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Job Hazards

Hazard

Hazard anything that can cause harm. Often associated with a condition or activity that can result in an injury or illness when left uncontrolled.

Identifying hazards and eliminating or controlling them as early as possible will help prevent injuries and illnesses.

If a hazard is not identified, it cannot be controlled.

Hazardous Event an event that results to harm or poor health posed

by a given hazard

Sources of Hazards

Workplace environment

Natural or artificial substances

Poor work design or practices

Inappropriate management systems and procedures

Human behavior

Types of Hazards

Physical Special Mechanical Psychological Electrical Hazards Ergonomic Chemical Biological Radiation
Physical
Special
Mechanical
Psychological
Electrical
Hazards
Ergonomic
Chemical
Biological
Radiation

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Physical Hazards

Unsafe conditions that can cause injury, illness, or death

Examples:

Extreme temperatures (hot or cold)

Cluttered materials

Poor lighting

Elevated areas

Overhead objects

Slippery surface

Hot materials

Mechanical and Electrical Hazards

Mechanical moving machinery parts that can cause injury or death

Electrical has the potential to cause electric shock, electrocution, or fire

Chemical Hazards

Results from exposure to any chemical in any form (solid, liquid, gas,

etc) in the workplace that exhibits the following characteristics:

Toxic

Corrosive

Flammable can ignite at normal working conditions

Combustible requires elevated temperatures to ignite

Reactive

Radiation and Biological Hazards

Radiation results from exposure to radioactive materials Ionizing radiation dangerous to living beings

Direct tissue damage cells die due to water being ionized;

radiation burns, radiation sickness, organ failure, that can

eventually lead to death.

Cancer damage to genes causes cells to pursue aggressive

and uncontrolled growth

Biological results from working with animals, people, or infectious

plant

Ergonomic and Psychological Hazards

Ergonomic occurs when the type of work, body position, and working

conditions that put strain on the body

Examples:

Poor lighting

Improperly adjusted workstations and chairs

Frequent manual lifting

Poor posture

Awkward movements

Activity requiring too much force

Psychological occurs when work or environment can result in

psychological strain/stress

Special Hazards

Confined space space with limited entry and egress and not suitable

for human inhabitants

Examples:

Harmful dusts or gases

Asphyxiation

Submersion in liquids or free-flowing granular solids (grain bins)

Electrocution

Entrapment

Special Hazards

Fire

Fire Types (Based on Extinguishers):

Class A solid materials such as wood, paper, or textiles

Class B surface fire (flammable/combustible liquids and gases) such as gasoline, alcohol, paints, thinner, grease, LPG release of gas

Class C electrical fire (involves live electrical equipment) such as motors, electric fan, air-

conditioning unit, computer, etc.

Class D combustible metals such as aluminum, magnesium, sodium, titanium, etc

Class K kitchen fire (involving combustible vegetable or animal oils and fats in cooking equipment)

Source: www.oshc.dole.gov.ph/content/announcement/62-types-of-extinguishers

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Examples of Hazard and Hazardous Event

Hazard Type

Hazard

Hazardous Event

Physical

Elevated area

Fall from heights

Electrical

High voltage equipment

Contact with high voltage equipment

Chemical

Toxic fumes

Inhalation of toxic fumes

Mechanical

Rotating fan

Caught in between rotating fans

Ergonomics

Video display terminal

Prolonged work with

computer

Impacts of Hazardous Events

Refers to the physical and mental effects of hazardous events to

personnel’s health and safety.

Examples:

Slight discomfort

Minor injuries such as bruises and wounds

Acute minor ill-health effects such as headache, dizziness, diarrhea, colds, cough, fever, etc.

Major injuries causing permanent disability such as losing limbs or even death.

Long term ill health effects such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, loss of senses such as hearing, vision, etc.

Risk

Risk combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous

event or exposure(s) and the severity of injury or ill health that can

result from the event or exposure(s)

It has two elements:

Likelihood of the hazardous event happening

Severity of the impact once the hazardous event occurs.

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