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TYPICAL

3/3/2015 CROSSECTION OF
ROAD
ENGINEERING PRACTICE AND
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

FAYYAZ AHMED KHAN


2013-TE-24
TYPICAL CROSSECTION OF ROAD

Table of Contents
ROAD CROSSECTION ................................................................................................................. 2
SUB GRABE .............................................................................................................................. 2
SUB BASES ............................................................................................................................... 3
FUNCTION OF SUB BASE .................................................................................................. 3
MATERIAL USED IN SUB-BASE ....................................................................................... 3
BASECOURSE........................................................................................................................... 4
MATERIAL USED IN BASECOURSE ................................................................................ 4
ASPHALT CONCRETE BASE. ................................................................................................ 4
Material used:.......................................................................................................................... 4
PURPOSE TO PROVIDE ABC: ............................................................................................ 4
ASPHALT WEARING COURSE .............................................................................................. 5
MATERIAL USED IN AWC ................................................................................................. 5
PRIME COAT ............................................................................................................................ 6
MATERIAL USED ................................................................................................................ 6
PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................... 6
TACK COAT .............................................................................................................................. 7

pg. 1
TYPICAL CROSSECTION OF ROAD

ROAD CROSSECTION
Basically the structure of road cross section consist of the following layers

 Sub Base
 Base Course
 Sub Grade
 Surface/Wearing Course

SUB GRABE
The sub-grade layer of a pavement is, essentially, the underlying ground. It is also known as the
"Formation Level", which can be defined as the level at which excavation ceases and
construction starts: it's the lowest point of the pavement structure.

Usually, a sub-grade will need some basic preparation to make it fit for construction purposes,
and this process is known as 'sub-grade formation' or 'reducing to level'.

The simplest form of sub-grade formation is a 'site-strip'. This process involves the removal of
all surface vegetation along with the root zone, approximately 50mm in depth. It is bad practice
to construct a pavement over surface vegetation; as organic material, it will decompose, which
could lead to the formation of voids in the covering layers, which could, in turn, lead to
pavement settlement.

pg. 2
TYPICAL CROSSECTION OF ROAD

SUB BASES

It is layer of granular material provided above subgrade generally natural gravel. It is usually not
provided on subgrade of good quality.

FUNCTION OF SUB BASE

 It acts as a working plate form for the construction of upper pavement layers.
 Acts as a drainage layer, by protecting the subgrade from wetting up.
 It intercept upward movement of water by capillary action.
 It acts as a separating layer b/w subgrade and road base. By this it prevent the two layers
from mixing up.

MATERIAL USED IN SUB-BASE


The materials used to construct a sub-base are chosen for their inherent load-spreading and
drainage capabilities when correctly laid. Two different types of material are considered here...
 Unbound Granular Material
 Cement Bound Material(also known as Hydraulically Bound)
Unbound materials are defined as those aggregates which are loose and do not bond or adhere
when laid and compacted, but rely on the natural interlocking of adjacent particles. An unbound
sub-base material can be loosened and removed quite easily.
Bound materials are, therefore, those which do bond with their neighboring particles by means of
a "binder". The two most common binders are Bitumen (tar) and Cement. Hence, 'tarmac/bitmac'
is actually a Bitumen Bound Material and 'concrete' is a Cement (aka hydraulically) Bound
Material (CBM or HBM). Bound materials 'set' and are consequently more difficult to loosen and
remove.

pg. 3
TYPICAL CROSSECTION OF ROAD

BASECOURSE
This layer exist between sub base and asphalt base course
MATERIAL USED IN BASECOURSE
Aggregate base course shall consist of crushed gravel or crushed stone, conforming to the quality
requirements of AASHTO M 147. The aggregate shall be free from lumps, balls of clay, or other
objectionable matter, and shall be durable and sound.

ASPHALT CONCRETE BASE.


Asphalt concrete base also called asphalt treated base is a dense graded HMA with aggregates
having size 1 inch
ACB can be advantageous because it can provide a waterproof barrier to prevent fines infiltration
into the below layers Thickness:
The thickness of asphalt base coarse varies from 50mm to 100mm.
Material used:
In asphalt base coarse, coarse aggregates are used along with binder material like asphalt and
Bitumen.
PURPOSE TO PROVIDE ABC:

Asphalt base coarse act as a waterproof barrier to prevent fines infiltration into the subgrade and
pavement structure. An alternative to untreated base material. Therefore, it is possible to use
thinner layers for the same structural support, which can save on excavation costs. In some cases
a layer of aggregate base is still needed to provide material to fine grade and to provide a smooth
surface on which to pave. Although an aggregate base may be able to support limited traffic after
placement, the traffic must travel very slowly, automobile and windshield damage can result
from loose aggregate kicked up by tires, and the aggregate base must typically be regraded and
compacted before the final wearing course can be paved.

pg. 4
TYPICAL CROSSECTION OF ROAD

ASPHALT WEARING COURSE


The wearing course is the upper layer in roadway, airfield, and dockyard construction. The term
'surface course' is sometimes used, however this term is slightly different as it can be used to
describe very thin surface layers such as chip seal. In rigid pavements the upper layer is
a Portland cement concrete slab. In flexible pavements, the upper layer consists of asphalt
concrete, that is a construction aggregate with a bituminous binder. The wearing course is
typically placed on the base, which is normally placed on the sub base, which rests on
the subgrade. There are various different types of flexible pavement wearing course, suitable for
different situations. Stone mastic asphalt is a type of flexible pavement wearing course which is
typically used for heavily trafficked roads.
MATERIAL USED IN AWC

Consists of combination of mineral aggregate with bituminous binder ranging from inexpensive
surface treatment ¼ in or less thick to asphaltic concrete.

For good service throughout the full life bituminous pavement must retain following qualities.

 Freedom from cracking or raveling.


 Resistance to weather including the effect of surface water heat and cold.
 Resistance to internal moisture, particularly to water vapors.
 Tight impermeable surface or porous surface (if either is needed for contained stability of
underlying base or subgrade).
 Smooth riding and non-skidding surface.

pg. 5
TYPICAL CROSSECTION OF ROAD

PRIME COAT
A prime coat is an application of a low viscosity asphalt to a granular base in preparation for an initial
layer (or surface course layer) of asphalt. The purpose of the prime coat is; to coat and bond loose
material particles on the surface of the base, to harden or toughen the base surface to provide a
work platform for construction equipment, to plug capillary voids in the base course surface to
prevent migration of moisture, and to provide adhesion between the base course and succeeding
asphalt course. After applying the prime coat, it must cure for a minimum of 48-72 hours before
asphalt is placed, with no rain in the forecast.

MATERIAL USED
Low viscosity asphalt to a granular base in preparation for an initial layer (or surface course
Layer) of asphalt
PURPOSE
1. Coat and bond loose material particles on the surface of the base.
2. Harden or toughen the base surface to provide a work platform for construction equipment.
3. Plug capillary voids in the base course surface to prevent migration of moisture.
4. Provide adhesion between the base course and succeeding asphalt course.

pg. 6
TYPICAL CROSSECTION OF ROAD

TACK COAT
Tack coat is a light application of asphalt emulsion between hot mix asphalt layers designed to
create a strong adhesive bond without slippage. Heavier applications may be used under porous
SSSSSLayers or around patches where it also functions

pg. 7

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