) When I had waited a
long time very patiently... I resolved to open a little — a very,
very little crevice in the lantern. (Рое.)
V
The Future Perfect (Common Aspect)
...... , _.

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I shall have \ I shall not have \ shall I have ^


h e will have I § he will not have I S will he have g
w e shall have J- £ we shall not have [ £ shall we have tj
you will have i ^ * you will not have i ^ shall (will) you have
t h e y will have / they will not have / y will they have

m
The Use of the Future Perfect of the Common Aspect

1. The f u t u r e p e r f e c t of the common aspect is used to ex-


press an a c t i o n a l r e a d y c o m p l e t e d a t a g i v e n f u t u r e
m o m e n t and viewed back from that future moment: By six
o'clock I shall have finished my translation. That means that the
action of finishing will take place before six o'clock.
"I suppose before then we shall have made up our minds
whom we are going to elect." ( S n o w . ) "I'm afraid the fourteen
will have become thirteen." ( S n o w . ) "You'll have forgotten
me by then." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "They will have applied else-
where by this time." ( B r o n t ё . )
2. Like the past perfect (see "The Use of the Past Perfect of the
Common Aspect," p. 173) the future perfect may be purely temporal
or may show that the action already accomplished at the given fu-
ture moment is connected in its results or consequences with that
future moment:
To-morrow at three o'clock he will have received my letter
(he will have the letter). When you have finished thisv book, you
will have learnt many new words and expressions (you will
know those words and expressions).
3. The future moment from which the completed action is
viewed may be indicated:
a) By means of an a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n : by that time,
by the first of June, by seven o'clock, soon, etc.:
By the end of the term we shall have learnt many new
words and expressions. "I shall soon have finished with the
books, he said. ( D i c k e n s . ) "Another twenty years and you'll
have forgotten all about it. (M. W i l s o n . )
b) By means o f a n o t h e r a c t i o n :
If you come at seven, I shall have done my work. If you
ring me up after seven o'clock, I shall have spoken to the sec-
retary.
4. The future perfect is also used to denote an action b e g u n
b e f o r e a g i v e n f u t u r e m o m e n t a n d s t i l l g o i n g on
at t h a t f u t u r e m o m e n t (inclusive f u t u r e perfect).
This meaning is shown by the context. (Compare with a similar use
of the present perfect and past perfect):
By the 1st of July we shall have been at the seaside for a
,fortnight. That means that our sojourn at the seaside, begun a fort-
night before the 1st of July, will still continue at that time.
12—3300 177
He will have been here for two hours by the time you come
back. We shall have known each other for five years by the
end of this year.

The Future-Perfect-in-the-Past
T h e f u t u r e - p e r f e c t - i n - t h e - p a s t is used:
a) To express an a c t i o n already c o n c l u d e d before a
g i v e n f u t u r e m o m e n t viewed from the past:
They assured me that they would have finished their work
by six o'clock. I told you yesterday that I should have finished
my translation by the time you came back. That night he told
me where the comet would have reached by the same time next
day... ( S n o w . )
b) An a c t i o n b e g u n b e f o r e a g i v e n f u t u r e m o m e n t
and c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h a t f u t u r e m o m e n t , when the fu-
ture moment is viewed from the past ( i n c l u s i v e f u t u r e - p e r f e c t -
i n-t h e - p a s t): j
She wrote to me that by the 1st of July she would have
been at the seaside for a fortnight.
THE CONTINUOUS ASPECT

The Present Perfect (Continuous Aspect)


I
Affirmative \ Negative Interrogative

I have been \ \ I have not been \ have I been \ o,


he has been I jJP he has not been I c1 has he been 1. Jj^
we have been J- fs we have not been J- H have we been J
you have been j ^ you have not been i have you been i ^
they have been ' they have not been / have they been /

1. The s h o r t e n e d a f f i r m a t i v e forms are: I've been writ-


ing; he's been writing, we've been writing, etc.
2. The s h o r t e n e d n e g a t i v e forms are: I haven't been
writing, he hasn't been writing, we haven't been writing,
etc.
3. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Have I not
been writing? or Haven't I been writing? Has he not been
writing? or Hasn't he been writing? Have we not been
writing? or Haven't we been writing?, etc.
178
The Use of the Present Perfect of the Continuous Aspect

1. The p r e s e n t p e r f e c t of t h e c o n t i n u o u s aspect
expresses an a c t i o n b e g u n in t h e p a s t a n d c o n t i n -
u e d i n t o t h e p r e s e n t ; it connects the past with the present
through the uninterrupted progress of an action begun before the
present moment and still continuing at that moment (see "Tense,"
p. 146) ( i n c 1 u s i v e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t c o n t i n u o u s ) :
"I have been developing photographs all the afternoon," she
said... (H a r r a den.) "... you have been working all day... you
are tired... I have already taken too much of youi time." (Cro-
n i n . ) "I have been walking these seven days." ( D i c k e n s . )
The starting point of the action is indicated by Jjjgc^ (a preposi-
tion, an adverb or a conjunction introducing a subordinate clause);
the whole period of duration is usually indicated by the preposition
for. (See "The Perfect Tenses, Common Aspect," p. 171):
"And you have been wandering about ever since, without a
dinner?" ( V o y n i c h . ) "He's been travelling sir^ce'six this morn-
ing." ( B r a i n e . ) Mr. Guppy has been lolling ou| of the window
all the morning... ( D i c k e n s . ) Of late, I have been wishing
for music. ( G i s s i n g . ) For forty-five years the Soviet Union
has been demonstrating, giving factual proof, that it does not
want war, that it stands for peace.
When the starting point of an action is fixed by a subordinate
clause introduced by since, the verb of the subordinate clause is
usually in the p a s t t e n s e :
I have been writing since I came here. The children have
been playing in the garden since they came home from school.
But the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t is used with both verbs (in the
principal and in the subordinate clause) if they denote a c t i o n s be-
g u n in t h e p a s t a n d c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e p r e s e n t :
"What have you been doing to yourself since I've been away?"
( C u s a c k . ) "Little woman," said my guardian, "I was thinking —
that is, I have been thinking^nceJMiaveJbeen sitting here,—
that you ought to know, of ypur" own history, all I know."
(Dickens.)
The present perfect continuous may bev used without any indica-
tion of t i m e , the time of the anterior duration of the action (recently,
just, now) being clear from the context or situation:
"She's been having a rather dull time here, I'm afraid."
( W a l p o l e . ) "Who's been seeing her?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I've
been thinking about that passage you read to me last night."
(Gordon.)
12* 179
N o t e . — Care should be taken not to use the present of the continuous
aspect for an action begun in the past and continued into the present. Russian
students of English easily make this mistake because in Russian actions associ-
ated with the present are expressed by the present tense:
Я пишу это упражнение уже два часа. — I have been writing this exercise
for two hours.
But: Я пишу грамматическое упражнение. — I am writing a grammar exer-
cise.
Я работаю здесь с у т р а . — I have been working here since the morning.
But: Я работаю над своим переводом.—I am working at my translation.
2. The present perfect may also indicate an a c t i o n b e g u n i n
t h e past, c o n t i n u e d up to t h e p r e s e n t b u t no long-
er going on at t h e p r e s e n t moment (exclusive
present perfect continuous):
."What have you been doing during my absence?" ( B r o n t § . )
"Florence, dear," she said, "I have been looking for you every-
where." ( D i c k e n s . ) "You have come out at last," he said. "Well,
I have been waiting for you long, and listening.-." ( B r o n t ё . )
I have been reading this book in your absence. Your eyes are
red; you have evidently been crying. He had barely entered the
room when his secretary said: "Somebody has been ringing for
you for the last five minutes."
3. The present perfect of the continuous aspect is often used to
indicate t h e i n c o m p l e t i o n of an action, corresponding to the
Russian imperfective aspect (несовершенный вид). The present perfect
of the common aspect would indicate a c o m p l e t e d action, corre-
sponding to the Russian perfective aspect (совершенный вид):
I have lost the book which I have been reading (читала).
I have lost the book which I have read (прочла). I have been
reading (читала) Shelley in your absence and I have read (проч-
ла) two of his poems. Look at my hands! I've been peeling (чи-
стила) potatoes. I have peeled (почистила) the potatoes.
4. The present perfect of the c o n t i n u o u s aspect is sometimes
used to express r e p e a t e d actions (the present perfect of the com-
mon aspect might suggest a s i n g l e action): '
I've been meeting her at the library (встречал). I have met
her at the library (встретил). I have been receiving letters ( = I
have received a SerieSy of letters). I have been coming in here
week in and week out for years.
5. The present perfect of the continuous aspect is also used with
emotional c o l o u r i n g (see "The Use of the Present Tense
of the Continuous Aspect," p. 159): ,
Y o u ' v e been meddling with my typewriter, Mr. Marchbanks...
(S h a w.) She picked off a tiny crump of pink sugar. "Oh, Master
180
Philip," she said. "You've been buying sweet cakes." ( G r e e n e . )
"My dear Tony! ...How long you've been coming home!"
(Hardy.)

The Past Perfect (Continuous Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I had been \ I had not been \ had I been \ o..


he had been I Jf he had not been I J? had he been 1
we had been > £ we had not been > £ had we been 1-
you had been i ^ you had not been i ^ had you been i |
they had been / they had not been / had they been /

1. The s h o r t e n e d a f f i r m a t i v e forms are: I'd been writ-


ing; he'd been writing, we'd been writingetc.
2. The s h o r t e n e d n e g a t i v e forms are: I hadn't been
writing, he hadn't been writing, we hadn't been writing',
etc.
3. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Had I not
been writing? or Hadn't I been writing? Had he not been
writing? or Hadn't he been writing? Had we not been writ-
ing? or Hadn't we been writing? etc.

The Use of the Past Perfect of the Continuous Aspect

1. The p a s t p e r f e c t of t h e c o n t i n u o u s a s p e c t express-
es an action begun before a given moment in the past and continued
into that past moment ( i n c l u s i v e p a s t p e r f e c t contin-
uous).
We had been smoking in silence for some time when Ah-Jen
spoke. (Le a c o c k . ) It was simply pouring with rain outside, and
had been all day... ( J e r o m e . ) "Father," said Eppie, very gently,
after they had been sitting in silence a little while... ( E l i o t . )
...it seemed to her that she had been walking a very great dis-
tance... ( E l i o t . )
The whole period of the duration of the action may be indicated
by the preposition for (for two hours, for about a year, etc.) or by
such adverbial expressions as all the time, all day, etc.
She had fallen asleep before nine, and had been sleeping for
six hours before the faintest hint of a midsummer daybreak was
discernible. ( E l i o t . ) There was sufficient light and he had been
wasting electricity for nearly an hour. ( H e m i n g w a y . ) They
181
had been quarreling for nearly three quarters of an hour.
(Huxley.)

The starting point of the action is marked by since (a preposition,


a conjunction or an adverb):

Presley reached the spring..., the point towards which he had


been travelling since early in the afternoon. ( N o r r i s . )

The past moment from which the action expressed by the past
perfect (continuous aspect) is viewed may be indicated:

a) By an adverbial expression introduced by the preposition by:

By that time she had been studying English for three years.
By the first of July they had been living at the seaside for a
fortnight.

b) By a subordinate clause of time:

He had been looking two minutes at the fire, and I had been
looking the same length of time at him, when, turning suddenly,
he caught my gaze, fastened on his physiognomy. ( B r o n t ё . )
Steerforth... had been strolling about the beech before I was up...
(Dickens.)

2. The p a s t p e r f e c t may also be used to express an a c t i o n


b e g u n b e f o r e a g i v e n past moment, coming very close up to
that past moment but n o l o n g e r g o i n g o n a t t h a t p a s t
m o m e n t ( e x c l u s i v e p a s t p e r f e c t c o n t i n u o u s ) : this is
shown by the context.

The exclusive past perfect continuous is often used w i t h o u t


a n y t i m e i n d i c a t i o n , the time of the anterior duration of the
action (recently, just) being clear from the context or situation: v

Here Mr. Pickwick, who had been writing in silence for some
time, gave a violent start. ( D i c k e n s . ) The gardeners had been
mowing, and there was still the smell of fresh-cut grass... (Gal-
s w o r t h y . ) He had been smoking a cigarette; now he threw the
end of it into the grate and rose from the bed where he had been
sitting. ( H o p e . ) Benford's eyes wereTed, she had evidently been
crying. ( L a w r e n c e . ) He picked up the book he had been
reading. ( B u c h a n a n . )
182
The Future Perfect (Continuous Aspect)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I shall have I shall not . shall I have


been have been been
he will have he will not will he have
been ад have been ад been ^3
we shall have B we shall not .5 shall we have с
been т. have been x; been ~
you will have ^ you will not ^ shall (will) you %
been have been have been
they will have they will not will they have
been have been been

1. The s h o r t e n e d a f f i r m a t i v e forms are: I'll have been


writing{ he'll have been writing, we'll have been writing,
etc.
2. The s h o r t e n e d n e g a t i v e forms are: I shan't have
been writing, he won't have been writing, we shan't have
been writing, etc.
3. The n e g a t i v e - i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms are: Shall I not
have been writing? or Shan't I have been writing? Will he
not have been writing? or Won't he have been writing?
Shall we not have been writing'? or Shan't we have been
writing?, etc.

The Use of the Future Perfect of the Continuous Aspect

The future p e r f e c t of t h e continuous aspect denotes an ac-


t i o n b e g u n b e f o r e a g i v e n m o m e n t in t h e f u t u r e
and c o n t i n u e d into t h a t f u t u r e moment: (inclusive
future perfect continuous):
I shall have been writing for two hours by the time yo.u come
back. By the first of July he will have been working at this
office for six months.

The Future-Perfect-Continuous-in-the-Past
T h e f u t u r e-p e r f e с t-c о n t i n u о u s-i n-t h e-p a s t is used to
express an action begun before a given future moment and continued
into that future moment when the future moment is viewed from the
past ( i n c l u s i v e f u t u r e-pe rf e c t-c o n t i n u о us-i n-t he-p a s t):
They wrote to me that by the end of July they would have
been living at the seaside for a month.
183
The Choice of the Perfect Tenses of the Continuous and the Perfect Tenses of
the Common Aspect

As has already been stated, both the perfect tenses of the con-
tinuous aspect and the perfect tenses of the common aspect are used
to denote actions begun before a given moment (present, past or fu-
ture) and continued into that moment.
With verbs which are used in both forms the difference is as
follows: the perfect tenses of the common aspect concentrate our
attention on the p r e s e n t ( p a s t o r f u t u r e ) state which charac-
terizes the subject of the action:
I have worked for five hours and I am tired.
The perfect tenses of the continuous aspect besides characterizing
the subject, lay also stress on the t i m e of t h e a c t i o n :
It is already eleven o'clock, so I have been working for three
hours (the last three hours are characterized by my working).
I was dead tired: I had walked six hours without resting.
Compare: "I am very hungry and tired," replied Oliver "...I have
walked a long way. I have been walking these seven days." ( D i c k -
ens.)

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

1. In English the tense of the verb in a subordinate clause (main-


ly object clause) depends on that of the verb in the principal clause.
This adjustment of the tense of the subordinate clause to the tense
of the principal clause is called the sequence of tenses.
2. The following are the rules of t h e s e q u e n c e of t e n s e s :
a) A p r e s e n t , p r e s e n t p e r f e c t o r f u t u r e in the princi-
pal clause may be followed in the subordinate by a n y t e n s e that
is required by the sense:
"Mother says the goose won't keep beyond to-morrow. (Gas-
k e l l . ) "Your wife tells us he has already been out of the house
this morning." ( G a s k e l l . ) I have been told that she is ill.
b) A p a s t t e n s e in the principal clause must be followed by
a past t e n s e ( p a s t , p a s t p e r f e c t , f u t u r e - i n - t he-pa'st,
f u t u r e-p e r f e с t-i n-t h e-p a s t) in the subordinate clause.
Thus, if the action of the principal clause and that of the sub-
ordinate take place at the s a m e t i m e i n t h e p a s t , the p a s t
t e n s e is used in both clauses:
...she heard a creaking of the chamber floor and stairs... and
knew that the farmers family were getting up. ( H a r d y . ) I as-
sured her we were alone. ( B r o n t e . ) ...Diana asked me if I w a s
sure I was well enough to travel. ( B r o n t § . ) He did not
184
realize that I was deeply upset by his news. (Snow.) Iaskedhim
how he liked his profession? ( D i c k e n s . )
Compare with the Russian, where in such instances the present
tense is used (or implied) in the subordinate clause:
Она ... поняла, что семья фермера встает. Я уверила ее,
что мы одни.
When the a c t i o n of the subordinate clause p r e c e d e s that of
the principal clause, the p a s t p e r f e c t is used in the subordinate
clause: л
"They told me you'd been, and were coming back." ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) ...I inquired soon if he had not been to London.
( B r o n t ё . ) ...I inquired what he had said. ( B r o n t ё . ) Almost
every day I asked Mrs. Fairfax if she had yet heard anything
decided... ( B r o n t ё . )
N o t e . — When the action of the subordinate clause p r e c e d e s the action
of the verb in the principal clause but refers to a d e f i n i t e p a s t m o m e n t ,
the p a s t is used:
He told me that his youngest son was born in 1930 (a definite past date).
I knew that she left Moscow in 1935.
B u t : He told me that his youngest son had been born two years before.
I knew that she had left Moscow the day before.

3. In subordinate clauses of the second, third, etc., grade of subor-


dination s i m u l t a n e o u s n e s s . is usually expressed by the p a s t ;
p r i o r i t y , by the p a s t p e r f e c t :
She told me that she had been at the theatre where she met
an old school friend of hers whom she had not seen for many
years. She explained to William how they had been chasing
round the town for ice while she waited for him. ( M a n s f i e l d . )
m
4. When the action of the subordinate clause refers to a f u t u r e
moment with regard to the p a s t moment indicated in the principal
clause, the verb of the subordinate clause is in the f u t u r e-i n-t h e-
p a s t.
For the use of the past tense of the common or the continuous
aspect in this connection see "The Use of the Past Tense" (Common
Aspect), p. 153 and "The Use of the Past Tense" (Continuous As-,
pect), p. 163.
I said that coffee would suit me splendidly. ( B r a i n e . ) ^ Mi-
riam came for him a little later to know if he would go with
Clara and her for a walk. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Leaving a message that
he would return in the morning he went home. ( V o y n i c h . ) At
breakfast I announced to Diana and Mar^ that I was going on
a journey, and should be absent at least four days. ( B r o n t ё . )
She determined not to go to bed until Edith returned... ( D i c k -
186
e n s . ) ...he asked her what she was going to do that d a y
(Coppard.)
5. When the action of the subordinate clause is already complet-
ed at a given future moment (viewed from the past), the f u t u r e -
p e r f e с t-i n-t h e - p a s t is used.
For the use of the past perfect of the common aspect in this
connection see "The Use of the Past Perfect" (Common Aspect), p. 175 :
That night he told me where the comet would have reached
by the same time next day... ( S n o w . ) He promised to write to
me after he had seen her.
Note 1 . — T h e r e i s n o s e q u e n c e of t e n s e s if the subordinate clause
states something as u n i v e r s a l l y or l o g i c a l l y true:
You were told that the earth goes round the sun, and the moon goes round
the earth. ( C h e s t e r t o n . )
N o t e 2. — If the dependent clause contains a c o m p a r i s o n (after than,
as... as, etc.) the verb may be i n a n y t e n s e that is required by the sense:
He spoke English better than you speak it now (spoke it last year; will
speak it in two years). Last year I worked less than I work now.
N o t e 3. — If the dependent clause is an a t t r i b u t i v e clause the
verb m a y be in a n y t e n s e that suits the sense:
Last night I read the book which you are reading now. He did not himself
witness the event that he has described so well in the book which Iwasreading
when you came. ...a small bird flew up from the gray woods... and stirred in
me a hundred latent memories with .a song that I have not heard for many
years. (Seton-Thompson.)

VOICE

V o i c e is the form of the verb which shows t h e r e l a t i o n


between the ас 1 1 s s u b j e c t (субъект), indicating
whether t h e a c t i o n is p e r f o r m e d b y t h e s u b j e c t o r
p a s s e s on t o it.
Accordingly there are two voices in English: t h e a c t i v e and
thepassive.
The a c t i v e v o i c e shows that the action i s p e r f o r m e d by
its s u b j e c t , that the subject is the d o e r of the action.
The p a s s i v e v o i c e shows that the subject is a c t e d u p o n ,
that it is the г e с e i p i e n t of the action:
Active Voice Passive Voice

The sunlight was making the The fountains were once more
-pink cliffs glow... (Gals- made to throw up their sparkl-
worthy.) ing showers. ( I r v i n g . )
"I want to know what it [the She understood what was said.
sea] says." ( D i c k e n s . ) (Dickens.)
187
Compare the functions of the voice forms in the following sen-
tences:
"Send the landlord," said the stranger. — "Yes," rejoined the
waiter. The landlord was sent, and came. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...he took
a cottage at Hamstead, and there he finished the book. The day
after it was finished he took the manuscript to a secluded spot
on the top of the Heath, and lay down on the grass to read it quietly
through. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
We may concentrate our attention on t h e d o e r of the action
, and make it the subject of the sentence. Then the verb-predicate is
in the a c t i v e v o i c e .
"I would have asked who wanted me... but Bessie was already
gone... ( B r o n t ё . ) . . . Bessie... had closed the nursery-door upon
me... ( B r o n t S . ) He drew the heavy curtains. ( C o n r a d . )
Or we may place t h e o b j e c t of the action in the centre of
our attention and make it the subject of the sentence. Then the
verb-predicate is in the p a s s i v e v o i c e .
...Bessie... bid me go down directly as I was Wanted in the
breakfast-room. ( B r o n t e . ) The hall door was closed behind
me... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The window was still open, the curtains
had not been drawn... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Compare: Mr. Yorke knew every one, and was known by
every one for miles round... ' ( B r o n t ё . ) "Do you like him? Is he
generally liked?" ( B r o n t ё . )
From what has been said above, it becomes clear why the doer
of the action is usually not expressed in a sentence with a predicate
in the passive voice.
...the family were speedily transported to their own house...
( D i c k e n s . ) Heavy footsteps were heard in the passage, the par-
lour door was suddenly burst open... ( D i c k e n s . )
• Yet there are instances when in a passive construction the doer
of the action is expressed and introduced by the preposition by:
When breakfast was over, they were joined by the sister...
( A u s t e n . ) She was received, however, very politely by them.
(Austen.)
This construction is of later development and not characteristic
of the passive.
THE CHOICE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE

We have recourse to the passive voice in^the following instances:


a) When the a c t i v e s u b j e c t is unknown от cannot easily be
stated:
188 „
The city is well supplied with water. I am told she has left
Moscow. Visitors are requested to leave their coats in the cloak-
room.
b) When one takes a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t in the o b j e c t than
in the s u b j e c t of the action:
"Young Bosinney has been run over in the fog and killed."
(Ga 1 s w o r t hy.)
c) When the a c t i v e s u b j e c t is n o t m e n t i o n e d for
o m e s p e c i a l r e a s o n s (tact or delicacy of feeling, etc.). The
mentioning of the first person is often avoided in writing:
Enough has been said hereof a subject which will be treated
more fully in a subsequent chapter. You have been told so many
times not to touch these things.

THE FORMS OF THE PASSIVE VOICE

1. The passive voice is an analytical form in Modern English:


it is built up by means of a corresponding tense of the auxiliary
verb to be and the past participle of the given verb:
The Common Aspect: Present: It is written.
Past: . It was written.
Future: It will be written.
Present Perfect: It has been written.
Past Perfect: It had been written.
Future Perfect: It will have been writ-,
ten.
2. In the passive voice the c o n t i n u o u s aspect has only two
tenses, present and past. *
Present: It is being written.
Past: It was being written.
Instead of the future and the perfect tenses of the continuous
aspect, the corresponding tenses of the common aspect are used.
Here are some sentences illustrating the use of the passive voice:
The children were put to bed at seven o'clock. ( L a w -
r e n c e . ) ...in our days she would have been ordered air and
sunlight and activity. ( C h e s t e r t o n . ) ...the house had been
inhabited for years by his father... ( D i c k e n s . ) Already the
street lamps were being lit. (N o r r i s . ) The next five weeks
were spent by Gemma and the Gadfly in a whirl of excitement
and overwork... ( V o y n i c h . ) "Shall I — be —given up to him?"
I faltered. ( D i c k e n s . )
189
N o t e . — The verb to get is sometimes used in Modern English as an aux-
iliary of the passive:
He got thrown against a tree. My dress got caught on a nail. He got struck
by a stone.

The tenses of the passive voice are used according to the same
rules as the tenses of the active voice. (See "Tense," p. 144)

VERBS USED IN THE PASSIVE VOICE

1. In English not only transitive verbs have the forms of the


passive voice but also i n t r a n s i t i v e (objective) verbs which
require a prepositional object, such as:
to look at somebody (something), to rely on •somebody (some-
thing), etc.
In the passive the p r e p o s i t i o n is r e t a i n e d by the verb
and thus turns into an a d v e r b which together with the verb
forms a p h r a s e o l o g i c a l u n i t : to be looked at, to be relied on>
etc.;
Transitive verbs:
Active voice Passive voice
to write to be written
to take to be taken
...they were joined by the sisters... ( A u s t e n . ) My low tap
at the door was answered by Mr. Peggotty. ( D i c k e n s . )

Intransitive (objective) verbs


Active voice Passive voice
to look (at...) to be looked at
to rely (on...) to be relied on
to laugh (at...) to be laughed at
"I have been telegraphed for... ( L o c k e . ) I was sent for
by Mrs. Rachae 1... (Dickens.) This was agreed to...
(Austen.) •
2. P h r a s e o l o g i c a l u n i t s (verb -f adverb) are used in the
passive form in a similar way:

Active Passive ^
to do away (with...) to be done away with,
to look up (to...) to be looked up to
In the passive the verb i s a s s o c i a t e d with two adverbs:
to be looked up to; to be done away with. .
190
He had always been looked up to as a high authority...
(Dickens.)
3. P h r a s e o l o g i c a l u n i t s consisting of a t r a n s i t i v e
v e r b -J- a n o u n (group-verbs) such as: to lose sight (of), to take
care (of...), t<f*put an end (to...), to catch hold (of...), to take
notice (of...), to find fault (with...) have prepositional objects and
are thus equivalent to intransitive verbs. They may also be used in
the passive. The verb of the phraseological unit takes the form of
the passive voice, the p r e p o s i t i o n used before the object in an
active construction i s r e t a i n e d in the passive and i s j o i n e d
to the whole phraseological unit thus turning J n t o _ a . n a . d v e r b
(compare with the passive form of intransitive verbs: to be taken
care of — to be spoken about).
Active Passive
to lose sight (of...) to be lost sight of
to take care (of...) to be taken care of
to put an end (to...) to be put an end to
to catch hold (of...) to be caught hold of
to take notice (of...) to be taken notice of
The child was being taken care of... ( E l i o t . ) The boat
was soon lost sight of in the fog. ( M a r r y a t . )
4. Thus we see that with regard to voice the division of verbs
into s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e and not into t r a n s i t i v e
and i n t r a n s i t i v e is the most important division for Modern
English, as any objective verb may form a passive construction.

Passive Constructions

Passive constructions are extensively used in English. There


are many more instances with the verb-predicate in the passive
voice in English than in Russian owing to the greater number of
verbs used in the passive voice in English (see "Verbs Used in the
Passive Voice," p. 190).
There are the following passive constructions in English:

Passive Constructions with Transitive Verbs

T r a n s i t i v e v e r b s may be used in English in the following


passive constructions:
. 1. The s u b j e c t of the passive construction denotes an
o b j e c t (объект) directly affected by the action of the verb; in
an active construction it has the function of a d i r e c t o b j e c t
(прямое дополнение):
191
Compare the functions of the voice-forms in the following sen-
tences:
The door was not opened (passive). She got up and opened
. it (active). ( M a u g h a m . ) "But how was she found? (passive)
Who found (active) her?" ( D i c k e n s . ) They [Oliver and his
friend] had been beaten and starved, and shut up together,
many and many a time. ( D i c k e n s . ) "They beat and ill-used
me, Dick," said Oliver... ( D i c k e n s . )
Here are some more examples of passive constructions:
On a sofa a handsome woman and a pretty young girl were
surrounded by sewing apparatus and some white materials.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) On the dark unstirring trees innumerable flow-
ers and buds, all soft and blurred, were being bewitched to
life by the creeping mooniight. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The candles
were brought, the fire was stirred up, and a fresh log of wood
thrown on. ( D i c k e n s . )
Here are some examples of phraseological units (verb -f adverb)
which form transitive verbs and may be used in the passive form:
The knives and forks were handed in... ( D i c k e n s . ) The
idea was given up years ago. ( H a r d y . ) ...the children were
sent off to bed... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. With some objective (transitive) verbs the passive is seldom
used.
The passive is impossible with the following verbs denoting
mere s t a t e : to rgsembte+.,Iq become lawsuit, to last, to possess.
All the sentences glWTl befow' can "be " f l ^ l ^ f f l ^ T ' f i ^ e ^ ' c t i v e
form:
She resembles her mother. The hat becomes you. The coat
suits you. The money will last me a whole month. She possess-
es many good qualities.
In all the above examples the subject is not the initiator of
the action, neither is the direct object affected by the action.
The verb to meet^'m its ordinary meaning is not used in~the
passive: I often^meet her in the morning. But: I was met at the
station by my brother. In the second sentence the verb to meet
denotes a purposeful act on the part of my brother, therefore the
verb may be used in the passive.
The verb to have is seldom used in the passive:
The two men were presented and the beer was had from off
the ice. ( N o r r i s . )
N o t e . — The verb to owe has no parallel passive form: We owe this discov-
ery to Pavlov. It must be replaced by the expression to be due: This discovery
is due to Pavlov.

192
Passive Construction with Transitive Verbs which have Two Direct Objects

There are some transitive verbs in English which take t w o


d i r e c t o b j e c t s : to answer, to ask, to forgive, to excuse, to
envy, to strike.
Some of these verbs may have two passive constructions, while
others are used in the passive only with the name of the person
as the passive subject.
To answer:
They answered him nothing.
a) He was answered nothing. But not: He was answered
some questions.
b) Nothing was answered him — (hardly possible).
To ask:
They asked her some questions.
a) She was asked some questions.
b) Some questions were asked her — (less common).

To forgive:
They forgave him his rudeness.
a) He was forgiven his rudeness.
b) His rudeness was forgiven him.
To envy:
They envied him his luck.
a) He was envied his luck.
b) His luck was envied him — (hardly possible).
To strike:
They struck him a heavy blow.
a) He was struck a heavy blow.
b) A heavy blow was struck him — (less usual).
To excuse:
They excused him the entrance fee. ,
a) He was excused the entrance fee.
b) The entrance fee was excused him —(less usual).

Passive Construction with Transitive Verbs which have Two Objects —


Direct and Indirect

Transitive Verbs which take t w o o b j e c t s , direct and


i n d i r e c t , may form t w o passive constructions:
13_33o5 . " 193
a) The s u b j e c t of the passive construction denotes the
o b j e c t (usually a thing) which is directly affected by the action
of the verb; in an active construction it has the function of a
direct object:
"Give me some water, please. Water was given her." ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) A chair was brought him from Bosinney's tent,
(Galsworthy.)
b) The s u b j e c t of the passive construction denotes the o b -
j e c t (usually a person) toward which the action is directed or for
whose benefit the action is performed: in an active construction it
has the function of an i n d i r e c t o b j e c t :
Then he was given a lodge to keep... ( S t e v e n s o n . ) (cp.
"Give me my box and money, will you?" ( D i c k e n s . )
In this construction the d i r e c t o b j e c t i s r e t a i n e d by
the verb in the passive form:
He was promised something good. ( S t e v e n s o n . ) He was
saved the trouble. ( A u s t e n . ) They were given an address in
Chelsea. ( W e l l s . ) We were offered baskets of fine fruit.
( M o r r i s . ) Eleonor had been ordered goat's milk by the doctor.
( W a r d . ) "I was not shown these rooms the other day..." ( D i c k -
e n s . ) She was told it by a particular friend. ( A u s t e n . )
In the older language only one passive construction was possible here, w i t h
t h e passive subject corresponding to 'the direct object of a parallel active con-
struction. ( T h e way was shown me).
The Modern English passive construction, in which the subject corresponds
to t h e indirect object of the active, originated from constructions where the
indirect object was placed at the head of the sentence and the passive subject
followed the verb (inversion). The placing of the indirect object in front posi-
tion may have been due to the greater interest felt for the person. The boy
(indirect object) was shown the way (subject). Compare with the Russian:
Мальчику показали дорогу, where the indirect object is also placed at the head
of the sentence.
When the d a t i v e , the a c c u s a t i v e , and the n o m i n a t i v e cases
of the noun merged (слились) into the c o m m o n case, the formal distinction
between the subject and object (direct and indirect) disappeared and the word
order of the sentence became fixed (subject — predicate — direct object). That
fixed word order helped to show whether the noun was the subject or t h e
object of the sentence. As the result of the fixed word order, the indirect object
placed at the head of the sentence before the predicate came to be looked upon
as the subject of the sentence, and the former passive subject — as the direct
object. The boy (subject) was shown the way (direct object).
The personal pronoun which had retained distinct case forms for subject
( n o m i n a t i v e ) and object ( o b j e c t i v e ) relation, on the analogy of t h e
noun, began to be regarded as the passive subject and accordingly assumed the
form of the nominative case. The old construction: Him (indirect object) was ,
shown the way (subject) changed into: He (subject) was shown the'way (direct
object): /
In Russian these passive constructions usually correspond to active
constructions in which the subject is not expressed (неопределенно-лнч-
194
ные предложения) and the indirect (dative) object is placed at the
head of the sentence:
You will be shown your room — Вам покажут rBainy комнату.
The boy was promised a new ball — Мальчику обещали новый мячик.

Passive Construction with Intransitive (Objective) Verbs

As has already been stated intransitive (objective) verbs may be


used in the passive voice and thus form passive constructions. In
these constructions the s u b j e c t of the sentence denotes an ob-
j e c t indirectly affected by the action; in an active construction it
has the function of a p r o p o s i t i o n a l o b j e c t :
Compare the following:
Passive Active
"I am laughed at by the whole "Don't laugh at me, Tom!" she
world." ( G o l d s m i t h . ) burst out angrily... ( E l i o t . )
While his car was being seen to, he strolled away from the
garage... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The pike (щука) like other celebri-
ties, did not show, when he was watched for... ( E l i o t . ) I was
wired for. ( D o y l e . ) His coming had not been looked for.
( G r e e n e . ) ...he was again sent for. ( D i c k e n s . )
N o t e . — I t is a peculiarity of English that some intransitive (subjective)
verbs such as to lie, to sleep, to live, may be used in passive constructions simi-
lar to those with intransitive (objective) verbs:

The bed had not even been lain on. ( D i c k e n s . ) It [the


room] was not lived in any more. ( M a u r i - e r . )

Passive Constructions with Phraseological Units (Group-Verbs)

As has already been stated phraseological units — t r a n s i t i v e


v e r b + n o u n ( g r o u p - v e r b s ) may be used in the passive voice
and thus form passive constructions. The s u b j e c t of the p a s -
s i v e construction denotes an o b j e c t indirectly affected by the ac-
tion expressed by the group-verb; in an a c t i v e construction it had
the function of a p r e p o s i t i o n a l o b j e c t :
Compare the following: j
Passive Active
She will be taken good care of. "What about our bags?" "I will
(Bront§.) take care of them." ( H e m -
ingway.)
I was a good deal taken notice ...there were very few who took
of by Mrs. Bretton. ( A u s t e n . ) notice of him... ( D i c k e n s . )
Here are some more examples:
13* 195
The boat was soon lost sight of in the fog. ( M a r r y a t . )
The lunch was done ample justice to. ( D i c k e n s . ) Some things
had been lost sight of. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
N o t e . —Because of the close connection of the verb with the noun the
latter is, as a rule, not used as the subject of the passive. Only with such
phraseological units where the connection is looser, may the noun be used as
the subject of the passive; the connection becomes also looser through the ad-
dition of an a t t r i b u t e to the noun:
No attention was paid to his remark (to pay attention t o . . . ) . No fault was
found w i t h the child (to find fault w i t h . . . ) . A tight hold was caught of the
rope (to catch hold of...). 3

The Passive Voice and the Nominal Predicate

The combination of the verb to be with p a r t i c i p l e I I


does not always form the passive voice; it may also be a n o m i n a l
p r e d i c a t e . When the verb to be with p a r t i c i p l e II comprises
the idea of an a c t i o n , when it shows that the subject is a c t e d
u p o n , it is the p a s s i v e v o i c e ; when participle II indicates the
s t a t e in which the subject is, serving as a p r e d i c a t i v e , the
verb 'to be is a link-verb and they both form a n o m i n a l p r e d i -
cate:
"It was very hot in the room because all the windows were
closed (compound nominal predicate; compare: were open). The
door was closed at seven o'clock by the hall-porter (passive voice;
compare: was opened). The book is not illustrated (nominal
predicate). The book was illustrated by a well-known artist
(passive voice).
Some more examples of the nominal predicate:
We were all a little bored-.. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) They [the
birds] were all perched heavily in a tree. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) I was
' very much surprised... ( D i c k e n s . ) We were compelled to spend
the night at Winchester... ( D o y l e . ) The door was not fastened
within, and yielded smoothly to her hesitating hand. ( D i c k e n s . )
He was tired out, and slept more soundly than usual. ( M a u g h a m . )
A window of the hotel was lighted; he saw a shadow
move across the blinds. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It was after office
hours, and the street door was closed... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
As we see from the .above examples, in some cases it is quite
clear that the participle is a mere predicative and the whole com-
bination is a nominal predicate; in other cases it is difficult to tell
whether the combination is the passive voice or a\ nominal predi-
cate.
When the verb to be is associated 1 with participleHH of d u r a -
t i v e v e r b s (such as toJike^Jg love, tg honour, to Ще^ e t c J
196
the combination to be-\- p a r t i c i p l e II is always t h e p a s -
s i v e v o i c e . This is due to the fact that participle II of durative
verbs has no. perfective meaning, it denotes an action but not a
state resulting from an accomplished action and cannot, therefore,
have the function of a predicative in a nominal predicate:
He was most highly esteemed by Mr. Darcy. ( A u s t e n . )
"Is he generally liked?" ( B r o n t e . ) He was admired for his cour-
age. She is loved by all her schoolfriends.
Such participles as disappointed, distressed, irritated, vexed, sur^
prised, astonished, amazed, frightened, alarmed, etc. which express
mental states usually form a n o m i n a l p r e d i c a t e (independent
on the lexical character of the verb):
Elisabeth was distressed. ( A u s t e n . ) "I am astonished at his
intimacy with Mr. Bingey." ( A u s t e n . ) "Everybody is disgusted
with his pride." ( A u s t e n . ) She was disappointed and angry
with herself for being so. ( A u s t e n . ) "I was surprised to see
Mr. Darcy in town last month." ( A u s t e n . ) "I was so frightened
I did not know what to do..." ( A u s t e n . ) "Tell me were
you interested in those books I sent you?" ( M a u r i e r . )
• The difficulty in discriminating between the passive voice and
the nominal predicate concerns t e r m i n a t i v e v e r b s and v e r b s
of a m i x e d l e x i c a l c h a r a c t e r (to QfieJljt, to close, to break,
etc.). Participle II of these verbs has double meaning: it expresses
either a state resulting from an accomplished action (perfective
meaning) or the action itself. (See "The Participle," p. 281) Therefore the
combination of the verb to be with such a participle is either a
n o m i n a l p r e d i c a t e or t h e p a s s i v e v o i c e .
Compare the following two sentences:
It was after office hours y and the hall door was closed...
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (a nominal predicate)...The hall door was clo-
sed behind me, the East wind caught me in the face... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) (the passive voice)
We clearly have the passive voice:
a) When the verb is qualified by a n a d v e r b i a l modifier
characterizing the action:
The library door was opened at midnight... ( M e r e d i t h . )
"I am urgently needed at Apia," said Dr. Macphail. ( M a u g h a m . )
b) When the verb is in the c o n t i n u o u s f o r m :
The next moment he was being introduced to a middle-aged
woman. ( B e n n e t t . ) While the order was being executed, Sherley
497
moved away from her friends... ( В г о п 1 ё . ) The horses were be-
ing put to punctually at a quarter to nine. ( D i c k e n s . )
c) When the verb is in t h e f u t u r e t e n s e (or t h e f u t u r e -
in-the-past):
The entrance door will be closed at 7. Further details will
be given in a subsequent chapter. She would be scolded, abused,
ignominiously discharged. ( D r e i s e r . )
d) The use of t h e p e r f e c t f o r m often shows that the verb
c
to be + p a r t i c i p l e II is the passive voice: ^
Compare the following: '
"Be careful, the door is freshly painted." (a nominal predi-
cate) — "Oh, has it already been painted?" (the passive voice).
"How much have you done?" (the passive voice) — "It's all done,
aunt." (a nominal predicate) ( T w a i n . )
Here are some more examples of the passive voice with the verb
in a perfect form:
The window was still open, the curtains had not been drawn ..
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Bessie... had closed the nursery-door upon me...
(Bronte.)
e) The-combination / o f e - { - p a r t i c i p l e II is usually the pas-
sive voice when the d o e r of t h e a c t i o n is expressed in the
sentence and is introduced by the preposition by:
They were interrupted by Miss Bennet. ( A u s t e n . ) Lidia was
bid by her eldest sisters to hold her tongue... ( A u s t e n . ) She
was roused from her seat and her reflections by someone's ap-
proach... ( A u s t e n . )

MOOD
M o o d ^ i s J J h e form of the verb which shows in what relation
to reality the speaker places the action or state expressed by. the
predicate verb. Thus the category of mood expresses modality.*
1. There are the following moods in English: the direct moods —
• M o d a l i t y is the relation of t h e action or state expressed by the pred-
icate to reality as it is regarded by the speaker. Modality may be expressed as
follows:
a) By m о о d - f о r m s of the v e r b: He was here yesterday. I wish he wire
here. Be here to-morrow.
b) By m o d a l v e r b s : She can easily do it. You should help him. It
must be late.
c) By p a r e n t h e t i c a 1 (вводные) w o r d s and e x p r e s s i o n s : Per-
haps he will come to-morrow. He is a very capable student, jo be sure. They
are ready, I believe. \ , • ^

198
the i n d i c a t i v e and the i m p e r a t i v e ; the oblique (косвенные)
moods — s u b j u n c t i v e I, s u b j u n c t i v e II, the s u p p o s i t i o n -
a 1 and the c o n d i t i o n a l .

THE INDICATIVE MOOD


The i n d i c a t i v e m o o d shows that the speaker considers the
action or state denoted by the predicate as an a c t u a l ' f a c t and
affirms or negates its existence in the present, past or future:
The forces of the peace camp are growing in numbers and
strength from day to day.
The sun had not quite set, and its last smoky radiance slant-
ed into the burnished autumn woods. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) I shall
act and I shall act promptly. ( M a u g h a m . ) ...a blackbird close
by burst into song. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "...there is a girl in Goya
picture at Madrid who's like me, Father says." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The indicative mood is widely used in Modern English. As has
already been stated the verb in the indicative mood has three p r i m a -
r y t e n s e s and t h r e e s e c o n d a r y ( p e r f e c t ) t e n s e s , two
aspect forms — c o m m o n and c o n t i n u o u s , and two voice forms
— a c t i v e and p a s s i v e .

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

1. In the i m p e r a t i v e m o o d the speaker u r g e s the person


addressed t o f u l f i l a n a c t i o n . This may be expressed in the
form of a c o m m a n d , a r e q u e s t , a w a r n i n g , etc.
The imperative mood has only one simple form for the s e c o n d
p e r s o n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l , and is the plain present tense
stem or common stem of the verb:
"Go and fetch him." (M a u g h a m.) "Come along with me,"
said Horn. ( M a u g h a m . ) "Look out!" cried Fleur. (Ga l s w o r -
• t h y . ) "Please, row." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
r
In the 1st and 3rd person the conbination let -J- i n f i n i t i ve, an
equivalent of the imperative, is used:
"Let me go in and see him alone. ( M a u g h a m ) "Let's go
on," said Mrs. Davidson. ( M a u g h a m . ) "Let her go by herself
into the water..." ( B e n n e t t . )
2. The subject of an. imperative is s e l d o m e x p r e s s e d unless
it is emphatic. In Old English the pronoun-subject was generally
placed IiTTer the verb. This word order is still found in some set
phrases: Look you! Mind you! Go you!
"Look you, sir, do you see the revenue cutter?" ( M a r r y a t . )
"Mind you, this is your last chance." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
' 2 0 0
In Modern English it is placed before the verb in the usual place
of the subject:
"Next time," said his mother, "you be more careful." ( L a w -
r e n c e . ) "You keep this copy. I don't want it." ( G o r d o n . )
"You come along too, doctor." ( M a u g h a m . ) "Don't you lose a
minute." ( C o n r a d . )
3. The n e g a t i v e imperative is formed by means of the aux-
iliary to do even if we have the verb to be which in the indicative
mood does not require that auxiliary:
"Nonsense, James: don't talk like that!" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"Don't cut yourself." ( A l d r i d g e . ) "Don't be alarmed," he
said... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
4. The e m p h a t i c imperative is formed with the help of the
auxiliary verb to do, followed by the i n f i n i t i v e :
' J g o s i t d o w i i . " ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Do be quiet, Payne," in-
terposed thfe Lieutenant. ( D i c k e n s . ) "Joe," Alice said, "do have
a sandwich." ( B r a i n e ) .
5. Will you? very often follows the imperative. In such impera-
tive sentences the order becomes modified by the addition of wilt
you? into a kind of request:
"Give me my box and money, will you?" I cried bursting
into tears. ( D i c k e n s . ) "Turn to the right here, will you?"
( B r a i n e . ) "Heigh! heigh! Keep that dog back, will you?" he
shouted... ( E l i o t . )

THE OBLIQUE MOODS

The function of the o b l i q u e m o o d s is to represent some-


thing in the speaker's mind not as a real fact, b u t as a w i s h ,
p u r p o s e , s u p p o s i t i o n , d o u b t or c o n d i t i o n , p r o b l e m -
a t i c o r c o n t r a r y t o f a c t . When the speakeL. expresses his
wish by using one of the obligue moods, he merely communicates
to the hearer what he considers desirable~" This is the "Wain difference
between the oblique moods and the imperative. When using the
imperative mood the speaker directly urges the person addressed to
fulfil his order pr request.
Be quiet! — Here I want to produce an immediate effect, to
bring about some actual changes in the existing state of things; I
want a noisy person to become quiet as the result of my urging
him to be so.
I wish you were quiet. — Here I merely inform the hearer of
what I consider desirable, indicating at the same time that my wish
contradicts the actual state of things ( = you are not quiet).
'201
I wish it were spring all the year round. — Here I communi-
cate to the hearer a desire of mine which is a matter of mere im-
agination and can never be fulfilled.
It is impossible that he should have said such a thing. — Here
I express my doubt with regard to his having said such a thing.
If it were not so cold, I should go out. — It is cold and I
don't go out; I only imagine the possibility of my going out if the
weather were different from what it actually is.
It is necessary that you should go there. — Here I make a state-
ment of what I consider to be indispensable, leaving the question
of its realization open.
There are four oblique moods in Modern English, of which t w o
are s y n t h e t i c a l and t w o a n a l y t i c a l .
The s y n t h e t i c a l m o o d s are: s u b j u n c t i v e I and s u b -
j u n с t i v e II.
The a n a l y t i c a l m o o d s are: the c o n d i t i o n a l and the
suppositional.
N o t e . — The two synthetical moods (subjunctive I and subjunctive II) are
often united under the general name of the s u b j u n c t i v e m o o d ; the two
analytical moods (the conditional and the suppositional) are regarded as e q u i v -
a l e n t s of t h e s u b j u n c t i v e . In some grammars the analytical moods
{the conditional and the suppositional) are included into the subjunctive mood
a s the a n a l y t i c a l f o r m s of the s u b j u n c t i v e .

THE SYNTHETICAL MOODS

SUBJUNCTIVE I AND SUBJUNCTIVE II

Historically the forms he be — he were, he have—he had,


etc., were tense forms (present and past) of one mood — t h e s u b -
j u n c t i v e . But in the course of time their meaning has changed,
they no longer indicate distinction of time but express d i f f e r e n t
modality.
The form he be is used with reference to a n y t i m e indicating
s u p p o s i t i o n or u n c e r t a i n t y : It is strange (was, will be)
that he be late.
The form he were is often used with regard to the present in-
dicating u n r e a l i t y : If he were tit home, he would see her. I
wish she were here.
Taking into consideration this historical change of meaning
{time distinctions have become modal distinctions) we consider it
advisable to regard these two forms {he be — he were, he have —
he had, etc.) as two distinct moods. Preserving the traditional name
s u b j u n c t i v e , we shall call these two mood§\ s u b j u n c t i v e i
' 2 0 2
(be) and s u b j u n c t i v e II (were).
Subjunctive I and subjunctive II do not only express different
modality but also differ in style.
S u b j u n c t i v e I is rather obsolete in Modern English; it may
be found in poetry, high prose and official documeits (treaties, man-
ifestoes, resolutions, etc.):
Be his banner unconquered, resistless his spear. ( S c o t t . ) Let
us unite our efforts and demand that the war now devastating
Korea, a war that to-morrow may set the world ablaze, cease
now. ("Manifesto to Peoples of the World," Second World Con-
gress of Partisans of Peace.)
But in The United States of America subjunctive I is still in
use:
I still suggest that you wait... ( D r e i s e r . ) Ruth had urged
that he take a clerk's position in an office. ( L o n d o n . )
S u b j u n c t i v e II is a living form which is used in colloquial
speech and literary style as well:
"If I were you," she said, "I should not worry." ( H a r r a d e n . )
As I heard the waves rushing along the sides of the ship and
roaring in my very ear, it seemed as if Death were raging round
this floating prison seeking for his prey. ( I r v i n g . )

SUBJUNCTIVE I

1. S u b j u n c t i v e I represents an action as p r o b l e m a t i c ,
but not as contradicting reality. It is used to express o r d e r , re-
q u e s t , S O g g e s t i o n , s u p p o s i t i o n , p u r p o s e , etc.
If the-weather be fine to-morrow, we shall go to the country (I
am not quite certain what the weather will be like to-morrow but
its being fine is not excluded). I suggest that he do the work (I make
a statement of my suggestion, the fulfilment of which I consider
desirable).
Subjunctive I has also o p t a t i v e meaning (желательное значе-
ние):
Long live the forces of peace! Success attend you! (Sheri-
dan.)
2. Subjunctive I h a s n o t e n s e s , the same form being used
for the present, past and future:
He orders that we be present. He ordered that we be pre-
sent. It is necessary that you be present at our meeting to-mor-
row.
' 2 0 3
3. The formal difference between subjunctive I and the indica-
tive mood has almost disappeared in Modern English. The remaining;
forms in which subjunctive I differs from the present indicative
are:
a) In the verb to be: I be, he (she, it) be, we be, you be,
they be.
. \\

b) In all other verbs where Mhe form of the t h i r d p e r s o n


s i n g u l a r has no s-inflexion and thus does not differ from the
first and second person: he have, he speak, he go.

Subjunctive I

to be to have to speak

I be I have I speak
he be he have he speak
we be we have we speak
you be you have you speak
they be they have they speak

4. In" Modern English subjunctive I is rapidly falling into


disuse.
In many cases where it was used in the earlier periods of the
language we find now the indicative, subjunctive I being preserved
only in elevated prose and poetry or in the language of official
documents:
Here will I stand till Caesar pass along. ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
Compare with present day English: I shall stand here till the car
passes.
If in this heart a hope be dear,
That sound shall charm it forth again;
If in these eyes there lurk a tear,
'Twill flow and cease to burn my brain.
(Byron.)
Subjunctive I is used here as a poetic survival since the indica-
tive mood is now the usual form in complex sentences with a con-
ditional clause of real condition:
"If you are not tired," he] said, "can you give me ten min-
utes?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
In other cases, where modality has to be expressed, the uncol-
loquial subjunctive I is usually replaced either \y the s u p p o s i -
' 2 0 4
и о n а 1 mood or by f r e e c o m b i n a t i o n s of m o d a l verbs
w i t h t h e i n f i n i t i v e (modal phrases):
He ordered that we be present (subjunctive I). He ordered
that we should be present (the suppositional mood). We shall
start to-morrow though it rain (subjunctive I). We shall start
to-morrow though it should rain (the suppositional mood). It
is necessary that we be present (subjunctive I). It is neces-
sary that we should be present (the suppositional mood). Whoever
you be, you have no right to do such a thing (subjunctive I).
Whoever you may be, you have no right to do such a thing
(modal phrase).

SUBJUNCTIVE II

1. S u b j u n c t i v e II represents an action as c o n t r a r y to r e -
4
ality:
I wish he were with us (my desire contradicts the actual state
of things — he is not with us). If he had been in town yesterday,
he would have come (the condition stated in the if-clause is an unre-
al condition — he was not in town yesterday).
2. Subjunctive II has two tenses: the p r e s e n t ^nd the p a s t
The forms of the present subjunctive II do not differ from the
forms of the past indicative. The only exception is the verb to be
in which some forms of the present subjunctive II differ from the
forms of the past indicative:
The p r e s e n t s u b j u n c t i v e II: I were, he (she, it) were.
The p a s t i n d i c a t i v e : / was, he (she, it) was.
The difference concerns only the singular; in the plunal the forms
of both moods coinside:
The p r e s e n t s u b j u n c t i v e II: we were, you were, they
were.
The p a s t i n d i c a t i v e : we were, you were, they were.
In all the other verbs the forms of the p r e s e n t s u b j u n c -
t i v e II a r e h o m o n y m o u s with the forms of the p a s t indi-
cative.
The p r e s e n t s u b j u n c t i v e II: / spoke, I wrote.
The p a s t i n d i c a t i v e : I spoke, I wrote.
"What would uncle Reed say to you, if he were alive?"
{ B r o n t ё . ) He wished it were vacation and Maisie back from
school. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I wish I knew how to reward you,"1
she said with simple sincerity. ( S e t o n - T h o m p s o n . )
' 2 0 5
There is an increasing tendency to substitute the form was for
were in the singular of the present subjunctive II on the analogy of
all other verbs, in which subjunctive II is homonymous with the
past indicative:

If I had time, I should go with you (the present subjunctive


II). I had no time yesterday (the past indicative). If I was (in-
stead of were) at home, I should see her (the present subjunc-
tive II). I was at home yesterday (the past indicative).
The p a s t s u b j u n c t i v e II is h o m o n y m o u s with the
p a s t p e r f e c t i n d i c a t i v e in all verbs:
"Caroline, you look as if you had heard good tidings," said
Moore... ( B r o n t ё . ) "I was asking myself what I should have
done if you had refused to come." ( B e n n e t t . )

Subjunctive II
(to be)

Present Past

I were (was) I had been


he were (was) he had been
we were we had been
you were you had been
they were they had been

The Common Aspect

(to speak)

Present Past

I spoke I had spoken


he spoke he had spoken
we spoke we had spoken
you spoke you had spoken
they spoke they had spoken

' 2 0 6
The Continuous Aspect
(to speak)

Present Past

I were speaking I had been speaking


he were speaking he had been speaking
we were speaking we had been speaking
you were speaking you had been speaking
they were speaking they had been speaking

THE AN ALYTIC AL MOODS


THE SUPPOSITIONAL MOOD

1. The s u p p o s i t i o n a l mood represents an action as p r o b -


l e m a t i c , but not necessarily contradicting reality. The realization
of the action may depend on certain circumstances, but these circum-
stances are not contrary to fact:
Should you meet him to-morrow, tell him to come (the possibil-
ity of your meeting him is not excluded. I am only not quite cer-
tain about it.) I insist that you should consult a doctor (I do not
represent your consulting a doctor as an actual fact which will take
place in the future, but only as something that in my opinion you
ought to do. I am not quite sure whether you will consult a doctor
or not; the realization of the action rests with you).
; 2. The suppositional mood is used to express n e c e s s i t y , o r -
< d e r , s u g g e s t i o n , s u p p o s i t i o n , etc. (See "The Use of the Ob-
lique Moods," p. 213).
3. The suppositional mood is an a n a l y t i c a l m o o d , it is
formed by combining the auxiliary verb should (for all persons) with
the i n f i n i t i v e.
The suppositional mood has two tenses: the p r e s e n t and the
past.
T h e p r e s e n t s u p p o s i t i o n a l is formed by the auxiliary
verb should - ( - i n d e f i n i t e (or c o n t i n u o u s ) i n f i n i t i v e :
He proposed to Annixter that they should accompany them.
( N o r r i s . ) "I suggested we should meet here..." (Snow.)
The p a s t s u p p o s i t i o n a l is formed by the auxiliary verb
should - [ - p e r f e c t (or p e r f e c t c o n t i n u o u s ) i n f i n i t i v e :
At last they grew terrified that some evil should have befal-
len fyim... ( L o c k e . ) Maggie was frightened lest she should have
been doing something wrorig... (Eliot.)
' 2 0 7
The Suppositional Mood

The Common Aspect


(to speak)

Present Past

I should speak I should have spoken


he should speak he should have spoken
we should speak we should have spoken
you should speak you should have spoken
. they should speak they should have spoken

The Continuous Aspect


(to speak)

Present Past

I should be speaking I should have been speaking


he should be speaking "he should have been speaking
we should be speaking we should have been speaking
you should be speaking you should have been speaking
they should be speaking they should have been speaking

THE CONDITIONAL MOOD

1. The u n r e a l i t y of an a c t i o n represented by the c o n -


d i t i o n a l m o o d is due to the a b s e n c e of the necessary circum-
stances on which the r e a l i z a t i o n of the action depends.
The conditional mood is mainly used in the p r i n с i p a 1 с 1-a u s e
"©f a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of u n r e a l
c o n d i t i o n , where the verb is in subjunctive II:
If he were here he would help us. (Would help shows that the
action is contrary to fact: he does not help us is the actual state of
things. The conditions which would make his help possible [his being
here] do not exist [he is not here]). I f I had not been so busy yes-
terday, I should have come. (I did not come owing to unfavoura-
ble circumstances — I was busy. The conditional mood should have
come shows that the action would have been realized if the neces-
sary conditions for its realization had existed.)
' 2 0 8
2. The difference between s u b j u n c t i v e Il and the c o n d i -
t i o n a l is as follows:
The unreality of an action expressed by the conditional mood is
a d e p e n d e n t u n r e a l i t y : the realization of the action depends
on the condition expressed in the subordinate clause (t'/-clause), and
as the subordinate clause represents an unreal condition (a state of
things which actually does not exist), the action of the principal
clause (in the conditional mood) is also thought of as contradicting
reality. Whereas the unreality of an action expressed by subjunctive
II is n o t a d e p e n d e n t u n r e a l i t y , the speaker freely, of his
own accord, imagines a state of things which ' actually does not
exist.

If I were at home (of my own accord I imagine my being at


home, showing by using subjunctive II that it contradicts the actual
state of things) I should see her (using here the conditional, Ishow
that the action is thought of as contrary to fact because the condi-
tion of the subordinate clause is represented as unreal).
If we change the conditional clause of unreal condition (subjunc-
tive II) into a clause of real condition (the indicative mood) the
conditional mood of the principal clause is replaced by the indica-
tive:
If I am at home at that time to-morrow (I do not know
whether I shall be at home or not, but I do not imply at all that
my being at home to-morrow is doubtful) I shall see her (my see-
ing her js represented as an actual fact, the natural consequence of
my being at home).
The conditional mood is also used in a s i m p l e s e n t e n c e
w i t h i m p l i e d c o n d i t i o n (see "The Use of the Oblique
Moods," p. 214) and in t h e p r i n c i p a l c l a u s e o f a complex sentence
with a subordinate clause of c o n c e s s i o n (see "The Use of the
Oblique Moods").
3. The conditional mood has two tenses: the p r e s e n t and the
past.
The p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n a l is formed by the auxiliary verbs
Jiould (1st person singular and plural), and would (2nd and 3rd per-
son singular and plural) -j- i n d e f i n i t e (or c o n t i n u o u s ) i n f i n i -
tive:
If they came for her,... she wouldn't go. ( C u s a с k . ) "...I should
be happier if there were sharper criteria to help to make
our choice." ( S n o w . ) "Would it bore you to dine with a total
stranger?" ( M a u g h a m . )
The p a s t conditional is formed by the auxiliary verbs should
.ind would -j- p e r f e c t (or c o n t i n u o u s p e r f e c t ) i n f i n i t i v e :
14—3300 209
Unless I had heard the story from his lips I should never
have believed that he was capable of such an action. (M a u g h a m.)
"If I had waited for one of uncle's horses I should have
been too late." ( H a r d y . ) "The thing was 'rich,' as his father
would have said..." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

The Conditional Mood

The Common Aspect


(to speak)

Present Past

I should speak I should have spoken


he would speak he would have spoken
we should speak we should have spoken
you would speak you would have spoken
they would speak they would have spoken

The Continuous Aspect

(to speak)

Present Past

I should be speaking I should have been speaking


he would be speaking he would have been speaking
we should be speaking we should have been speaking
you would be speaking you would have been speaking
they would be speaking they would have been speaking

ANALYTICAL MOODS AND MODAL PHRASES

Not any combination of should and would with the i n f i n i t i v e


is the conditional or suppositional mood. .
In the analytical mood forms (the conditional and the supposition-
al) the verbs should and would lose their lexical meaning and turn
into mere a u x i j i a r i es.
When the verts should and would preserve their lexical meaning
(would — volition, should—obligation) they forrr^ m o d a l p h r a s -
es ( c o m p o u n d v e r b a l p r e d i c a t e ) :
' 2 1 0
. If I were in your place, I should think as you do (the con-
ditional mood; should think is a simple verbal predicate; the verb
should has lost its lexical meaning and is a mere auxiliary of mood).
It is necessary that he should help us (the suppositional
mood, should help is a simple verbal predicate; the verb should has
lost its lexical meaning and is a mere auxiliary of mood). If it were
not so late she would stay a little longer (the conditional mood;
would stay is a simple verbal predicate; the verb would has lost its
lexical meaning and is a mere auxiliary of mood).
You should consult a doctor (a modal phrase; should consult
is a compound verbal predicate; the verb should preserves its own
lexical meaning and expresses here advice or admonition; the verb
should is itself in the present tense of subjunctive II).
I knocked but they would not open the door (a modal phrase;
would not open is a compound verbal predicate; the verb would has
its own lexical meaning of volition and is in the past tense of the
indicative mood).
If you would repeat the question, I should be much obliged to
you (a modal phrase; would repeat is a compound verbal predicate;
the verb would has its own lexical meaning of volition — if you
would repeat means that the action depends entirely on your consent;
it is a form of polite request: the verb would is here in the present
subjunctive II).
You should see the play (a modal phrase; should see is a com-
pound verbal predicate; should has its own lexical meaning, here of
advice, and is in the present subjunctive II).

The Tenses of The Oblique Moods


The tenses of the oblique mocds (subjunctive II, the conditional,
and the suppositional) are r e l a t i v e t e n s e s ; they do not refer the
action to a certain point of time (present, past or future) but mere-
ly indicate that the action of the verb in the oblique mood c o i n -
c i d e s in time with the action of the verb in the principal clause
which is in the indicative mood, or p r e c e d e s - i t .
The p r e s e n t t e n s e s of the oblique moods (present subjunc-
tive II, present conditional, present suppositional) serve to indicate
s i m u l t a n e o u s n e s s . The p a s t t e n s e s (past subjunctive II,
past conditional and past suppositional) are used to indicate p r i o r -
VtY- ..
1. S i m u l t a n e o u s n e s s :
a)Inthepresent:
You look as if you were ill. It is strange that he should
think so. I wish I were at home.
' 2 1 1
b) In t h e p a s t : v
You looked as if you were ill. It was strange thai he should
think so. I wished I were at home.
c) I n t h e future: /)
After so many sleepless nights you will look as if you were
ill.
2. P r i o r i t y :
a) Iri t h e p r e s e n t :
You look as if you had been ill for a long time. It is strange
that he1 should have thought so. I wish I had been at home.
b) I n t h e p a s t :
You looked as if you had been ill for a long time. It was
strange that he should have thought so (on some previous occa-
sion). I wished I had been at home (when the telegram came).
c)In the future:
If you tell her all about it she will look, or pretend to
look, as if she had never heard of such a thing before.
Owing to their retrospective character (priority to some other ac-
tion) the past tenses of the oblique moods are sometimes used to re-
fer an action actually to the past; correspondingly the present tenses
sometime? refer an action to the present (absolute tenses).
This takes place in c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s of u n r e a l c o n -
d i t i o n where both the principal and the subordinate clause are in
the oblique moods (subjunctive II and conditional).
P r e s e n t : If he were here, he would help us.
P a s t : If he had been here, he would have helped us.
The same refers to c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s with c o n c e s s i v e
clauses introduced by the conjunctions even i f , even though where
Mn both the principal and the subordinate clause the oblique moods
(subjunctive II and conditiofial) are used:
P r e s e n t : Even though he were present, he would not be
able to help us.
P a s t : Even though he had been present, he would not have
been able to help us.
But if a complex sentence with a conditional -or concessive clause
depends on a principal clause with a verb in the i n d i c a t i v e
m o o d , the tenses of the oblique moods (subjunctive II and con-
ditional) again indicate mere simultaneousness or priority to the ac-
;
tion of the verb in the principal, clause.
'XKZ
S i m u l t a n e o u s n e s s : 1 am sure (was sure) that if she knew
your address, she would write to you.
P r i o r i t y : I am sure (was. sure) that if she had known youi
address she would have written to you.
N o t e . — The difference between real and unreal condition may be lost in
reported speech.
Unreal condition: Real condition;
He said: "If I had time, I should go." He said: "If I have time, I shall go.'
He said that if he had time he He said that if he had time he would
would go. go.

S i m u l t a n e o u s n e s s : 1 know (knew) that even though he


were present he would not be able to help us.
P r i o r i t y : I know (knew) that even though he had been pres-
ent he would not have been able to help us.

The Use of the Oblique Moods


(Subjunctive I, Subjunctive I I , Conditional, Suppositional)

Simple Sentences

In simple sentences the following oblique moods are used:


1. To express w i s h :
a) S u b j u n c t i v e I is used in a few set expressions as a sur-
vival of the old use of this mood to express wish:
Long live our great Soviet country! Long live the forces ol
peacel Be ours a happy meeting! Success attend you! ( S h e r i -
dan.)
N o t e . — Subjunctive I may be replaced by may - ( - i n f i n i t i v e (a moda)
phrase):
May you be happy in the life you have chosen. ( D i c k e n s . ) May our greal
Soviet country live longl

b) S u b j u n с t i v e II is used in sentences beginning with Oh


r
that)... (literary style):
Oh, that the storm were over! Oh, were he only here! O that
I were a mockery king of snow! ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
2. In sentences expressing c o n c e s s i o n we find s u b j u n c t i v e
(in set expressions):
"So be it!" returned Steerforth. "This evening". ( D i c k e n s . )
"Be it so," assented Miss Lavinia, with a sigh... ( D i c k e n s . )
...henceforth my gates are open to real life, bring what it may.
(S h a w.)
'213
N o t e . — Subjunctive I may be replaced by /e^ -(- i n f i n i t i y e (a modal
phrase):
Let it be sol

3. To express c o m m a n d s or r e q u e s t s s u b j u n c t i v e I
is used but only when the subject is an indefinite pronoun (some-
body, everybody, etc.) or the partitive combination one of you, etc.:
Somebody go and fetch me a piece of chalk. One of you go
and tell her to come. Everybody leave the room!
Note.—SubjunctiveImaybereplaced by let 4- i n f i n i t i v e (a modal
phrase):
Let somebody go and fetch me a piece of chalk. Let one of you go and tell
her to come.
In the older periods of the English language subjunctive I was used to ex-
press commands and requests in the 1st and 3rd person (with any subject): Part
we in friendship from your land. ( S c o t t . )
Later subjunctive I was replaced by let -f i n f i n i t i v e, surviving only in
those cases where the subject was an indefinite pronoun (somebody, everybody,
etc.) or the partitive combination one of you, etc.
4. The c o n d i t i o n a l mood is used in sentences with i m p l i e d
condition:
I should like to speak to you (if I got a chance). I shouldn't
care tp accept it (if I were offered it). "Miss Dombey! Florence!
I would die to help you." ( D i c k e n s . ) The Captain would have
been content to sit so for a week. ( D i c k e n s . ) "Would it bore
you to dine with a total stranger?" ( M a u g h a m . ^ It would have
been in vain for Scrooge to plead that the weather and the hour
were not adapted to pedestrian purposes. ( D i c k e n s . )
The use of s u b j u n c t i v e II in sentences of implied condition
is now only a literary survival of an old construction:
It were a shame to let this land by lease. (Shake-
speare.)
5. Subjunctive II of modal verbs is often used to express that
^something is d e s i r a b l e , a d v i s a b l e , p o s s i b l e , etc.:
"Oh Mama, what... should I do to make us happier?" ( D i c k -
ens.) "You ought to have thought of this before." ( H a r d y . )
"Can you tell us if there's a farm near here where we could
stay the night?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
We find Subjunctive II also in the following p h r a s e o l o g i c a l
(set) e x p r e s s i o n s : had better, had best, had rather, would
sooner, would rather, would have.
These expressions have m o d a l f o r c e denoting that the action
of the infinitive which follows them is regarded as desirable or ad-
visable:
' 2 1 4
"So we had better go to supper," said Mary Jane, "and
finish the discussion afterwards." ( J o y c e . ) "...I had better
tell him... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...Mother said she would much rather
watch him fish and not try to fish herself. ( L e a c o c k . ) "Would
you have me wait...?" ( V o y n i c h . )
N o t e . — Subjunctive II would (now only a poetic survival) is used in the
principal clause of a complex sentence to express w i s h ; the subordinate object
clause has also subjunctive II (see "The Use of the Oblique Moods in Complex
Sentences," p. 217, 220):
I would I were a careless child
Still dwelling in my Highland cave.
(Byron.)
As modal (defective) verbs have no past subjunctive II (see "Mo-
dal [Defective] Verbs," p. 229), reference to the past is made by using
the p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e :
You really should have helped your friend. Everyone might
have seen he was not well.
"I ought to have been in bed a long time ago", she replied.
( L a w r e n c e . ) "His face was quite expectant when I began my
answer, 'but you should have seen it when I finished." ( L o n d o n . )

Complex Sentences

In complex sentences the following oblique moods are used:


1. In s u b j e c t c l a u s e s introduced by the anticipatory it (it
is necessary..., it is impossible..., it is strange..., etc.) we find the
s u p p o s i t i o n a l mood or s u b j u n c t i v e I (the latter mostly in
the language of official documents, high prose, sometimes also in lit-
erary prose especially in the United States of America):
It is requested that all should be (or be) ready by six o'clock.
"Is it necessary that I should answer that question?" ( H a r d y . )
It had been agreed that the family should be allowed to stay one
more day... ( N o r r i s . )
N o t e 1. — With the expressions it is possible, it is probable, it is likely,
may + i n f i n i t i v e (a modal phrase) is used after a f f i r m a t i v e const-
ructions:
It is possible that he may come to-morrow. It is likely that it may rain
to-night. It is probable that he may have missed the first train.
The suppositional mood is used after n e g a t i v e and interrogative
constructions:
It is impossible that he should hav« said so. Is it possible that she should
have given you so much trouble? Is it possible that he should know so little?
If is it possible expresses surprise at something having happened, the i n d i-
c a t i v e mood is used:
Is it possible that she has gone home! Is it possible that he has given up
studying EnglishI
' 2 1 5
N o t e 2 . — A f t e r the expressions it is high time, it is aboujt Umei subjunc-
tive II (rarely subjunctive I) or the suppositional is used:

It is high time we were off (or should be off).

"It's time we got out." (Cu s a c k . ) "It is high time that you should
be known." (С г о n i n.) "Clearly, it's time someone gave you a bit of ad-
vice." ( S n o w . ) "I suppose that it's time I made up my mind."^ (S n о \v.)

N o t e 3. — In subject clauses introduced by the anticipatory it the i n d i -


c a t i v e mood is used when reference is made to an actually existing state of
things:

It is very strange that he did not come at all. It is strange that these
events happened at the same time. It is hard to say why he does not want to
go with us. It is quite natural that he was offended by your remark.

"Oh! It is strange he never mentioned to me that he had a ward." ( W i l d e . )

2. In o b j e c t с 1 a u s e s :

a) After expressions of o r d e r , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n or s u g -
g e s t i o n we find the s u B i i o _ s i t i o n a 1 or s u b j u n c t i v e I
(usually in the language oT official documents, high prose, etc., but
sometimes also in literary prose, especially in the United States of
America).
Arnie called him at the fab, suggesting that they get together
and talk things over. (M. W i l s o n . ) Ivory insisted that he be
present, in the most genuine and friendly fashion imaginable.
(Cr o n in.) The Gadfly had insisted that the work should be fin-
ished by the middle of June... ( V o y n i c h . ) She... proposed to
my aunt that we should go upstairs and see my room. ( D i c k -
ens.) He had arranged that Steve come out to the flat about
midnight. ( G o r d o n . ) She ordered that a bright fire should be
kept in the drawing-room... (Ma z о d e la R о с h е.)... I demand-
ed that, as soon as he told her, he should tell me to. ( S n o w . )
Mr. Domby... proposed... that they should start. ( D i c k e n s . )
... Mrs. Knight was insisting that her husband and Sheila should
go ... ( S n o w . ) We arranged that I should walk over for tea on
the Saturday afternoon. (S n о w.)
Our resolution demanded that armaments be reduced and that
atomic weapons be prohibited. I suggest that he should be chosen
as our delegate.

The same mood forms (the s u p p o s i t i o n a l and s u b j u n c -


t i v e I) are used i n a p p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t i v e c l a u s e s which
modify a part of the sentence expressed by such nouns as order, res-
olution, request, suggestion, etc.:
' 2 1 6
A resolution was passed that all should take (or take) part
in the work. Orders were given that we should start (or start)
at nine.
b) After expressions of w i s h we find s u b j u n c t i v e II:
"I wish you had not put yourself to so much trouble," Stephen
said. (С г о n i n.) "He is young in mental vigour and cour-
age. I wish we were a l i a s young as he." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...he
wished that Renny were there. ( M a z o d e la R o c h e . ) "I wish
it were all over, said Finch..." ( M a z o d e la R o c h e . )
N o t e 1.—After expression of wish we may use the modal phrase may -f
i n f i n i t i v e (for the present), ! might - ( - i n f i n i t i v e (for the past) when
the fulfilment of the wish depends on circumstances:
I wish you may get a ticket for to-morrow. He wished he might get an
answer by the end of the week.

Might (subjunctive II) —


—| indefinite infinitive is used for the
present or future to show that the realization of the action is very unlikely:

I only wish I might be with you to give you my good wishes in per-
son. ( M a z o d e l a R o c h e . )
Might (subjunctive II) - ( - p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e shows that the action
was not realized in the past:
I wish you might have come to see us last week. (You did not come owing
to unfavourable circumstances.)
N o t e 2. — Would (subjunctive II)-)-i n f i n i t i v e (a modal phrase) is
used when the fulfilment of the wish depends on the will of the person repre-
sented by the subject (of the subordinate clause):
"I wish you'd come and see us oftener." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I wish you
would not talk like this, papa." ( C o n r a d . ) "I wish," continued the good lady,
"you would ask her a question about her parents..." ( B r o n t i . ) "I wish you
would write to me — say once a fortnight . . . " ( D i c k e n s . )
Sometimes also with nouns expressing lifeless things:
"I wish the rain would stop for a moment." ( M a u g h a m . )
c) After expressions of f e a r the s u p p o s i t i o n a l mood, rarely
subjunctive I, is used when the object clause is introduced by the
conjunction lest (sometimes that):
At last they grew terrified lest some evil should have befall-
en him... ( L o c k e . ) Doctor Brown was afraid lest Margaret
should think the house bare and cheerless. ( G a s k f t l l.) I'm very
much afraid that I shouldn't be acceptable. ( S n o w . )
Subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunction lest with the
verb in the s u p p o s i t i o n a l mood are used in literary style.
N o t e 1. — The modal phrase may - J - i n f i n i t i v e (for the present and
future), might - { - i n f i n i t i v e (for the past) is used when the object clause is
introduced by the conjunction that-.

'217
Pick up your spectacles. I am afraid that someone may tread on them.
...he ran, and hid behind the hedges, by turns, till noon; fearing that he might
be pursued and overtaken. ( D i c k e n s . )

N o t e 2. — The indicative mood is often used after expressions of fear when


the subordinate clause is introduced by that and the cause of the fear is repre-
sented as an actual fact:
He fears that he will be blamed. I am afraid that you have misunderstood
me. We feared that we had lost our way in the darkness.

d) In i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s which begin with if or whether


and depend on expressions of negative or doubtful meaning, s u b -
j u n c t i v e II is used (rarely s u b j u n c t i v e I):
As I rose and dressed, I thought over what had happened, and
wondered if it were a dream. ( B r o n t ё . ) He began to doubt
whether both, he and the world around him were not bewitched.
( I r v i n g . ) I asked him if this were all he wished me to tell
Ada. ( D i c k e n s . )
3. In adverbial clauses of p u r p o s e introduced by the conjunction
lest we find the s u p p o s i t i o n a l mood, rarely s u b j u n c t i v e I:
We shall start early, lest we should be (or be) late. I say
all this, lest there should be (or be) a misunderstanding. I shall
remind you, lest you should forget (or forget).
She dared not approach a window, lest he should see her from
the street. ( D i c k e n s . )
N o t e . — When the subordinate clause of purpose is introduced by the con-
junction that, may - f - i n f i n i t i v e is used for the present and future, might -j-
i n f i n i t i v e for the past (a modal phrase):
Let the dog loose that he may have a run. Come nearer that I may see it
better.
I went to Canterburry first, that I might take leave of Agnes and Mr.
Wickfield... ( D i c k e n s . ) She... went to the door to listen for his coming up,
that she might meet him on the stairs. ( D i c k e n s . )
4. In a d v e r b i a l clauses of c o m p a r i s o n or manner
introduced by as i f , as though we find s u b j u n c t i v e II. The
present subjunctive II expresses simultaneousness with the action of
the verb in the principal clause, the past subjunctive II expresses
priority:
"Janet came running up the stairs as if the house were in
flames... ( D i c k e n s . ) The child looked quickly from one nurse
to the other, as if she understood and felt what was said. (Dick-
e n s . ) All this he said as if he were answering Edith, and not Flo-
rence ... ( D i c k e n s . ) "I had not seen him for a year and more,
but he l o o k e d a t m e a s if I'd been in yesterday." ( H a r d y . ) When
she woke early on Sunday morning the world sparkled as though
it had been newly born. ( C u s a c k . )
' 2 1 8
N o t e 1. — Clauses introduced by as if or as though may also be used as
p r e d i c a t i v e clauses:

"You look as if you didn't care." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He knew what suf-


fering was like and this, man looked as if he were suffering. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The room looked as if it had not been lived in for years. (W i l ^ e . )

N o t e 2. — There is a strong tendency to use was with reference to the


past:

There was now a pause, as if something was expected. ( I r v i n g . )

5. In adverbial clauses of c o n c e s s i o n introduced by though,


1
although, however, whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever,
even i f , even though the following moods are used:
a) Subjunctive II is used after the conjunctions even i f , even
though', with reference to the future also the suppositional; in the
principal clause the conditional is used:

Even though he were here, he would not help us. Even if


it had been raining, I should have gone to the country yester-
day.
"Even if I had not seen this magnificent canvas... I should
have known you anywhere as an artist." ( C r o n i n . ) Even if
Bart should be held up at the last moment, as he was last Sun-
day, she wouldn't let it upset her. ( C u s a c k . )
b) S u b j u n c t i v e I or the s u p p o s i t i o n a l mood is used
after though, although, whatever, whoever, etc. The suppositional
mood is used with reference to the future; it represents the action as
imaginary and is mostly used when the adverbial clause of conces-
sion is introduced by though or although:
Though he make (or should make) every effort, he cannot
.succeed. However hard it rain (or should rain), we shall have
to go. He will start on his journey to-morrow, though it rain
(or should rain) incessantly. Whatever he say (or should say),
I will not change my opinion. Whatever the cause be, the author
has hardly done justice to the subject. Whatever the reason be,
the fact remains. Whoever you be, you have no right to do such
a thing.

N o t e 1. — Instead of the suppositional mood, may (might) -{-infinitive


(a modal phrase) is used when the concession is uncertain and refers to the
present or future:

I have been told that he says he does not agree to our plan — whatever he
may say (что бы он ни говорил), we must not change our plan.

' 2 1 9
Compare with the suppositional which refers the action to the future:

I am afraid he will say he does not agree to our plan. Whatever he should
say (что бы он ни сказал), we must not change our plan.

In the following sentences the suppositional cannot be used because reference


is made to the present:

Whatever the cause may be, the author has hardly done justice to the
subject. Whatever the reason may be, the fact remains. Whoever you may be,
you have no right to do such a thing.

...whatever you may think of my father as a man of business, he is


the soul of goodness. (S h a w.) Whatever Doreen might say, it was a sign
that the winter was nearly over and that spring was coming... ( C u s a c k . )

N o t e 2. — The indicative mood is also used in subordinate clauses of con-


cession when the concession is not regarded as contrary to fact or problematic:

There was no sun nor hint of sun, though there was not a cloud in the
sky. ( L o n d o n . ) ...I did not feel the cold, though it froze keenly... ( В г о г й ё . )
"But even if he has been wicked," pursued Rose, "think how young he is..."
(Dickens.)

^ Complex Sentences with Subordinate Clauses of Condition

1. Complex sentences with subordinate clauses of condition may


be divided into two groups:
a) Those which express real condition referring to some
actual state of things.
b) Those which express u n r e a l c o n d i t i o n and represent an
event or state of things as a mere conception of the mind (as a mere
speculation on the part of the speaker).
2. In a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of real con-
dition the i n d i c a t i v e m o o d is used:
"If you are going my way," he said, "I can give you a lift."
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Well, Jon," said Val hastily, "if you've fin-
ished, we'll go and have coffee." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "If I don't
hurry I shall miss my train." ( L o c k e . ) If she betrayed any
agitation, when she presented herself to Mr. Sikes, he did not
observe it ... ( D i c k e n s . )
N o t e . — Conditional clauses are joined not only by means of the conjunc-
tion i f , but also by other conjunctions, conjunctive words and phrases: unless,
provided (that), supposing (that), in case, on condition (that), etc. The conjunc-
tion if is the most common connective:
You will not succeed unless you (if you do not) work hard. Supposing he
does not come, what shall we do? I shall go on condition (that) you go too.
['11 take my raincoat in case it rains. I shall wait for you provided (that) you
return not later than in an hour. Supposing (that) all this is true, what fol-
lows?

' 2 2 0
3. Sometimes subjunctive I is used in conditional clauses of real
condition, especially to express a general truth. The difference be-
tween the indicative and subjunctive I is a stylistic difference.
Subjunctive I is characteristic of elevated style; it is also used in
scientific prose:
If the plant be rare, its discovery gives me joy. ( G i s s i n g . )
"Have you any objection to seeing him in my presence?" —
"If it be necessary," replied the old lady, "certainly not."
(Dickens.)
If in this heart a hope be dear,
That sound shall charm it forth again;
If in these eyes there lurk a tear,
'Twill flow and cease to burn my brain.
(Byron.)
4. In a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of u n r e a l
c o n d i t i o n s u b j u n c t i v e II is used in the subordinate clause
(//-clause), t h e c o n d i t i o n a l m o o d is used in the principal
clause.
5. When reference is made to the p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e , the
present subjunctive II is used in the subordinate clause (//-clause),
the p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n a l is used in the p r i n c i p a l clause:
Present:
I should be sorry if you thought ill of me." ( M a u g h a m . )
"Perhaps if you explained yourself a little more fully, I should
comprehend better." ( B r o n t e . ) "If I thought it, Ishould never
be happy again." ( D i c k e n s . ) "If they knew how happy I am,
they would be pleased, I am sure." ( D i c k e n s . )
You would answer much better if you were more attentive.
Future: -e *
"...you wouldn't mind if Iintroduced myself?" ( M a u g h a m . )
"If you left earlier you would arrive in time for dinner." (La
M u r e . ) "I like the place. I shouldn't be surprised if I settled
down here." ( S h a w . )
6. When reference is made to the p a s t , the p a s t s u b j u n c -
t i v e II is used in the s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e (//-clause), the
p a s t c o n d i t i o n a 1 is used in the p r i n с i p a 1 clause:
" Why, I shouldn't have found you even now, if I hadn't
met him in the street this morning." ( D i c k e n s . ) ...if Mr. Read
had been alive he would have treated me kindly... ( B r o n t § . )
If he had not been coming at all, he'd have rung her. (Cu-
s a c k , ) "I'd have been hurt if you hadn't called." (M. W i l -
son.) "Unless I had heard the story from his own lips I should
' 2 2 1
never have believed that he was capable of such an action."
( M a u g h a m . ) It would have been terrible if any cloud had come
across a friendship like ours, would it not? ( W i l d e . ) ...had her
agitation been far more perceptible than it was, it would have
been very unlikely to have awakened his suspicions. (D i с к e n s.)
7. For the f u t u r e two more forms are used in the subordinate
clause (^/-clause):
a) The s u p p o s i t i o n a l (should + i n f i n i t i v e ) .
The suppositional mood is used when the fulfilment of the con-
dition is u n 1 i к e 1 у though p o s s i b l e , and it may be associated
with the i n d i c a t i v e or the i m p e r a t i v e mood in the principal
clause (compare with the use of subjunctive II which indicates a
rejected condition):
If I should meet her to-morrow (I may meet her), I should (or
shall) speak to her. Should it be wet, I should (or shall) stay
at home. Should he come, tell him to wait. If it should rain,
I should not come. Should it prove impossible to get in touch
with them, what is to be done?
"But if it should happen not to come quite right the first time,"
his sister faltered, "if it should happen not to be a pudding
exactly; but should turn out a stew, or a soup, or something of
that sort, you'll not be vexed, Tom, will you?" ( D i c k e n s . )
"I'll tell it you, John, in case I should forget it altogether."
( D i c k e n s . ) "Should you care for a full explanation of the
action... you may call any day..." ( G o r d o n . )
These if-clauses may be rendered in Russian as follows:
Если случайно я ее встречу завтра... Если так случится,
что я ее встречу завтра..*
b) S u b j u n c t i v e II of the verb to be followed by the i n f i n i -
t i v e (were + i n f i n i t i v e ) . This construction does not imply a
reiection of the action, but its r e m o t e n e s s and i m p r o b a b i l i t y :
What should we do if it were to rain (If it by chance came
to rain). If I were to see her to-morrow, I should speak to her.
"What would happen if I were to go in?" asked Soames.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He felt that if he were to live a hundred
years, he never could forget it. ( D i c k e n s . )
Compare the following:
If I saw more of him, I could speak to him about it (I do
not see much of him).
If I were to see more of him, I could speak to him about it
(I may see more of him in the future, although it is doubtful).
If I should see more of him, I could (or can) speak to him
about it (I may see more of him in the future).^ 4
' 2 2 2
If it were warm enough, we should go to the country to-
morrow (but it is cold).
If it were to rain, we should not go out (it may rain, though
it is doubtful).
If it should rain, we should (shall) not go out (less doubt-
ful).
8. The time to which the condition (//-clause) and the consequence
(principal clause) refer need not be the same in both parts of the
sentence. The condition can refer to a past time and the consequence
to a present time, and v i c e v e r s a :
You would be much happier now if you had taken my advice.
If you had repeated the rules, you would know them better
now.
"But Larry," she smiled. "People have been asking those ques-
tions for thousands of years. If they could be answered, surely
they'd have been answered by now." ( M a u g h a m . )
9. When the p r i n c i p a l clause contains a compound verbal (or
nominal) predicate with the verbs could and might, the structure of
the complex sentence is as follows:

Present or Future:

If I had time, I could go there. If he were ready, he might


go with us.
"If I had a photo-engraving plant of my own, I could do
a great deal of outside jobbing..." ( N o r r i s . ) "It might help if I
took the note round to Nightingale," said Roy Calvert. ( S n o w . )

Past:
f
If I had had time, I could have gone there. If he had been
ready, he might have gone with us.
If I had been his brother he could not have seemed more
pleased to see me." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He had slipped and fallen
on his elbow on the kerb, and his elbow might have been brok-
en, had not the snow been so thick. ( B e n n e t t . ) "If it hadn't
been for the girl, I might have died." ( D i c k e n s . )

In the p r e s e n t or future could and might are followed by the


i n d e f i n i t e i n f i n i t i v e (could go, might go); in the p a s t they
are followed by the p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e (could have gone, might
have gone).
The verbs could and might do not form the conditional of the
verb in the infinitive which follows them, but preserve~Their own
modal meaning and are themselves in subjunctive II.
' 2 2 3
Compare the following sentences:-

If I had time, I should go there (если бы у меня было вре-


мя, я пошел бы туда). Here we have the conditional of the verb
to go.
v
If I had time, I could go there (если бы у меня было время,
я мог бы пойти туда). Here we have subjunctive II of the modal
verb itself.

If he were ready, he would go with us (the conditional of the


verb to go — пошел бы).
If he were ready, he might go with us (subjunctive II of the
modal verb itself — мог бы пойти).

10. When the s u b o r d i n a t e clause (i/-clause) contains a com-


pound verbal (or nominal) predicate with the verbs could and might,
the structure of the sentence is as follows:

P r e s e n t or Future:

If I could (subjunctive II) translate this article without a


dictionary, I should get my work done more quickly. If I might
(subjunctive II) come at six o'clock, it would suit me better.
"A real change of air and surroundings would be very happy
if you could arrange it." (M. W i l s o n . ) "If I could only have
one flower, I should have lilies of the valley..." (Ga 1 s w o r t h y.)
"If I could only give you pleasure by watering your flowers, or
watching your birds, or running up and down the whole day long
to make you happy; what would I give to do it!" ( D i c k e n s . )
Past:

"I would not alarm you if I could avoid it," rejoined Rose...
(Dickens.)
If I could (subjunctive II) have translated that article without
a dictionary, I should have got my work done more quickly. If
I might (subjunctive II) have come at six o'clock, it would have
suited my work much better.
She imagined so often what her life would have been, if her
father could have loved her... ( D i c k e n s . ) "If Gharleycouldonly
have made the letters in her copy as round as the eyes with
which she looked into my face, they would have been excellent."
{Dickens.).
'224
11. Both the principal and the subordinate clause may contain a
compound verbal (or nominal) predicate with the verbs could and
might:
"If you only could have taught me, I could have learnt from
you." ( D i c k e n s . )
12. When could or might are used in the principal or subordinate
clause in a compound verbal (or nominal) predicate, they may be
replaced by synonymous expressions: to be able (instead of could),
to be possible (instead of might).
a) In the p r i n c i p a l clause:
Present or Future:
If I had time, I should be (the conditional mood) able to'go
there. If he were ready, it would be (the conditional mood) pos-
sible for him to go with us.
Past:
If I had had time, I should have been able to go there (the
conditional mood). If he had been ready, it would have been pos-
sible for him to go with us (the conditional mood).
b) In the s u b o r d i n a t e clause (//-clause):
P r e s e n t or F u t u r e :
If I were (subjunctive II) able to translate this article without
a dictionary, I should get my work done more quickly. If it wefe
(subjunctive II) possible for me to come at six o'clock, it would
suit me much better.
Past:
If I had been (subjunctive II) able to translate that article
without a dictionary, I should have got my work done more
q.uickly. If it had been (subjunctive II) possible for me to come
at six o'clock,- it would have suited me much better.
13. When would is used in the //-clause, it retains its full origi-
nal meaning (willingness, intention, determination) and is subjunctive
II of the modal verb itself in a compound verbal (or nominal) pred-
icate:
If you would lend me the book, I should read it with pleasure
( = if you consented to lend...). Shall I shut the window? — Yes,
if you would ( = if you were willing). If your friend would bring
the book to-morrow, I should be much obliged. If you would be
so kind as to shut the door, I should be very thankful to
you.

15—3300 225
REVIEW OF THE USE OF THE OBLIQUE MOODS

Synthetical Moods

Subjunctive I

-• — T"1-

SimpleSentences

To express:

a) w i s h: Long live the forces of peace!


b) c o n c e s s i o n : So be it!
c) c o m m a n d : Everybody leave the room!

Complex Sentences

1. S u b j e c t clauses It is necessary that all be ready at


introduced by the anticipatory 7 o'clock.
«it":

2. O b j e c t c l a u s e s after ex- We demand that atomic weapons be


pressions of: prohibited.
a) o r d e r o r s u g g e s t i o n : We suggest that he be chosen as our
delegate.

b) f e a r: She feared lest she be mistaken.

c)in indirect questions: We cannot tell if this be true.

3. A d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s We shall start early lest we be late.


a) of p u r p o s e :

b) of concession: Whatever the reason be, the fact fe-


mains.

c) of condition: If in this heart a hope be dear, That


sound shall charm it forth again.
• (Byron.)
Subjunctive II

SimpleSentences

To express:

a) w i s h : Oh, that the storm were overl

b) d e s i r a b i l i t y , advisabil- She could read that book.


i t y , p o s s i b i l i t y , etc. (with You should go there.
modal verbs): You might do it now.
She ought to be more careful.
You had better go.

Complex Sentences

1. S u b j e c t c l a u s e s It is high time we went home.


after "it is (high) time":

2. P r e d i с a t i v e clauses: It looks as if it were going to rain.

I;
3. O b j e c t c l a u s e s I wish he were here.
a) after expression of wish: I wish you might stay with us.
I wish he would study better.

b)in indirect questions: She has never asked me if it were so


or not.

4. A d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s He loved the boy as if he were his


a) of c o m p a r i s o n : son.

• '
Even if it were raining, I should go.
b) of concession:

c)of condition (unreal): If I were at home, I should see her.

'15*
The Analytical Moods

The Suppositional Mood

Complex Sentences

1. S u b j e c t c l a u s e s introduced It is Necessary that we should be pres-


by the anticipatory "it": ent.

2. O b j e c t c l a u s e s . He ordered that all should be ready


After expression of: at four o'clock.
a) o r d e r or s u g g e s t i o n : I suggest that we should do it to-
day.

b) f e a r: We feared lest we should lose our


way.

3. A d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s We shall start at seven lest we


a) of p u r p o s e : should miss the train.

b) of concession: Though it should rain, we shall have


to go.

c) of condition: If you should meet him, tell him to


come.

The Conditional Mood

Simple S e n t e n c e s with i m- I should like to speak to you.


plied condition: It would be dangerous to cross the
river in this place.

Complex Sentences with


a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s of:
a) c o n c e s s i o n (the condition- Even if it were raining, I should go.
al mood is used in the p r i n -
c i p a l clause):

i b) c o n d i t i o n ( u n r e a l ) (the If it were not so late, \ should stay.


conditional mood is used in the
p r i n c i p a l clause):
MODAL (DEFECTIVE) VERBS

1. The verbs can, must, may, shall, will, ought and partly need
and dare belong to the class o f m o d a l v e r b s .
2. Modal verbs are characterized by specific meaning, particular
functions in the sentence and a number of morphological peculiarities.
Accordingly they form a special class of verbs.
3. The specific meaning of these verbs is as follows: they denote
n e i t h e r a c t i o n s n o r s t a t e s but combined with the infinitive
of a notional verb (in a compound verbal predicate) show that the
a c t i o n (or s t a t e ) expressed by the infinitive is considered as
p o s s i b l e , d e s i r a b l e , n e c e s s a r y , etc.
The infinitive which follows a modal verbis used w i t h o u t the
p a r t i c l e to (except the verb ought) which stresses the close con-
nection of the modal verb with the infinitive.
Thus expressing only the attitude of the speaker (or writer) to
the action denoted by the infinitive modal verbs have a s e m i -
a u x i l i a r y f u n c t i o n in the compound verbal predicate:
"...I must have a little rest." ( H a r d y . ) (necessity.) But she
must have seen him. ( C u s a c k ) (supposition.) "Do you know
what she has said?" — "I can guess." ( C o l l i n s . ) (ability.) "...I
must go and see him in a day or two." ( C o n r a d . ) (obligation.)
"She must be eight or nine years old." ( B r o n t ё . ) (supposition.)
"You ought to have another opinion." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (admo-
nition.)
4. Owing to their morphological peculiarities modal verbs are
characterized as d e f e c t i v e v e r b s (недостаточные глаголы)
because they lack some forms. They have no v e r b a l s (infinitive,
participle or gerund), accordingly they have no a n a l y t i c a l f o r m s
(no future tense, no perfect tenses, no past subjunctive II*). They
form n e g a t i v e and i n t e r r o g a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s with-
out the auxiliary verb to do:
"You can't see him there..." ( H a r d y . ) "Can you drive?"
(В r a i n e.)
Owing to their meaning and function in the sentence modal verbs
cannot have v o i c e or a s p e c t . Neither are they used in the im-
p e r a t i v e mood.
Modal verbs have no inflexion -s [z, s} in the t h i r d p e r s o n
singular.
The absence of the inflexion is due to the fact that the p r e s e n t tense of
these verbs was originally a p a s t and the past tense had no inflexion in the

* To express priority, the present subjunctive II of the modal verb~ is fol-


lowed by the perfect infinitive:
It is impossible that he could say such things (simultaneousness). It is
impossible that he could have said such a thing (priority).

' 2 2 9
third person singular. That is why these verbfc are called p r el_ej£xl-i-*-e p r e s -
ents.

The absence of the -s inflexion in the verbs will and ought has another
explanation: these forms originated from the old subjunctive where the verb had
no inflexion in the third person singular.

5. One of the peculiarities of modal verbs is that they have


w e a k and s t r o n g forms in their conjugation: can Ikaen] — 1кэп,
knj, could [kudl — [kad, kd], must [mAst] — [mast, mst], shall [Jael] —
[Jal, JlJ, should [|ud] — [Jad], will [wil], would [wud] —(wad, ad, d].
(Cp. with auxiliary verbs, see "Notional, Semi-auxiliary and Auxil-
iary verbs," p. 120).
6. Modal verbs have also another peculiarity — they may b e
f u s e d into one word with the n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e not:
I shan't (shouldn't), he won't (wouldn't), he can't (couldn't),
he mustn't, he mayn't (mightn't), he needn't, he daren't.
7. Modal verbs may be used in answer to a q u e s t i o n .
(Cp. with auxiliary verbs, see "Notional, Semi-Auxiliary and Aux-
iliary Verbs," p. 121):
Must you do it? — Yes, I must. Can you read it? — Yes, I
can. •
8. Modal verbs are also iised to form d i s j u n c t i v e ques-
tions.
(Cp. with auxiliary verbs, see "Notional, Semi-Auxiliary and
Auxiliary Verbs," p. 121):
She can speak English, can't she? We must go there at once,
mustn't we?
9. Two modal verbs — shall (should), will (would) are used as
a u x i l i a r y v e r b s of tense (future) and mood (conditional and
suppositional) (see "The Analytical Moods," p. 207).

The Verb can

1. The verb can has t w o t e n s e s in the indicative mood:


ч Present: can.
Past: could.
The n e g a t i v e forms are:
Present: cannot (can't [ka:nt]).
P a s t : could not (couldn't [kudnt]).
All the other tenses are supplied by the construction to be able
which has all tenses: \
'230

L
"Can you drive?" ( B r a i n e . ) "You can't see him there — you
must come here," she said. ( H a r d y . ) I... looked round for a box
of matches, I could not find one. ( M a u r i er.) I could tell by
the tightening of Maxim's muscles under my arm that he was
trying to keep his temper. (M a u r i e r.) "Perhaps in a little
while she'll go to Skegness with me, then she'll be able to rest."
( L a w r e n c e . ) "That we have not been able to find out yet."
( V o y n i c h . ) Florence was defenceless and weak, and it was a
proud thought that he had been able to render her any protec-
tion and assistance. ( D i c k e n s . )
The present tense can is also used with reference to the future:
"I'll take a taxi and come along as quickly as I can..."
(Mansfield.)
2. Could is also S u b j u n c t i v e II p r e s e n t t e n s e . With
reference to the past could + p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e is used:
"Couldn't I take them all at once?" ( D i c k e n s . ) Scrooge
could not have told anybody why, if anybody could have asked
him. ( D i c k e n s . )
3. Could used with reference to the present or future is in sub-
junctive II (мог бы); could used with reference to the past has the
meaning of an i n d i c a t i v e (мог). Therefore when the context does
not clearly show that reference is made to the past, could is replaced
by the past tense of to be able to impart the meaning of the indica-
tive. .,Л
a) S u b j u n c t i v e II:
"How long would I have to study before I could go to the
university?" he asked. ( L o n d o n . ) "There are many lines that
could be spared from the book you are reading..." ( L o n d o n . )
b.) The I n d i c a t i v e :
He cut his sleep down to five hours and found that he could
get along upon it. ( L o n d o n . ) He could hardly follow her out-
lining of the work he must do... ( L o n d o n . )
But: I am sure he was not able to do it in so short a time.
(I am sure he could not do it in so short a time — here could
may be taken for s u b j u n c t i v e II as it is not clear from the
context that reference is made to the past. = Я уверена, что он
не смог бы этого сделать в такой короткий срок).
4. The verb can expresses:
a) P h у s i с a 1 a b i l i t y :
The little boy could not open the heavy door, so a passer-by
had to do it for him.
"Do you think you can carry him so far? Isn't he very heavy?"
' 2 3 1
(Voynich.) He started to run as fast as he could. (Law-
rence.)
b) M e n t a l a b i l i t y :
"I can study by myself." ( L o n d o n . ) "Can you read?" asked
Mr. Domby. | ( D i c k e n s . ) She could never have guessed what she
had done to make Maggie angry with her. (В г о n t ё.)
c) P o s s i b i l i t y depending on circumstances:
From where he sat he could see a cluster of apple-trees in
blossom. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "And I can bathe when it's warmer."
( M a u r i e r . ) The window was so wet I couldn't see... ( J o y c e . )
I went to the window and looked out but could not see across
the road. It was blowing and snowing wildly. ( H e m i n g w a y . )
"I could get only one cab," he said. ( J o y c e . )
d) Sometimes can acquires the meaning of d o u b t or u n c e r -
t a i n t y (but only in the negative and the interrogative forms):
It cannot be true (surely it is not true).
"Can this be Mr. Darcy?" thought she. ( A u s t e n . ) It can't
be that. ( S h a w . ) "Mrs. Bedwin," said Mr. Brownlow, when the
housekeeper appeared, "that boy, Oliver, is an imposter." — "It
can't -be, sir. It cannot be," said the old lady, energetically.
(Dickens.)
Reference to the past is indicated by a change of the following
infinitive into the perfect form (to be able is never used in this
connection):
He cannot have said it (surely he did not say it). Could he
have meant it?
He could not have left her at such a moment — he could
not! ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "She couldn't have got out of the tram
by herself." ( B e n n e t t . )
The indicative can r e j e c t s the a c t i o n categorically;
subjunctive II could expresses u n c e r t a i n t y .
5. The verb can is used:
a) In a n s w e r to a question:
Can you translate this article? — Yes, I can. Could they cross
the whole distance in two hours?-—No, they couldn't.
b)Indisjunctivequestions:
He couldn't have done such a thing, could he? We can walk
to the station, can't we?
"I can depend on you, can't I?" ( S h a w . )
' 2 3 2
The Verb may

1. The verb may has t w o t e n s e s in the indicative moodr


P r e s e n t : may.
P a s t : might.
The n e g a t i v e forms are:
P r e s e n t : may not (mayn't).
P a s t : might not (mightn't).
All the missing tenses are supplied by to be allowed, to be per-
mitted, etc.:
You may use all my books. He told me that I might use
all his books. She has been allowed to go home. They will be
allowed to use dictionaries.
The present tense may is also used with reference to the fu-
ture:
It may rain to-night. He may come to-morrow:
2. Might is also S u b j u n c t i v e II p r e s e n t t e n s e . With,
reference to the past might - ( - - p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e is used:
"How much might she charge you for that bonnet, sister?"'
( E l i o t . ) "You might as well stay here in the shade." ( H e m i n g -
w a y.) He imagined the ride he might have had with her. ( G a l s -
worthy.)
As might is rarely used as a past indicative but is usually sub-
junctive II, the synonymous expressions — to be allowed, to be per-
mitted, etc. — are mostly used when the construction requires a past
indicative. Might is used as a past indicative in indirect speech:
"I didn't know I might smoke," he said. ( B e n n e t t . ) (past
indicative.) "You might turn the gas down, rather low." (Ben-
n e t t . ) (subjunctive II.) "We met your niece on the road," said
Ashurst; "she thought you might put us up for the night." ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) No one was permitted to enter the forest with fire-
arms. ( I r v i n g . )
3. The verb may expresses:
a) T h e p o s s i b i l i t y of performing an action becausejnothing
hinders it.
(Compare with the use of the verb can to denote possibility. See
"The Verb Can," p. 232).
You may see him every morning walking with his child (there
is nothing to hinder you from seeing him walk with his child).
It [the flower] is common enough here in spring; you may
see the leaves in every pasture. ( K i n g s l e y . ) Onenight he went
' 2 3 3
t o the theatre, on the blind chance he might see her there...
(London.)
b) P e r m i s s i o n (or, in the n e g a t i v e form, p г о h i b i-
1 ion), r e q u e s t :
May I trouble you for the sugar? (or a more polite request:
Might I trouble you for the sugar?) You may not smoke here
(or a stronger expression of prohibition: You mustnot smoke
here).
"You may look at it," replied the girl, offering me the book.
( B r o n t ё . ) "May I come again...?" ( E l i o t . ) "May I have a cig-
arette?" he asked. ( C o n r a d . ) "May I come along with you a
bit?" ( G a l s w o . r t h y . ) "May I come in, Margaret?" ( D i c k e n s . )
"May the children come too, sister?" inquired Mrs. Tulliver.
( E l i o t . ) "You may go with me if you like..." ( E l i o t . )
N o t e . — In colloquial speech can is often used instead of may:
"I suppose I can call you Jon? ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Can I see Mr. Jor-
dan?" she asked. ( L a w r e n c e . )
c) A d m o n i t i o n , advice (subjunctive II might is used here):
You really might help me. You might be a little more at-
tentive.
"Y'ou really might do something for them." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
""We might as well go home." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "You might as
well come and have some supper," he said. ( B r a i n e . ) "We might
as well stay here in the shade." ( H e m i n g w a y . ) "I'll write,
but if you happen to see her, you might tell her." ( B e n n e t t . )
When might is followed by a p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e , it indi-
cates that an action considered advisable was not carried out in the
past:
Surely Holly might have told him all this before! ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) ...really Hesione might at least have been here: some
preparation might have been made for me. ( S h a w . )
d) S u p p o s i t i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y on the part of the speaker
(both the indicative may and subjunctive II might are used here, the
latter implying greater uncertainty). Then it is equivalent to the
parenthetical perhaps, maybe, etc.:
Take your raincoat, it may rain (perhaps it will rain). Don't
-go away, he may come yet. He may come by the night train
(or with greater uncertainty: He might come by the night train).
"He may have cought cold, he may have a fever." (Mere-
d i t h . ) "We may be here for a fortnight." ( M a u g h a m . )
In negative constructions can is more common:
234

• '. ' с
That cannot be true. He can't be there, the door is locked
(see ' T h e Verb Can", p. 232).
When reference is made to past time, may (might) is followed
by a p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e :
Why did he not corned He may have been ill (perhaps he
was ill). She may have gone before they arrived (perhaps she
had gone before they arrived).
"She may have forgotten, you know; or got the evening
mixed." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It may have been a healthy wind, but
the effect on the nerves was evil. ( B e n n e t t . ) Wolf, too, had
disappeared, but he might have strayed away after a squirrel or
partridge. ( I r v i n g . )
4. Sometimes the verb may (might) weakens its meaning to a
great extent but does not entirely lose it. Therefore the combination
of may (might) - { - i n f i n i t i v e cannot be considered as an ana-
lytical mood-form but remains a m o d a l p h r a s e (a compound
verbal predicate). This weakening of meaning may be observed in
o b j e c t clauses after expressions of h o p e , w i s h or f e a r :
We hope he may soon recover from his illness. We hoped
that by taking a taxi we might get to the station in time. I
wish she may spend the summer with us. He wished he might
go to the seaside. I am afraid that the flowers may fade in this
small vase. We feared that we might lose our way in the dark-
ness.
Mayjr i n f i n i t i v e is used for the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e ;
might -{- i n f i n i t i v e is used for the p a s t .
After expressions of desire, might (subjunctive II) is used for the
present or future when the realization of the wish is very unlikely:
I wish you might stay with us for a month.
We find the same weakening of meaning in subordinate clauses
of p u r p o s e :
He... then followed her and shut the door, that Biancamight
not hear. ( V o y n i c h . ) In order that their talk might fall again
into its former pleasant channel, Martin dropped the subject...
(Dickens.)
The meaning of the verb may is also greatly weakened in con-
c e s s i v e c l a u s e s introduced by whoever, whatever, etc.:
Whatever the reason may be, the fact remains.
A weakening of meaning is also observed in simple sentences
expressing a w i s h:
да
"May the New Year be a happy one to you, happy to many-
more whose happiness depends on you!" ( D i c k e n s . )
5. The verb may is used:
a) I n a n s w e r t o a q u e s t i o n :
May I take your pencil? — Yes, you may. May he come at
seven o'clock?^—Yes, he may.
b) In d i s j u n c t i v e questions:
She may use all these books, may she not?
I may come in, mayn't I? ( H u g h e s . )

The Verb must

1. The verb mast has only one form which is used as a present
tense in the indicative mood. As a past tense must is used only in
indirect speech. The missing tenses are supplied by to have to... , /o
be obliged to..., to be compelled to..., etc.
The n e g a t i v e form is: must not (mustn't):
"We must be sensible, mustn't we?" ( S h a w . ) "How much
longer must I hold this plate?" And he had to take a slice.
( B e n n e t t . ) When the clock struck three, Elizabeth felt that she
must go. ( A u s t e n . )
We had to do it yesterday. They shall have to do it to-mor-
row. We were obliged to finish our work at 7 o'clock.
Must is also used with reference to the f u t u r e :
I must go there to-morrow. You must finish this translation
not later than Friday.
N o t e . —As must has no subjunctive II, some other modal (defective) verbs
(ought or should) replace it when subjunctive II is required:
You ought to go there. You should do it now.
2. The verb must expresses:
. a) D u t y, o b 1 i ga t i on, necessity:
"I must ask you to excuse me." ( M a u g h a m . ) "I must go-
now..." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Then we must find another way, that's
all." ( V o y n i c h . ) ...I must go and see him in a day or two.
( C o n r a d . ) "You know you must forgive rile, Mrs. Pryor.""
(Bronte.)
N o t e . — The verb to get may also be used with modal force to express--
obligation, necessity:
"...I have got to do it." (Voynich.) "When has she got to go?"
(Maugham.)

' 2 3 6
b) P r o h i b i t i o n (see "The Verb May" 2. b), p. 234):
You must not open the wirtdow. They must not disturb us in
our work. You must not walk on the grass.
"Why didn't you leave word where you'd gone? You mustn't
disappear without a trace." ( S n o w . )
N o t e . — P a y attention to negative answers to questions containing may and
must.
May in the question means можно; the negative answer contains mustn't,
which means нельзя.
May I go there? — No, you mustn't. May I smoke here? — No, you mustn't.
Must in the question means нужно, the negative answer is needn't, which
means не надо, можно не...:
Must I do it? — No, you needn't. Must I shut the window? — No, you
needn't.
c) Sometimes the verb must expresses something that c a n n o t b e
avoided:
Bad seed must produce bad corn. Careless reading must give
but poor results.
"He must be your first cousin, if your fathers were brothers."
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Dearest!" she said. "What must be, must,
you know." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
3. Sometimes the verb must expresses s u p p o s i t i o n (bordering
on assurance) on the part of the speaker. Then it is equivalent
to the parenthetical probably, evidently, etc. In these cases must is
not used in negative constructions.
"It must be rough on the road — the wood moans so." (Law-
r e n c e . ) "It must be getting late," he said, "what's the time?"
( G o r d o n . ) Jon must be at the station by now. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"It's 1949 now — and you must be — let me see — about twenty-
eight." ( G o r d o n . ) How cool it must be outside! ( J o y c e . ) "She
must be eight or nine years old." ( B r o n t ё . ) -
To express the past, must is followed by a p e r f e c t i n f i n -
itive:
Mr. Rochester must have been aware of the entrance of
Mrs. Fairfax and myself. ( B r o n t ё . ) "That must have been a
pleasant experience." ( V o y n i c h . ) I think he must have begun
his journey with some small bundle under his arm, and must
have had it stolen, or lost it. ( D i c k e n s . ) "We must have
covered a good fifteen miles on that day." ( M a u g h a m . ) For a
quarter of an hour I must have been writing by a glow of fire-
light reflected on to my desk; it seemed to me the sun of sum-
mer. (G i s s i n g.)
4. The verb must is used:
237

0
a) In a n s w e r t o a q u e s t i o n :
Must you go? — Yes, I must. Must I send these books back
tomorrow? — Yes, you must.
b) In d i s j u n c t i v e q u e s t i o n s :
We must see to it at once, mustn't we? (or must we not?).
I must handle those things carefully, mustn't I?

The Verb ought

1. The verb ought has only one form which, originally a past
tense of the indicative mood, is now used as a p r e s e n t s u b j u n c -
t i v e II.
The n e g a t i v e form is: ought not (oughtn't).
"You ought to be thankful," said Shirley. ( B r o n t e . ) "In
weather like this you ought always to get back before dark."
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "...she says I oughtn't to be out late when I
hav_ to get up early." ( L a w r e n c e . )
;
Ought also refers to the f u t u r e :
You ought to go to the seaside in summer. You ought to be
more careful in the future.
When reference is made to the past, ought is followed by a p e r -
fect infinitive:
He ought to have seen more effectually to her affairs.
( H a r d y . ) He ought never to have given it (the flute) up.
(Galsworthy.)
; 2. If the sentence is affirmative, ought + p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e
expresses that an action considered desirable was not carried out:
You ought to have secured tickets in advance. You ought
to have warned her.
"Surely I ought to have been aware of that simple fact..."
(Gissing.)
3. When the sentence is negative, ought + p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e
expresses that an action considered undesirable was carried out:
"Oh! then, I suppose I oughtn't to have told you!" ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) "I suppose I ought not to have listened to my legal
advisers..." ( H a r d y . )
4. Theverboag - Wexpresses т а г а 1 obligation, necessity,
a d v i c e , etc.: , '
"I ought to have done it." ( L o c k e . ) "Don'tyou think Iought
to have another opinion." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I don't think she
ought to be in that place alone." ( G a l s w o r t h L y . )
' 2 3 8
5. The verb ought may lose its primary meaning and express
c e r t a i n t y or s u p p o s i t i o n (compare with the similar use of
the verb must): .
"Absolutely perfect day! It ought to be lovely at home.""
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "You ought to have a fine view from here io
the daytime," he said. ( G o r d o n . ) "If you row all the time you
ought to be there by seven o'clock in the morning." ( H e m i n g -
way.)
6. The verb •ought is used:
a) In a n s w e r t o a q u e s t i o n :
Oughtn't you to go there at once? — Yes, I ought.
b)In disjunctive questions:
I ought to cost these letters now, oughtn't I ? (.or ought I
not?) He oughtn't to have mentioned it, ought he?

The Verb shall

1. The verb shall has t w o t e n s e s in the indicative mood:


Present: shall.
P a s t : should.
The n e g a t i v e forms are:
Present: shall not (shan't [Ja:nt]).
Past: should not (shouldn't).
Should is also subjunctive II p r e s e n t tense.
2. When shall is used as a modal verb it expresses c o m p u l -
s i o n or o b l i g a t i o n and hence is used in direct or reported c o m -
mands, regulations, proclamations, pacts, treaties,
c o n t r a c t s , c h a r t e r s , etc.:
"You shall not run away before you answer." (Shaw.) "To-
night you shall be entirely English: you shall read an English
book." ( B r o n t ё . )
We demand that an authoritative international commission
shall be appointed to examine the crimes committed in Korea...
(Address to United Nations Organization, from Second World
Congress of Partisans of Peace).
This Treaty shall be binding on the high contracting parties
for the term of ten years. In case of dispute the matter shall
be submitted to arbitration.
,".The members of the United Nations shall join in affording
' mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by
'239
the Security Council. (Charter of the United Nations.) The Gen-
eral Assembly shall receive and consider annual and special reports
from, the Security Council; these reports shall include an account
of the measures that the Security Council has decided upon or
taken to maintain international peace and security. (Charter of
the United Nations.)
Shall is used with all persons, singular and plural, in questions
when asking for i n s t r u c t i o n s :
Shall she ring you up? Shall the porter take your bags? What
•shall be done with these letters?
"What shall we do then?" ( M a u g h a m . ) "Shall I give you
some coffee?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
3. Closely connected with the primary meaning of compulsion or
obligation is the use of shall to express p r o m i s e , w a r n i n g , or
threat:
"...you shall have a walk soon." ( B r o n t e . ) "Cease to look
so melancholy, my dear master; you shall not be left desolate,
so long as I live." ( B r o n t e . )
If you sit in the draught, you shall catch cold. "Nay, he shall
not have the choice — he shall go with you," responded Yorke.
( B r o n t e . ) "...you shall hear from us again. Beware!" ( B r o n t e . )
4. In should (subjunctive II) the primary meaning of compulsion
or obligation is weakened to express a d v i c e , a d m o n i t i o n , re-
commendation:
You really should go there to-day (advice or admonition). You
shall go there immediately (strict order).
"You should take more exercise," said Mrs. Pryor. ( B r o n t e . )
"You should have a clump of iris plants in the centre of that
court." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Oh Mama, what can I do, what should
I do to make us happier?" ( D i c k e n s . ) "You should go back and
finish grammar school..." ( L o n d o n . )
5. Should followed by a p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e refers to the
past and indicates: a) in an affirmative sentence that an action con-
sidered desirable was not carried out; b) in a negative sentence, that
the action took place but is regarded as undesirable:
"You should have phoned m e a t once..." ( G o r d o n . ) "You
shouldn't have done it. You really shouldn't." (La M u r e . ) The
wind pierced the woollen jumper she wore; she really should
have worn the coat. ( C u s a c k . ) "I'm sorry. I shouldn't have
said that." ( C u s a c k . )
6. Sometimes should weakens its meaning to a great extent, thus
approaching its auxiliary function in forming the suppositional mood.
' 2 4 0
Such instances are intermediate between the function of should as
m o d a l verb and its function as m o o d - a u x i l i a r y . Thisweakened
meaning is found: ^
a) In simple or compound sentences to express s u r p r i s e , in-
d i g n a t i o n , d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , j o y , etc. Those sentences are
emotionally coloured:
A quick light step approached the room in which I was, and
who should stand before me but Richard! ( D i c k e n s . ) ...he
proposed a run into the country, and who should meet us on the
platform when we arrived but Eilie... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Why
should I be frightened?" ( D i c k e n s . )
That it should come to this!
b) In o b j e c t c l a u s e s (complex sentences):
1) after e x p r e s s i o n s of r e g r e t :
I am sorry that he should be so unreasonable. He regretted
that things should have taken such a turn.
Both Ada and I expressed our regret that he should go...
(Dickens.)
2) In i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s beginning with why:
Nobody could explain why he should have done it. I wonder
why he should be cross with you.
"I don't know why sentiments should be sneered at?" ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) "I don't see why we shouldn't get on very well
together." ( S h a w . )
N o t e . —Should is riot used after expressions of r e g r e t and in i n d i r e c t
q u e s t i o n s when the existing state of things is regarded as a matter of fact
(the indicative mood):
I am sorry that he is so unreasonable. He expressed his regret that things
had not been concluded in such a manner as he had wished. I am sorry that
you think so. He has. never asked me if it was so or not. Nobody could explain
why he had done it.

7. Similar to all the other modal verbs, should may lose its mean-
ing of advisability and denote s u p p o s i t i o n or p r o b a b i l i t y :
It should be about five now. ( C u s a c k . ) (probably it is five
now) He should be at home by now (probably he is at home by
now). The weather should be fine to-morrow, for the sky is
clearing.

8. The verb shall as an auxiliary serves to form the future


t e n s e (for the first person singular and plural).
"I shall sit here." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "We shall have rain to-
morrow," said George... ( A l d i n g t o n . )
16—3300 241
9. Should as an auxiliary serves to form: a) the f u t u r e-i n-t h e-
p a s t : b) the a n a l y t i c a l o b l i q u e m o o d s — t h e s u p p o s i -
t i o n a l (for all persons) and the c o n d i t i o n a l (for the first
person singular and plural):
I told you that I should come (future-in-the past).
"I should be sorry if you thought ill of me." ( M a u g h a m . )
(conditional.) He insisted that both the friends should come in."
(N o r r i s . ) (suppositional.)
10. The verb shall (should) is used: *
a) In a n s w e r t o a q u e s t i o n :
Shall we start immediately? — Yes, we shall. Should I write
to her now? — Yes, you should.
b) In d i s j u n c t i v e q u e s t i o n s :
You should not have said it, should you? They should be
more attentive at their lessons, shouldn't they? (or should they
not?)
Notice the use of shall in disjunctive questions balancing let us
(let's):
Let us- wait a bit longer, shall we? Let's go and see that picture»
shall we?
The Verb will

1. The verb will has twotenses:


Present: will.
Past: would.
The n e g a t i v e forms are:
Present: will not (won't [wountl).
P a s t : would not (wouldn't).
Would may also be subjunctive II.
2. Will (would) as a modal verb expresses w i l l , i n t e n t i o n ,
d e t e r m i n a t i o n or i n s i s t e n c y . In such cases will (would)
is used with all persons singular and plural:
I try to persuade him, but he will not listen to my reasons
(in the past: I tried to persuade him, but he would not listen to
my reasons).
Mr. Yorke will have such fires even in summer weather...
( B r o n t e . ) "I will not let any gloomy moralizing intrude upon
us here to-night." (J о у с e.) "Some people will object to anyone."
' 2 4 2
(S п о w.) But Miss Ivors, who had put on her hat and was button-
ing her cloak would not stay. ( J o y c e . )
Also in the following phraseological (set) expressions:
would sooner, would rather, would have (see "The Oblique Moods,"
p. 214):
"I would rather come with you." ( V o y n i c h . ) "No," replied
Mr. Brownlow," I would rather you remained here." ( D i c k e n s . )
"Would you have me wait?" ( V o y n i c h . )
3. Will is used in the second person in p o l i t e r e q u e s t s and
i n q u i r i e s . Would (subjunctive II) is used to make the ruquest or
inquiry especially polite:
Will (would) you wait a moment, please. Would you have an-
other cup of tea? Would you just hold these things while I put on
my coat? Would you mind waiting a little longer?
"When would you like them to come over?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"Won't you take off your overcoat?" ( B e n n e t t . ) "But will you
let me tell how I proceeded?" ( T w a i n . )
4. Will (would) retains its meaning of w i l l or i n t e n t i o n
when used in conditional clauses:
"I shall just wash my hands, if you will allow me." (Voy-
n i c h . ) "If he wouldn't mind, I should love to come." (Max-
w e l l . ) "If you will allow me to finish what I have to say...
you will do me a kindness, sir." ( D i c k e n s . ) The Carrier...
signed to him to go if he would. ( D i c k e n s . )
5. Closely connected with the primary meaning of volition is
the use of will (would) to express h a b i t u a l or r e c u r r e n t a c -
t i o n s ; it is commonly used in literary descriptions, but not in
speaking:
In the afternoon he would go out alone and walk for hours.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The children of the village would shout with
joy whenever he approached. ( I r v i n g . ) They [the mountains]
will gather a hood of gray vapours about their summits. ( I r v i n g . )
6. A certain modification of its primary meaning of volition is
found in the verb will (would) when used in connection with life-
less things to express i n s i s t e n c y , r e s i s t a n c e , h a b i t or q u a l -
i t у attributed to them:
It [the handle] turned, but the door would not open.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The rain came down harder; it blinded the
wind-screen and the electric wiper wouldn't work... ( G r e e n e . )
I had my own mug with "David" on it, and my own little fork.
. and knife that would not cut. ( D i c k e n s . ) "I wish the rain
would stop for a moment." ( M a u g h a m . )
16* 243
Will may express s u p p o s i t i o n on the part of the speaker
( = probably). When reference is made to the present will is followed
by an indefinite infinitive, when reference is made to the past a
perfect infinitive is used:
This will be the place where the old school stood ( = this is
probably the place...).
"It is spring at last. The crocuses will be nearly over." (Al-
d i n g t o n . ) "...I expect he will have had his tea." ( S m i t h . )
"...she won't have heard you come." ( B e n n e t t . ) "I must go
back to her — she will have missed me." ( W a r d . )
7. The verb will as an a u x i l i a r y forms the future tense (see
"The Future Tense," p. 154); would as an a u x i l i a r y forms: a) the
f u t u r e - i n - t h e - p a s t (see "The FutureTense"), and b) the c o n d i -
t i o n a l (see "The Oblique Moods," p. 208).
It is often hard to draw a dividing line between the modal (com-
pound verbal predicate) and the auxiliary use of shall (should) and
will (would). Shall expressing o b l i g a t i o n , w a r n i n g , p r o m i s e
usually implies f u t u r e time as well:
You shall do it immediately. He shall get all the necessary
information to-morrow.
Will denoting v o l i t i o n refers also to an action in the future:
I will never speak to her again.
Should as an a u x i l i a r y of the s u p p o s i t i o n a l mood may
to a certain degree preserve its primary meaning of c o m p u l s i o n
or о b 1 i g a t i о n:
He insisted that the work should be done in time.
8. The verb will (would) is used:
a) In a n s w e r t o a q u e s t i o n :
Will he be here to-morrow? — Yes, he will. Will they insist
on leaving to-morrow? — No, they won't. Would they object to
our coming? —No, they wouldn't.
b) In d i s j u n c t i v e q u e s t i o n s :
She will not object to our doing the work, will she? They
will be ready by four o'clock, won't they? (or will they not?)
You wouldn't mind my taking your book, would you?

The Verb dare


The verb dare is properly a modal (defective) verb; hence the
form dare for the 3rd person singular of the present tense, and the
use of an infinitive without to after that verb. (The past tense is
durst (now obsolete):
' 2 4 4
"I dare not be alone at night." ( V o y n i c h . ) "How dare you
talk to me like this." ( M a x w e l l . ) "How dare she come here!"
cried Davidson indignantly. ( M a u g h a m . ) "Let him come back,
if he dare!" cried Valencia... ( K i n g s l e y . ) She dared not look
into the glass... ( D i c k e n s . )
But in Modern English dare is usually conjugated like an ordi-
nary verb: 3rd person singular present tense dares, past tense dared,
etc.: and it forms verbals: i n f i n i t i v e to dare, g e r u n d daring,
p a r t i c i p l e I daring, p a r t i c i p l e II dared. Thus, it has com-
pound tenses, such as I shall dare, I have dared, and takes an infin-
itive with to. Negative and interrogative constructions are formed
with the auxiliary to do:
How do you dare to say such a thing!
Margaret did not dare to define her feeling. ( G a s k e l l . ) He
did not dare to travel after dark. ( L o n d o n . )
N o t e . — To dare with the meaning of to challenge, to defy is always treat-
ed as an ordinary verb:
...she... dared me in an emphatic voice to rise from that place, or utter
one syllable during the remainder of the day. ( B r o n t § . )

The Verb need

1. The verb need followed by an infinitive denotes necessity


or o b l i g a t i o n :
I don't know whether I need trouble about it (нужно ли мне
беспокоиться об этом). You needn't write down your translation,
you may do it orally (вам не надо писать перевода, в этом нет
необходимости). •
When need means necessity or obligation it is generally conju-
gated in affirmative sentences as a regular verb and followed by
an infinitive with to:
Boys of your age need to sleep the clock round. ( S n o w . )
In negative and interrogative sentences it has two forms:
a) Without the auxiliary to do; in such constructions the 3rd
person singular has no inflexion and the infinitive which follows
need has no to:
Need I tell you all the details? Need he trouble himself?
"You needn't bother about coming up, Manson..." (Cr o n in.)
"You needn't be afraid," he answered smiling. ( V o y n i c h . )
Need followed by an infinitive without to is used also in the
function of a past tense; mostly in reported speech.
She was told that she need not take the trouble.
' 2 4 5
It was settled that my aunt need neither remain in town nor
return. ( D i c k e n s . )
When followed by a perfect infinitive in a negative construction
need indicates that the action which took place in the past is con-
sidered undesirable: j
We need not have been in such a hurry after all (нам не
надо было бы так спешить).
b) With the auxiliary to do; in such constructions need is conju-
gated as a regular verb taking an infinitive with to:
Do I need to say more to you? You do not need to trouble
about such trifles.
The construction with to do is literary rather than spoken Eng-
lish.
2. When the verb need is followed by a noun-object it denotes
to be in want of. In this case it is conjugated as a regular transi-
tive verb:
He needs a dictionary. Does she need a pencil? We do not
need those books.

/ / . NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB


(VERBALS)
1. The v e r b a l s (or n о n^f i n i t e forms of the verb) are three
in number: the i n f i n i t i v e , the g e r u n d and the p a r t i c i p l e .
The verbals combine the characteristics of a verb with those of
some other part of speech. Thus the infinitive and the gerund have
besides verb characteristics also traits * in common with the noun.
For instance, they can be used in the sentence as subject or object,
both syntactical functions being typical of the noun:
To have a reading knowledge of language is one thing: to
have a speaking knowledge is a different thing altogether.
( P a l m e r . ) (1 subject, 2 subject.) I was afraid of spending the
few pence I had... ( D i c k e n s . ) (object.)
The participle has the characteristics of both verb and adjective
(compare with the Russian причастие) and in some of its functions
it combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adverb
(compare with the Russian деепричастие):
The last soft light of the setting sun (attribute) had fallen
on the earth, casting a rich glow on the yellow cornsheaves...
(adverbial modifier). ( D i c k e n s . )
2. The distinction between the finite forms of the verb and the
verbals is as follows: the finite forms of the verb have always a
subject with which they agree in number and person: I am a stu-
' 2 4 6
dent, he is a student; the verbals are not restricted in number and
person by any grammatical subject:
Coming near, I found the door slightly ajar... ( B r o n t e . )
Coming to the edge of the wood, they saw the sky in front,
like m n t h p r - n f - p p a r l and the earth growing dark. ( L a w r e n c e . )
I listened I o T t h e b e 11 to ring below... ( B r o n t ё . ) Mr. Peggotty
stopped for us to join him. ( D i c k e n s . ) And he brought his
beloved sketches of the flat Lincoln coast for them to see.
( L a w r e n c e . ) "...she was very glad to see me, and reproached
me for giving her no notice of my coming to London." ( A u s t e n . )
The day came for our going. ( D i c k e n s . )
Neither have the verbals mood distinctions. Accordingly, the
verbals cannot express predication by themselves; they^ can be only
part of the predicate and, as part of the predicate, they must always
be in connection with finite,, forms
She suddenly began to speak. ( L o n d o n . ) He went on talk-
ing ( M a x w e l l . ) I must ask you to excuse me. ( M a u g h a m . )
"Oh Mama, what can I do, what should I do, to make us hap-
pier?" ( D i c k e n s . ) Adele came running to meet us in the
hall... ( B r o n t e . )
3. In common with the finite forms of the verb all the three
verbals have v o i c e and t e n s e distinctions: to write is the active
voice of the indefinite infinitive, to be written is the corresponding
passive form; writing is the participle I in the active voice,
being written is the passive voice. What is traditionally called tenses
in the verbals differs greatly from the tenses of the finite forms.
The tenses of the finite forms indicate the time of the action. The
forms that are called tenses in the verbals comprise r e l a t i v e .
t i m e i n d i c a t i o n : they usually indicate whether the action ex-
pressed Dy xne vernai: a) c o i n c i d e s with the action of the finite
forms of the verb (fn the present, past or future) or b) i s p r i o r
to the action of the finite forms of the verb (in the present, past
or future):
a) I see him run. I saw him run. I shall see him run (the
indefinite infinitive). We look at the rising sun. We looked at
the rising sun. We shall look at the rising sun (participle
I). He tells me of his taking English' lessons. He told
me of his taking English lessons. He will tell me of his taking
English lessons (the indefinite gerund).
b) I know him to have been one of our students. I knew him
to have been one of our students. I shall know him to have
been one of our students (the perfect infinitive). Having finished
my lessons, I usually go home. Having finished my lessons, I
went' home. Having finished my lessons, I shall go home (the
'247
participle I perfect). He tells me of his having taken English les-
sons. He told me of his having taken English lessons. He will
tell me of his having taken English lessons (the perfect gerund).
4. Besides distinctions of voice and tense, the three verbals re-
tain also the following characteristics of the finite forms of the verb
from which they are formed:
a) If the verb is a t r a n s i t i v e one, they can take a d i r e c t
object:
Ben was too busy to hear him now. ( C r o n in.) She began
clipping the flowers and arranging them in a vase. ( V o y n i c h . )
The door into the hall stood wide open, letting in the sun. ( M a z o
de la Roche.)
b) In common with the finite forms of the verb the infinitive,
gerund and participle a r e m o d i f i e d b y a d v e r b s :
He saw her pause irresolutely... ( D i c k e n s . ) ...Soames stood
in the dining-room window gazing gloomily into the square.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...I was tired of sitting still in the library
through a whole long morning... ( B r o n t e . )

THE INFINITIVE

. The infinitive is historically'a n o u n derived from a verb stem.


In Old English the infinitive had two separate forms: a) a s i m p l e
infinitive representing the n o m i n a t i v e and a c c u s a t i v e
of the verbal noun (drincan) and b) an i n f i n i t i v e preceded by
to representing the d a t i v e c a s e of the same noun (to drincenne).
The preposition to denoted direction or purpose (to driticenne=for
the purpose of drinking). In the course of time both suffixes (-an,
-enne) were dropped and we have now one fown — drink. In Modern
English the infinitive with to is much commoner than the bare in-
finitive. In most cases the datival meaning is lost and the preposi-
tion to has become merely the sign of the infinitive. But to is even
now not always formal; in some cases it has preserved its full
force:
Janet had gone away to get the bath ready... ( D i c k e n s . )
( = w i t h the purpose of getting the bath ready.) The door was
partly open to admit air... ( D i c k e n s . ) The old gardener... came
with a little basket to feed the doves. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Although the infinitive was originally a verbal noun, in the
course of its development it has acquired some characteristics of the
verb and is at present i n t e r m e d i a t e between v e r b and
noun. .
' 2 4 8
Verb-Characteristics of the Infinitive
The infinitive has the following verb-characteristics:
1. It distinguishes a s p e c t : c o m m o n and continuous:
C o m m o n : to write, to have written, to be written, to
have been written
C o n t i n u o u s : to be writing, to have been writing
C o m m o n : "I want you to give me some information." ( L o n -
d o n . ) She must have seen a change in my expression. ( S n o w . )
C o n t i n u o u s : "It was pleasant • to be driving the car again."
(Br ai ne.)
2. The infinitive has t e n s e - f o r m s : i n d e f i n i t e and p e r -
f e c t . As has already been stated the tenses of the infinitive com-
- prise r e l a t i v e time indication.
Common aspect:
I n d e f i n i t e I n f i n i t i v e : to write, to be written
P e r f e c t I n f i n i t i v e : to have written, to have been
written
C o n t i n u o u s aspect:
N o n - P e r f e c t C o n t i n u o u s I n f i n i t i v e : to be writing
P e r f e c t C o n t i n u o u s I n f i n i I lv e: to have been writing
a) The i n d e f i n i t e infinitive indicates that the action ex-
pressed by the infinitive is s i m u l t a n e o u s with the action of the
finite form of the verb in the sentence:
"I saw a lizard dart on that rock." ( L a w r e n c e . ) I've often
heard him tell the tale. ( J e r o m e . ) She hears him catch up his
hat and cloak, and hurry out into the rain... ( K i n g s l e y . )
Ben had tried once before... to show the boy how to fly a plane.
( A l d r i d g e . ) He helped me to alight from the carriage...
(Bronte.)
In connection with the present > tense of such verbs as to expect,
to hope, to intend, to want, etc. the indefinite infinitive refers to an
acHon in the f u t u r e :
"I want you to give me some information." ( L o n d o n . ) He
wanted to tell her of the incident... (Cr o n in.) "I wish you to
be happy..." ( D i c k e n s . ) I promised to obey... ( B r o n t e . )
When associated with modal (defective) verbs and their equiva-
lents (to have or to be followed by an infinitive), the indefinite infin-
itive may also refer to a future action:
... I must go and see him in a day or two. ( C o n r a d . ) "May 1
come again...?" ( E l i o t . ) "...you must come and see his work."
' 2 4 9
( G a l s w o r t h y / 1 "What am I to do?" ( D i c k e n s . ) "Let's have
tea — she has to catch a train." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The n o n - p e r f e c t c o n t i n u o u s form of the infinitive shows
an action in its p r o g r e s s at the time when the action expressed
by the finite form of the verb takes place:
Irene's lips moved; she seemed to be saying: "Where shall
I go?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) She seemecf to be listening. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) "It's extremely funny for me to be consoling you."
(Snow.)
b) The p e r f e c t i n f i n i t i v e shows that the action expressed
by the infinitive p r e c e d e s the action indicated by the finite form
of the verb:
"I'm very glad to have seen you again, Mrs. Vidler." (Cro-
n i n . ) "I'm sorry to have been of so little assistance." ( S h a w . )
...an age seemed to have elapsed since the day which brought
me first to Lowood... ( B r o n t e . )
In Russian this form of the infinitive is often rendered by a
finite form of the verb:
Я очень рад, что повидал вас опять. Мне жаль, что я так
мало.помог вам.
When a perfect infinitive is associated with a m o d a l (de-
f e c t i v e ) v e r b the infinitive indicates:
1) either that the action took place in the p a s t ; then the in-
finitive is equivalent to a past:
Why did she go away so early last night? She may have
been ill (perhaps she was ill). You must have been very tired
if you went to bed so early (probably you were very tired...).
2) or the infinitive indicates that the action is already a c c o m -
p l i s h e d at a given moment and is v i e w e d f r o m t h a t m o -
m e n t ; then it has the meaning of a p e r f e c t (present perfect or
past perfect):
Why doesn't she come? She may not have arrived yet (per-
haps she has not yet arrived). Let us go, it must have stopped
raining (probably it has stopped raining). She may have gone
before they arrived (perhaps she had gone before, they arrived).
He must have locked the door before he left the house (certainly
he had locked the door before he left the house).
The p e r f e c t c o n t i n u o u s form of the infinitive shows the
a n t e r i o r d u r a t i o n of an action still continuing; it is equiva-
lent to a present or past perfect continuous:
' 2 5 0

/
We must have been walking for two hours; let us have a
rest (probably we have been walking for two hours...) For a
quarter of an hour I must have been writing by a glow of fire-
light reflected on to my desk (probably I had been writing...); it
seemed to me the sun of summer. ( G i s s i n g . )
After the modal (defective) verbs should, could, ought, might (sub-
junctive II) and the past indicative of the verb to be (when used
as a modal equivalent) the p e r f e c t infinitive is used to show that
an action considered desirable or planned w a s n o t c a r r i e d o u t
(a rejected action): д

"You should have phoned me at once..." ( G o r d o n . ) "I ought


to have done it." ( L o c k e . ) The yellow leaves came down about
those two walking the mile and a half which Soames had trav-
ersed so often in those long-ago days when he came down to watch
with secret pride the building of the house which was to have
been the home of him and her from whom he was now going
to seek release. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
After the p a s t t e n s e of verbs expressing h o p e , e x p e c t a -
t i o n , i n t e n t i o n , the p e r f e c t infinitive is used to indicate that
the action w a s n o t c a r r i e d o u t :
I meant (thought or intended) to have written a line to you.
I quite expected you to have been here before six o'clock. This
is a speech which I meant to have delivered at the annual
meeting of our society. He hoped to have come.
I intended to come leaves the question open as to whether or
not the intention was fulfilled.
3. The infinitive of transitive verbs has v o i c e distinctions:
A c t i v e : to write, to have written
Passive: to be written, to have been written
Active:
I'm glad to hear you say so. ( B r o n t e ) . I want you to give
me some information. ( L o n d o n . )
Passive:
...he caused it [the dining-table} to be removed... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"There is only one thing to be done." (Cr o n in.)
Compare: I cannot trifle or be trifled with. (Dickens.)
N o t e . — A t first the infinitive had only one form (active or indifferent)
which had either an active or a passive meaning. In' the course of time a pas-
sive form of the infinitive developed. Traces of the old indifferent form with
a passive meaning are still found>in the following sentences:

' 2 5 1
They were not to blame {= to be blamed). The reason is not far to seek
(== to be sought). There is a lot to see there ( = to be seen). The house is to
let ( = to be let).

Active Passive

Indefinite to write to be written


Perfect to have written to have been writ-
ten
Continuous to be writing
Perfect Continuous to have been writing

4. In common with the finite verb, the infinitive may have an


o b j e c t ; if the verb is transitive, it has a d i r e c t o b j e c t :
He saw Irene come in, pick up the telegram, and read it.
(Galsworthy.)
5. The infinitive is m o d i f i e d by a n adverb:
He saw her pause irresolutely at the door... ( D i c k e n s . )
At this moment a striking incident made the boys pause suddenly
in their walk. ( E l i o t . )

Noun-Characteristics of the Infinitive


The infinitive has the following syntactical characteristics of a
noun:
a) It may be used as the s u b j e c t of the sentence:
...to tramp for three hours through fluffy snow exhausted
him. (L. S i n c l a i r . ) "To talk of those merry school-days makes
one young again." ( D i c k e n s . )
b) It may have the function of an o b j e c t :
...she had promised to take Florrie with her... ( C r o n i n . )
He helped me to alight from the carriage... ( B r o n t § . ) "I'm
sorry to keep you up so late." ( V o y n i c h . )

The Particle to before the Infinitive

1. In Modern English the infinitive is usually preceded by the


» particle to. Formerly this to was a preposition which was put before
the infinitive (then a noun in the dative case) to indicate d i r e c t i o n
or p u r p o s e . In the course of time to lost its meaning of d i r e c -
t i o n or p u r p o s e , and became merely the sign of the infinitive.
But in some cases it has still preserved its old meaning of purpose.
Compare:
' 2 5 2
I like to read. I went to the library to read (purpose). I want
to stop here. Everything was done to stop (purpose) the fire.
He wandered back to the house to look for his mother. (Law-
r e n c e . ) She had turned her head to speak to her boy... (Gals-
worthy.)
2. The infinitive is used without to in the following instances
(instances "b," "c," "d," "e" refer to cases when the infinitive is
part of a complex object):
a) After the auxiliary and modal (defective) verbs shall, will, do,
may, can, must:
"I must go and look at the flowers at Hampton Court. Will
you come?" ( A l d i n g t o n . ) "May I have a cigarette?" he asked.
(Conrad.)
But after the modal (defective) verb ought the infinitive is
always used with to:
"I ought toJiave done it." (Locke.) "You ought to see
her." ( L a w r e n c e . )
b) After some verbs expressing physical p e r c e p t i o n s : to hear,
to see, to feel, to perceive:
...they felt the boat shudder as its speed slackened. ( C u s a c k . )
...he heard a blackbird sing. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He saw Irene
come in, pick up the telegram, and read it. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
N o t e . — I f the verb to feel expresses mental perceptions, to is used before
the infinitive:
I felt this to be true... ( D i c k e n s . )
c) After the verbs to watch, to notice, to observe; to let, to make
(заставлять), to bid; also after the expression / won't have:
He turned on Florence, ...and bade her leave the room.
( D i c k e n s . ) He stood... beside a bush of pale Michaelmas
daisies, watching the lastbees crawl into the hive. ( L a w r e n c e . )
A few light taps upon the pane made him turn to the window.
( J o y c e . ) Andrew observed her hurry off... ( C r o n i n . )
N o t e . — AH the verbs in b) and c) require an infinitive with to when they
are used in the passive voice:
He was heard to open the door. He was seen to drive the car at great speed.
He was made to come.

d) Afrer the verb to know in the sense of to experience, to observe:


Have you ever known me tell a lie?
I had never known-him ask a favour of this kind before.
( S n o w . ) I had never known her pretend. ( S n o w . )
' 2 5 3
e) After the verb to help the infinitive is often used without to:
I helped Mrs. Thompson take off her coat. ( B r a i n e . ) "1
want to help you keep him." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I'll help you
dry up... ( C u s a c k . )
But also: Fanny helped Miss Helsone to put away her work...
<Bront§.)
f) After the following expressions: had better, had best, would
have, would rather (...than), would sooner (...than), cannot but (can
but), does nothing but..., need scarcely (only, hardly):
She does nothing but grumble. You need only give me a few
hints. I cannot^ but agree with you upon that subject. I need
scarcely tell you how Tmportant it is. "I would rather not
go." ( B r o n t e . ) "We'd better take shelter," said she. (M a u g h a m.)
Would you have me tell her a lie. ( S h e r i d a n . )
g) The particle to is dropped in s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s begin-
ning with why when the infinitive has the force of a predicate:
Why not go to the cinema? Why not start earlier? "But why
not tell them?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

Repetition of to before Several Infinitives

1. When there are several 'infinitives with the same or similar


function to is put only before the first infinitive. But if^emphasis
or contrast is intended, to is repeated before each infinitive
was* his delight to run into the garden after a shower
of rain and shake the rose bush over him. ( M a n s f i e l d . ) To
be or not to be — t h a t is the question. ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
2. In colloquial speech the particle to is often used without the
infinitive if the latter is clearly understood from the preceding con-
text. This construction is used with verbs expressing actions:
"You can laugh if you want to," she said. "I know it's comic."
( S n o w . ) "You must come and have dinner with me." — "Thank you,
uncle Jolyon, I should like to!" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Jago has sacri-
ficed himself for the college, just as every college officer has to."
(Snow.) '

Split Infinitive

The particle to is sometimes separated from the infinitive by an


a d v e r b or an e m p h a t i c p a r t i c l e ; the construction is called
a " S p l i t In f i n i t i v e":
They were seen to just touch each other's hands. ( G a l s -
' 2 5 4
w o r t h y . ) ...she seemed to really like her grey old bonnet bet-
ter... ( L e a c o c k . ) It had been impossible to seriously confide to
June his conviction... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He was unable, how-
ever, to long keep silence. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The working masses
of Russia were the first to decisively storm capitalism, the first
to take the path to Socialism.
Sometimes this separation of to from the infinitive is necessary
to avoid ambiguity. If in the sentence They were unwilling to whol-
ly manufacture new goods — wholly is put in front of the to, it
tends to adhere to unwilling; if it is placed after manufacture, it
attaches itself to new, and the meaning is changed.

The Subjective and the Objective Infinitive


The action expressed by the infinitive may refer either to the
s u b j e c t or to the o b j e c t of the sentence.
When the action expressed by the infinitive refers to t h e s u b -
ject of the sentence, the infinitive is a s u b j e c t i v e i n f i n -
itive:
I promised to obey, and went upstairs with my message... ( D i c k -
e n s . ) "We'd better take shelter," she said. ( M a u g h a m . ) "I am
glad to hear you say so." ( B r o n t e . ) "...you must come and see
his work." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
When the action expressed by the infinitive refers to t h e ob-
ject of the sentence, the infinitive is an o b j e c t i v e i n f i n i t i v e :
"You will allow me to see you again...?" ( D i c k e n s . ) "I want
you to give me some information." ( L o n d o n . ) He begged her
not to go... ( D i c k e n s . ) Minny made Sarah sit in the one
comfortable chair close to the fire... ( M a z o d e la R o c h e . )

The Functions of the Infinitive in the Sentence


The infinitive is used:
1. A s subject:
For the Soviet people, to live means to create, to go forward
constantly. To hear the wind getting up out at sea, to know
that the fog was cr-eeping over the desolate flat outside, and to
look at the fire and think that there was no house near but this
one, and this one a boat, was like enchantment. ( D i c k e n s . )
When the subject of the sentence is an i n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e ,
it is sometimes placed after the predicate. Then the sentence begins
with the pronoun it, an introductory word called the a n t i c i p a t o r y
it: it is necessary to..., it is important to..., it is good (better)
' 2 5 5
to..., it is bad (worse) to..., it is useless to..., it is (of) no use
to..., it is not much use to..., it is little use to..., it is impossible
to..., it is quite possible to..., it is quite natural to..., it is difficult
to..., it is hard to..., it is easy to..., etc.:
It was sufficient to sit there, to breathe, to look at the river
and trees, simply to exist. ( B r a i n e . ) "...she sang delightfully:
it was a treat to listen to her." ( B r o n t e . ) It was pleasant to
observe the fresh flowers in the room. ( D i c k e n s . ) It had been
Renny's idea to invite the mother and daughter... (Mazo de
1 a Roche.)
2. As p r e d i с a t i v e:
His next step was to speak to Llewellyn. ( C r o n i n . ) Her
greatest joy was to receive letters every week and to write long
replies. ( G o r d o n . ) All I had now to do was to obey him in
silence... ( B r o n t e . ) To wage an active struggle for peace means
constantly to expose plotters of a new war, to foil their schemes
and to rally more and more millions of people to the defence of
peace.

3. As p a r t of a c o m p o u n d v e r b a l p r e d i c a t e (See "The
Compound Verbal Predicate", p. 343).
The s u b j e c t i v e i n f i n i t i v e is used in this function com-
bined with: •
a) M o d a l ( d e f e c t i v e ) v e r b s : can, must, may, ought, shall,
will, need, dare, also to have and to be used as m o d a l e q u i v a -
lents:
She must speak now or not at all. ( C r o n i n . ) Perhaps he
ought to have answered her like that. ( J o y c e . ) "Is there a
stream where we could bathe?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) We were to
go in a carrier's cart which departed in the morning after break-
fast. ( D i c k e n s . )
b) Verbs which do not .express actions (or states) but denote
m o d a l i t y (intention, determination, desire, etc.): to intend, to try,
to fail, to hope, to expect, to wish, etc.:
The child wanted to slip down from its mother's lap on to
the floor of the car... ( B e n n e t t . ) And yet, though he tried
very hard to convince himself, his heart was not in his work,
( C r o n i n . ) "I'd like to have a look at that part of the world."
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He wanted to tell her of the incident, longed
suddenly to end their period of strife. ( C r o n i n . )
c) The combinations to be obliged, to be compelled, to be willing,
to be ready, to be eager, etc. which have m o d a l m e a n i n g :
' 2 5 6
I am eager to hear your story. I feel half inclined to tell
him so. She is ready to help us. We were compelled to spend
the night at .Winchester... ( D o y l e . ) "Is she determined to start
instantly?" (K i n g s l e y . ) All this time, I was deeply anxious to
know what she was going to do with me... ( D i c k e n s . )
d) The construction to be going to..., which has often modal
f o r c e (собираться сделать что-то):
"What are you going to do with it?" (Galsworthy.)
e) The following p h r a s e o l o g i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n s : had
better (best), had rather, would rather, would sooner, would have
which impart m o d a l i t y to the action expressed by the infini-
tive: .
"You'd better go to bed, Phil; it's been a long day." ( G r e e n e . )
"I would rather not go." ( B r o n t e . )
f) Verbs denoting the b e g i n n i n g or the d u r a t i o n of an
action: to begin, to continue, etc.
The constructions used ^ o - | - i n f i n i t i v e and would + i n f i n i -
t i v e which express r e p e a t e d actions in the past also belong here:
Hardly had we left town, when it came on (began) to rain.
She suddenly began to speak. ( L o n d o n . ) Now and again Mrs.
Narracombe or the girl Megan would come and ask if he wanted
anything, and he would smile and say: "Nothing, thanks." ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) "I used to see you looking at the flowers and trees,
and those ducks." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Notice the combination of the verb to come with the i n f i n ь
t i v e in which the verb to come imparts p e r f e c t i v e m e a n i n g
to the action expressed by the infinitive:
Soon after my mother's death, I came to know you.
(G a s k e l l . ) (came to know = узнала) At last the kettle came
to boil. ( D i c k e n s . ) (came to boil = закипел)
In a number of cases it is difficult to draw a hard and fast line
of demarcation between the function of the infinitive as an object
and that of a part of a compound verbal predicate.*
4. As o b j e c t . The o b j e c t i v e infinitive is primarily used
in this function, sometimes the s u b j e c t i v e .
a) The o b j e c t i v e infinitive is used as object to verbs ex-
pressing o r d e r , r e q u e s t , p e r m i s s i o n , etc. such as: to order,

* Some grammarians include into the compound verbal predicate only modal
(defective) verbs and verbs denoting the beginning, «duration, etc. of an action.
0 . Jespersen considers the infinitive as an object in any combination of the
infinitive with a finite verb, modal (defective) verbs including.

17—3300 257
to bid, to beg, to ask, to implore, to allow, to permit, to help, to
assist, to persuade, to advise, etc.:
These verbs have usually t w o objects: a n o u n or p r o n o u n
(the first object) and an i n f i n i t i v e (the second object) (He helped
me to do the work).
For the complex object with some of the above verbs see "The
Accusative with the Infinitive," p. 261
I begged and prayed my aunt... to befriend and protect me
for my father's sake. ( D i c k e n s . ) She taught him to sit up at
table and not put his elbows on it. ( M a u g h a m . ) ...Florence
entreated him to take her to some neighbouring shop... (Di с к e n s.)
"You will allow me to see you again...?" ( D i c k e n s . ) She
begged to be excused from having any dinner. ( M a x w e l l . )
b) The s u b j e c t i v e infinitive is used as object to verbs express-
ing mental perceptions and emotions such as: to forget, to remem-
ber, to learn, to prefer. to promise, to love, to like, to hate, etc.

Also after can't bear which is emotionally coloured (I can't bear


to see her cry = the sight of tears gives me pain):
He liked to imagine this... ( D i c k e n s . ) It was Saturday fore-
noon and she had promised to take Florrie with her when she
set o u t ' to do her shopping. ( C r o n i n . ) ...he could not bear to
hurt a fly. ( M a u g h a m . )

N o t e . — To like in the meaning of "to want" forms a c o m p o u n d ver-


bal p r e d i c a t e with the infinitive that follows it:
"Would you like to meet Michael, Jon, and see my infant?" (Galsworthy.)
In emphatic speech to love may be used with the same meaning:
"If he wouldn't mind, I should love to come." (Maxwell.)
c) The infinitive (subjective infinitive) may be used as o b j e c t ,
to some a d j e c t i v e s and a d j e c t i v i z e d p a r t i c i p l e s such
as: happy, glad, pleased, delighted, sorry, afraid, etc.:
"I'm glad to hear you say that. I was always sorry to think
they disagreed." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
5. As attribute:
He was always the first to enter the dining room and the last
to leave it... ( M a n s f i e l d . ) (the first who entered) The Vaughans
were the first to arrive... ( M a z o d e la R o c h e . ) Mary thought
of Alice's long-cherished, fond wish to revisit the home of her
childhood... (G a s k e l l . )
When the infinitive is used as an attribute t often, has m o d a l '
force:
' 2 5 8
It is the only thing to do (that can be done). I'll buy you
some magazines to read on the journey (which you may read...).
"I have no time to lose." ( B r o n t e . ) "There is only one thing
to be done." (Cr o n in.) She had tasks to learn, and needle
work to do... ( D i c k e n s . ) We made a list of things to be tak-
en... ( J e r o m e . )
The Russian equivalent for this construction as a whole attribu-
tive clause with a modal compound verbal predicate:
It is a chance not to be missed. — Это случай, который не
следует упустить. It is an article to be typed at once.— Это
статья, которую надо сейчас же напечатать.
An attributive infinitive often retains the preposition which is
used in a construction where the same verb is followed by an object
or adverbial modifier:
It is not a thing to trifle with. (Compare: One must not
trifle with such things.) The boy had no friends to care for, or
to care for him. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...he had no one to go with,
( W e l l s . ) ...there was something now to live for... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) What a night to wander out in! ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The same with phraseological units (to have a chat with..to
take care of..., etc.):
The stout old lock-keeper, or his cheerful-looking wife, or
bright-eyed daughter, are pleasant folk to have a passing chat
with. ( J e r o m e ) .
6. As an a d v e r b i a l m o d i f i e r :
a) Of p u r p o s e :
Young Jolyon rose and held his hand to help his father up.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) She strained her ears to catch the words.
( M a z o d e l a R o c h e . ) Annie was now studying to be a
teacher. ( L a w r e n c e . ) The door was partly open to admit
air... ( D i c k e n s . ) Mrs. Pratt had driven to Winster to see her
mother... ( J e r o m e . )
An infinitive of purpose may be preceded by in order to: „
One had to pass through the scullery in order to get from
the kitchen into the yard. ( B e n n e t t . )
The infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of p u r p o s e may
be introduced by so as:
a) Mother had kept back the dinner so as to have it just
nicely ready and hot for us. (Le a c o c k . ) She changed her dressy
so as to look as if she had been in sorrte time, and ran to the
gallery. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
17* 259
b) Of r e s u l t or c o n s e q u e n c e , , especialIy when the demon-
strative pronoun such or the adverbs enough, so, too are used in the
sentence. After so and such, as to is generally used:
It was too dark to distinguish anything. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Ben
was too busy to hear him now... (A Id r i d g e . ) The rest of the
conversation is not important enough to be here related. ( F i e l d -
ing.) His tone was such as to allow no contradiction.
Also in:
Savina glanced back to find Arnie shaking Erik's hand.
(M. W i l s o n . ) That night there was a storm and I woke to
hear the rain lashing the window-panes. ( H e m i n g w a y . ) He
shouldered and urged them forward to where he had set his va-
lises, only to find one of them gone. ( N o r r is.)
For the use of the infinitive in the function of a s e c o n d a r y
p r e d i c a t e in c o m p l e x e s see "The Accusative with the Infin-
itive" p. 260, "The Nominative with the Infinitive", p. 263 and "Con-
structions with the Subject of the Infinitive Introduced by for (for-
Phrases)", p. 265
For the use of the infinitive in the function of a s e c o n d a r y
s u b j e c t (the nominal part of a complex) see "The Use of the Pro-
noun It.as an Object", p. 372

Accusative with the Infinitive


1. Some transitive verbs are followed by an object (a noun in
the common case or a pronoun in the objective case) with an infin^
itive attached to it:
I see the boy (him) run G-C-'
The relation between the noun (or pronoun) and the infinitive is
similar to that of subject and predicate. In this function the infini-
tive may be called a "secondary predicate" (второстепенный предикат)
and the noun (or pronoun) a "secondary subject" (второстепенный
субъект).
Thus in the sentence I see the boy (him) run two things are
predicated (stated, asserted): the "first predication (предикация) is
made about the subject of the sentence I and is expressed by the
predicate of the sentence see, a verb in the finite form; the second
predication refers to the object of the sentence boy (him) and is
expressed by a secondary predicate — the infinitive run.
The two elements — boy and run — are closely connected and form
syntactically a c o m p l e x o b j e c t . What I see is the boy in the
process of running ( = что мальчик бежит). This construction is
called the "Accusative with the Infinitive" (from the ,classical "Ac-
c u s a t i v e cum Infinitivo").
' 2 6 0
2. The "Accusative with the Infinitive" is used:
a) With verbs expressing a p e r c e p t i o n of the s e n s e s , as
to heap to feel, to see; also with verbs expressing o b s e r v a t i o n
as to notice, to observe, to watch:
...he felt Wilson take hold of his arm. ( H e m i n g w a y . ) Old
Jolyon... saw his brother's face change... . (Ga 1 s w o r t h y . ) "I
am glad to hear you say so." ( B r o n t e . ) No one had noticed
him leave the room, no one knew where he was. ( J e r o m e . )
Andrew observed her hurry off... ( C r o n i n . ) Hewatched the
rain stream and hiss against the leaves... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He
heard a blackbird sing. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
N o t e . — When the verbs to hear and to see express m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n s ,
to hear meaning to learn, to see meaning to understand, they cannot be followed
by an "Accusative with the Infinitive", but require an o b j e c t c l a u s e :
"I hear you have had a wonderful trip." ( H e m i n g w a y . )
b) With verbs expressing p e r m i s s i o n , r e q u e s t , i n t e n t i o n ,
o r d e r , c o m p u l s i o n such as: to allow, to permit, to let, to suf-
fer, to order, to command, to compel, to force, to cause, to make,
to induce, to persuade, to request, to get, to mean, to intend, etc.:
The sunlight was making the pink cliffs glow in the most /
wonderful way... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) She causecTa telegram to be
sent to him. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) She made Sheltonpull into the
reeds... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Why did you get me Jof do that set-
tlement...?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "You know," she said, "I realise
that they don't mean us to be friends." ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The verbs to order, to command, to recommend, to beg, to prom-
ise, etc. are often followed by t w o J n d e p e n d e M n b j e с t s —
a noun (or pronoun) and the infinitive.
"He ordered the cabman to drive on.-." ( L o n d o n . ) My
mother bent her head, and begged her to walk in. ( D i c k e n s . )
The noun (or pronoun) and the infinitive usually form a c o m -
p 1 e x when the noun (or pronoun) expresses an injajw-rrnrt-e—t h i n g
or when the infinitive has a p a s s i v e f o r m :
"I really cannot allow this matter jo go any further without
some explanation." ( D i c k e n s . ) We allowed a little time to
pass before we went in... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) I won't suffer this
barrow to be moved another step. ( D i c k e n s . )
c) With verbs expressing l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g , as to want,
to wish, to desire, to like, to hate, etc.:
"Do you wish me to be at home earlier?" ( B r o n t e . ) "I
can't bear you to be unhappy." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "My father
\ .

' 2 6 1
doesn't want us to know each other..." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Would
you like me to stay?" ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...she and Val would
love Jon to live with them. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I want Florence
to come for me," said Paul. ( D i c k e n s . )
Also with the expressions: I won't have..., would you have..?:
"Would you have me wait?" ( V o y n i c h . ) I won't have you
do such things.
d) With verbs of m e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n s , such as to expect,
to know, to believe, to acknowledge, to understand, to admit, to
assume, to deny, to prove, etc.:
"We've got a right to expect you not to desert our side."
( S n o w . ) ...they had believed me to be without any friends save
them... ( B r o n t e . ) She had never seen my mother, but she knew
her to be not yet twenty. ( D i c k e n s . )
N o t e . —If the action of the finite verb and that of the infinitive refer to
Ihe s a m e p e r s o n or t h i n g a corresponding r e f l e x i v e pronoun
must be used:
Slowly, economically, he got dressed and forced himself to walk. ( L a w -
rence.)
3. Some intransitive (objective) verbs, such as to listen, to rely,
are followed by a prepositional "Accusative with the Infinitive":
...the phone began to ring. She lay motionless, listening to
it ring for several minutes. ( C a l d w e l l . )
4. The infinitives to be, to look, to become, etc. are often used
with the force of 1 i nj^zjv^j; b s and are fol lowed by p r e d i c a t i v e s :
A figure appeared in the distance before long, and I soon
knew it to be Em'ly... ( D i c k e n s . ) He had never seen her to
look prettier... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
5. The "Accusative with the Infinitive" is rendered in Russian by
means of a subordinate object clause:
I heard the bell ring. — Я слышал, как зазвонил звонок. I
want him to come as soon as possible. — Я хочу, чтобы он при-
шёл как можно скорее.
With the verbs to make, to causeu to get the "Accusative with
the Infinitive" is rendered in Russian by a noun (or pronoun) in the
accusative case and an infinitive (if the infinitive in the English con-
struction is in the active voice):
He made me wait. Он заставил меня ждать.
We got him to come. Мы заставили его прийти.
But: Не ordered the doors to be locked.—Он приказал, чтобы
двери были заперты.
' 2 6 2
Nominative with the Infinitive
1. The subject of a sentence is sometimes expressed by a n o u n
( o r p г о n o u п)~апЗ~1ПТ i n f i n i t i v e which follows the predicate.
Although the noun (or pronoun) and the infinitive do not stand
together, they are closely connected and form one syntactical unit —
a c o m p l e x s u b i e с t. The relation between the noun (or pronoun)
ancPthe infinitive~is that of a s e c o n d a r y s u b j e c t and s e c o n -
d a r v p r e d i c a t e . In the sentence The girl was seen to leave the
houseWThe\gtrl.Z Jo leave the house is a complex subject^to the pred-
icate was seen. What was seen is fHe girl in the action of leaving
the house. _A!though the predicate of the sentence agrees only with
the "noun (or pronoun) — The girl was seen to leave the house.
The girls were seen to leave the house — it actually refers to the
whole complex (the girl... to leave the house). This construction is
traditionally called " T h e N o m i n a t i v e w i t h t h e I n f i n i t i v e "
(from the classical " N o m i n a t i v u s c u m I n f i n i t i v o " ) .
2. The "Nominative with the Infinitive" is used:
a) with verbs expressing p e r m i s s i o n , r e q u e s t , intention,
o r d e r , c o m p u l s i o n such as to allow, to permit, to suffer, to
order, to command, to compel, to force, to make, to request, to mean,
to intend, etc.:
Her aunt must be made not to tell her father that she knew.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The fountains were once more made to throw
up their sparkling showers. ( I r v i n g . ) They were requested to
be ready by 7 o'clock. They were ordered to enter the cell.
( M a c a u lay.) Mrs. Pullet's front-door mats were by no means
intended to wipe shoes on... ( E l i o t . )
b) with verbs expressing p e r c e p t i o n of the s e n s e s , as to
hear, to see, to feel, etc.:
They were seen to leave the house early in the morning.
The garden-gate was heard to bang. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Those
windows would be seen by daylight to be of brilliantly-stained
glass... ( B r o n t e . )
c) with verbs of mental p e r c e p t i o n s , such as to expect, to
know, to believe, to deny, etc.:
W h a t evenings, when the candles came, and I was expected
to employ myself, but not daring to read an entertaining book.
( D i c k e n s . ) Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man
without fortune. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Two months are supposed to
have elapsed. ( H e n r y . ) Mr. Rochester had left for London
three weeks ago, but was then expected to return in a fortnight.
( B r o n t e . ) He was believed to have a bedroom at the back.
(Galsworthy.)
' 2 6 3
d) with verbs of s a y i n g and r e p o r t i n g , such as to say, to
report, etc.:
The pilot is reported to have started on his flight early in
the* morning. Mr. Qilp could scarcely be said to be of any par-
ticular trade or calling... ( D i c k e n s . ) The Bennets were speade-
Iy pronounced to be the luckiest family in the world. ( A u s t e n . )
These islands are said to have been discovered as early as 1762...
(Рое.)
e) with such verbs as to seem, to appear, to happen, to prove, to
fchance. Here the predicate is in the active voice.
Also with to be sure (^rtain^lWstyyr
This morning's sunshine faded amid slow-gathering clouds, but
something of its light seems still to linger in the air, and to
touch the rain which is falling softly. ( G i s s i n g . ) He appears to
/ be very strong... ( D i c k e n s . ) "I just happened to be passing,
so I dropped in." ( G o r d o n . ) "...I should think he is very likely
to stay a week or more... ( B r o n t e . ) "He is sure to come back."
(Doyle.)
3. The meaning of a sentence with a "Nominative with the Infin-
itive" may be rendered by using the a n t i c i p a t o r y it:
It was reported that the expedition had landed safely (synony-
mous to The expedition was- reported to have landed safely). It
is expected that he will arrive at two o'clock. It seemed that
they were satisfied with the results of the experiment. It is said
that six million tons of stone were used in the construction of
the Great Pyramid... ( S t a n l e y . ) It was said that he was a
marvellous chauffeur, at once daring and prudent. ( B e n n e t t . )
4. With some verbs, such as to make, to know, to see, to hear,
to order, to allow, to permit, etc. both the "Nominative with the.
Infinitive" and the "Accusative with the Infinitive" may be used:
The fountains were once more made to throw up their spark-
ling showers. ( I r v i n g . ) (Nominative with the Infinitive.) A few
light taps upon the pane made him turn to the window. ( J o y c e . )
(Accusative with the Infinitive.) Philip Bosinney. was known to
be a^young man without fortune. (Ga 1 s w ^ T T f r y . ) ^(Nominative
with the Infinitive.) She had never seen my mother but she knew
her to be not twenty. ( D i c k e n s . ) (Accusative with the Infini-
tive.)
5. In Russian the "Nominative with the Infinitive" is usually
rendered by a subordinate object clause depending on a principal
clausex with an indefinite subject implied (неопределённо-личное пред-
ложение), such as говорят, сообщают, ожидают, etc.:'
' 2 6 4
He is said to be very ill. — Говорят, что он очень болен. The
expedition is reported to have reached the Pole—Сообщают, что
экспедиция, достигла полюса. — She was not expected to reply,
but she did. — He ожидали, что она ответит, но она ответила.

Constructions with the Subject of the Infinitive Introduced by for


(/or-Phrases)

In a number of cases the preposition for introduces a construction


in which a noun (in the common case) or a pronoun (in the objec-
tive case) has an infinitive attached to it:
It is necessary for us to start immediately.
The relation between the noun (or pronoun) and the infinitive is
that of secondary subject and secondary predicate (for us to go there =
that we should go there):
"Perhaps it is better for me to stay," she thought. (Con-
rad.) "It's out of the question for you to go again just now."
( V o y n i c h . ) It was really warm for May, and still light enough
for him to see his cows in the meadow beyond the river. ( G a l s -
worthy.)
Compare the following two sets of sentences:
1. The s u b j e c t of the infini- ' 2. The s u b j e c t of the infini-
tive is the s u b j e c t of itive (secondary subject) is
the sentence: introduced by for:
We are sorry to leave the We are sorry for you to leave
seaside so soon. the seaside so soon.
I have closed the window not I have closed the window for
to catch cold. you not to catch cold.
I bought a book to read it I bought a book for you to
on my trip. read it on your trip.
In this construction a shifting in the relation of words took place: formerly
the noun or pronoun with the preposition -for was connected with the preceding
word, later it began to be associated with the following infinitive as its subject:
It is necessary for you Ц to go there.
It is necessary Ц for you to go there.
These for-phrases present syntactical complexes which have
various functions in the sentence.
A /or-phrase may be used as:
a) A c o m p l e x - s u b j e c t :
"For you to come here is impossible..." (Galsworthy.)
A complex subject is often introduced by the anticipatory it:
' 2 6 5
It was very difficult for me to believe that there was a gap
of full two months between my return to Salem House and the
arrival of that birthday. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...I still thought it might
be worth while for me to go round to Gay's. ( S n o w . ) "It's extreme-
ly funny for me to be consoling you." ( S n o w . )
b)A complex predicative:
"Then the best thing will be for me to go home and settle
everything now... ( V o y n i c h . ) "That is for me to decide, is it not?"
(Doyle.)
c) A c o m p l e x object:
...he had longed for me to say it without prompting... (Snow.)
She had wanted to wait for the moon to rise... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
. ...I would like for you to know her. ( H e n r y . )
d) A c o m p l e x a t t r i b u t e:
Eppie was a suitable child for them to take into their home.
( E l i o t . ) There was milk in the ice-chest for her to drink...
( C u s a c k . ) Here is a new companion for you to shake hands
with, Tulliver... ( E l i o t . )
e)A complex adverbial modifier of 1) p u r p o s e or
2) r e s u l t :
1) P u r p o s e :
I left something under your door for you to read it. ( C a r -
ter.) So he ran in to Mrs. Inges, next door but one, for her to
talk to him. ( L a w r e n c e . ) Mr. Peggotty stopped for us to join
him. (Dickens.)
2) Result:
"Dear", she said, "are we not friends enough by now for you
to trust me a little bit?" ( V o y n i c h . ) But five minutes was
enough for them to understand one another. (Cr o n in.) "The
tide is still low enough for you to get round the cliff to the
village." ( L o c k e . ) ...he tried to persuade Gay that it was too
chilly for him to stay there in the open. ( S n o w . ) His home
. was too far west for anyone to come to meet him. (C u s а с к.)

Infinitive Phrases

1. I n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e s introduced by conjunctive adverbs


(when, where, why, how), conjunctive pronouns (who, what, which)
and \by the conjunction whether, are used in the sentence as s u b -
j e c t , p r e d i c a t i v e , o b j e c t or a t t r i b u t e :
' 2 6 6
What to do was beyond him. ( D r e i s e r . ) (subject.) Wal-
ter's chief difficulty was, how to break the change in his affairs
to Uncle Sol. ( D i c k e n s . ) (predicative.) I did not know what
answer to make to his question... ( B r o n t e . ) (object.) Ben had
tried once before... to show the boy how to fly a plane. (Al-
d r i d g e . ) (object.) She... knew no one with whom to trust the
little girl. ( L a w r e n c e . ) (attribute.)
2. The infinitive also forms p a r e n t h e t i c a l phrases, (phrase-
ological (set) expressions) such as: to tell the truth, to be sure, to be
quite plain, to be more precise, to resume the thread of the story, to
cut a long story short, etc. (See Syntax, "Independent Elements", p. 395)
"To speak truth, sir, I don't understand you at all... (Bron-
te.) "To be sure," rejoined his brother, "it would be a thousand
pities to throw away such a chance of fun." ( B r o n t e . ) To cut
a long story short, we at length entered an immense cavern.
(Irving.)
Infinitive Sentences
1. I n f i n i t i v e s e n t e n c e s are usually o n e - m e m b e r s e n -
t e n c e s in which the p r i n c i p a l p a r t is expressed by an i n f i n -
itive.
Infinitivesentencesmaybe d e c l a r a t i v e or i n t e r r o g a t i v e
and, being always emotionally coloured, are usually e x c l a m a -
tory.
The infinitive in this type of sentence is used either with the
particle to or without it:
Leave grass like this! ...Leave his job before it had begun!
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Blame her with justice! !..No! I am not as
blind as that." ( D i c k e n s . ) To be lonely and grow older and older
yearning for a soul to speak to! ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) How tell him!
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Besides, how keep definite direction without a
compass, in the dark? ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. Sometimes the s u b j e c t of the infinitive is expressed by a
p r o n o u n (or n o u n ) , then the infinitive sentence is a t w o -
m e m b e r s e n t e n c e , the infinitive having the function of the
predicate:
"I quarrel?" cried Jasper, ( C o n r a d . ) (Чтобы я ссорился?)
"But Dot? I hope and pray that I might learn to love you? How
you talk!" ( D i c k e n s . ) His son, his eldest son, descend to this!
(Norris.)
The Infinitive in Analytical Verb-Forms
The infinitive is used to form:
a) The f u t u r e and f u t u r e-i n-t h ee-p a s t:
"I'm afraid you will miss the last bus... ( A l d i n g t o n . ) They
told me Julia would return directly. ( S h e r i d a n . )
'267
' b) The a n a l y t i c a l forms of the o b l i q u e moods:
What would have been her thoughts if she had known that
he was steadily regarding her... ( D i c k e n s . ) (conditional mood.)
She proposed that we should go upstairs and see my room.
( D i c k e n s . ) (suppositional mood.)
c) N e g a t i v e and i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms of the present and
past tenses (common aspect) and the negative imperative:
"I don't care about it, mother... ( B r o n t e . ) "How do you
feel?" ( B r o n t e . ) "What does she want?" ( B r o n t e . ) "I didn't
mean that." ( L o n d o n . ) "Why did I never hear of this?" ( B r o n t e . )
"Don't come near me!" ( D i c k e n s . )

THE GERUND

Origin and Development. The gerund is a descendant of the Old English


verJjaL^ioua and the present participle; hence its double nature and its noun and
verb characteristics. "
In the Old English period the verbal noun had the endings -ing, -ung\ in
Middle English the ending was -ing(e). The present participle in Old English
had the ending -ende which in Middle English was replaced by -inge as the
result of a confusion of constructions with the verbal noun and the participle.
Thus the verbal noun and the participle became merged into one form -ing(e),
the modern* -ing. As the result of the blending of the two forms, the verbal
noun in -ing began to develop verbal characteristics under the influence of the
participle, !reconstructions where in 'Middle English and in Early Modern Eng-
lish the verbal noun, like any other noun, was preceded by the definite article
and followed by the preposition of (He thanked him for the saving of his life.
Compare: He thanked him for the preservation of his life.), the article as
well as the preposition of were gradually dropped, the mg-form taking the
noun following as its direct object (He thanked him for saving his life), thus
crystallizing into a new form, the g e r u n d . The following examples show the
gradual transition from the verbal noun to the gerund; the mg-noun still retains
' the article, but the preposition has already disappeared:
Nothing in his life || Became him like the leaving it. ( S h a k e s p e a r e . )
With the finding the little infant. ( F i e l d i n g . )
Later on the gerund, becoming more and more verbal, developed tense dis-
tinctions and the passive voice, and preserving still its syntactical characteristics of
a noun assumed to a great extent the dynamic force of a verb.
The gerund has both verb and noun characteristics.

Verb-Characteristics of the Gerund

The gerund has the following verb-characteristics:


1. It has t e n s e f o r m s — i n d e f i n i t e and p e r f e x t . The
tenses of the gerund comprise relative time indication.
I n d e f i n i t e : writing, being written
P e r f e c t : having written, having been written
' 2 6 8
a) The i n d e f i n i t e gerund expresses that the action denoted
by the gerund is s i m u l t a n e o u s with the action of the Jinite
form of the verb in the sentence:
...she enjoyed sitting in the sun... ( H a r r a d e n . ) I was tired
of reading and dead sleepy... ( D i c k e n s . ) Jolyon stood a mo-
ment without speaking. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
The indefinite gerund may also refer to the future when it de-
pends on such verbs as to intend, to insist, etc.:
I intend going there to-morrow. She insists on starting at
six o'clock. I rely on his doing it properly.
b) The p e r f e c t gerund indicates that the action of the gerund
p r e c e d e s the action of the finite verb in the sentence:
He did not remember ever having seen her in black. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) He was conscious of having acted very fairly...
(Eliot.)
The indefinite gerund is commonly used instead of the perfect
gerund after the prepositions MLXaPotl) an
^ after because the mean-
ing of the preposition itself indicates that the action of the gerund
precedes that of the finite verb:
... I paused outside the parlour door, on hearing my mother's
voice. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...my mother, after vainly trying to restrain
herself, began to cry. ( D i c k e n s . ) That was what she did this
morning on reaching the attic. ( E l i o t . ) After taking her elder
cousin across, Fleur did not land at once... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
But the perfect gerund may also be found after on and after:
My bed at night was under another haystack, where I rested
comfortably, after having washed my blistered feet in a stream,
and dressed them as well as I was able, with some cool leaves.
(Dickens.)
The indefinite gerund is also often used after the verb to remem-
ber to indicate an action p r i o r to the action of the finite verb:
"Don't you remember your coming to the coach to meet me,
and ^ my having breakfast here, and our riding out to Blunderstone
toge'ther...?" ( D i c k e n s . ) "...I can still remember running down
the sandhills in the morning." ( C u s a c k . )
But also: He did not remember ever having been in that room.
(G a 1 s w о r t hy.)
2. The gerund of transitive verbs expresses v o i c e :
A c t i v e : writing, having written
P a s s i v e : being written, having been written
' 2 6 9
Active:
He was on the point от resuming his promenade... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) The rain showed no sign of stopping. ( M a u g h a m . )
Passive:
...the need of beingktxed, the strongest need in poor Maggie's
nature, began to wresfflewith her pride... ( E l i o t . ) I felt very
brave at being left alone in the solitary house the protector of
Em'Iy and Mrs. Gummidge... ( D i c k e n s . )
As the passive voice is of later development, we still find in
Modern English instances when the active form of the gerund is pas-
sive in meaning; those constructions are survivals of the time when
one and the same form was used with active and passive meaning.
The gerund is always used in the active form with passive mean-
ing after the verbs to need, to want, to require, to deserve-, also'
after the adjective worth:
The car needs repairing ( = being repaired). ...the house wants
painting. (G a 1 sAv-e-fTHy) "We... saw all the plays that were
worth seeing. ( D i c k e n s . )

% Active Passive

Indefinite: writing being written

Perfect: having written having been written

3. In common with the finite forms of the verb, the gerund is


~ m o d if i e d by an a d v e r b :

Jon had a passion for birds, and an aptitude for sitting very
still to watch them... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...another thought, too,
kept him from seriously contemplating any desperate act. .(Har-
. d y.) He gathered up a handful of pebbles and began snapping
them carefully into the creek. ( N o r r i s . )
4. It may have an o b j e c t ; if the verb is t r a n s i t i v e , it has
a direct object:

She began clipping the flowers and arranging them in a vase.


( V o y n i c h . ) After talking to us for a moment he left... ( C r o n i n . )
She wondered at his caring for things like that... ( M a n s f i e l d . )
' 2 7 0
Noun-Characteristics of the Gerund
1. As a n o u n , the gerund is used as the s u b j e с t or o b j e c t
(direct or prepositional) of the sentence. When used as an a t t r i b u t e
or a d v e r b i a l m o d i f i e r , the gerund also clearly shows its
nominal character; it is always preceded by a p r e p o s i t i o n , , which
is a formal mark of the noun:'
Crossing the river was a hard task, (subject.) ...she enjoyed
sitting in the sun... ( H a r r a d e n . ) (direct object.) "Excuse me
for interrupting you, Mr. Winterbourne." ( A l d i n g t o n . ) (prep-
ositional object.) Mark was in the habit of so saying... ( K i n g -
s l e y . ) (attribute.) On reaching the bedroom, we heard the voice
of Miss Scatcherd... ( B r o n t § . ) (adverbial modifier.)
2. Besides, when the gerund is associated with the doer of its
action (forming a complex), the noun or pronoun expressing that
doer is used grammatically as an attribute (possessive) to the gerund,
and this attributive relation strengthens the noun character of the
gerund (see "Constructions [Complexes] with the Gerund," p. 274).
At first I was in daily dread of his taking my education in
hand again, or of Miss Murdstone's devoting herself to it..,
(Dickens.)

The Functions of the Gerund in the Sentence


The gerund is used:
1. As s u b j e c t :
Swimming against the current was difficult. Learning rules
without examples is useless. Watching and ministring Kit was
her best care. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Avoiding difficulties is not m^
method. ( S n o w . )
When the subject of the sentence is a g e r u n d i a l p h r a s e ,
it is sometimes placed after the predicate. Then the sentence begins,
with the anticipatory it:
"It had been just splendid meeting you here." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ,
It was no good worrying. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) It's no use crying.;
over spilt milk.
N o t e . — The g e r u n d may be used as s u b j e c t in the construction,
there is no...:
When she took a thing into her head there was no stopping her.. ( G a l s -
w o r t h y - ) (...её нельзя было остановить.) "...there's no denying the fact,
says he... (J e г о m e.)
2. As p r e d i c a t i v e :
Deciding is acting. Her aim is mastering English ipthe short-,
est time possible. His first-job was getting her tea. (,C.usack.),
\) 271
3. As part of a c o m p o u n d v e r b a l p r e d i c a t e , associated
with the finite form of verbs denoting t h e b e g i n n i n g , the
d u r a t i o n or t h e e n d of an action, such as to begin, to start,
to burst out, to go on, to keep (on), to continue, to stop, to
leave o f f , to finish, to give up, to have done (= to finish), etc.
Also with some verbs which have m o d a l m e a n i n g , such as:
to intend, to try, to attempt, and with can't help. The verbs to
begin, to start, to continue, to intend, to try and to attempt may
.also be followed by an infinitive (see "The Infinitive," p. 256).
A cuckoo began calling from a thorn tree. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
"And do leave off worrying about him, papa." ( G o n r a d . ) It
was by this time half-past five, and the sun was on the point
of rising... ( B r o n t e . ) Anthony finished cutting and buttering
the rolls. ( G o r d o n . ) She went on sketching, I went on thinking.
( B r o n t e . ) He looked up and burst out laughing ( V o y n i c h . )
...the frost kept snapping the little twigs on either side of them,
as. they passed... ( W i l d e . ) "I can't help feeling the parting with
him... ( K i n g s ley.) Stop talking! Have you done writing?
N o t e . — When to stop is followed by an i n f i n i t i v e , the latter has the
function of an adverbial modifier of purpose:
He put down the flowers and stopped to pat the dog. (V о у n i с h.) Here
the old gentleman stopped to laugh; and having done so, to his heart's content,
presently resumed... ( D i c k e n s . )
4. A s d i r e c t o b j e c t : - , -
a) To verbs associated only with the gerund, such as: to avoid,
to delay, to put o f f , to postpone, to mind (negative and interrogative
forms), to excuse, to fancy, to want ( = to need), to require, to need:
Avoid making mistakes. They postponed giving a definite
answer. Don't put off preparing your lessons. Excuse my inter-
rupting you. This bookshelf needs mending.
I delayed breaking the news... even to George... ( S n o w . )
"Fancy having to go back to-night," said Marion. ( S n o w . )
...the house wanted painting. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "You won't mind
carrying my bag?" Adam lightly asked me... ( C r o n i n . )
b) To the adjectives like, busy and worth:
"It seems like years since anyone made me feel like laughing."
( W i l s o n . ) "We... saw all the plays that were worth seeing."
( D i c k e n s . ) ...Ada was busy writing... ( D i c k e n s . )
c) To verbs which may be associated with both the gerund and
the infinitive, such as to neglect, to omit, to like, to dislike, to hate,
to detest, to prefer, to enjoy, to regret, to remember, to forget, to
propose. ' z.
Also with can't bear, can't afford:
' 2 7 2
She likes sitting (or to sit) in the sun. I hate being bothered
(or to be bothered) with silly questions. I regret having said (or
to have said) all this to her. She preferred staying (or to stay)
at home on such a wet day. He proposed starting (or to start)
at daybreak. She neglected tidying (or to tidy) her room. I forget
doing it ( = t h a t I did it). I forget to do it ( = t h a t I must do it).
I remember going there ( = that I went there). I remember to go
there ( = that 1 must go there). I hate being idle (or to be idle).
I dislike wasting (or to waste) time on trifles. I can't bear seeing
(or to see) the child cry. "1 remember, gentlemen" said Mr. Pell,
"dining with him on one occasion." ( D i c k e n s . ) "I greatly dislike
being contradicted." ( S h a w . ) She couldn't bear being read to
any longer. ( S h a w . ) ...she enjoyed sitting in the sun... (Har-
r a ' d e n.)
5. As p r e p o s i t i o ' n a l object:
a) To such verbs as te think (of...),' to persist (in...), to rely
(on...), to depend (on...), to object (to...), to thank (for...), to pre-
vent (from...), to insist (on...), to succeed (in...), to devote (to...),
to assist (in...):
Our work is devoted to building Communism in our country.
1 begin to pride myself on knowing every road and lane,
every bridle path and foot-way for miles about. ( G i s s i n g . ) They
talked of going somewhere else afterwards... ( D r e i s e r . ) I invit-
ed him to my room, but he made an excuse for going home.
(Snow.)
b) To such adjectives and participles II (used mostly predicatively)
as fond (of...), tired (of...), proud (of...), ignorant (of...), used
(to...):
He was never tired of talking to me about her, and I was
never tired of hearing. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "I am well used to trav-
elling... ( D i c k e n s . ) I was always fond of visiting new scenes,
and observing strange characters and manners. ( I r v i n g . ) Silvia
was overjoyed at receiving an early reply from her mother...
(Mackenzie.)
^ c) To nouns derived from verbs and adjectives such as hope, in-
tention, difficulty, necessity, possibility, etc.:
...she felt a strange certainty of being watched, and turning,
saw Irene in the open doorway. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...she had come
for good, and had no intention of ever going again. ( D i c k e n s . )
There was no possibility of taking a walk that day. ( B r o n t e . )
6. As a t t r i b u t e (always witlr a preposition, mostly of) to-
such nouns as habit, idea, risk, method, way,'custom, etc.:
18—3300 273
...she begged the favour of being shown to her room... (Dick-
e n s . ) There was an old door in this play-ground, on which
the boys had a custom of carving their names. ( D i c k e n s . ) "1
am getting into your involved habit, Watson, of telling a story
backwards." (D о у 1 е.)
7. As a d v e r b i a l m o d i f i e r (always with a preposition):
On arriving at the garden entrance, he stopped to look at the
view. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (time.) ...after talking to us for a mo-
ment he left to get his train on the other side. (Cr o n in.)
(time.) Maggie soon got out of breath with running... ( E l i o t . )
(cause.) The rain poured down without ceasing. ( M a u g h a m . )
(manner.) .
For the function of the gerund as s e c o n d a r y predicate
in a gerundial complex see "Constructions (Complexes) with the
Gerund", p. 274.
For the function of the gerund as t h e n o m i n a l p a r t of a
c o m p l e x o b j e c t with an objective predicative see "The Use of the
Pronoun It as an Object", p. 372.

The Infinitive and the Gerund


The -gerund is cf a more g e n e r a l , abstract character
than the infinitive:
She does not like going there (in general) — Она не любит
ходить туда. She does not Tike to go there (on a certain occa-
sion)— Ей не хочется идти туда. I like skating (in general),
but I do not like to skate to-day (on such a cold day).
\ The infinitive often serves to indicate a p e r f e c t i v e action;
' the gerund, an i m p e r f e c t i v e :
He likes to smoke (выкурить) a cigarette and then to go for
a walk. He likes smoking (курить) a cigarette by the fireside.
The action of the infinitive often refers to the subject of the
sentence, whereas the action of the gerund used in the same con-
nection is not necessarily associated with the agent expressed by the
subject of the sentence, but may also refer to some other agent:
She does not like to trifle with serious things ( = herself.) She
does not like trifling with serious things (=either herself or when
somebody else does it.)

Constructions (Complexes) with the Gerund


1. Sometimes the gerund is preceded by a possessive pronoun or
a noun in the possessive case:
1 insist on Mary's (her) going there.
' 2 7 4
In this construction the relation between the noun (or pronoun)
and the gerund is that of secondary subject and secondary predicate
(Marys [her] going = чтобы Мэри [она] пошла туда.)
Such a construction may have the function of a c o m p l e x s u b -
ject, p r e d i c a t i v e , o b j e c t , a t t r i b u t e or a d v e r b i a l
modifier.
Jim's coming to that fishing village was a blessing... (Con-
r a d . (complex subject.) I began to picture to myself... my being
found dead in a day or two, under some hedge... ( D i c k e n s . )
(complex direct object.) She wondered at his caring for things
like that... ( M a n s f i e l d . ) (complex prepositional object.) There
was little likelihood of his meeting anybody at that time. ( J o y c e . )
(complex * attribute.) "How did you get out without his seeing
you?" ( V o y n i c h . ) (complex adverbial modifier.)
A gerundial complex used as s u b j e c t is often introduced by
an anticipatory it:
It was quitninexpected his coming back so soon. It is not
worth while your going there to-day. It's not much good my
coming, is it?
Perhaps it's of no use my mentioning it at present. (E 1 i о t.)
It was not of the least use my trying to look wise. ( D i c k e n s . )
2. If the noun which precedes the gerund cannot be used in the
possessive case, the c o m m o n c a s e is used:
He did not recollect such a thing having happened to him
before. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Meanwhile, the rain came down in a
steady torrent, and the lower part of the town was under water,
owing to the river having overflowed. ( J e r o m e . )
In Modern English there is a tendency to use t h e c o m m o n
c a s e even with such nouns which may be used in the possessive
case, and to use the objective case of personal pronouns:
I remember my brother-in-law going for a short sea trip onct
for the benefit of his health. ( J e r o m e . ) On Mr. Brown calling
to him to corhe in, he found himself in a little back room...
( D i c k e n s . ) "You must forgive me coming at such an hour..."
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The umbrella strained and pulled and I felt us
driving along with it. ( H e m i n g w a y . )
The ing-form when preceded by a noun in the common case 01
a pronoun in the objective case has a function jptprmpdiatp bptwoan
that n f P^rtlVlPlfa F thp
g p n i n f i / rely on John (him) doing
it in time. On the one hand this construction is closely connected
in meaning with the gerundial construction / rely on JohnfS (his)
doing it in time; on the other hand it reminds us of the participle
construction ("Accusative with the Participle"): I saw John (him)
doing it. Such an mg-form may be called a h a l f - g e r u n d .
18* 275
3. The gerund of such verbs as to be, to get, to become, to re-
main, etc. is often used with the force of a l i n k - v e r b and is fol-
lowed by a p r e d i c a t i v e :
Just before dinner he was told of Mrs. Stormer's not being
well... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "Won't you sit down?" she said. "You
must forgive our being at work." ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ...you'll
excuse my being busy. ( D i c k e n s . )

Rendering of the Gerund in Russian


The gerund may be rendered in Russian by an i n f i n i t i v e , a
n o u n , or a whole s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e :
They got into the habit of going Они привыкли ходить вместе
to the cinema together. в кино.
Learning rules without examples Заучивание правил (заучивать
is useless. правила) без примеров беспо-
лезно.
Don't you remember meeting me Разве вы не помните, что встре-
in Leningrad? чали меня в Ленинграде?
When the gerund is used as an adverbial modifier it is often
rendered in Russian by «деепричастие».
On returning home I found the Возвратясь домой, я нашел у
doctor there. себя доктора.
Complexes with the gerund are usually rendered in Russian by
whole subordinate clauses:
Excuse my interrupting you. — Простите, что я тс пере-
биваю. I insist on your going there immediately. — Я настаиваю
на том, чтобы вы пошли туда немедленно. Our missing the
train \^as most vexing. — Было крайне досадно, что мы опозда-
ли на поезд. You will discuss it after my leaving. — Вы это
обсудите после того, как я уйду, (or: после моего ухода).

The Gerund and the Verbal Noun


In the English language besides the gerund which is half-verb,
half-noun, there is a p u r e v e r b a l n o u n ending in -ing.
Let us draw a parallel between these two forms:
The Gerund The Verbal Noun
t. The gerund has no p l u r a l . 1. The verbal noun may be used
in the p 1 u r a 1: *
Butallthesayingsanddoings
and thinkings, being unknown
to Mr. Swiveller, affected
him not in the least. ( D i c k -
ens.)
'276
2. The gerund has t e n s e and 2. The verbal noun has naturally
v o i c e forms: n e i t h e r t e n s e nor v o i c e
The pleasure of seeing her forms.
again was intensified extraor-
dinary by the welcome in her
eyes... (С г о n i n.) He did not
remember ever having seen her
in black. (Galsworthy.)
She couldn't bear being read
to any longer. ( S h a w . )
3. The gerund has n o a r t i c l e : 3. The verbal noun m a y h a v e
an a r t i c l e (definite or in-
definite):
The rain showed no sign of At the same moment a
stopping... ( M a u g h a m . ) clapping of hands... told that
the waltz had ended. (J о у с е.)
Не was interrupted by the
ringing of the telephone.
(Cr o n in.)
i. The gerund is modified by an 4. The verbal -noun is modified
adverb: by an a d j e c t i ve:
...I was tired of sitting still The early coming of spring
in the library through a whole in this happy Devon glad-
long morning... ( B r o n t e . ) dens my heart. ( G i s s i n g . )
.5. The gerund of a transitive 5. A verbal noun formed from
verb has a d i r e c t o b j e c t : a transitive verb cannot have
a direct object, but takes
an o b j e c t preceded by the
preposition of:
He was on the point of re- The getting of Sophia's tick-
suming his promenade... et to Bursley occupied them
(Galsworthy.) next. ( B e n n e t t . )

THE PARTICIPLE

1. The p a r t i с i p 1 e is intermediate between v e r b and a d j e c -


t i v e (it is a v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e ) and partially between v e r b
and a d v e r b (then it is a v e r b a l a d v e r b ) .
As an adjective the participle is connected with a noun-word in
the sentence, either as an a t t r i b u t e or as a p r e d i c a t i v e :
Dr. Maephail looked at the falling rain. (M а и g h a m.) (at-
tribute.) ... a broken child's toy lies upon the floor... ( D i c k -
e n s . ) (attribute.) ...the pigeons were perched, quite still, on
the edge of the dove-cot... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (predicative.)
'277
In its attributive or predicative function the English participle
corresponds to the Russian причастие:
The rising sun — восходящее солнце. The book-cover is
torn. — Переплёт книги разорван.
2. But as the English participle (as all Modern English adjec-
tives) has lost its forms of agreement with the noun with which il
is connected, and is no longer formally bound to that noun, it is
sometimes attracted by the verb, thus assuming the force of an
a d v e r b i a l m o d i f i e r . In such cases it corresponds to the Rus-
sian деепричастие:
Having finished my lessons I went home. — Окончив уроки,
я пошёл домой. Having no time I could not get there. — He
имея времени, я не мог туда пойти.
The adverbial force is especially felt in participle I perfect:
...having taken the key from the lock, she led the way up-
stairs. ( B r o n t e . ) (adverbial modifier of time.) And Michael,
having paid the driver, looked at her lighted up in the open
doorway. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (adverbial modifier of time.)
3. In many cases two interpretations are possible. In such sen-
tences" as: The children rushed into the room laughing loudly,
laughing may be considered as an adverbial modifier of manner to
the predicate rushed, or as a' predicative to the subject the children.
In the Russian sentence Дети вбежали в комнату, громко смеясь,
смеясь (деепричастие) is connected only with the verb вбежали. If
it were смеющиеся (причастие) it would be connected only with the
subject дети. Thus in Russian where we have two distinct forms,
причастие and деепричастие, their syntactical functions are clear-
cut.
4. As a verb, the participle has distinctions of v o i c e and
tense.
The participle has also other characteristics in common with the
finite verb: -

a) It may be modified by an a d v e r b :
His son saw him gravely hanging up his coat... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) The captain walked up and down looking straight
before him. ( C o n r a d . )

b) It may have an о b j e с t; if the verb is t r a n s i t i v e , it


has a d i r e c t o b j e c t :
...she heard Justine starting a fire in the kitchen. ( C a l d w e l l . )
She sat plying her needle, and singing to herself. ( D i c k e n s . )
' 2 7 8
Participle 1 and Participle Il
1. There are two participles in English: P a r t i c i p l e I (tra-
ditionally called the P r e s e n t P a r t i c i p l e ) and P a r t i c i p l e
II (traditionally called the P a s t P a r t i c i p l e ) .
2. P a r t i c i p l e I has t e n s e distinctions:
non-perfect: writing
perfect: having written
The tense-forms of the participle similar to those of the infini-
tive and the gerund comprise r e l a t i v e time indication — they
denote that the action of the participle is either s i m u l t a n e o u s
with the action expressed by the finite verb or p r i o r to it.
The n o n - p e r f e c t f o r m of P a r t i c i p l e I usually expresses
that the action of the participle is simultaneous with the action of
the f i n i t e f o r m of t h e v e r b (in the present, past or future):
...I see Mr. Rochester entering. ( B r o n t e . ) ...no moving
form is visible, no coming step audible... ( B r o n t e . ) ...The
fresh air, flowing through my open window cooled and composed
me. ( C o l l i n s . ) The last soft light of the setting sun had fall-
en on the earth... ( D i c k e n s . ) He heard the soft snow falling
from a branch... ( H e m i n g w a y . ) He found her sitting at the
breakfast table. (H a r d у.) I spent the morning on the cliff read-
ing, and watching the sun-sparks raining on the sea. ( G a l s -
worthy.)
Depending on its syntactical function (attributive or adverbial)
P a r t i c i p l e I n o n - p e r f e c t is rendered in Russian by действи-
тельное причастие настоящего времени or деепричастие несовер-
шенного вида:
The last soft light of the setting sun... — последний мягкий
отблеск заходящего солнца...
I spent the morning on the cliff reading...—Я провёл утро
на скалах, читая...
Sometimes p a r t i c i p l e I n o n - p e r f e c t expresses an action
of a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r in the present, past or future (depend-
ing on the time indicated by the finite verb):
On the terrace was a broad wooden bench running round the
walls ( V o y n i c h . ) Yesterday I passed by an elm avenue lead-
ing to a beautiful old house. ( G i s s i n g . )
P a r t i c i p l e I n o n - p e r f e c t may occasionally express p r e s -
e n t t i m e a b s o l u t e l y without any reference to the time in-
dicated by the finite verb:
The tower looming in the distance was built in the XV
century.
'279
P a r t i c i p l e I n o n - p e r f e c t of t e r m i n a t i v e verbs (пре-
дельные глаголы) such as to arrive, to enter, to close, to open,
to pass, to crobs, etc., used in the function of an adverbial
m o d i f i e r of t i m e usually indicates that the action of the par-
ticiple is p r i o r to the action of the v e r b - p r e d i c a t e . In these
cases the action of the verb-predicate closely follows that of the
participle:
Arriving at home and going upstairs, we found that my guard-
ian was out... ( D i c k e n s . ) He went upstairs again... and enter-
ing his room, switched on the light. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Passing
into the ante-room, he sat down on the edge of a chair... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) It was Soames, who, crossing from the shady side of
Piccadilly, ...had suddenly appeared alongside. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
When p a r t i c i p l e I n o n - p e r f e c t of a t e r m i n a ' t i v e
verb expresses p r i o r i t y , it is rendered in Russian by дееприча-
стие совершенного вида.
Passing into the ante-room, he sat down on the edge of a
chair... (G a 1 s w о r t h у.) = Пройдя в переднюю, он сел на
край стула...
Sometimes p a r t i c i p l e I n o n - p e r f e c t of t e r m i n a t i v e •
verbs expresses s i m u l t a n e o u s n e s s with the action of the finite
verb:
Coming down v the stairs, he was full of happiness. ( S n o w . )
Crossing the street to catch his bus, he saw her drive by in her
smart two-seater. ( G o r d o n . )
P a r t i c i p l e I n o n-p e r f e с t always expresses s i m u l t a -
n e o u s n e s s when it is introduced by the conjunctions when and while:
While emptying the buckets at the back of the house he
could hear an animated conversation in progress within-doors..
(Henry.)
In those cases p a r t i c i p l e I n o n - p e r f e c t is rendered in
Russian by деепричастие несовершенного вида:
Спускаясь с лестницы, он весь сиял от переполнявшего его
счастья...
The p e r f e c t f o r m of p a r t i c i p l e I denotes that the
action of the participle p r e c e d e s the action of the f i n i t e
f o r m of t h e v e r b in the sentence:
One day he came in having just received some letters...
( G a s k e l l . ) I am going the same day myself having been de-
tained here two days by the flood. ( G o l d s m i t h . ) Having
crossed the marsh, I saw a trace of white over the moor.
(Bronte.)
'280
P a r t i c i p l e I p e r f e c t is rendered in Russian by дееприча-
стие совершенного вида:
One day he came in having just received some letters...—
Однажды он пришёл, только что получив несколько писем.
3. P a r t i c i p l e II has no tense-forms. It expresses either that
the action of the participle p r e c e d e s the action of the finite form
of the verb, or that it is s i m u l t a n e o u s to the action of the
finite form.
This difference depends on the lexical character of the verb.
With t e r m i n a t i v e verbs (see "Terminative, Durative and Mixed
Verbs", p. 135) Participle Il expresses an action already completed,
that is, an action which precedes the action expressed by the finite
form of the verb in the sentence (broken, opened closed, translated,
built, made, written, etc.):
A few rough logs, laid side by side, served for a bridge over
this stream. ( I r v i n g . ) A few early fallen oakleaves strewed the
terrace already... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Andrew lay with closed
eyes... (Cr o n in.) ...a broken child's toy lies upon the floor...
(Dickens.)
But depending on the context, participle II of a terminative verb
may lose its perfective meaning and indicate an action which is
simultaneous to the action of the finite form of the verb:
Give me some words written with a final у in English ( = ко-
торые пишутся.)
With d u r a t i v e v e r b s (see "Terminative, Durative and Mixed
Verbs", p. 135) participle II has no perfective meaning and denotes
an action simultaneous to the action of the finite form of the
verb:
"The time was coming when I should see him loved, trusted,
admired..." ( C o n r a d . ) I was highly amused. ( C o n r a d . )
The participle of a transitive verb expresses v o i c e : active
and passive:
P a r t i c i p l e I:
a c t i v e : writing; p a s s i v e : being written.
P a r t i с i p 1 e II:
p a s s i v e : written.
P a r t i c i p l e II is the only s y n t h e t i c p a s s i v e f o r m in
the conjugation of the verb in English. There is no corresponding
active participle in English. Thus the Russi^i participle construction
with a past participle active must be rendered in English by a whole
subordinate clause:
'281
Человек, написавший это письмо, заходил уже дважды. —
The man who wrote this letter has already called twice.
Active:
...Soames saw Bosinney watching her... (Galsworthy.)
She walks off swinging in her rounded hand a little strap-full of
books. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Passive:
They went into the parlour my mother had come from, the
fire in the best room on the other side of the passage not being
lighted — not having been lighted, indeed since my father's funer-
al. ( D i c k e n s . ) Before the cottage-door in the sunshine, a great
fishing net was drying, fastened to two wooden stakes. (Hit-
chens.)
Transitive Verbs

Active Passive

P a r t i c i p l e I:
a) non-pprfect writing being written
b) perfect having written having been written
P a r t i c i p l e II written

Intransitive Verbs

Active

Participle I
a) non-perfect coming
b) perfect having come
P a r t i c i p l e II come

The Functions of the Participle in the Sentence


1. When connected with some n o u n - w o r d in the sentence, the
participle is used:
a) as a p r e d i c a t i v e :
A window of the hotel was lighted; he saw a shadow move
across the blinds. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Wewerecompelledtospend
the night at Winchester... ( D o y l e . ) ...the dark woods were
touched here and there with red and golden leaves... ( C h e s t e r -
t o n . ) James grew more and more alarmed. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
' 2 8 2
b) As an a 11 r i b u t е:
...and so he passed from babyhood to childhood, and became
a talking, walking, wondering Dombey. ( D i c k e n s . ) The last
soft light of the setting sun had fallen on the earth... ( D i c k -
e n s . ) It was the 1st of August — a perfect day, with a burning
sun and cloudless sky... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The frozen ground
was hard as stone... ( D o d g e . ) He had been a loving lovable
little chap! ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
2. When an attributive participle phrase f o l l o w s the noun
which it modifies, it is synonimous to an a t t r i b u t i v e clause:
On the terrace was a broad wooden bench running round
the walls (which ran...). ( V o y n i c h . ) "...this plant, hidden from
the light, has kept its flowers till the autumn" (which is hidden...).
( K i n g s l e y . ) ...the cottage gardens, crowded with flowers of
every rich and beautiful tint, sparkled in the heavy dew... ( D i c k -
e n s . ) Later she sent Justine to the kitchen for some bread and
potatoes left over from breakfast... ( C a l d w e l l . ) The wind
rustling among trees and bushes flung the young leaves skywards.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The valley was full of corn, brightening in
the sun ( L a w r e n c e . )
3. Participle I and II used as attributes and predicatives, corre-
spond to причастие in Russian:
Here is a letter announcing his arrival. — Вот письмо, из-
вещающее о его приезде. The cup is broken. — Чашка разбита.
Participle II in the function of a d e t a c h e d a t t r i b u t e (обо-
собленное определение) may have an a d d i t i o n a l adverbial
m e a n i n g and thus refer both to the noun (or pronoun) which it
modifies and to the predicate of the sentence (see "The Detached
Parts of the Sentence", p. 287):
Seen now, in broad daylight, she looked tall, fair and shape-
ly... ( B r o n t e . )
4. Sometimes participles used as attributes or predicatives lose
their verbal character and become mere a d j e c t i v e s :
Her hands, gloved in french grey, were crossed one over the
other, her grave, charming face held to one side... ( G a l s -
w o r t h y . ) The old woman's face was wrinkled... ( D i c k e n s . )
Traversing the long and matted gallery, 1 descended the slippery
steps of oak... ( B r o n t e . )

5. P a r t i c i p l e II of i n t r a n s i t i y e verbs has usually no


independent function in the sentence but is used as an element of
the a n a l y t i c a l f o r m s of t h e p e r f e c t :
' 2 8 3
\- . • •
For more than a week my pen has lain untouched... (G i s-
s i n g . ) They had hardly gone when Aunt Julia wandered slowly
into the room. ( J o y c e . ) "I'm sorry to have been of so little
assistance." ( S n o w . )
P a r t i c i p l e II of i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs may be used as an
independent element of the sentence (attribute or predicative) only
when the verb expresses an action which r e s u l t s in creating a
certain s t a t e as q u a l i t y :
A t t r i b u t e : a faded flower, a withered leaf, a retired sea-
captain, a deserted island, a grown-up girl.
The fallen leaves, with which the ground was strewn, gave
forth a pleasant fragrance... ( D i c k e n s . ) ...the withered leaves
came showering down. ( D i c k e n s . )
Predicative: The rose is faded. You look rested.
The bunches were withered. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) "He is not a
schoolmaster now, Traddles. — He is retired." ( D i c k e n s . )
Therefore a participle construction (причастный оборот) in Rus-
sian with a past participle of an intransitive verb is usually ren-
dered in English by a subordinate attributive clause: '
Человек, приехавший с юга, рассказал мне это. = A man
who came from the south told me this.
N o t e . — Participle II of an intransitive verb which governs its object by
means of a preposition (to look for..., to stare at..., to talk about, etc.) when
used attributively retains the preposition (which then turns into an adverb).
The. combination is often written with a hyphen:
An unlooked-for circumstance. An unhoped-for pleasure. Things never
heard of before A book quoted from. A man stared at, or talked about. A child
properly looked after. It is an unhoped-for pleasure to see you with us again.
It 4S a book much talked about. ...a most unlooked-for incident occurred...
(Dickens.)
6. When connected with a verb in the function of a n adver-
b i a l m o d i f i e r the participle expresses relations:
a) O f t i m e :
Coming near, I f o u n d the door slightly ajar... ( B r o n t e . )
Reaching her room, she turned on all the lights. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
Being asked to sit down he laid his hat and stick on the ta-
ble... ( C o n r a d . ) At last, having seen all that was to be seen,
he came out again at the door where he had gone in... ( G a l s -
worthy.)
b) Of c a u s e : /
Finding him so very friendly and companionable, it was then
that I asked for the pen and ink and paper, to write to Peg-
' 2 8 4
gotty. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...I thought I should sleep well being tired;
but I didn't. ( J e r o m e . ) Seeing clearly that it would be use-
. less to pursue their point, the gentlemen withdrew. ( D i c k e n s . )
Л*
• c) Of m a n n e r or a t t e n d i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s :
He stood on the porch sunning himself... ( M a z o d e l a
R o c h e . ) Still they worked on, taking turns and whispering
cheerfully to one another. ( D o d g e . ) Little bare-legged children
ran about him, playing on the grass... ( L o n d o n . ) I brought
the boat gently along the bank dipping my blades noiselessly.
(Cr o n in.)
Participlephrasesexpressing t i m e or c a u s e may be replaced
by an a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e :
Arriving at the cottage he went up its mossy stones and
through the wicket-gate. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) ( = w h e n he arrived
at the cottage...)
Participle phrases expressing m a n n e r cannot be replaced by
subordinate clauses.
The action expressed by a participle in the function of an adver-
bial modifier always refers to t h e s u b j e c t of the sentence (cp.
with the Russian деепричастие).
7. A d v e r b i a l p a r t i c i p l e p h r a s e s may be introduced by
s u b o r d i n a t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n s . In such participle phrases not
only participle I but also participle II may be used.
Participle phrases introduced by conjunctions express:
a) T i m e :
...while working so hard he needed sea air... ( G a l s w o r t h y . )
When travelling I have now and then watched the sunrise...
- ( G i s s i n g . ) When dressed, I sat a long time by the window,
looking out over the silent grounds and silvered fields...
(Bronte.)
b) С о m p a r i s о n:
Through the door in the hall leading to the basement he
called "Hssst!" several times, as though assisting the cat's de-
parture... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) I did as requested. ( B r o n t e . )
jc) C o n d i t i o n :
Nobody spoke unless spoken to... ( D i c k e n s . ) If necessary,
I shall come to-morrow. I am sure you would have acted in the
same way if in my place.
d) C o n c e s s i o n :
The meal continued and Atkinson soon partook in it, though
'285
emaining aloof from the conversation ( A m i s . ) He is extreme-
ly well read though very young.
8. As has already been stated, there are instances where the
syntactical function of the participle may be interpreted in two
ways. For example in: The wind rustling among trees and bushes
flung the young leaves skywards. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) , the participle
rustling may be considered either as an attribute to the subject
wind (шелестящий) or as an adverbial modifier of manner to the
predicate flung (шелестя).

The Participle in a Compound Verbal Predicate


P a r t i c i p l e I n o n - p e r f e c t of verbs expressing m o t i o n
such as to run, to dance, to pour, etc. combined with the verb to
come in the past tense forms a s p e c i a l t y p e of a c o m p o u n d
v e r b a l p r e d i c a t e . Theparticiple is the n o t i o n a l p a r t of
the predicate denoting the action performed by the subject; the
lexical meaning of the verb to come is greatly w e a k e n e d . In
some cases to come serves to impart p e r f e c t i v e meaning to the
action denoted by the participle:
The little maid came running down. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (=сбе-
жала) -Peggoty came running in... ( D i c k e n s . ) ( = вбежала)
...Tom said, in a loud whisper, "Look, look, Maggie!" and came
running to prevent her from snatching her line away. ( E l i o t . )
She didn't put it (her apron) on up-stairs, but came dancing
down with it in her hand. ( D i c k e n s . )
In other cases the action expressed by the participle has i m p e r -
f e c t i v e meaning and the function of the verb to come ap-
proaches that of an a u x i l i a r y v e r b :
The fog came pouring in at every chink and keyhole. ( D i c k -
e n s . ) ( = w a s pouring in) ...The stream which worked the mill
came babbling down in a dozen rivulets. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) The
evening air was sharp, and sleet showers came whirling from
those bright clouds. ( G a l s w o r t h y . )

Accusative with the Participle


1. With verbs expressing p h y s i c a l or m e n t a l p e r c e p -
t i o n , w i s h , etc., the construction "Accusative with the Partici-
ple" may be used:
I saw the children (them) playing in the garden. The rela-
tion between the noun (in the common case) or the pronoun (in the
objective case) and the participle is that of s e c o n d a r y s u b j e c t
and s e c o n d a r y p r e d i c a t e (the children playing — «как дети
' 2 8 6
играли в саду»). The syntactical function of this construction
is that of a c o m p l e x object:
...Soames saw Bosinney watching her and smiling to himself.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) . In the dark the old man could feel the
morning coming... ( H e m i n g w a y . ) He found her sitting at
the breakfast-table... ( H a r d y . ) ...I note some neighbours looking
at my mother, and at me, and whispering. ( D i c k e n s . ) ...I
strolled in here and found the place deserted. ( D i c k e n s . ) "I
want my photograph taken," I said. (Le a c o c k . ) I want this
typed, if you please," said Lally. ( C o p p a r d ) In the perfect calm
that had fallen, I heard breakers murmuring softly upon the
beach. ( G i s s i n g . )
The verb to listen is followed bY -a prepositional "Accusative
with the Participle":
He listened to his uncle talking to him... ( H e m i n g w a y . )
She listened to her father going round the house... ( G r e e n e . )
2. The construction "Accusative with the Participle" is rendered
in Russian by a subordinate object clause:
"...he did not wish it mentioned." (Ga 1 s w o r t hy.) = Он не
хотел, чтобы об этом упоминалось.
3. With verbs expressing physical perceptions (to hear, to see,
to feel, etc.) the "Accusative with the Participle" and the "Accusa-
tive with the Infinitive" may be used. The difference between these
two constructions is as follows: the infinitive merely states the fact
of an action taking place: / saw him walk along the street. — Я
видел, что он шёл по улице; the participle views the action in its
progress: I saw him walking along the street. — Я видел, как он
шёл по улице.
She heard the door closing. ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) (Accusative
with the Participle.) I've often heard him tell the tale. (J e-
r о m e.) .(Accusative with the Infinitive.) She liked to watch him
doing things however commonplace. ( M a z o d e l a R o c h e . )
He watched her ring the bell, he watched the maid come in.
( G a l s w o r t h y . ) He could see the tiny trout moving round and
round the stones... ( G a l s w o r t h y . ) Old Jolyonwatching from
his corner saw his brother's face change, and the brooding, wor-
ried look deepen on it. ( G a l s w o r t h