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CELL 2 Types of Cell

A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain Eukaryotic Cellsand Prokaryotic Cells
its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental
unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of Prokaryotic cells lack a defined nucleus, but have a
cells. region in the cell, termed the nucleoid, in which a single
chromosomal, circular, double- stranded DNA
People who were important in early cell discovery: molecule is located.

Zacharias Jannsen (1590) Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that lack


organelles or other internal membrane- bound
— Helped invent the First compound microscope structures. Therefore, they do not have a nucleus, but,
instead, generally have a single chromosome: a piece of
Robert Hooke (1665)
circular, double-stranded DNA located in an area of the
 Observed dead cork - called them “cells“ cell called the nucleoid.

 Compound Microscope Prokaryotic Cell Structure

Anton Von Leeuwenhoek (1674)

 Living cells in pond water; one celled organisms


-- animalcules

Robert Brown (1831)

Identifies the nucleus of a cell

Matthias Schleiden (1838)

Stated that plants are made up of cells

Theodor Schwann (1839)


Prokaryotes
Stated that animals are made up of cells
 Single cell organisms
Rudolph Virchow (1858)  No nucleus, no compartments
 Peptidoglycan cell walls
Studied the pathology of cells. (Ability to cause  Binary fission
disease)  For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic
chemicals, or photosynthesis
Cell Theory
Plasma Membrane
All living things are composed of one or more cells
Selective barrier that allows passage of oxygen,
Cells are the fundamental building block of life nutrients, and wastes for the whole volume of the cell.
All cells arise from pre-existing cells (life begets life) Flagella and Pilli
Cellular Functions Responsible for locomotion
 Movement Ribosomes
 Secretion
 Reproduction Responsible for protein synthesis
 Protection
 Transport
 Food Production
Eukaryotic Cell Structure Endoplasmic Reticulum

 ER consists of a network of membranous


tubules and sacs called cisternae. (cisterna = a
reservoir for a liquid)
 The ER membrane is continuous with
 the nuclear envelope
 Segregation of newly synthesized proteins from
the cytoplasm
 Lipid synthesis

Two classifications of ER:

Nucleus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

 The nucleus averages about 5 microns  Ribosomes are attached to the outside.
 In diameter. Abundant in cells that secrete protein
 The largest organelle within a  Synthesis secretory proteins, cell membrane
Eukaryotic cell. protein and organelle protein (proteins are
 The nucleus often called the control center of a targeted to determined
cell, where it contains the most of the cell`s  It is an extension of the outer membrane of the
genetic material. nuclear envelope, so allowing mRNA to be
 Where the double membranes are fused, a transported swiftly to the 80s ribosomes, where
nuclear pore complex allows Large they are translated in protein synthesis.
macromolecules and
 Particles to pass through. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Nucleolus - a darkened region
 Synthesis of lipid (oils, phospholipids, and
where ribosomal RNA is synthesized
steroids)
 Contains chromosomes - consist of DNA
 Glycogen metabolism in the liver cells
wrapped around proteins
Detoxification of drugs and poisons Store
 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesized in the
calcium for muscle contraction
nucleolus
 Detoxification (liver) Steroid synthesis (gonad,
 In the nucleolus, rRNA is synthesized and
adrenal)
assembled with proteins from the cytoplasm to
form ribosomal subunits. The subunits pass from GOLGI APPARATUS –known as the post office of the cell
the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm where they
combine to form ribosomes. Nuclear envelope – a 1. The Golgi apparatus is the processing,
double membrane that surrounds the nucleus packaging and secreting organelle of the cell, so
it is much more common in glandular cells.
Ribosomes
2. The Golgi apparatus is a system of membranes,
 Most common organelles in almost all cells. made of flattened sac- like structures called
 Some are free in the cytoplasm; others line the cisternae.
membranes of rough endoplasmic reticulum
(rough ER). 3. It works closely with the smooth er, to modify
 Particles consisted of proteins and ribosomal proteins for export by the cell.
RNA (rRNA)
 Free ribosomes- synthesize proteins Refines, stores and marks molecules for shipment
 used in the cytoplasm called the cell “Post office” because it marks and
 Ribosomes attached to the ER- used directs products in the cell. Major sites for
 to synthesize: Secreted proteins carbohydrate synthesis
 Integral membrane proteins
 Lysosomal proteins
Lysosome – “suicide sack”  The cell membrane is a complex barrier
separating every cell from its external
Functions environment.
 This "Selectively Permeable" membrane
 Digest food vacuoles
regulates what passes into and out of the cell.
 Digest invading bacteria
 Digest old organelles CILIA AND FLAGELLA
 Heterophagy – digestion of extracellular
material 1. Cilia and Flagella are structures that project
 Autophagy – digestion of intracellular from the cell, where they assist in movement.
organelles
2. Cilia (sing. cilium) are short, and numerous and
Genetic disorders hair-like.

o Ex. Tay Sachs 3. Flagella (sing. flagellum) are much longer,


fewer, and are whip-like.
 Lipids aren’t broken down
 Build up occurs 4. The cilia and flagella of all Eukaryotes are
 Eventually causes death always in a ‘9 + 2’ arrangement that is
 Usually in before age 5 characteristic

Mitochondria – “power house of the cell” 5. Protista commonly use cilia and flagella to move
through water.
Site of cellular respiration
6. Sperm use flagella (many, all fused together) to
Conversion of food into energy (ATP) ATP is what swim to the egg.
cells use to make things happen (drive chemical
reactions) 7. Cilia line our trachea and bronchi, moving dust
particles and bacteria away from the lungs.
• contains some of its own DNA (amount varies
within organisms) Plant Organelles

• believed to evolved from a primitive cell 1. Most of the organelles and other parts of the
engulfing it and creating a symbiotic cell are common to all Eukaryotic cells. Cells
relationship from different organisms have an even greater
difference in structure.
• DNA in mitochondria obtained only from
mother of organism. 2. Plant cells have three additionalstructures not
found in animal cells:
• Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic
respiration, in which energy from organic • Cellulose cell walls
compounds is transferred to ATP. For this
reason they are sometimes referred to as the • Chloroplasts (and other plastids)
‘powerhouse’ of the cell. • A central vacuole.
• Mitochondria are more abundant in high energy Chloroplasts
cells such as muscle and liver cells.

Cell Membrane

 -double layer of phospholipids


 -various proteins are attached to it
 -carbohydrate side chains are found only on
the outer surface of plasma membrane
 Function of plasma membrane = selective
barrier that allows passage of oxygen, nutrients,
and wastes for the whole volume of the cell.
2. Fungi such as Mushrooms and Yeast also have
cell walls, but these are made of chitin.

3. The cell wall is freely permeable (porous), and


so has no direct effect on the movement of
molecules into or out of the cell.

4. The rigidity of their cell walls helps both to


support and protect the plant.

1. A characteristic feature of plant cells is the


presence of plastids that make or store food.

2. The most common of these (some leaf cells


only!) are chloroplasts – the site of
photosynthesis.

3. Each chloroplast encloses a system of flattened,


membranous sacs called thylakoids, which
contain chlorophyll.

4. The thylakoids are arranged in stacks called


grana.

5. The space between the grana is filled with


cytoplasm-like stroma.

6. Chloroplasts contain CCC DNA and 70S


ribosomes and are semi-autonomous
organelles.

7. Other plastids store reddish-orange pigments VACUOLES


that color
1. The most prominent structure in plant cells is
the large vacuole.

2. The vacuole is a large membrane-bound sac


that fills up much of most plant cells.

3. The vacuole serves as a storage area, and may


contain stored organic molecules as well as
inorganic ions.

4. The vacuole is also used to store waste. Since


plants have no kidney, they convert waste to an
insoluble form and then store it in their vacuole
- until autumn!

5. The vacuoles of some plants contain poisons


Cell wall (e.g. tannins) that discourage animals from
eating their tissues.
1. One of the most important features of all plants is
presence of a cellulose cell wall.
6. Whilst the cells of other organisms may also Non motile cilia – one cilium per cell. Example:
contain vacuoles, they are much smaller and sensory organ like nose
are usually involved in food digestion.
Function of Cilia

In humans

 Mechanoreceptors. Example: lining of kidney


tubules that monitor the flow of fluid through
tubules, cilia in the cochlear of the inner ear,
that contribute in detection of vibration caused
by sound
The best hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotic cells
was proposed by Lynn Margulisin. Symbiogenesis, or  Chemoreceptors – detect odors
endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the
 Photoreceptors – outer segment of the rods in
origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, the retina
first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian
botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and In protists such as Paramecium
substantiated with evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.
 for locomotion (through liquids)

Flagella - ´Tail-like projection that protrudes body of


from the cell

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic functions in locomotion.

1. Monopolar – flagellum at one end

2. Bipolar – flagella are at both ends

3. Peritrichous – flagella are around the bacterial


CELL TYPES AND CELL MODIFICATIONS
cell
Some of the cell surfaces are modified for adaptive
purposes.

These include:

 Cilia

 Flagella

 Microvilli

Cilia (singular: cilium) Flagella versus cilia

 Are microscopic, hair-like structures that extend Though eukaryotic flagella and motile cilia are
outward from the surface of many cells. ultra-structurally identical, the beating pattern of the
two organelles can be different. In the case of flagella
 A typical cilium is between one and ten (e.g. the tail of a sperm) the motion is propeller-like.
micrometers long and usually less than one Beating of motile cilia consists of coordinated back-and-
micrometer wide. forth cycling of many cilia on the cell surface.

2 Types of Cilia

Motile cilia – present on cell’s surface in large


number and beat in coordinated waves. Example: lining
of trachea and fallopian tubes
Microvilli

´Are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that


increase the surface area of some epithelial cells.

´Examples:

 Small intestinal enterocyte

 Kidney proximal tubule.

 In sensory cells of the inner ear (as stereo cilia),

 In the cells of taste buds.

 In olfactory receptor cells.

 Microvilli are covered in plasma membrane, which


encloses cytoplasm and microfilaments.
 These are cellular extensions; there are little or no
cellular organelles present in the microvilli.
 Each microvillus has a dense bundle of cross-linked
actin filaments, which serves as its structural core.
20 to 30 tightly bundled actin filaments are cross-
linked by bundling proteins fimbrin and villin to
form the core of the microvilli.

CELL TYPES /ANIMAL TISSUES

The Characteristics of Life

1. Organization

2. Energy use (metabolism)

3. Growth and Development

4. Reproduction

5. Response to environment

6. Adaptation
Tissue - is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily
identical, but from the same origin, that together carry
out a specific function.

Four types of animal tissues

Epithelial tissue

 Epithelial tissue or epithelium covers every


exposed body surface to form a barrier to the
outside world and controls absorption.

 Epithelium forms the surface of the skin, and the


lining of the intestinal, respiratory, and urogenital
tracts.

Epithelial tissue can be divided in to two types:

1. Covering and lining epithelium that forms the


outer layer of the skin and some organs and

2. Glandular epithelium that constitute the


secreting portion of glands.

1. Covering and lining epithelium

 The arrangement of covering and lining


epithelium reflects its location and function.
The classification of the epithelium types
are done according to the shape of the cell
and the number of cell layers
Three shapes of the cell exist:

 Squamous (flat) epithelium

 Cuboidal epithelium

 Columnar epithelium
Three types of layers exist. Functions: Cilia beat in a certain direction causing the
mucus to flow in that direction to propel foreign
 Simple epithelium - only one cell thick particles trapped in mucus, and to propel ova to uteri
 Stratified epithelium - with two or more
cells thick Stratified Epithelium
 Pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium –
with only one layer, but giving the Have at least two layers of cells. The name of the
appearance of many layers specific kind of stratified epithelium depends on the
shape of the surface cells.
Simple epithelium

Simple epithelium can be subdivided into three types A. Stratified squamous epithelium
according to the shape and function of its cells.
Morphology: With many layers of cells and the topmost
A. Simple squamous epithelium layer is made up of squamous cells looking like "piles of
a. Morphology: composed of thin, flat cells. tiles", top cells are flat and scaly and it may or may not
b. Locations: lining of the lung, kidney, be keratinized (hardened with a tough, resistant protein
blood vessels, heart and mouth called keratin).
c. Functions: adapted for diffusion and
filtration. Location: Skin is an example of dry, keratinized,
B. Simple cuboidal epithelium stratified epithelium; lining of the mouth cavity, throat
a. Morphology: cells are roughly square or
and esophagus have keratinized, stratified epithelium.
cuboidal in shape with a spherical nucleus
in the center. Function: Protection
b. Location: found in glands, lining of the
kidney tubules and the germinal B. Stratified cuboidal epithelium
epithelium of ovaries and testes.
Morphology: Several layers of cells in which the top
c. Functions: adapted for secretion and
layer is cube-shaped
absorption.
C. Simple columnar epithelium Location: It lines larger excretory ducts such as salivary
glands, mammary glands, sweat glands, and pancreas.
This epithelium exists in two forms:

(a) Non ciliated simple columnar epithelium Function: Absorption and secretion

Morphology: cells are elongated and column-shaped C. Stratified columnar epithelium


with elongated/oval nuclei located near the base of the
cells. These cells contain microvilli and goblet cells Morphology: Many layers of cells and the topmost layer
is made up of columnar cells
Location: lines most of the alimentary canal
Location: Male urethra and vas deferens, parts of the
Functions: Microvilli increase the surface area of the pharynx
plasma membrane for absorption and goblet cells
secrete mucus to serves as a lubricant to protect the Function: Protection and secretion
epithelium.
C. Pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium
(b) Ciliated simple columnar epithelium
Morphology: Only one layer, but gives the appearance
Morphology: Columnar epithelial cells have cilia on
their free surfaces that it has many layers, looks as though some of the
cells are not in contact with the basal lamina, and the
Location: Usually found in the air passages in the nose nuclei are at different levels
region and in fallopian tubes of females
Location: Lines larger excretory ducts, this epithelium
with goblet cells, lines most of the major airways.
Function: Protection as well as secretion

2. Glandular epithelium

 Glands are made up of single or a mass of epithelial Muscular Tissue


cells.
Muscle cells are elongated and referred to as
 Columnar and cuboidal epithelial cells often muscle fibers. Muscle cells have four main properties:
become specialized as gland cells which are capable
of synthesizing and secreting certain substances  Excitability (ability to respond to stimuli),
such as enzymes, hormones, milk, mucus, sweat,  Contractibility (ability to contract),
wax and saliva.
 Extensibility (ability to be stretched without
 Unicellular glands are present as single, isolated tearing) and
glandular cells such as the goblet cells.
 Elasticity (ability to return to its normal shape).
Connective Tissue

The most abundant and most widely distributed


tissue in the body is connective tissue. It mainly binds
structures together, forms a framework and support for
organs and the body as a whole, protects and insulates
internal organs and compartmentalizes structures such
as skeletal muscles and nerves. Blood, a fluid connective
tissue, helps to transport substances and protects the
body against disease, while adipose tissue store fat.

Nervous Tissue

 This tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, and


nerves and consists of only two principal kinds of
cells, neurons and neuroglia.
 The cells in nervous tissue that generate and
conduct impulses are called neurons or nerve cells.
They are highly specialized cells that are sensitive to
various stimuli. They convert these stimuli into
nerve impulses and conduct them to other neurons,
muscle fibers or glands. These cells have three
principal parts: the dendrites, the cell body and one
axon.
• Other specialized function such as aeration
(parenchyma) provides buoyancy and helps
aquatic plants in floating.

B. Collenchyma cells

• Collenchyma tissue is composed of elongated


cells with irregularly thickened walls. They
provide structural support, particularly in
Overview of Plant Structure growing shoots and leaves.
The vegetative body of a plant is composed of three
C. Sclerenchyma
organs…

 LEAF • Sclerenchyma is the supporting tissue in plants.


 STEM Two types of sclerenchyma cells exist: fibers
 ROOT and sclereids. Sclerenchyma cells are the
principal supporting cells in plant tissues that
Three major tissue systems are found in all plant
have ceased elongation. Sclerenchyma fibers
organs!
are of great economic importance, since they
1. DERMAL TISSUE constitute the source material for many fabrics
2. GROUND TISSUE (e.g. flax, hemp, jute, and ramie).
3. VASCULAR TISSUE
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed
Dermal tissue - functions to protect the plant from of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants. The
water loss. Dermal tissue covers the outside of the primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem
plant, except in woody shrubs and trees, which have and phloem. These two tissues transport fluid and
bark. The most common cell type in dermal tissue is the nutrients internally.
epidermal cell. Generally, a thin, waxy layer called a
cuticle covers the epidermal cells and protects them. Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in
Other cells in the dermal tissue are guard cells that vascular plants; the basic function of xylem is to
surround the stomata, which are openings in the leaves. transport water from roots to shoots and leaves
Gases and water enter and leave the dermal tissue Phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble
through the stomata. organic compounds made during photosynthesis, in
Ground Tissue particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where
needed.
A. Parenchyma Cells

• In leaves, they are responsible for


photosynthesis and the exchange of Storage of
starch, protein, fats, oils and water in roots,
tubers (e.g. potatoes), seed endosperm (e.g.
cereals) and cotyledons (e.g. pulses and
peanuts)

• Secretion

• Wound repair and the potential for renewed


meristem tic activity