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85 WM 064-1 extent of assumption.

November 1985, pp. 3064 Three levels of assumption have been employed and the
load parameters obtained on the different assumptions are
compared with the measured ones. This comparison shows
Voltage Dependence of Composite that they are in relatively good agreement in spite of bold
assumptions and indicates the importance of the exact
Loads in Power Systems estimation of working motor loads. The employment of
installed capacity and diversity factor is one of the possibili¬
ties for applying constructive approach in practice. The
T. Ohyama and A. Watanabe procedures in this investigation would not be final but would
Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo, Japan offer some guides to implement constructive approach in the
K. Nishimura, Member IEEE, and S. Tsuruta entire system.
Toshiba Corporation, Tokyo, Japan Discussers: John F. Szablya and S. Ihara

This paper describes the voltage dependence of composite

loads in power systems. A continuous monitoring device as
shown in Fig. 1 has been developed. This device continuously
observes the instantaneous three-phase voltage and current, f-divider |.iL
transforms the data into digital forms by an A/D convertor, Isepni [cassette
and stores them in semiconductor memories. When changes
in voltage and/or current exceed the prespecified values in _oorriuc
ria- magnetic
faulty system condition, the data during and after the fault is converter memory tape I
recorded in addition to the pre-fault data. These whole data
are transmitted to a cassette magnetic tape. The devices are
installed on the feeders, each of which is to a residential/ recording
commercial load, to a building load, or to an industrial load. starter
Monitoring has been conducted for about two years, and a I
quantity of data has been accumulated which permits us to AVJVlspedf»cation
have deep insight into dynamic and static behaviors of
system loads.
Fig. 1. Continuous monitoring device
Power Response to Voltage Change
Dynamic responses of these typical system loads to
sudden voltage changes have been obtained and compared.
Typical responses to small voltage changes and voltage drops
in faults have been demonstrated in this paper. In both cases,
a residential/commercial, industrial, and building loads show 85 WM 065-8
a remarkable difference in their responses, which can be November 1985, pp. 3074
ascribed to the static and dynamic behaviors of motor loads
included in these system loads.
Evaluation of Load Model Parameters
A Decomposition Approach to
The parameters of static load model have been evaluated Automated Generation/Transmission
for three typical system loads from the data obtained in field
measurement. The following model has been employed. Expansion Planning
P=KVnP M. V. F. Pereira, L. M. V. G. Pinto, S. H. F. Cunha,
and G. C Oliveria
Q K0 + KnVni
(1) CEPEL-Centro de Pesquisas de Energía Eletrica,
This paper deals with the variations of parameter np in a day Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
and in a year, and has indicated how the load characteristics
are related to load compositions. It has been shown that the The objective of long-term expansion planning is to estab¬
value of parameter depends largely upon the variation in lish when and where to build the new facilities (generating
working rate of motor loads in a day and in a year. plants, transmission lines) required for an economic and
reliable supply of forecasted load. Cost in this problem
Relation Between Load Parameters and Compositions consists of two components.the initial capital cost of
building the equipment and the continuing cost of operating
A constructive approach is regarded as one of the possibili¬ the system to meet the demands of customers. Because of
ties for evaluating load parameters systematically. This uncertainty in load growth as well as plant and line failures
approach is to synthesize the voltage characteristics of the (outages), it is not possible to guarantee that customer
composite load from those of load components. The validity demand will always be met; hence, the standard of service
of constructive approach is checked on by comparing synthe¬ must be defined in terms of a probabilistic measure of
sized load parameters with the measured ones. A compara¬ reliability.
tively good agreement has seen between them although the This long-term planning problem naturally decomposes into
synthesized ones have been obtained through rough estima¬ two parts: (1) determining the optimal investments in new
tion of powers consumed by motor loads and the others. system capacity, (2) determining the system operating cost
The application of constructive approach to the loads in an and supply reliability associated with the construction of this
entire system needs a systematic procedure which can be new capacity. This natural decomposition can be explored by
conducted easily without any serious obstacles in practice. mathematical decomposition techniques. These techniques
From a practical point of view, it is desirable to estimate achieve the global optimization of the investment and ex¬
parameters on various assumptions from presently available pected operation costs through the iterative solution of
information. In this approach, it is essential to grasp the separate investment and operation subproblems. In other
relationship between the accuracy of estimation and the words, the decomposition techniques allow the investment
30 IEEE Power Engineering Review, November 1985