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DESIGN OF BITUMINOUS MIXES FOR BM, DBM, SDBC, BC ETC.
DESIGN OF BITUMINOUS MIXES FOR BM,
DBM, SDBC, BC ETC.
DESIGN OF BITUMINOUS MIXES FOR BM, DBM, SDBC, BC ETC. By B.L.RAWAT B.E.(HONS.), M.E.(HONS.),MBA EXECUTIVE ENGINEER

By

B.L.RAWAT

B.E.(HONS.), M.E.(HONS.),MBA EXECUTIVE ENGINEER (BUILDING CELL) PWD, CE OFFICE, JAIPURDESIGN OF BITUMINOUS MIXES FOR BM, DBM, SDBC, BC ETC. By B.L.RAWAT

TYPES OF BASES AND SURFACE COURSES (BITUMINOUS)

Prime Coat

Tack Coat

Bituminous Macadam

Grade 1

Grade 2

Bituminous Penetration Macadam

For 50 mm thick

For 75 mm thick

Built-up Spray Grout

Dense Bituminous Macadam

Surface Dressing

Single Coat

Double Coat

Surface Dressing with Precoated Aggregate

Bituminous Macadam  Surface Dressing  Single Coat  Double Coat  Surface Dressing with Precoated

Open Graded Premix Carpet

Mix Seal Surfacing

Type A

Type B

Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Bituminous Concrete

Seal Coat

Liquid Seal

Premixed Seal

Bitumen Mastic

Slurry Seal

3 mm

1.5 mm

Seal  Premixed Seal  Bitumen Mastic  Slurry Seal  3 mm  1.5 mm

Recycling of Bituminous Pavement

BITUMINOUS MIX DESIGN (JOB MIX FORMULA)

Marshall Stability Test

Marshall Stability Test adopted by US Corps of Engineers

is a semi-confined compression test which is comparable to a triaxial test with a cell pressure of about 0.7 kg/sqcm.

Hveem Stabilometer and Cohesiometer Tests

Hveem Stabilometer embodies main characteristics of triaxial test. It requires kneading compactor.

and Cohesiometer Tests Hveem Stabilometer embodies main characteristics of triaxial test. It requires kneading compactor.

Types of Bituminous Mixes

Dense graded

Open graded

Desirable Properties

Stability: resistance to deformation

Density: degree of compaction

Durability: resistance against weathering

Flexibility: extent of deformation before failure

Resistance to skidding

Workability during construction

 Flexibility: extent of deformation before failure  Resistance to skidding  Workability during construction

MARSHALL STABILITY TEST

The Marshall Test is made to obtain optimum binder

content for the type of aggregate mix and traffic

intensity.

This stability test is applicable to hot-mix design using bitumen and aggregates with maximum size of 25mm.

Stability: The Marshall Stability of the mix is defined as a

maximum load carried by a compacted specimen at a standard test temperature at 60°C and at the rate of 5 cm per minute.

Flow value: The flow value is the deformation the

Marshall test specimen undergoes during the loading, upto the maximum load, in 0.25 mm units.

value is the deformation the Marshall test specimen undergoes during the loading, upto the maximum load,

Design Steps

Select grading to be used.

Select aggregates to be employed in the mix.

Determine the proportion of each aggregate required to produce the design grading.

Determine the specific gravity

Make up the trial specimens with varying bitumen contents.

Determine the specific gravity of each compacted

specimen.

Make stability tests on the specimen.

Calculate the percentage of voids, VMA and the percent VFB in each specimen.

Select the optimum bitumen content.

Check the values of Marshall Stability, Flow, Voids in total mix, VFB with optimum bitumen content.

bitumen content.  Check the values of Marshall Stability, Flow, Voids in total mix, VFB with

Apparatus

Marshall Mould: Cylindrical moulds of 10 cm diameter, 7.5 cm height with interchangeable base plate and

collar.

Sample Extractor: a jack or compression machine

Hammer: 8.8 cm diameter, 4.5 kg weight, free fall 45.7

cm.

Breaking Head

Loading Machine: movement at the rate of 5 cm per minute, proving ring of 5 tonne capacity.

Flow Meter: least count of 0.025 mm.

Oven, Hot Plate, Mixing Apparatus, Water Bath, Thermometer

tonne capacity.  Flow Meter: least count of 0.025 mm.  Oven, Hot Plate, Mixing Apparatus,

MODIFIED MARSHALL TEST

Asphalt Institute Manual MS-2 and ASTM D5581.

Used where maximum size of aggregate is more

than 26.5 mm.

Mould diameter: 150 mm.

When the modified Marshall test is used, the specified minimum stability values and the specified flow values shall be multiplied by 2.25 and 1.5 respectively.

the specified minimum stability values and the specified flow values shall be multiplied by 2.25 and

Preparation of Test Specimen

Aggregate: 1200 gm, heated to temperature of 175° to

190°C.

Mould Assembly and Rammer: pre-heated: 100° to

145°C.

Bitumen: heated 121° to 138°C.

Mixing temperature

VG-10 or 80/100 grade: 154°C.

VG-20 or 60/70 grade: 160°C.

Compaction

50 blows on either side, for medium traffic roads

75 blows on either side, for heavy traffic roads

Compaction temperature

VG-10 or 80/100 grade: 138°C.

VG-20 or 60/70 grade: 149°C.

Compacted thickness: 63.5 ± 3.0 mm.

Bitumen content: 3% to 7.5% with increment of 0.5%

or 60/70 grade: 149°C.  Compacted thickness: 63.5 ± 3.0 mm.  Bitumen content: 3% to

Tests

Specific gravity of Compacted Specimens:

Gt = 100 / (W1/G1 + W2/G2 + W3/G3 + W4/G42)

where W1 = percent by weight of coarse aggregates W2 = percent by weight of fine aggregate W3 = percent by weight of filler W4 = percent by weight of bitumen in total mix G1, G2 and G3 are apparent specific gravity values of coarse aggregates, fine aggregates and filler and G4 is the specific gravity of bitumen.

specific gravity values of coarse aggregates, fine aggregates and filler and G 4 is the specific

Density and Void Analysis

Vv, % = 100(Gt Gb)/ Gt Vb, % = Gb * W4/ G4

VMA, % = Vv + Vb VFB, % = 100 * Vb/ VMA

where Gb = bulk density of a specimen Gt = theoretical specific gravity mixture Vv = air voids in the mix, % Vb = volume of bitumen VMA = voids in mineral aggregate, %

VFB = voids filled with bitumen, %

= air voids in the mix, % V b = volume of bitumen VMA = voids

Marshall Stability and Flow Values

The specimen is kept immersed under water at 60°C ±

1°C for 30 to 40 mins.

Placed in test head and maximum load before failure is

noted.

Flow value at failure is noted.

Correction in thickness if specimen not exactly 63.5

mm.

Correction factor is applied.

at failure is noted.  Correction in thickness if specimen not exactly 63.5 mm.  Correction

Correction Factors

Volume of Specimen in cubcm

Approximate Thickness of Specimen (mm)

Correction

Factors

457

470

57.1

1.1.9

471

482

58.7

1.14

483

495

60.3

1.09

496

508

61.9

1.04

509 522

63.5

1.00

523

535

65.1

0.96

536

546

66.7

0.93

547 549

68.3

0.89

560

573

69.9

0.86

65.1 0.96 536 – 546 66.7 0.93 547 – 549 68.3 0.89 560 – 573 69.9

Determination of Optimum Bitumen Content

Five graphs are plotted with values of bitumen content

against the values of:

Density Gb, g/cubcm

Marshall stability S, kg

Voids in total mix Vv, %

Flow value F, 0.25 mm units

Voids filled with bitumen VFB, %

Bulk density, Stability and Flow are measured whereas percentage air voids, Vv, VFB and VMA are computed from formula.

Bulk density, Stability and Flow are measured whereas percentage air voids, V v, VFB and VMA

Optimum Bitumen Content

B0 = (B1 + B2 + B3)/ 3

where, B1 = bitumen content corresponding to maximum density. B2 = bitumen content corresponding to maximum stability B3 = bitumen content corresponding to specified voids content, Vv

Value of flow and VFB are found from graphs, corresponding to B0. All the design values of Marshall Stability, Flow, Voids and VFB are checked at the B0 with the specific design requirement of the mix. If mix designed does not fulfill any one or more of the design requirements, the gradation of aggregates or filler content or bitumen content or combination of these are altered and the design tests are repeated till all the requirements are simultaneously fulfilled.

combination of these are altered and the design tests are repeated till all the requirements are

JOB MIX FORMULA

The proportion in which the different aggregates, filler and bitumen are to be mixed are specified by weight

or by volume for implementation during the construction, is called Job Mix Formula.

to be mixed are specified by weight or by volume for implementation during the construction, is

VISCOSITY GRADED (VG) BITUMENS AND THEIR GENERAL APPLICATIONS

Viscosity Grade

General Applications

VG-40

Use in highly stressed areas such as those in intersections, near toll

(40-60 penetration)

booths, and truck parking lots in

lieu of old 30/ 40 penetration grade

VG- 30 (50-70 penetration)

Use for paving in most of India in lieu of old 60/ 70 penetration grade

VG- 20 (60-80 penetration)

Use for paving in cold climate, high altitude regions of North India

VG-10

Use in spraying applications and for paving in very cold climate in lieu of old 80/ 100 penetration grade

(80-100 penetration)

applications and for paving in very cold climate in lieu of old 80/ 100 penetration grade

SELECTION CRITERIA FOR GRADE OF MODIFIED BITUMEN

Lowest Daily Mean Air Temperature, °C

Highest Daily Mean Air Temperature, °C

Less than 20°C

20 to 30°C

More than 30°C

More than -10°C

PMB/ NRMB 120 CRMB 50

PMB/ NRMB 70 CRMB 55

PMB/ NRMB 40 CRMB 60

-10°C or lower

PMB/ NRMB 120

PMB/ NRMB 120

PMB/ NRMB 70

CBMB 50

CRMB 50

CRMB 55

NRMB 40 CRMB 60 -10°C or lower PMB/ NRMB 120 PMB/ NRMB 120 PMB/ NRMB 70

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COARSE AGGREGATE

Property

Test

Requirement

Test method

Cleanliness

Grain size analysis

Max. 5% passing

 

IS: 2386 Part I

0.075mm

 

Particle Shape

Flakiness and Elongation Index

Max. 35%

 

IS: 2386 Part I

Strength

Los Angeles Abrasion Value

BC- Max. 30%

IS: 2386 Part IV

Others- Max. 35%

 
 

Aggregate Impact Value

BC- Max. 24%

 

IS: 2386 Part IV

   

Others- Max. 27%

 

Polishing

Polished Stone Value

Min. 55

 

IS: 2386 Part IV

 

Soundness (Either Sodium or Magnesium Sulphate) 5 cycles

 

Sodium Sulphate

Max. 12%

IS: 2386 Part V

 

Magnesium Sulphate

Max. 18%

IS: 2386 Part V

Water Absorption

Water Absorption

Max. 2%

IS: 2386 Part III

Stripping

Coating and Stripping of Bitumen Aggregate Mixtures

Min. Retained Coating

IS: 6241

95%

ASHTO 283

ASHTO 283

Water Sensitivity

Retained Tensile strength

Min 80%

GRADING REQUIREMENT OF MINERAL FILLER

IS Sieve (mm)

Cumulative % passing by weight of total aggregate

0.6

100

0.3

95

100

0.075

85

100

Cumulative % passing by weight of total aggregate 0.6 100 0.3 95 – 100 0.075 85

AGGREGATE GRADING AND BITUMEN CONTENT

Specification

DBM

SDBC

BC

Grading

1

2

1

2

1

2

Normal maximum aggregate size

37.5 mm

26.5 mm

13.2 mm

9.5 mm

19 mm

13.2 mm

Layer thickness

75100 mm

50 75 mm

40 mm

25 mm

50 mm

25/ 40 mm

IS Sieve size (mm)

Cumulative percent by weight of total aggregate passing

 

45

100

37.5

95 100

100

26.5

63 93

90 100

100

19

-

71 95

100

90 100

100

13.2

55 75

56 80

90 100

100

59 79

90 100

9.5

-

-

70 90

90 100

52 72

70 88

4.75

38 54

38 54

35 51

35 51

35 55

53 71

2.36

28 42

28 42

24 39

24 39

28 44

42 58

1.18

-

-

15 30

20 34

34 48

0.6

-

-

15 27

26 38

0.3

7 21

7 21

9 19

10 20

18 28

0.15

-

-

5 13

12 – 20

12 20

0.075

2 8

2 8

3 8

3 8

2 8

4 10

Bitumen content (Min)

4%

4.5%

4.5%

5%

5.2%

5.4%

TRRL METHOD, HER MAJESTYS LONDON

TRRL METHOD, H ER M AJESTY ’ S L ONDON

PERMISSIBLE VARIATION FROM THE JOB MIX FORMULA

 

Description

Permissible Variation

 

DBM

SDBC/ BC

Aggregate passing

   

19 mm or larger

± 8%

± 7%

13.2

mm/ 9.5 mm

± 7%

± 6%

4.75

mm

± 6%

± 5%

2.36

mm, 1.18 mm, 0.6 mm

± 5%

± 4%

0.3 mm, 0.15 mm

± 4%

± 3%

0.075 mm

± 2%

± 1.5%

Binder Course

± 0.3%

± 0.3%

Mixing Temperature

± 10°C

± 10°C

3% 0.075 mm ± 2% ± 1.5% Binder Course ± 0.3% ± 0.3% Mixing Temperature ±

MIXING, LAYING AND ROLLING TEMPERATURES FOR DENSE MIXTURES (°C)

Bitumen

Bitumen

Aggregate

Mixed

Laying

Rolling

Viscosity

Aggregate

Temperature

Material

Temperature

Temperature

Grade

Temperature

VG 40

160

170

160

175

160

170

150

Min.

100 Min.

VG 30

150 165

150 170

150 165

140 Min.

90 Min.

VG 20

145

165

145

170

145

165

135

Min.

85

Min.

VG 10

140

160

140

165

140

160

130

Min.

80

Min.

Min. 85 Min. VG – 10 140 – 160 140 – 165 140 – 160 130

REQUIREMENT OF THE DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIX USING VISCOSITY-GRADED (VG) PAVING/ MODIFIED BITUMEN

Properties

Viscosity Grade Paving Bitumen

Modified Bitumen

 

Test Method

Hot climate

Cold climate

Compaction level

75 blows on each face of the specimen

   

(Number of blows)

 

Minimum stability (kN at 60°C)

9.0

12

10

AASHTO T245

Marshall flow (mm)

2

4

2.5

4

3.5 5

AASHTO T245

Marshall Quotient (stability/ flow)

2

5

2.5

5

 

%

Air Voids

3

5

MS-2, ASTM D2041

%

Voids filled with

 

65 75

MS 2

bitumen (VFB)

 

Tensile Strength Ratio

80% (Minimum)

 

AASHTO T283

Coating of Aggregate Particles with bitumen

 

95% (Minimum)

 

IS: 6241

(Minimum)   AASHTO T283 Coating of Aggregate Particles with bitumen   95% (Minimum)   IS: 6241

% VOIDS IN MINERAL AGGREGATE, VMA

Nominal Maximum

Min. % VMA related to designed % air voids

Particle Size (mm)

3

4

5

9.5

14

15

16

13.2

13

14

15

19.0

12

13

14

26.5

11

12

13

37.5

10

11

12

14 15 16 13.2 13 14 15 19.0 12 13 14 26.5 11 12 13 37.5

RECOMMENDED TYPE AND THICKNESS OF BITUMINOUS WEARING COURSES UNDER DIFFERENT SITUATIONS

(IRC:37:2001)

Sl. No.

Type of Base/Binder course

Type of Bituminous Wearing Course

Annual Rainfall L: <1500 mm M: 1500-3000 mm H: >3000 mm

Design

traffic (msa)

1.

WBM,WMM, Crushed Macadam, Built up Spray Grout

20

mm PMC with sand

L and M

<10.0

seal coat

   

20

mm PMC with liquid

L, M and H

<10.0

seal coat

   

20 mm MSS Type ‘A’ or

L,M and H

<10.0

‘B’

2.

Bituminous Macadam base/binder course

25mm SDBC

L,M and H

<10.0

   

20

mm PMC with liquid

L,M and H

<10.0

seal coat

   

20 mm MSS Type ‘A’ or ‘B’

L,M and H

<10.0

3.

Dense Bituminous Macadam

25mm Bituminous Concrete (BC)

L,M and H

>5<10

3. Dense Bituminous Macadam 25mm Bituminous Concrete (BC) L,M and H >5<10
   

40mm BC

L,M and H

≥10

   

50mm BC

L,M and H

≥100

In applying the above recommendations, the following points should be kept in view:

In case where a pavement is decided to be developed in

stages, the surfacing should correspond to that for the

design stage.

As far as possible, wearing course amenable to laying with paver-finisher should be adopted over paver-finished base/binder course.

Expensive surfacing like, Bituminous Concrete should not be provided directly over manually laid granular bases.

 Expensive surfacing like, Bituminous Concrete should not be provided directly over manually laid granular bases.

CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF GRADE OF BITUMEN FOR BITUMINOUS COURSES (IRC:37-

2001)

Climate

Traffic(CVD)

Bituminous

Grade of Bitumen to be used

Course

Hot

Any

BM, BPM, BUSG

60/70 (VG-20)

Moderate/Cold

Any

BM, BPM, BUSG

80/100 (VG-10)

Any

Heavy Loads, Expressways, Urban Roads

DBM, SDBC, BC

60/70 (VG-20)

Hot/ Moderate

Any

Premix Carpet

50/60 (VG-30) or

60/70 (VG-20)

Cold

Any

Premix Carpet

80/100 (VG-10)

Hot/ Moderate

Any

Mastic Asphalt

15±5

Cold

Any

Mastic Asphalt

30/ 40 (VG-40)

30/ 40 (VG-40)

SELECTION CRITERIA FOR VISCOSITY-GRADED (VG) PAVING BITUMEN BASED ON CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

(IRC:111:2009)

Lowest Daily Mean Air Temperature, °C

Highest Daily Mean Air Temperature, °C

Less than 20°C

20 to 30°C

More than 30°C

More than -10°

VG-10

VG- 20

VG- 30

-10°C or lower

VG- 10

VG- 10

VG- 20

More than 30°C More than -10° VG-10 VG- 20 VG- 30 -10°C or lower VG- 10

TYPES OF DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIXES, THEIR MIXES, THEIR USE, NUMBER OF LAYERS AND LAYER THICKNESS

Specification

Purpose

Number of Layers

Thickness of each Layer

Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM)

Base/ Binder Course/ Overlay for Strengthening

Single or

50

mm 100 mm

Multiple

 

Semi- Dense

Wearing Course

Single

25 mm 40 mm

Bituminous Concrete (SDBC)

Bituminous Concrete (BC)

Wearing Course

Single

25

mm/ 40 mm/

50

mm

Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) Bituminous Concrete (BC) Wearing Course Single 25 mm/ 40 mm/ 50 mm

MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE FREQUENCY OF UNEVENNESS

Type of surface

Unevenness,

Max. no. of Surface Unevenness

mm

NH/ SH

MDR and others

Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC)

4

6

20

40

Bituminous Concrete (BC)

3

5

15

30

Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) 4 – 6 20 40 Bituminous Concrete (BC) 3 – 5 15

MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE VALUES OF ROUGHNESS (MM/ KM) FOR SURFACE WITH DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIXES

S. No.

Type of surface

Condition of Road Surface ( mm/ km)

Good

Average

Poor

1.

SDBC

< 2500

2500

3500

> 3500

2.

BC

< 2500

2000

3000

> 3000

1. SDBC < 2500 2500 – 3500 > 3500 2. BC < 2500 2000 – 3000

CONTROL TESTS FOR DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MIXES AND THEIR MINIMUM FREQUENCY

S. No.

Test

Frequency

1.

Quality of binder

Number of samples per lot and tests as per IS:73 or IRC:SP: 53

2.

Aggregate impact value/

One test per 350 mtr cube of aggregate for each source

Los Angeles Abrasion

and whenever there is change in the quality of

value

aggregate.

3.

Flakiness Index

One test per 350 mtr cube of aggregate for each source and whenever there is change in the quality of aggregate.

4.

Soundness test (Sodium

1 test for each source and whenever there is change in

and Magnesium Sulphate test)

the quality of aggregate.

5.

Water absorption of aggregate

test for each source and whenever there is change in the quality of aggregate.

1

6.

Sand equivalent test

test for each source and whenever there is change in the quality of aggregate.

1

7.

Plasticity Index

test for each source and whenever there is change in the quality of aggregate. 1

test for each source and whenever there is change in the quality of aggregate.

1

S.No.

Test

Frequency

8.

Polished stone value

test for each source and whenever there is change in the quality of aggregate.

1

9.

Percent of fractured faces

test per 350 mtrcube of aggregate when crushed gravel is used.

1

10.

Mix

grading

test for individual constituent and mixed aggregate from dryer for each 400 tonnes of mix subject to minimum of 2 tests per day per plant.

1

11.

Stability and voids analysis of

tests for stability, flow value, density and void content for each 400 tonnes of mix subject to minimum of 2 tests per day per plant.

3

mix

including theoretical

maximum specific gravity of

loose mix

 

12.

Moisture susceptibility of mix

1

test for each mix type whenever there is change in

(AASHTO T283)

the quality or source of coarse or fine aggregate.

13.

Temperature of binder in boiler, aggregate in dryer and mix at the time of laying and

At regular intervals

compaction

14.

Binder content

One set for each 400 tonnes of mix subject to

minimum of 2 tests per day per plant.

15.

Rate of spread of mix material

After every 5 th truck load.

After every 5 t h truck load.

16.

Density of compacted layer

One test per 700 sqmtr area.

MANUAL FOR CONSTRUCTION AND SUPERVISION OF BITUMINOUS WORKS

(IRC)

MANUAL FOR CONSTRUCTION AND SUPERVISION OF BITUMINOUS WORKS (IRC)

BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT LAYERS

Sprayed or Penetration Layer Systems Pre-mixed Aggregate and Bitumen Mixtures

B ITUMINOUS P AVEMENT L AYERS  Sprayed or Penetration Layer Systems  Pre-mixed Aggregate and

SPRAYED OR PENETRATION LAYER SYSTEMS

Prime Coat (Clause 502)

It is a low viscosity bituminous emulsion on untreated absorbent base in preparation for a bituminous course.

Uses

To plug the capillary voids To coat and bond loose materials on the surface

To harden or toughen the surface

To promote adhesion between the layer being primed and the superimposed bituminous layer

or toughen the surface  To promote adhesion between the layer being primed and the superimposed

Tack Coat (Clause 503)

It’s a low viscosity liquid bituminous binder to an existing bituminous surface.

Uses

It is used to ensure a bond between the new construction and the old surface. When an additional course is applied within a couple of days on a freshly laid bituminous layer that has not been used by traffic or on an old bituminous rich surface in warm weather, the Tack Coat may be dispensed with.

has not been used by traffic or on an old bituminous rich surface in warm weather,

Liquid Seal Coat (Clause 513)

It comprises of an application of a layer of bituminous binder over an existing bituminous surface, followed by a cover of stone chipping. Uses

The application of Liquid Seal Coat over an existing bituminous surface is for the purpose of sealing the voids in the bituminous surface. It is an alternative of a premix seal coat.

is for the purpose of sealing the voids in the bituminous surface.  It is an

Bituminous Penetration Macadam (Clause 505)

It is a compacted layer of coarse aggregates into which bituminous binder is introduced. The binder penetrates

into the layer through the voids and binds the stone

aggregates. Key aggregates are spread on surface and rolled so as to fill in the surface voids in the coarse aggregate layer.

Uses

It is not advocated for use in heavily trafficked situations.

It is used in the remote area where it is difficult to transport mixing and laying equipments.

It may be used as a temporary emergency material to repair a

pavement damaged by rain and flood.

laying equipments.  It may be used as a temporary emergency material to repair a pavement

Built-up spray grout (Clause 506)

It consists of two-layer composite construction of

compacted crushed coarse aggregate with application of bituminous binder after each layer and key aggregates on top for the second layer.

It is similar to Penetration Macadam but with less interlock and binder.

Uses

It is used only for emergency repair work and other temporary constructions.

less interlock and binder.  Uses  It is used only for emergency repair work and

Surface Dressing (Clause 510)

A thin film of bituminous binder is sprayed onto the road surface, covered with a layer of stone chippings and well rolled.

Uses

Used for relatively lightly trafficked roads, over gravel or other untreated road bases to reduce dust nuisance. To protect freshly laid WBM, WMM .

It acts as a water-proof seal.

To increase the skid resistance of smooth surface.

To act as a temporary bituminous surface on newly

constructed roads so as to allow for settlements due to traffic

before costlier bituminous layers are provided.

on newly constructed roads so as to allow for settlements due to traffic before costlier bituminous

Fog Spray (Clause 518)

A Fog Spray is a light application of a slow-setting

emulsion diluted with water on an existing surface. Uses

To renew an old bituminous surface that has become dry and

brittle with age.

To seal small cracks and surface voids

To inhibit ravelling and whip - off of chippings by traffic on newly finished surface dressing.

and surface voids  To inhibit ravelling and whip - off of chippings by traffic on

PRE-MIXED AGGREGATES AND BITUMEN MIXTURES

Bituminous Macadam (Clause 504)

Types

Open graded (Bituminous Macadam, BM)

Dense graded (Dense Bituminous Macadam, DBM)

It consists of a graded aggregate coated with

bituminous binder. The main source of strength of mixer

is from mechanical interlocking of aggregate particles and the cohesion imparted by binder.

Thickness varying from 50 to 100 mm.

Voids content can be as high as 20-25%.

Uses

A layer of BM serves as a base/ binder course, laid immediately after mixing on previously prepared base.

 Uses  A layer of BM serves as a base/ binder course, laid immediately after

Dense graded bituminous macadam (DBM) (Clause

507)

The stone aggregates are more closely graded. As a result the mixture is more dense.

Thickness varying from 50 to 200 mm. Uses

DBM is used as a base/ binder course for pavement subjected to heavy traffic.

varying from 50 to 200 mm.  Uses  DBM is used as a base/ binder

Semi-dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) (Clause

508)

The SDBC is a variant of BC, the difference being a lower binder content and the aggregate used being less dense graded. It is laid in a single course over a previously prepared bituminous base.

Uses

It is used as a binder/ wearing course on roads carrying relatively lower traffic in terms of msa<10.

 Uses  It is used as a binder/ wearing course on roads carrying relatively lower

Bituminous Concrete (BC) (Clause 509)

Bituminous Concrete layer consists of a thoroughly

compacted dense graded bituminous mixture of very well graded course and fine aggregates with filler and relatively high amount of bitumen compared to DBM and SDBC.

Uses

BC layer serves as a wearing course for heavily trafficked highway, msa>10.

compared to DBM and SDBC.  Uses  BC layer serves as a wearing course for

Open-graded Premix Surfacing (Clause 511)

Open graded Premix surfacing is a thin carpet. It is

generally laid to a thickness of 20 mm. A seal coat is provided to render it less permeable to water.

Uses

It serves as a wearing course on lightly trafficked roads. For temporary improvement and maintenance.

 Uses  It serves as a wearing course on lightly trafficked roads.  For temporary

Close-graded Premix Surfacing/ Mix Seal Surfacing (MSS) (Clause 512)

It is a fairly open graded mix used as a thin carpet.

Thickness in the range of 12-40 mm.

It is a mix of PMC with seal coat. Construction in 1

operation.

Uses

It serves as a thin wearing course for lightly trafficked roads.

seal coat. Construction in 1 operation.  Uses  It serves as a thin wearing course

Premix Seal Coat (Clause 513)

Premix Seal Coat is a thin application of a bituminous

course over another bituminous surface. Uses

It is intended for sealing the voids in the bituminous surface over which it is laid and is needed only for open graded PMC.

is intended for sealing the voids in the bituminous surface over which it is laid and

Mastic Asphalt (Clause 515)

It is a mix of bitumen, mineral filler and fine aggregate.

Voidless compact mass.

It flows like viscous fluid at temperature of around

200°C.

Solidified into a dense mass on normal temperature.

No compaction is required.

Uses

Wearing course for heavy duty pavement, city streets carrying high volume of traffic, bus stops, junctions or on bridge decks.

course for heavy duty pavement, city streets carrying high volume of traffic, bus stops, junctions or

Slurry Seal (Clause 516)

It is a mixture of well graded fine aggregate, cement

filler, bituminous emulsion and additional water. Uses

For preventive and corrective maintenance of aged bituminous surfaces and surfaces with fine cracks. It may also be used on top of a single coat surface dressing.

bituminous surfaces and surfaces with fine cracks.  It may also be used on top of

Recycling of Bituminous Pavement (Clause 517)

In-situ recycling

Central plant recycling

The process can be achieved by hot-mix or cold-mix technique.

Uses

Recycling of a bituminous pavement is the reuse, after some processing, of a pavement material that has served its first intended purpose. Advantage

Reduction in excess of height of pavement

Effective use and conservation of materials

Economy

Advantage  Reduction in excess of height of pavement  Effective use and conservation of materials

Bituminous Cold Mix (Clause 519)

It consists of unheated aggregates and emulsified or

cutback bitumen. Uses

It is used in situations where hot-mix plant are not readily

available.

In remote areas.

For maintenance operation in high rainfall zones.

hot-mix plant are not readily available.  In remote areas.  For maintenance operation in high

THANKS!!!

Open for discussion.

THANKS!!! Open for discussion.