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NETWORKING SHORT NOTES

2018

1.Web Browser: web Browser is an application software that allows us to view and explore
information on the web. User can request for any web page by just entering a URL into address
bar.Web browser can show text, audio, video, animation and more. It is the responsibility of a
web browser to interpret text and commands contained in the web page.Earlier the web
browsers were text-based while now a days graphical-based or voice-based web browsers are also
available. Following are the most common web browser available today:
Browser Vendor

Internet
Microsoft
Explorer

Google Chrome Google

Mozilla Firefox Mozilla

Opera Opera Software

2.MAC address : A MAC address is a hardware identification number that uniquely identifies
each device on a network. The MAC address is manufactured into every network card, such as
an Ethernet card or Wi-Fi card, and therefore cannot be changed.
Because there are millions of networkable devices in existence, and each device needs to have a
unique MAC address, there must be a very wide range of possible addresses. For this reason,
MAC addresses are made up of six two-digit hexadecimal numbers, separated by colons. For
example, an Ethernet card may have a MAC address of 00:0d:83:b1:c0:8e.

3.TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are two
distinct computer network protocols. TCP and IP are so commonly used together, however, that
TCP/IP has become standard terminology for referring to this suite of protocols.

TCP divides a message or file into packets that are transmitted over the internet and then
reassembled when they reach their destination.
IP is responsible for the address of each packet so that it gets to the correct destination.

TCP/IP functionality is divided into four layers, each with its own set of agreed-upon protocols:

A)The datalink layer consists of methods and protocols that operate only on a link, which
is the network component that interconnects nodes or hosts in the network.
B) The internet (or networking) layer connects independent networks to transport the
packets containing the data across network boundaries.
C)The transport layer handles communications between hosts and is responsible for flow
control, reliability, and multiplexing.
D)The application layer standardizes data exchange for applications. Protocols
include HTTP, FTP, POP3, SMTP, and SNMP
4.HTTP: Stands for "Hypertext Transfer Protocol." HTTP is the protocol used to transfer data
over the web. It is part of the Internet protocol suite and defines commands and services used for
transmitting webpage data.
HTTP uses a server-client model. A client, for example, may be a home computer, laptop, or
mobile device. The HTTP server is typically a web host running web server software, such
as Apache or IIS. When you access a website, your browser sends a request to the corresponding
web server and it responds with an HTTP status code. If the URL is valid and the connection is
granted, the server will send your browser the webpage and related files.

5.EMAIL: Email messages are relayed through email servers, which are provided by all Internet
service providers (ISP).
Emails are transmitted between two dedicated server folders: sender and recipient. A sender
saves, sends or forwards email messages, whereas a recipient reads or downloads emails by
accessing an email server.
Email messages are comprised of three components, as follows:
•Message envelope: Describes the email’s electronic format
•Message header: Includes sender/recipient information and email subject line
•Message body: Includes text, image and file attachments

6.WAN: A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically distributed private telecommunications


network that interconnects multiple local area networks (LANs). In an enterprise, a WAN may
consist of connections to a company's headquarters, branch offices, colocation facilities, cloud
services and other facilities. Typically, a router or other multifunction device is used to connect a
LAN to a WAN. Enterprise WANs allow users to share access to applications, services and other
centrally located resources. This eliminates the need to install the same application server,
firewall or other resource in multiple locations, for example.
Mobile Broadband: A 4G network that services populated areas across a region or country.
Broadband providing company: A telecom company provides home internet services to consumers
in hundreds of cities by connecting their homes with fiber.

Private Network: banks hospitals, etc

Business Services: large telecom company


Internet: The internet itself is a wide area network.

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2017
1.WEB BROWSER: 2018 .1

2.VIDEO CONFERENCING: Videoconferencing (or video conference) means to conduct


a conference between two or more participants at different sites by using computer networks to
transmit audio and video data. For example, a point-to-point (two-person) video
conferencing systemworks much like a video telephone. Each participant has a video camera,
microphone, and speakers mounted on his or her computer. As the two participants speak to one
another, their voices are carried over the network and delivered to the other's speakers, and
whatever images appear in front of the video camera appear in a window on the other
participant's monitor.
Multipoint videoconferencing allows three or more participants to sit in a virtual conference room
and communicate as if they were sitting right next to each other.

3.FTP: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard Internet protocol for transmitting files between
computers on the Internet over TCP/IP connections.
FTP is a client-server protocol that relies on two communications channels between client and
server: a command channel for controlling the conversation and a data channel for transmitting
file content. Clients initiate conversations with servers by requesting to download a file. Using
FTP, a client can upload, download, delete, rename, move and copy files on a server. A user
typically needs to log on to the FTP server, although some servers make some or all of their
content available without login, also known as anonymous FTP.

4.ADSL: Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of DSL technology that provides
greater bandwidth and provides higher-speed transmission over traditional copper telephone
wires than conventional voice band modem. ADSL is characterized by “high speeds” and “always
on” connectivity. This is achieved by using the frequencies not being used by voice calls.
ADSL was designed to support the typical home Internet user who downloads frequently rather
than uploads data.
Technically, ADSL can reach speeds of up to 6Mbps, but only receives 2Mbps downstream
(download) and 512Kbps upstream (upload) speeds.
ADSL can only be distributed within short distances from the central office, usually less than 2.5
miles. It may exceed 5 miles if the gauge of the existing wires allow for further distribution.

5.DNS: (Domain Name System) The Internet's system for converting alphabetic names into
numeric IP addresses. For example, when a Web address (URL) is typed into a browser, DNS
servers return the IP address of the Web server associated with that name. In this made-up
example, the DNS converts the URL www.company.com into the IP address 204.0.8.51. Without
DNS, you would have to type the series of four numbers and dots into your browser to retrieve
the website, which you actually can do.

6.URL: Stands for "Uniform Resource Locator." A URL is the address of a specific webpage or file
on the Internet. For example, the URL of the TechTerms website is "http://techterms.com." The
address of this page is "http://techterms.com/definition/url" and includes the following elements:
1.http:// – the URL prefix, which specifies the protocol used to access the location
2.techterms.com – the server name or IP address of the server
3./definition/url – the path to the directory or file

While all website URLs begin with "http," several other prefixes exist. Below is a list of various
URL prefixes:

•http – a webpage, website directory, or other file available over HTTP


•ftp – a file or directory of files available to download from an FTP server

2016
1.TCP/IP: 2018.3
2.MAC: 2018.2
3.BROWSING: In general, browse refers to reading and scanning through data.
Browsing is commonly used to describe when a user reads through pages on the Internet
and is also often referred to as surfing. For example, you are browsing the Internet with
an Internet browser now if you're reading this page on your computer. If you have visited
more than one page on Computer Hope, you are browsing ourwebsite.

4.TELNET: Telnet is a user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote
computers. Through Telnet, an administrator or another user can access someone else's
computer remotely. On the Web, HTTP and FTP protocols allow you to request specific files from
remote computers, but not to actually be logged on as a user of that computer. With Telnet, you
log on as a regular user with whatever privileges you may have been granted to the specific
application and data on that computer.
A Telnet command request looks like this (the computer name is made-up):
telnet the.libraryat.whatis.edu

The result of this request would be an invitation to log on with a userid and a prompt for a
password. If accepted, you would be logged on like any user who used this computer every day.
Telnet is most likely to be used by program developers and anyone who has a need to use specific
applications or data located at a particular host computer.

5.ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for
digital telephone connection and the transmission of voice and data over a digital line. These
digital lines are commonly telephone lines and exchanges established by the government. Before
ISDN, it was not possible for ordinary telephone lines to provide fast transportation over a single
line.
ISDN was designed to run on digital telephone systems that were already in place. As such, it meets
telecom's digital voice network specifications.

6.ISP: An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides customers with Internet
access. Data may be transmitted using several technologies, including dial-up, DSL, cable
modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects.
Typically, ISPs also provide their customers with the ability to communicate with one another by
providing Internet email accounts, usually with numerous email addresses at the customer’s
discretion. Other services, such as telephone and television services, may be provided as well.
The services and service combinations may be unique to each ISP.
An Internet service provider is also known as an Internet access provider (IAP).

2015
1.i ROUTER: A router is a device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is
connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP's
network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.

Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the
packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the
best route between any two hosts.
Very little filtering of data is done through routers.
A router has a lot more capabilities than other network devices, such as a hub or a
switch that are only able to perform basic network functions.

1.MIME: Short for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a specification for formatting non-
ASCII messages so that they can be sent over the Internet. Many e-mail clients now support
MIME, which enables them to send and receive graphics, audio, and video files via the Internet
mail system. In addition, MIME supports messages in character sets other than ASCII.

There are many predefined MIME types, such as GIF graphics files and PostScrip files. It is also
possible to define your own MIME types.

2.DNS: 2017.5

3.WWW: The Web, or World Wide Web (W3), is basically a system of Internet servers that
support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language
called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as
graphics, audio, and video files.
This means you can jump from one document to another simply by clicking on hot spots. Not all
Internet servers are part of the World Wide Web.There are several applications called Web
browsers that make it easy to access the World Wide Web; Two of the most popular being Firefox
and Microsoft's Internet Explorer.

4.POP3: POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) is the most recent version of a standard protocol
for receiving e-mail. POP3 is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and
held for you by your Internet server. Periodically, you (or your client e-mail receiver)
check your mail-box on the server and download any mail, probably using POP3. This
standard protocol is built into most popular e-mail products, such as Eudora and
Outlook Express. It's also built into the Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer
browsers.
POP3 is designed to delete mail on the server as soon as the user has downloaded it.
However, some implementations allow users or an administrator to specify that mail
be saved for some period of time. POP can be thought of as a "store-and-forward"
service.

5.IMAP: IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) is a standard email protocol that stores
email messages on a mail server, but allows the end user to view and manipulate the messages
as though they were stored locally on the end user's computing device(s). This allows users to
organize messages into folders, have multiple client applications know which messages have
been read, flag messages for urgency or follow-up and save draft messages on the server.

IMAP can be contrasted with another client/server email protocol, Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3).
With POP3, mail is saved for the end user in a single mailbox on the server and moved to the
end user's device when the mail client opens. While POP3 can be thought of as a "store-and-
forward" service, IMAP can be thought of as a remote file server.
2014
4.CLIENT-SERVER MODEL: Client-server architecture (client/server) is a network architecture
in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server.
Servers are powerful computers or processes dedicated to managing disk drives (file servers),
printers (print servers), or network traffic (network servers). Clients are PCs or workstations on
which users run applications. Clients rely on servers for resources, such as files, devices, and
even processing power.

2013
9.c) BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THE WORKING PRINCIPLE OF OPTICAL FIBER WITH SUITABLE
EXAMPLE.
ANS: An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent strand of very pure glass that acts as a light pipe to
transmit light between two ends of the fiber. Optical fibers have a core surrounded by a cladding layer
made of dielectric material.
Optical fibers is used as a medium for telecommunication and networking. Light in a fiber optic cable
travels through a core by constantly bouncing from the cladding, a principle termed total internal
reflection. As the cladding does not absorb any light from the core, light waves travel longer
distances.

9.d) What is the difference between multimode and single mode optical fiber?

11.a) WEB SERVER: Web servers are computers that deliver (serves up) Web pages. Every Web
server has an IP address and possibly a domain name. For example, if you enter the URL
http://www.webopedia.com/index.html in your browser, this sends a request to the Web server
whose domain name is webopedia.com. The server then fetches the page named index.html and
sends it to your browser.
Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the
machine to the Internet. There are many Web server software applications, including public
domain software and commercial packages.

11.b) DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used to
dynamically assign an IP address to any new node entering the network. DHCP permits a node to be configured
automatically, thereby avoiding the necessity of involvement by a network administrator.
DHCP does the following:
a) Manages the provision of all the nodes added or dropped from the network
b) Maintains the unique IP address of the host using a DHCP server
c) Sends a request to the DHCP server whenever a client/node, which is configured to work
with DHCP, connects to a network. The server acknowledges by providing an IP
address to the client/node.
d) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is also known as RFC 2131.