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The Effects of Gadgets on Academic Performance of Students at Mati

Doctors Academy

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Educational Research (Thesis Proposal)

Research 1A

Submitted by:

Apostol, Analiza Mae; Ampilanon, Sunshine;

Indong, Rosevyl; Longyapon, Judy Ann;Tilacan, Venjelit; Layupan, Kierlon



Background of the Study

Our world is ever changing and advancing in the realm of science and technology. Many

of us depend on technological gadget to get us through the day, to do our job, to get around, and

to find certain things (Adel, et. Al., 2012). Mostly affected are teens. Since these inventions are

useful and can give a lot of entertainment such as games, texting, calls, media and many more, In

connection, they give more attention to their gadgets than there studies and academic

performance, (Studymode.com, 2016).

Another study observed that majority of the students especially High School Students are

seen of using different kinds of electronic gadgets daily, like cellphones, iPad, psp, etc. With that

case, students who are addicted in using electronic gadgets affected their studies,

(Studymoose.com, 2016). Study conducted by MARCO, 2004 revealed that the need to be

constantly accessible and connected with friends or colleagues was cited as the main reason they

could not manage without a mobile phone even for a day.

According to the Guardian newspaper in U.K. (on 4 August 2011), smart phones (such as

Blackberries, iPhones and Androids) sales increased from 4% in 2005 to 48% in 2011, 50% of

people claim to use the mobile internet equally at home and outside their residence, 47% of

teenagers admit using their smart phones in the toilet while only 22% of adults confessed to the

same habit, and mobile-addicted teens are more likely than adults to be distracted by their phones

over dinner and in the cinema.

Mobile phones have become an almost essential part of daily life since their rapid growth

in popularity in the late 1990s, Ling (2004). A nationwide survey conducted in 2010 shows that

mobile phones are the most necessary medium of communication for adolescents. It has virtually
affected the society’s accessibility, security, safety and coordination of business and social

activities and has hence become a part of culture of the whole world (Rabiu et. Al., 2016).

A study published in the National Communication Association's journal on 2015,

research has shown that students who text in class generally recall less about the classroom

content than those who do not. Similarly, those who used mobile devices in class took notes of

poorer quality, detracting from another cognitive process by which students integrate new

material. It is also found in a study by J.H. Kuzennekoff, et. al.,that the frequency of messaging

using cellphone was found to be a factor in the interruption of learning.

Statement of the Problem

Some of the most prominent technological innovations are smart phones, laptops and

using the internet. They have greatly affected many aspects of our lives (Howe, W., 2012).

Technology has its benefits, but when we take a look at how it has affected society in general

and how people interact with one another, we will quickly see that it has a negative impact

(Adel, et. Al., 2012). Evidence has shown from West African Examination Council WAEC 2014

in Taraba State that most students fail English Language and Mathematics (WAEC Chief

Examiner report, 2014). This may be partly attributed to high usage of Mobile Phone

telecommunication gadgets. Instead of concentrating on their classroom work, they gave more

emphasis to the use of the mobile phone in their classes and dormitory (Rabiu et. Al., 2016). In

local perspective the researchers observed that most of the students of Mati Doctors Academy

used gadgets specifically Smart Phones in daily basis but the effects of it to their study are not

yet establish.
This study will generally aim to assess the effects of gadgets on academic performance of

students at Mati Doctors Academy.

Specifically, this research will intend to determine:

 The demographic profile of the respondents;

 the most common type of gadget used;

 reasons behind gadget usage;

 the influence of gadgets usage on academic performance among male and female

students of Mati Doctors Academy;

 the influence of gadgets usage on academic performance among students of Mati

Doctors Academy of different age groups;

 the influence of the frequency of gadgets usage on academic performance among

male and female students of Mati Doctors Academy.

Significance of the Study

Determining the effects of gadget on academic performance of students at Mati doctors

Academy will provide information that will help guide the campus and classroom mobile device


To the students and participants of the study this will serve as awareness to the negative

or positive effects of using gadgets that will help them modified or control the amount of time

spent on it and eventually reorganize their study habits.

Lastly, this study will become a guide in getting information about the effects of gadgets

on academic performance of students to other readers, students and researchers of the said

subject. In addition this research will contributes to the growing body of research on how the

brain processes information when confronted with multiple, simultaneous sources of input.
Operational Definition of Terms

Academic Performance – is the extent to which a student has achieve their educational goals it

is represented by Cumulative GPA

Effects – it is the positive or negative effects influenced by gadgets

Gadgets – refers to a small electronic devices

Mobile Phone – is a wireless handled device that allows users to makes calls and send text

messages among other features.

Smart Phones – are a handled device that integrates mobile phone capabilities with the more

common features of a handled computer.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

Mobile phone has gained immeasurable ground in the lives of students all over the world.

Mobile phone is a common sight today in our schools as you see students going to school/class

with some of the most expensive and sophisticated mobile phones, tablets and ipads that has all

the applications, facilities and software that can connect them to the internet and all forms of

social media platforms, other web sites and so on, where they chat, access, stream, download,

upload, exchange and play different kinds of media contents, which most often, are pornographic

in nature (Olofuniyi,Fashiku,& Owombo2012).

Mobile phone usage significantly influence academic performance among male and

female senior secondary school students. This finding is in line with the early findings of Wang,

Wu and Wang (2009), examined the relationship between facebook practice and academic

performance of students. Their result was analyzed in terms of descriptive statistics followed by

inferential statistics. The results indicated that there is no significant relation between usage time

and frequency of login facebook with student GPA.

Jackson etal (2014) opined that mobile phones' usage is negatively impacting students'

academic performance. This means that the students who are using mobile phone more are

having low GPA. On how much time they spend on using their mobile phone and in how many

classes they use mobile phone, they found that there is negative relationship of these two

questions with students GPA. That is the students who are using mobile phone almost 7-10 hours

and those who use mobile phone during their most of the classes are having low GPA. He also

found that one of the most useful features of mobile phone is text messaging used by 67%

students (female 37% and male 30%). Almost 81% students (female 46%, male 35%) are using
standard text messages as compared to multimedia messages or other. 43% students (31% female

and 13% male) say that they put their mobile phone on silent mode while attending class. 35%

students (20% female and 15% male) say that they occasionally receive or send text messages

while the class was in session. 55% students (35% female and 20% male) agree on policy that

mobile should be kept by students but they should set it in vibration mode. 61% students (40%

female, 21% male) say that they do not use night packages on their mobile phone. 42% students

(23% female, 19% male) say that they use day packages on their mobile phone. 67% students

(39% female, 27% male) say that they spent 10% of their pocket money on mobile phones. 56%

students (32% female, 24% male) say that they sometimes use their mobile phone while doing

their assignments.

Henderson and Zimbardo (2000), in a concern to examine differences between students at

the high school and college level conducted a research on a sample of students from 2 schools,

private and public versus another sample of university students. The students were also

categorized into shy and non-shy students. Time spent using various types of technology in

particular activities was defined in terms of categories denoting an average range of the hours of


Contrary to the initial hypotheses, shy students did not use technology more than the non-

shy, but they responded to significantly less of their email than the non-shy, suggesting that they

were not using technology to practice socializing as much as the non-shy, which means that

shyness may extend to less socializing online as well as offline. Overall the data suggest that the

public high school students spend more time socializing and less time engaging in PC activities

alone than private school students, and that college students spend more time corresponding,

surfing and socializing (Adel et. Al., 2012).

Banjo, et al. (2008) considered the relation between cell phone usage and social

interaction with others focusing on helping behavior in particular. The sample consisted of 28

students of various communications courses. The result was that cell phone users are less likely

to help strangers or to smile to them than non cell phone users.

Lanigan, et al. (2009) in her research presented that from a sample of 97 internet user the

majority of participants (89%) perceived that the PC impacted their family relations. Of those

participants, 45% cited a mostly positive impact; 24% a mixed impact and 20% a mostly

negative impact.

Smith (2011) presented that 87% of smart phone owners access the internet or email on

their handheld, including two-thirds (68%) who do so on a typical day. Also, 25% of smart

phone owners say that they mostly go online using their phone, rather than with a PC. This

supports our assumption that smart phones replaced PCs as a mean of access to the internet.

Hampton, et al. (2011) on his research presented the following results concerning social

networks users, such as

- Facebook users are more trusting than others.

- Facebook users have more close relations.

- Facebook users get more social support than other people.

- Facebook users are much more politically engaged than most people.

- Facebook revives “dormant” relations.

- Social networking sites are increasingly used to keep up with close social ties.

- MySpace users are more likely to be open to opposing points of view.

Rosen (2011) conducted 1,000 teen surveys and observation of 300 teens actively

studying for 15 minutes. Some positive and negative impacts were obtained.
The negative impacts

- Teens who use Facebook frequently may become narcissistic, which means inordinate

fascination with oneself and excessive self-love.

- Teens who have a strong Facebook presence may display psychological disorders, such as anti-

social behaviors, mania and aggressive tendencies.

- Teens who overdose on technology daily, and this includes video games too, have higher

absenteeism from school and are more likely to get stomach aches, have sleep issues, and feel

more anxious and depressed.

- Middle and high school students, as well as college students, who checked their Facebook once

during the 15-minute study time, had lower test grades.

The positive impacts

- Use of Facebook allows children to develop their self-identity. Choosing a profile photo, listing

likes and dislikes, all force the youth to become more self-aware.

- Facebook and other social networking sites give shy children a way to socialize

- Encouraging comments online can put a smile on someone's face and improve moods.

National Sleep Foundation (2011) published a poll which found that 43% of Americans

between the ages of 13 and 64 say they rarely or never get a good night's sleep on weeknights.

Almost everyone surveyed, 95%, uses some type of electronics like a television, PC, video game

or cell phone within the hour before bed. The study discussed that the invasion of such alerting

technologies into the bedroom may contribute to the high proportion of respondents who

reported that they routinely get less sleep than they need.
Chapter III



This chapter will present the research design, setting, participants, measure, and

procedures of the study.

Research Design

This study will use descriptive research method that will utilize quantitative technique to

assess the effects of gadgets on academic performance of students at Mati Doctors College. The

data will be collected using one shot survey method.

Research Locale

Mati Doctors Academy

Population and Sample

The target population of the study will be the students of Mati Doctors Academy. The

sample size will be determined using Sloven’s formula. The samples will be selected using

random sampling method.

Procedure of the study

The researchers will distribute survey questioners to the target respondents that will be

selected randomly. A consent letter will be first given and will be signed by the respondents prior

answering the questioners. The respondents will have the right to refuse to the study if they will

wish to. The information and Identity of the respondents will be held at most confidentiality.
Data Analysis Plan

The gathered data will be tallied and analyzed quantitatively.

Ethical Consideration

Before the researcher will conduct the study, a letter of request will be sent to the head of

the school and during data collection researchers will also obtain Informed Consent from the

respondents of this study. Refusal to participate will be respected and decision to back-out will

also be considered. The personal information of all the respondents will be hidden and

pseudonyms will be used.


Biases may arise at any point during the study, in the sense that, researcher may choose

his respondents according to their own perspective and not following the standard measures.

Environmental factors such as weather could affect the researcher and respondents mood during

the survey. The researchers also anticipate the possible hindrances that might affect the

collection of data. However, these biases will be controlled because the researchers had

knowledge in Teaching Strategies. The research Adviser will also help the researchers in

validating, analyzing and interpreting the data that will be gathered.


Truthful answers from the respondents are expected, for these will determine the success

of the study.

This study is limited to the effects of gadgets on academic performance of students at

Mati doctors Academy. The study will only use one shot survey method in data collection. Data

will be analyzed using only quantitative measures.


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