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Introduction to


What is Defining Written Why Written Tips on Written

Communication Communication COmmunications Communications

Factors Affecting Pitfalls to New

Elements Letters Process
Communication Avoid Technologies

Confusing No
Sender Status/Role Faxes Planning
language Feedback

Cultural Asking right

Messages Email Writing Verbosity
Differences questions

Choice of Poor
Receiver Communication Reports Editing sentence
Channels structure

Length of Information
Channel Memos
Communication overload

Feedback Use of Language Advertisements

Context Disabilities




Clarity of Message

Lack of Feedback

What is Communication?
Act of giving, receiving or exchanging information, ideas and opinion so the message is
completely understood by both parties

a) Elements in Communication (Speaker’s intention – Listener’s reception)

Sender Message Channel Receiver Feedback Context

b) Factors Affecting Communication

Choice of
Length of
Status/Role Cultural Differences Communication Use of Language Disabilities
Channels \
•Both parties is either •both within/outside •sending message •long/short •avoid poor choice of •use sign language,
in equal/different of org with appropriate word and hearing aids or
status within the channel to avoid inappropriate symbols to handle
hierarchy wrong pronunciation receiver with poor
interpretation and sight, dyslexia or
confusion mental health

Known or Unknown Atmosphere/Noise/
Perceptions/Attitudes/Per Clarity of Message Lack of Feedback
Receiver Distraction

•known receiver is better •consider receiver's •noisy place create •is the message transfered •enables confirmation of
in interpreting and personality, age and barriers to in clear or ambiguos understanding of
understanding the preferred style to adapt communication channel manner? message made by both
messages rather than own communication style & need extra effort for parties & to avoid
unknown receiver to suit others both parties to get the uncertainty & confusion
message across to
understood it clearly

c) Steps in Effective Communication Channel

Consider all aspects of the communication •Interpretation, understanding, feedback


Think carefully about possible barriers

Evaluate the complexity of the message

and decide on the best way to convey it

Ask these questions •Who, Why, What, How, Where and When

Determine written or verbal •F2F interaction, telephone, letter, email, memo or report
communication involved
Decide on the most appropriate channel of •cost, time, confidentiality, convention, urgency or
communication based on documentation is required
Defining Written Communication

Oral Communication Written Communication

•Conveying ideas, thoughts or information via a •Information is exchanged using written symbols
spoken language (words & Sentences)
•presentation of ideas in a coherent manner
•Takes place in
•letters, faxes, email, reports, memos and

Advantages of Written Communication

helps to keep abreast

of development in
information can be
whatever project
stored and
message is there for involved, as it serve as a form of helps to clarify
transferred between
posterity to be read provides avenue acknowledgement or thoughts and
individual and groups
repeatedly from sharing ideas or verification thinking processes
without replying on
opinions and also
presenting and
defending viewpoints

Tips on Written Communication

The Writing Process Planning Writing Editing

gather all necessary crucial to check for

Decide on the messages grammatical errors and
ensure smooth language
gradually build the
List down all the points
message from simple to
concrete form
Arrange it in logical and
suitable sequence adopt plain,
straighforward style of
writing to reduce
misunderstanding from
Poor Sentence Information
Errors to Avoid Confusing Language Verbosity
Structure Overload

poor language leads using too many leads to fragmented giving too much
to communication words which writing and impede information until
breakdown interfere with the understanding feeling
understanding overwhelmed and
Avoid ambiguous, short & concise confused which
bombastic, vague, may antagonise, writing to ensure caused frustration
sexist, exaggerated, confuse or bore the correct, logical & and doubts on
inflated and archaic reader easy to understand credibility

write in plain, good


Challenges in Written Communication

Steps in providing
When Others Fail to
New Techonologies Asking the Right Questions understanding to
•spelling check tools are •Their poor writing skills •if communication is •clear indication of the
not foolproof and require (language barrier) blocked, re-evaluate by purpose
attention in language •Too much information considering (Why, Where, •accurate and objective
knowledge provided What, How) questions information
•send electronic & •too many grammatical related to conveying the •appropriate headings and
networking messages errors messages and rectify it sub-headings
(email, SMS) •barriers between sender •suitable order of
& receiver (cultural, information
status, roles) •concise and precise
•message is not clear or instructions
precise •desired action clearly
•wrong choice of spelled out
communication channel
•past experiences
•documents not
structured, messy or not
laid out well