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Unit 2:

Matter and Change


(Chapter 2)

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2
Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
There are three types of matter that are really great
And during this lesson you will add them to your slate.
If you can master their properties and traits
You will really impress your homecoming date!

Elements are building blocks


From which all things are made.
They are all pure and can be found on a special table
And each of them has their own unique label.
They’re made up of only one type of atom
And to separate them, it’s tough, as you can imagine.
A nuclear reaction can accomplish this feat
You might never see this, what a bummer, it’s really neat.

Compounds are made from two or more different atoms put together.
They can be separated chemically, not by the weather.
A chemical formula identifies this type of matter
And the elements combine in a definite proportion, not like a cake batter.

Compounds form from elements,


And, ‘though it may seem strange,
When they form a compound,
Their properties all change.
As chemicals combine,
Their particles rearrange,
To form some different substance,
With an identity that completely changed.

Mixtures are different and don’t use chemical action


They combine physically and don’t require a reaction.
They are homogeneous or heterogeneous in nature
And are referred to respectfully as a solution and mixture.

With solutions & mixtures, it’s so different,


And there’s one thing you can bet—
Put salt and water together,
It will still be salty and wet.
‘Though you might fear changes,
There’s no reason to fret.
Without chemical combination
There’s nothing new to get.

Chemicals are everywhere-


One of life’s permanent fixtures.
Yes, chemicals really matter-
Those elements, comp0unds, and mixtures!

Elements are simple things


that can’t be broken down.
When put together chemically,
They always form compounds.
But thinking of the usual way
That chemicals are found,
It’s jumbled up in mixtures
that most chemicals abound.

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Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

Use what you’ve learned from the poem to answer the following questions.

1. According to the poem, what are the three forms in which matter is found? _________________

2. Which of the main types of matter can be separated physically? ____________________________

3. Which of the main types of matter must be separated chemically? __________________________

4. A mixture with a homogeneous composition is called a _______________________________.

5. T/F: When a compound is formed, a substance with a new identity is formed. _________

6. T/F: When elements combine to form a compound, they do so in an indefinite proportion. ____

7. Why is it that when you mix salt and water together, “It will still be salty and wet?” ___________

____________________________________________________________________________________

8. Hydrogen is an explosive gas, and oxygen supports combustion. How is it possible, then, for
water, which is composed of hydrogen and oxygen, to put out fires? Quote the lines in the
poem that explain this. _______________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

9. Indicate whether each of the following describes an element, compound, or mixture:

a. physical combination of more than one substance ___________________

b. simple substance that can’t be broken down by ordinary means ___________________

c. chemical combination of two or more kinds of atoms ___________________

d. gold ___________________

e. air ___________________

f. juice ___________________

g. sugar ___________________

h. oxygen ___________________

i. table salt ___________________

4
Matter

Homogeneous Heterogeneous

Solution Pure Substance

Element Compound

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Element Compound Mixture
Pure
Substance?

What is the
composition
of the
substance &
how are the
atoms
combined?

How can the


substance be
separated?

Describe the
proportion
of the
components
in each
substance.
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Elements, Compounds, Mixtures
1. Describe the difference between a heterogeneous mixture and a homogeneous mixture. Give an
example of each.

2. Identify each of the following samples of matter as homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (HET).

a. soil __________ e. iron __________


b. table sugar __________ f. river water __________
c. nitrogen __________ g. cough syrup __________
d. olive oil __________ h. gasoline __________

3. Classify each of the following as homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (HET) mixtures.

a. flat soda __________


b. chocolate chip ice cream __________
c. sand in water __________
d. brass __________
e. salt water __________

4. How would you separate the following mixtures?


a. Iron filings from aluminum filings
______________________________________________________________________________
b. sawdust from sand
______________________________________________________________________________
c. salt water
______________________________________________________________________________
5. Describe the difference between a pure substance and a solution. Give examples of each.

6. Classify each of the samples of matter from Problem 2 as one of the following: element (E),
compound (C), heterogeneous mixture (HET), solution (SOL’N).

a. soil __________ e. iron __________


b. table sugar __________ f. river water __________
c. nitrogen __________ g. cough syrup __________
d. olive oil __________ h. gasoline __________

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LAW OF DEFINITE COMPOSITION
A __________________ compound contains the same _________________ in _________________
the same __________________ by ______________, regardless of the size of the __________________
or the source of the ________________________.
 Vitamin C (____________________________) made in the lab is chemically identical to
naturally occurring vitamin C
 If the ________________________ of the elements is ______________________ the compound
becomes a new ______________________________

Example: H2O is water with a ratio of _____H / ____O


If you change the _______________ to 2H/2O, the compound is no longer H2O.
It is now H2O2, ___________________________________.

PROPERTIES OF MATTER
1. Physical Properties

 Can be _______________ or ________________________ without altering the


____________________ of the _______________________.

Extensive Physical Properties


 Depends on the __________________ of _____________________ present.
Ex: ___________________________________________________

Intensive Physical Properties


 Does _____________ depend on the _____________________ of matter present.
Ex: ___________________________________________________

2. Chemical Properties
 Describe ____________________ changes
 How a ______________________ reacts with other ___________________________

Ex: ___________________________________________________

Usually Signify a _____________________ ___________________!

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CHANGES OF MATTER
Physical Change
 Change that __________________ a substance ____________________ changing its
_________________________

Examples:
 Change in ______________________________
 Change in ______________________________
 Change in ______________________________
 Change in ______________________________

Chemical Change
 When a substance is _________________________ into a new substance with a
____________________________ set of ________________________

Indications of a chemical change has occurred:


 Evolution of _________________ and _______________________
 Production of ___________________________
 Formation of __________________________________
 Production of ____________________________
 Drastic _____________________________

A chemical change is also called a ____________ ______________

Reactants – the substance(s) that _____________________ a chemical reaction.


The ______________________ that _________________.

Products – the new substance(s) _____________________ by a chemical reaction.

Example: ____________________________________________________

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ENERGY
 The ________________________________________________________________.

The Law of Conservation of Energy – ________________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________

All ENERGY (E) is classified as: _________________ or _________________


1. Kinetic E

 the E of an object in ____________________

2. Potential E

 the E of an object has due to its ________________________

Chemical and Physical changes are accompanied by _____________ changes


Reactions involving E changes are either:

1. ______________________________
2. ______________________________

 Everything strives to be at the _________________ possible E

Exothermic

 The _________________ of heat


 E flows out of the _____________________ into the _________________________
 E _____________ by __________________ = E lost by _________________________

Reaction vessel feels ____________________!!

Endothemic

 The _________________ of heat


 E flows into the ____________________ from _______________________
 E ______________ by _______________ = E lost by _____________________

Reaction vessel feels ____________________!!

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Physical vs. Chemical?
1. Classify each of the following as a chemical (C) or physical (P) property.

a. colorless __________
b. produces a gas when sodium metal is dropped onto it __________
0
c. changes from a liquid to a solid at 0 C __________
d. can be decomposed by electricity into the elements hydrogen and oxygen __________
e. condenses at 1000C __________
f. is a liquid at room temperature __________
g. produces acetylene gas when dropped onto calcium carbide __________

2. Classify each of the following properties of the element silicon as chemical (C) or physical (P).

a. blue-gray color __________ e. reacts vigorously with fluorine __________


b. brittle __________ f. shiny __________
c. insoluble in water __________ g. unreactive in water __________
0
d. melts at 141 C __________

3. List the five indications of a chemical change.

a. _________________________________________________________________
b. _________________________________________________________________
c. _________________________________________________________________
d. _________________________________________________________________
e. _________________________________________________________________

4. Classify each of the following as a chemical (C) or physical (P) change.

a. bending a piece of wire __________ f. stretching a rubber band __________


b. burning coal __________ g. cutting grass __________
c. cooking a steak __________ h. a snowflake melts __________
d. dissolving sugar in water __________ i. water boils __________
e. milk sours __________ j. a firefly emits light __________

5. What evidence do you observe that convinces you that each of the following is a chemical change?

a. food spoils ___________________________________________


b. a foaming antacid tablet fizzes in water ___________________________________________
c. a ring of scum forms around your bathtub ___________________________________________
d. iron rusts ___________________________________________

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12
Unit 2 ~ Problem Set #1
Pg. 58-60; #36, 42, 46, 49, 54, 56, 57, 60, 62, 63, 68, 72
36. List three physical properties of copper.

________________________________________________________________________________

42. Use table 2.1 (pg. 40) to identify four substances that undergo a physical change if the
temperature is reduced from 500C to -500C. What is the physical change that takes place in
each case?

_________________________________________________________________________________

46. Classify each of the following as homogeneous or heterogeneous mixtures.

a. chocolate chip ice cream __________________ c. cake batter _________________

b. green ink __________________ d. cooking oil _________________

49. Describe the relationship between the three items in each of the following groups. Identify
each item as an element, compound or mixture.

a. hydrogen, oxygen, water________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

b. nitrogen, oxygen, air____________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

c. sodium, chlorine, table salt______________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

d. carbon, water, table sugar_______________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

54. Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical change. For any chemical change,
list at least one clue to support your answer.

a. a copper wire is bent. ___________________________________________________________

b. charcoal burns in a grill __________________________________________________________

c. bread dough rises when yeast is added ____________________________________________

d. sugar dissolves in water _________________________________________________________

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56. When ammonia nitrate (NH4NO3) explodes, the products are nitrogen, oxygen, and water.
When 40 grams of ammonium nitrate explode, 14 grams of nitrogen and 8 grams of oxygen
form. How many grams of water form?

_________________________________________________________________________________

57. Explain why mass cannot be used as a property to identify a sample of matter.

_________________________________________________________________________________

Use the following chart to answer #60 – 63.

Substance Color Melting Point Boiling Point


(oC) (0C)
Bromine red-brown -7 59
Chlorine green-yellow -101 -34
Ethanol colorless -117 78
Mercury silvery-white -39 357
Neon colorless -249 -246
Sulfur yellow 115 445
Water colorless 0 100

60. Which colorless substance is a liquid at -300C? _____________________

62. Which substance is a solid at 70C? _____________________

63. As the temperature rises, which solid melts before mercury boils? ____________

68. How are the items in each of the following pairs similar/different?

a. copper and silver _______________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

b. distilled water and saltwater_____________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

c. table sugar and table salt________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

72. The wax appears to disappear as a candle burns. How can the law of conservation of mass
apply to this reaction?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

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Finding Out About Matter
A. Classifying mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous
A homogeneous mixture is a mixture whose composition is constant throughout, having identical
properties in every part. It is usually called by the more familiar term, solution. A heterogeneous mixture
has different properties throughout the material. The composition varies depending on where the
sample was taken.

Classify each of the following as heterogeneous (HET) or homogeneous (HOM).

__________ sweetened hot tea __________ bag of leaves __________ cake batter w/ m&ms

__________ brass __________ dental filling __________ shampoo

__________ root beer float __________ motor oil __________ Hershey’s syrup

__________ hand lotion __________ brownies with nuts __________ granite

B. Classifying materials as elements, compounds, or mixtures


Substances that contain only one kind of atom are called elements. Elements are the fundamental units
which cannot be broken down into smaller units by chemical means. Substances that are chemical
combinations of two or more elements are called compounds. A compound can be broken down into
elements or other compounds by chemical means only. Combinations of two or more substances that
retain their separate identities are mixtures. Unlike the definite composition of a compound, the
composition of a mixture may vary. Mixtures can be separated by physical means, such as distillation or
filtration.

Classify the following as an element (E), compound (C), heterogeneous mixture (HET) or solution (SOL'N).

__________ sodium chloride __________ iron rod __________ stainless steel

__________ hamburger relish __________ concrete __________ old paint in a can

__________ Diet Coke __________ Exxon gasoline __________ dirt

__________ skim milk __________ copper wire __________ 14 karat gold

__________ mayonnaise __________ antifreeze __________ distilled water

__________ calcium chloride __________ rust __________ carbon monoxide

__________ OJ with pulp __________ Raisin Bran __________ aluminum foil

__________ pizza __________ a new penny __________ copper II sulfate

__________ cream of tomato soup __________ fresh air __________ potting soil

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C. Classifying chemical and physical properties
A chemical property is one which describes the chemical nature of a substance — how it reacts with
other substances. In order to observe a chemical property, the composition of the original material must
be changed. For example, a chemical property of sugar is that it burns (reacts with oxygen) to form
carbon and other products. A black, burned marshmallow is chemically different from a white, fluffy
one. A physical property is one which describes the appearance, the phase, or any behavior that does
not change its chemical makeup. The composition of the material remains the same. For example,
when a rubber band is stretched, it is still the same material.

Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical property.

__________ Peanut brittle breaks very easily.

__________ Ethyl alcohol freezes at -117 °C.

__________ Digesting a hot dog produces 175 kcal of energy.

__________ Ammonia’s strong smell makes it useful to revive people.

__________ Although oxygen gas appears colorless, liquid oxygen has a pale blue color.

__________ Water boils at 50 °C on Mt. Everest.

__________ Copper sulfate, a crystalline blue solid, dissolves in water to create a blue solution.

D. Classifying chemical and physical changes


A change that produces a new kind of matter with different properties is called a chemical change.
When a chemical change has occurred, a chemical reaction has taken place. When a fluffy white
marshmallow burns, it has undergone a chemical change which created new substances with different
properties from the marshmallow. A change that does not affect the chemical composition of the
material is called a physical change. When a marshmallow is smashed, its size and density have
changed (and it may not seem to taste as good), but it still has the same chemical composition as the
fluffy one.
Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical change.

__________ Your great-grandmother’s silver platter tarnishes.

__________ Butter melts into the nooks and crannies of a Thomas English muffin.

__________ Wood burns in a fireplace to produce heat and a cozy, romantic atmosphere.

__________ Grape juice ferments to form wine.

__________ Silver metal is hammered into thin sheets to make jewelry.

__________ Sweat cools the body as it evaporates from the skin.

__________ Milk of magnesia neutralizes stomach acid.

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Name ____________________________________________________ Period ___________________

MATTER - Vocabulary Review


Match the correct vocabulary term to each numbered statement. Write the letter of the correct
term on the line. Each answer can only be used once.

a. extensive property f. solid k. mixture

b. physical change g. solution l. intensive property

c. heterogeneous h. gas m. liquid

d. endothermic i. compound n. exothermic

e. element j. chemical change o. law of definite


composition

___________ 1. Matter that has a definite shape and volume.


___________ 2. Two or more elements chemically combined.
___________ 3. Matter that is not uniform in composition and contains more than one set of
properties.
___________ 4. A chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same
proportion by mass, regardless of the size of the sample or source of the
compound.
___________ 5. Matter that has a definite volume but takes the shape of the container.
___________ 6. A process that releases heat to its surroundings.
___________ 7. A property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount.
___________ 8. A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.
___________ 9. A change that alters a substance without changing its composition.
__________10. A process that absorbs heat from its surroundings.
__________11. Matter that has neither a definite shape nor definite volume.
__________12. Two or more substances physically combined.
__________13. When a substance is converted into a new substance with a different set of
properties.
__________14. A property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample.
__________15. The simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties and cannot be
broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.

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Element Crossword
How many do you already know?

ACROSS DOWN
3. Na 1. Si
5. C 2. Ar
7. N 3. S
8. B 4. H
9. Al 6. P
14. Be 10. Li
15. He 11. Mg
16. F 12. O
17. Ne 13. Cl

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The Periodic Table Video
Pre-Quiz
TRUE/FALSE: Before watching the movie, test your knowledge by answering the following questions.

______ 1. One of the first war gases was bromine.

______ 2. The Hindenburg met a disastrous end because it was filled with the buoyant gas nitrogen.

______ 3. The element sulfur is found near volcanic activity.

______ 4. Metals and nonmetals can be distinguished by their solubility in water.

______ 5. Mendeleev arranged the elements on his Periodic Table by atomic number.

______ 6. Groups on the periodic table run vertically.

______ 7. In the noble gas family, density decreases as you proceed from the top to the bottom.

______ 8. Sodium and lithium react with oxygen by turning darker. Both metals react with water, but
sodium undergoes a more vigorous reaction than lithium.

______ 9. Hydrogen is the tyrannosaurus rex of all the elements.

______ 10. When a diamond is burned, water is the only product formed.

______ 11. When silicon is burned, the common name for the product is silicone, the substance used in fake
boobs.

______ 12. Along with copper, gold and silver are unreactive in water.

______ 13. Because of some leftover elements in odd groups or graveyards, the periodic table was
rearranged according to the “rulebook” so that there were metals, metalloids, and gases.

______ 14. According to American English, the host mispronounces the elements titanium and xenon.

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The Periodic Table
While watching the movie, increase your knowledge and answer the following questions.
1. One of the first war gases was
a) oxygen. b) chlorine. c) bromine. d) phosgene.

2. The Hindenburg met a disastrous end because it was filled with the buoyant gas
a) hydrogen. b) nitrogen. c) oxygen. d) helium.

3. What element is found near volcanic activity?


a) bromine b) carbon c) hydrogen d) sulfur

4. Metals and nonmetals can be distinguished by their


a) hardness. b) conductivity. c) solubility in water. d) melting points.

5. Mendeleev arranged the elements on his Periodic Table by


a) atomic number. b) atomic weight. c) isotope number. d) electron weight.

6. Groups on the periodic table run


a) horizontally. b) diagonally. c) vertically. d) in a stepwise pattern.

7. In the noble gas family, density increases as you proceed from


a) left to right. b) right to left. c) top to bottom. d) bottom to top.

8. Sodium and lithium react with oxygen by turning darker. Both metals react with water, but sodium
undergoes a more vigorous reaction than lithium.
a) true b) false

9. _____________ is the tyrannosaurus rex of all the elements.


a) Hydrogen b) Fluorine c) Francium d) Radon

10 When a diamond is burned, _____________ is the only product formed.


a) carbon b) sulfuric acid c) water d) carbon dioxide

11 When silicon is burned, the common name for the product is


a) sand. b) silicon dioxide. c) silicone. d) glass.

12. Along with copper, _________ are unreactive in water.


a) nickel & cobalt b) lead & tin c) zinc & mercury d) gold & silver

13. Because of some leftover elements in odd groups or graveyards, the periodic table was rearranged
according to the “rulebook” so that there were metals, metalloids, and
a) isotopes. b) gases. c) nonmetals. d) noble gases.

14. According to American English, the host mispronounces the elements __________ and xenon.
a) silicon b) aluminum c) titanium d) chlorine

20
Introduction to the Periodic Table
DIRECTIONS: After reading pages 808, 158-166, and 118, use a PENCIL answer the following questions.

1. The Periodic Table is an organization of all the known ____________________.


2. The first 92 elements, from ____________________ to ____________________, are found in
nature in either free or combined form.
3. The elements beyond uranium are called _________________________ elements. None of these
occurs in nature but are synthesized in nuclear reactors and all of them are _________________.
4. Chemists divide the elements into three classes. ____________________ ____________________
and __________________.
5. The largest class of elements contains metals. Where are the metals found on the periodic
table? _____________________________________________________________________________
6. All metals exist as solids at room temperature, except for ____________________, which exists as
a liquid.
7. Most metals have the following characteristics. Place the correct vocabulary word that
describes each characteristic.
1. ability to reflect light _________________________
2. conductors of heat and electricity (poor/good) _________________________
3. ability to be drawn into thin wires _________________________
4. ability to be hammered into thin sheets _________________________
8. What two qualities does copper have that makes it suitable for use in electrical cables?
___________________________________________________________________________________
9. What three properties does silver display that makes it popular in jewelry?
___________________________________________________________________________________
10. Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table? ________________________________
11. Most nonmetals are __________________ at room temperature, a few are solids, and only one,
____________________ is a liquid. Unlike metals, nonmetals do not have a distinguishing set of
properties. In general, one property they all share is that they are _____________ conductors of
heat and electricity. Solid nonmetals (C, P, S, and I) tend to be __________________.
12. A special class of nonmetals is the diatomic elements. These seven elements are never found
alone in nature as atoms; they always occur in pairs. Therefore, the prefix “di-” means two in
chemistry. Name the seven diatomic elements and list their symbols ________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
13. Where are the metalloids located on the periodic table? __________________________________

21
14. In terms of their properties, what is special about metalloids? ______________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
15. List the names and symbols of the seven metalloids:
1. _________________________ 4. _________________________ 7. __________________
2. _________________________ 5. _________________________
3. _________________________ 6. _________________________
16. Vertical columns on the PT are called __________________ or __________________.
17. T/F: The elements within a group have similar chemical and physical properties. ___________
18. The elements in column IA (1), are called the __________________ __________________. They
form very strong bases when mixed with water.
19. Hydrogen is placed in column IA because it acts like a metal when reacting with other nonmetals.
However, hydrogen is NOT a metal; it is a __________________.
20. Group IIA (2), which is composed of all metals, is called the __________________
__________________ family. These metals also form __________________when mixed with water
but are not as reactive as group IA elements.
21. If one examines groups IIIA (3) to VIA (16), one can see that all the elements in those columns
do/do not belong to the same class of elements. Therefore, chemists do not give these families
a special name.
22. Group VIIA (17) are called the __________________, Greek for __________________ producers.
23. Column VIIIA (18) contains the __________________ __________________, sometimes called the
__________________ gases because they rarely take part in a chemical reaction.
24. Groups IA (1) through VIIIA (18) can be classified into one category. Elements in these groups
are often referred to as ______________________ ____________________ because all classes of
elements are represented within these groups.
25. How many rows are on the PT? __________
26. Rows are commonly referred to as __________________.
27. T/F: Within a period, the properties of the elements vary as you move across it from element to
element. _______________
28. The center section of the PT contains the B groups. What are these elements called?
_______________________ ______________________
29. Lastly, the __________________ transition metals appear below the main body of the table. This
section consists of two rows called the __________________ series and __________________
series. As a whole, these two rows of metals are sometimes referred to by their old-fashioned
name, the __________________ - __________________ elements.

22
The Periodic Table Review
SECTION 6.1 ORGANIZING THE ELEMENTS (pages 155-160)

Searching For An Organizing Principle (page 155)


1. What caused the rate of discovery to increase after 1700?

______________________________________________________________________________

2. What did chemists use to sort elements into groups?

______________________________________________________________________________

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table


3. Who was Dmitri Mendeleev? ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

4. What property did Mendeleev use to organize the elements into a periodic table?

______________________________________________________________________________

5. Is the following sentence true or false? Mendeleev used his periodic table to predict the
properties of undiscovered elements. ____________________

The Periodic Law (page 157)


6. How are the elements arranged in the modern periodic table?

______________________________________________________________________________

7. True or false? The periodic law states that when elements are arranged in order of increasing
atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of physical and chemical properties. _____________

Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids (pages 158-160)


8. Explain the color coding of the squares in the periodic table in figure 6.5.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

9. Which property below is NOT a general property metals.


a. ductile c. malleable
b. poor conductor of heat d. high luster

10. Is the following statement true or false? The variation in properties among metals is greater than
the variation in properties among nonmetals. ___________________

11. Under some conditions, a metalloid may behave like a _________________________.

Under other conditions, a metalloid may behave like a _________________________.

23
SECTION 6.2 CLASSIFYING THE ELEMENTS (pages 161-167)

Squares In The Periodic Table (page 161-163)

12. Label the sample square from the periodic table below. Use the labels element name, element
symbol, atomic number and average atomic mass.

Electron Configurations in Group (page 164-165)

13. Classify each of the following as a/an alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, halogen, or noble gas.

a. sodium ___________________ e. xenon _____________________

b. chlorine ___________________ f. potassium _____________________

c. calcium ___________________ g. magnesium_____________________

d. fluorine ___________________

Match the category of elements with an element from that category.

14. ____________ noble gas a. gallium

15. ____________ representative elements b. nobelium

16. ____________ transition metals c. argon

17. ____________ inner transition metals d. vanadium

Matching – match each term with the correct description.

18. ____________ metals a. a vertical column of elements in the periodic table

19. ____________ periods b. good conductors of heat and electric current

20. ____________ group c. poor conductors of heat and electric current

21. ____________ nonmetals d. have properties that are similar to those of metals
and nonmetals

22. ____________ metalloids e. the horizontal rows of the periodic table

24
1
Periodic Table of the Elements 18
IA VIIIA
1A 8A

1 2 13 14 15 16 17 2
H IIA IIIA
3A
VIA
4A
VA
5A
VIA VIIA
7A
He
1.01 2A 6A
4.00
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Li Be B C N O F Ne
6.94 9.01 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18
11 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Na Mg IIIB
3B
IVB
4B
V5
5B
VIB
6B
VIIB
7B
VIIIB
8
IB
1B
IIB
2B
Al Si P S Cl Ar
23.0 24.31 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.06 35.45 39.95
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
39.10 40.08 44.96 47.88 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.59 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80
37 38 39 40 41 426 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
85.47 87.62 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 (98 ) 101.10 102.90 106.40 107.90 112.40 114.80 118.70 121.80 127.60 126.90 131.30
55 56 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

Cs Ba Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
132.90 137.30 175.00 178.50 180.90 183.90 186.20 190.20 192.20 195.10 197.00 200.6 204.40 207.20 209.00 (210) (210) (222)
87 88 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 0
112 114 116
Fr Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub Uuq Uuh
(223) (226) (257) (257) (260) (263) (262) (265) (266)

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb
138.90 140.10 140.90 144.20 (147) 150.40 152.00 157.30 158.90 162.50 164.90 167.30 168.90 173.00
89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102
Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No
(227) 232.00 (231) 238 (237) (242) (243) (247) (247) (249) (254) (253) (256) (254)

25
Academic Chemistry “Cheat Sheet”
Types of Chemical Reactions
A. Composition A+B AB
1. two elements a binary compound
2. metallic oxide + water a base (metallic hydroxide)
3. nonmetallic oxide + water an acid
Activity Series
B. Decomposition AB A+B of Halogens
1. binary compound two elements fluorine
2. base metallic oxide + water chlorine
3. acid nonmetallic oxide + water bromine
4. metallic carbonate metallic oxide + carbon dioxide iodine
5. metallic chlorate metallic chloride + oxygen gas
6. hydrated salt salt + water

C. Single Replacement A + BX B + AX ; X + AY Y + AX Activity Series


1. active metal (or H2) + ionic cmpd new metal (or H2) + ionic cmpd of Metals
2. active halogen + ionic halide halogen + ionic compound
lithium
rubidium
D. Double Replacement AX + BY AY + BX potassium
1. two soluble ionic compounds two new compounds, one of which barium
must be an insoluble ionic compound or a molecular compound strontium
calcium
Common Polyatomic Ions sodium
Solubility Chart magnesium
Name Formula positive ion negative ion aluminum
ammonium NH4+1 manganese
acetate C2H3O2-1 Na+, K+, NH4+ NO3-, C2H3O2-, ClO3- soluble zinc
bicarbonate HCO3-1 chromium
chlorate ClO3-1 silver, mercury, lead CO3-2, PO4-3, S-2, OH- insoluble iron
cadmium
cyanide CN-1 cobalt
cyanate CNO-1 Cl-1, Br-1, I-1 soluble
nickel
hydroxide OH-1 tin
nitrate NO3-1 Ba+2, Ca+2, Sr+2 insoluble lead
permanganate KMnO4-1 hydrogen
thiocyanate SCN- SO4-2 soluble copper
carbonate CO3-2 mercury
chromate CrO4-2 silver
dichromate Cr2O7-2 gold
peroxide O2-2
sulfate SO4-2
phosphate PO4-3

Steps for Solving a Reaction Stoichiometry Problem

GRAMS of MOLES of MOLES of GRAMS of


use use use
reactant molar mass reactant mole ratio new reactant molar mass new reactant
or of R or P or of R or P or of R or P or
product product new product new product

26
IA VIIIA

IIA Periodic Table IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA

On the blank periodic table, clearly locate the following. Use a color code or some other means for easy identification.
A. representative elements B. transition elements C. inner transition elements

D. metals E. nonmetals F. metalloids

G. alkali metals H. alkaline earth metals I. halogens

J. noble gases K. lanthanide series L. actinide series

27
DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks with the correct symbol for each element. You are responsible
for knowing all 46 of the following elements (spelling counts) and their symbols.

1. Aluminum ___________ 24. Zinc ___________


2. Calcium ___________ 25. Barium ___________
3. Chromium ___________ 26. Cesium ___________
4. Helium ___________ 27. Copper ___________
5. Lead ___________ 28. Cadmium ___________
6. Mercury ___________ 29. Magnesium ___________
7. Radium ___________ 30. Neon ___________
8. Potassium ___________ 31. Phosphorus ___________
9. Sodium ___________ 32. Silicon ___________
10. Tin ___________ 33. Bromine ___________
11. Argon ___________ 34. Tungsten ___________
12. Sulfur ___________ 35. Beryllium ___________
13. Nitrogen ___________ 36. Carbon ___________
14. Iodine ___________ 37. Boron ___________
15. Hydrogen ___________ 38. Chlorine ___________
16. Krypton ___________ 39. Fluorine ___________
17. Cobalt ___________ 40. Iron ___________
18. Radon ___________ 41. Manganese ___________
19. Lithium ___________ 42. Nickel ___________
20. Gold ___________ 43. Platinum ___________
21. Xenon ___________ 44. Silver ___________
22. Rubidium ___________ 45. Antimony ___________
23. Strontium ___________ 46. Titanium ___________

28
Name ______________________________________________________ Period ____________

Are you an Element Expert?


Using a lap top, log onto the following web site to check your knowledge of the elements.
http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ ~ scroll down to “on-line” games

1. “Element Flash Cards”


a. Select, “More Options Please”
b. Select:

Strange Symbols First 20 Elements First 36 Elements


Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Halogens
Noble Gases Lanthanides Actinides
Artificially Produced
Transuranic Elements Naturally Occurring Elements
Elements
All Solids All Liquids All Gases

How many questions would you like?


5 10 20 40 All Available
What would you like to be tested on?
Chemical Names Chemical Symbols Atomic Numbers
Require that chemical symbols be properly capitalized?
Yes No

c. Complete all forty flash cards.

2. Element Hangman
a. Please complete 10 hangman questions and write the clue and answer below

Clue Answer

1. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
2. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
3. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
4. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
5. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
6. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
7. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
8. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
9. __________________________________________________________ ____________________
10. __________________________________________________________ ____________________

29
3. Element Crossword Puzzles
a. Please complete all 9 crosswords and fill in below

Puzzle 1 ~ It's a Gas!


Across
2. This gas can be used to fill party balloons.
4. This gas is used to make yellow-green 'neon'
signs.
6. This gas is widely used in luminous signs.
7. Nearly 1% of the earth's atmosphere is...
9. About 21% of the earth's atmosphere is...
10. Most of the visible universe is made of...
11. This gas is used in strobe lights.

Down
1. When combined with tin, this gas helps keep
your teeth strong.
3. This gas helps keep swimming pools clean.
5. About 78% of the earth's atmosphere is...
8. A radioactive gas.

Puzzle 2 ~ Easy Symbols

Across
2. This element's chemical symbol is He.
3. This element's chemical symbol is N.
6. This element's chemical symbol is C.
9. This element's chemical symbol is I.
10. This element's chemical symbol is U.

Down
1. This element's chemical symbol is Li.
4. This element's chemical symbol is Ne.
5. This element's chemical symbol is Al.
7. This element's chemical symbol is Ar.
8. This element's chemical symbol is O.

30
Puzzle 3 ~Strange Symbols
Across
1. This element's chemical symbol is Na.
3. This element's chemical symbol is Sb.
5. This element's chemical symbol is Sn.
6. This element's chemical symbol is Au.
8. This element's chemical symbol is K.
9. This element's chemical symbol is Pb.

Down
2. This element's chemical symbol is Fe.
4. This element's chemical symbol is W.
7. This element's chemical symbol is Ag.

Puzzle 4 ~Known to the Ancients...


Across
3. Too soft for most tools, early people learned
that this metal could be strengthened if it was
alloyed with tin or zinc.
4. The ancient Romans used this metal to make
water pipes.
5. Brass, a corrosion resistant alloy, is a mix of
copper and this metal.
8. The ancient Egyptians made black eye
make-up with this element.
9. A pale yellow material, this element can be
found near volcanoes and hot springs.
11. The cheapest and most abundant of all metals,
people have been using this element for at
least 5,000 years.
Down
1. This liquid metal has been found in 3,500 year
old Egyptian tombs.
2. Commonly found as coal or soot.
6. Although known to the ancients, this metal
was often confused with lead and tin.
7. A soft, valuable metal, its purity is measured in
carats.
9. Frequently used in jewelry, this metal is the
best conductor of heat and electricity.
10. Bronze, the first alloy created by people, is a
mix of copper and this metal.

31
Puzzle ~ 5 The Alkali Metals
Across
2. While normally shown at the top of this group,
this element is not an alkali metal.
4. This alkali metal joins with a member of the
halogen group to form table salt.
6. This element's chemical symbol is Rb.
7. The first member of the alkali metals.

Down
1. This element's chemical symbol comes from the
Latin word for alkali, kalium.
3. This element, which is used in atomic clocks and
photocells, melts at temperatures slightly above
room temperature.
5. The last member of this group, all isotopes of
this element are radioactive.

Puzzle 6 ~The Alkaline Earth Metals


Across
2. Two of this element's compounds burn with a
red flame and are used in fireworks and signal
flares.
4. A fair amount of this element can be found in
your bones.
5. One of this element's compounds is used to
produce X-ray images of the intestinal tract.
6. This element burns with a brilliant white light.

Down
1. The first member of this group, this element can
be used as a neutron source.
3. All isotopes of this element are radioactive.

32
Puzzle 7 ~The Chalcogen Group
Across

2. The gas that you need to live.


4. This element's resistance to the flow of
electricity is greatly affected by the amount of
light shining on it.

Down

1. Named for the country of Poland, all isotopes of


this element are radioactive.
3. This element's chemical symbol is Te.
4. In its solid form, this element is pale yellow,
brittle and odorless.

Puzzle 8 ~The Halogen Group


Across
4. Discovered when too much sulfuric acid was
accidentally added to seaweed ash.
5. It is estimated that there is no more than 30
grams of this element in the earth's crust at any
one time.

Down
1. This element is a liquid at room temperature.
2. This element combines with an alkali metal to
form table salt.
3. This is the most reactive of all elements

33
Puzzle 9 ~The Noble Gases
Across
1. This element's name comes for the Greek word
for hidden.
4. This element makes up nearly 1% of the earth's
atmosphere.
6. Ions of this element were used as a propellant
aboard the space probe Deep Space 1.

Down
2. This element is the fourth most abundant
element in the universe.
3. This radioactive gas sometimes seeps into and
accumulates in houses.
5. The first member of the Noble Gases, this
element is the second most abundant element
in the universe.

34
Unit 2 ~ Problem Set #2
pg. 181-184; #28, 29, 31, 33, 48, 49, 71

28. Identify each property below as more characteristic of a metal or nonmetal.

a. a gas at room temperature ________________


b. brittle ________________
c. malleable ________________
d. poor conductor of electric current ________________
e. shiny ________________

29. In general, how are metalloids different from metals and nonmetals?

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

31. Circle the elements that are representative elements: Na, Mg, Fe, Ni, Cl

33. Which of these metals isn’t a transition metal?

a. aluminum b. silver c. iron d. zirconium

48. Write the symbol of the element or elements that fit each description.

a. a nonmetal in Group 4A. ________________


b. the inner transition metal with the lowest atomic number. ______________
c. all of the nonmetals for which the atomic number is a multiple of five. _______________________
d. a metal in Group 5A. ________________

49. In which pair of elements are the chemical properties of the elements most similar? Explain your
reasoning.
a. sodium and chlorine
b. nitrogen and phosphorus
c. boron and oxygen

___________________________________________________________________________________

71. Identify each process as a chemical or physical change.

a. melting of iron ________________


b. lighting a match ________________
c. grinding corn ________________
d. souring of milk ________________

35
Unit 2 ~Problem Set #3
pg. 61; #1-11

1. Which of the following is not a chemical change?


a. paper being shredded
b. steel rusting
c. charcoal burning
d. a newspaper yellowing in the sun

2. Which phrase best describes an apple?


a. heterogeneous mixture
b. homogeneous compound
c. heterogeneous substance
d. homogeneous mixture

3. Which element is paired with the wrong symbol?


a. sulfur, S b. potassium, P c. nitrogen, N d. calcium, Ca

4. Which of these properties could not be used to distinguish between table salt and table
sugar?
a. boiling point b. melting point c. density d. color

5. The state of matter characterized by a definite volume and an indefinite shape is a


a. solid b. liquid c. mixture d. gas

(A) Compound (B) heterogeneous mixture (C) element (D) homogeneous mixture

6. air - ______________________________

7. carbon monoxide ______________________________

8. zinc ______________________________

9. mushroom pizza ______________________________

11. Magnesium metal burns vigorously in oxygen to produce the compound magnesium oxide.
Use the law of conservation of mass to identify the masses labeled a, b, and c in the table.

Mass of Mass of Mass of magnesium


magnesium (g) oxygen(g) oxide (g)
5.0 3.3 8.3
6.5 (a) 10.8
13.6 9.0 (b)
(c) 12.5 31.5

a. ____________ b. ____________ c. ____________

36
The Bony Element
Learn how the periodic table is organized into groups, periods, and sections of metals, nonmetals and
metalloids while searching for the “bony” element. Use the clues below to identify an element. Find the
element in the word search area and circle separately each letter in the element’s name. At the end of the
clues, the un-circled letters, in order, will reveal the “bony element.

M G E R M A N I U M E S E N A G N A M
U L I T H I U M C M U I R U L L E T U
I S U R O H P S O H P B R O M I N E I
S E L E N I U M M U N E D B Y L O M N
S B E R Y L L I U M M U N I M U L A R
A M A G N E S I U M N E G O R T I N O
H M U I P O R U E P O T A S S I U M F
M U I N I L O D A G A N T I M O N Y I
C A R B O N C E S I U M M U I M S O L
N E G Y X O V A N A D I U M Z I N C A
T U N G S T E N E O N N I C K E L M C
R S T A S T A T I N E A D U B N I U M
E I L X B N R A D I U M O L D C I I U
P L A E O O A M E T A L S U L F U R I
P V B N R G D U R A N I U M O T U A B
O E O O O R O M E R C U R Y G I M B R
C R C N N A N M U I N I E T S N I E E

Clues
1. The metal in period 6, group 1. _____________________________
2. Transition metal in period 4, group 5. _____________________________
3. Alkali metal in period 3 that could be used to blow up a tub of water. _____________________________
4. Transition metal worth five cents. _____________________________
5. The yellow powdery nonmetal in group 16. _____________________________
6. Noble gas used in bright lights. _____________________________
7. The type of element found on the left side of the periodic table. _____________________________
8. The last naturally occurring element on the periodic table. _____________________________
9. The metalloid member of the halogen family. _____________________________

37
10. The alkaline earth metal with the largest atomic number. _____________________________
11. The metal in period 7, group 5. _____________________________
12. Liquid metal at room temperature. _____________________________
13. Most expensive metal in group 11. _____________________________
14. Transition metal whose symbol is derived from its Latin name, wolfram. _____________________________
15. Radioactive noble gas found in some homes. _____________________________
16. Alkaline earth metal found in period 6. _____________________________
17. Only nonmetal in group 14. _____________________________
18. Statue of Liberty is made of this transition metal. _____________________________
19. Period 5 transition metal used in jewelry. _____________________________
20. Noble gas in period 5. _____________________________
21. Metalloid with the lowest atomic number. _____________________________
22. The third noble gas. _____________________________
23. The first metal in group 9. _____________________________
24. Second lanthanide metal that begins with the letter E. _____________________________
25. Only member of the actinide series that begins with the letter E. _____________________________
26. First metal found in the carbon family. _____________________________
27. Last transition metal in period 4. _____________________________
28. The last naturally occurring transition metal in group 8. _____________________________
29. Inner transition metal that begins with the letter G. _____________________________
30. Metalloid whose symbol is derived from its Latin name, stibium. _____________________________
31. Artificially made metal in group 8. _____________________________
32. The metal in the actinide series named after a state bordering the Pacific Ocean. _____________________
33. Metal found in the lanthanide series that is named after a continent. _____________________________
34. First alkali metal found in the same row as transition metals. _____________________________
35. Diatomic element found in group 15. _____________________________
36. First alkaline earth metal. _____________________________
37. Representative element that produces a very bright white light when burned. _______________________
38. First metal in the boron family. _____________________________
39. Fifth transition metal. _____________________________
40. First nonmetal in period 4. _____________________________
41. The metal in group 6, period 5. _____________________________
42. Second nonmetal in the nitrogen family. _____________________________
43. Only liquid nonmetal at room temperature. _____________________________
44. The heavier metalloid in the carbon family. _____________________________
45. First metal on the periodic table. _____________________________
46. Metalloid in the oxygen family. _____________________________
47. Diatomic element that makes up 20% of air. _____________________________

The “Bony” Element is ___________________________


38
Name _______________________________________ Period _______________

Periodic Table Puns


DIRECTIONS: Use your imagination and the elements in the PT to solve each pun! Write the name
of the element and the symbol on the appropriate blanks.

Example: Five cents – Nickel, Ni

1. What you do in a play _____________________________ __________

2. What you do to a wrinkled shirt _____________________________ __________

3. “Tasty” part of your mouth _____________________________ __________

4. Police _____________________________ __________

5. Name of a goofy convict _____________________________ __________

6. What you do to flowers _____________________________ __________

7. Extinct _____________________________ __________

8. This man followed the yellow brick road _____________________________ __________

9. What a doctor does to his patients _____________________________ __________

10. Your brother or mine _____________________________ __________

11. What a dog does with a bone _____________________________ __________

12. What a cloud does _____________________________ __________

13. A boring person _____________________________ __________

39
Element Practice Quiz
DIRECTIONS: Provide either the correctly spelled name or symbol for the following elements.

1. Potassium __________ 24. Ti ______________________________

2. Sodium __________ 25. Ag _____________________________

3. Rubidium __________ 26. Ni _____________________________

4. Radon __________ 27. Fe ______________________________

5. Mercury __________ 28. Cl ______________________________

6. Nitrogen __________ 29. B ______________________________

7. Radium __________ 30. W ______________________________

8. Helium __________ 31. Br ______________________________

9. Strontium __________ 32. P ______________________________

10. Lithium __________ 33. Mg ______________________________

11. Aluminum __________ 34. Cu ______________________________

12. Argon __________ 35. Ba ______________________________

13. Lead __________ 36. Sb ______________________________

14. Calcium __________ 37. Pt ______________________________

15. Xenon __________ 38. Mn ______________________________

16. Cobalt __________ 39. F ______________________________

17. Tin __________ 40. Zn ______________________________

18. Sulfur __________ 41. C ______________________________

19. Chromium __________ 42. Be ______________________________

20. Hydrogen __________ 43. Si ______________________________

21. Krypton __________ 44. Ne ______________________________

22. Iodine __________ 45. Cd ______________________________

23. Gold __________ 46. Cs ______________________________

40
The Power of Observation Seeing Is Believing
INTRODUCTION: PROCEDURE:
Good scientists make detailed observations. In this 1. Obtain one-half of a spoonful of crystals X and
experiment, you are going to observe some place them in the clean, dry 100 or 150-mL
chemical and physical changes and then use your beaker. Caution: These crystals are harmful if
observations to answer some questions. ingested; do not eat them. Avoid contact and
The observations that you make are for your rinse spills with plenty of water.
use, so it is important to clearly state exactly what 2. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 25 mL of
you see so that you can draw conclusions from liquid Y.
these observations. Be specific, because in order 3. Add the 25 mL of liquid Y to the beaker
to make hypotheses you can use only your containing crystals X. Do not stir. Observe the
explanations of what happened in the reaction. beaker for about three minutes.
4. Stir the crystals and liquid Y until the solid
MATERIALS: completely dissolves.
goggles stirring rod 5. Obtain a piece of metal foil approximately 4
spoon 2 beakers (100 or 150-mL) cm by 4 cm.
crystals X 100-mL graduated cylinder 6. Loosely crumple the metal foil and place it into
liquid Y metal foil the beaker with the dissolved crystals. If the
liquid Z foil floats, submerge it with a stirring rod.
Allow the reaction to sit while you complete
OBJECTIVES: steps 7 and 8.
1. to observe changes in matter 7. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 25 mL of
2. to make detailed observations to answer liquid Z and place it into a clean 100 or 150‑-
questions about the changes in matter. mL beaker. Caution: Liquid Z is dangerous.
Please handle with care. Notify the instructor
if a spill occurs.
8. Obtain a second piece of metal foil the same
size as in step 5. Crumple the foil and place it
in liquid Z. The reaction starts slowly, so allow
enough time for the reaction to go to
completion. Discard the liquid into the sink.
9. Observe the reaction from step 6. Decant the
liquid into the sink, place the solid in the trash
can, and rinse the beaker with water.

CONCLUSION:
When steps 1-9 of the procedure are
completed, obtain a series of questions from
your instructor about the lab. Use your
observations to answer the questions in the
section titled “Conclusion” in your lab report.

41
Names __________________________________________________________________ Period __________

Observations
1. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

7. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

8. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

9. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusions
1. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

42
Investigating the Evidence of
Chemical Changes It’s All In the Bag
INTRODUCTION: MATERIALS:
A good understanding of materials around us sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3 _________________
requires some knowledge of the chemical and
physical characteristics of matter. Physical calcium chloride, CaCl2 _______________________
properties of a substance are those properties that phenol red solution __________________________
can be measured and observed without altering
the chemical composition of the substance. 1 small test tube paper towels
Examples are color, boiling point, hardness, and 1 Ziploc bag distilled water
density. Because they do not change the
chemical composition, physical properties can be
used to identify a substance. PROCEDURE:
Physical properties, such as density and freezing 1. Using a Ziploc bag as your reaction vessel, mix
point, do not depend on how much matter is as many combinations of the four substances
measured; these are intensive properties. Those as possible. Record in the data table the
that depend on the amount of matter, such as combination of chemicals mixed and what
mass and volume, are extensive properties. changes were produced. You are looking for
Substances may undergo physical changes, four particular changes: color change,
which may change the substance’s appearance exothermic reaction, endothermic reaction,
but do not change its chemical makeup. For and production of a gas.
example, freezing water changes its familiar liquid a. When adding solids to the bag, use
form into ice, a solid which can be easily broken; it approximately two teaspoons.
is still water, however, in the chemical sense, since b. When adding liquid to the bag, fill a
its chemical composition has not changed. small test tube, place it in the bag
Chemical properties of a substance are those upright, squeeze the air out, seal the
that it exhibits when it undergoes a change in bag, and then invert to mix.
composition. This change is often brought about c. Remember to wash and dry your bag
by contact with another substance. Examples are after each trial.
iron rusting (Fe changing to Fe2O3), carbon
burning (C changing to CO2), and aluminum CONCLUSION:
corroding (Al changing to AlCl3). Whenever a 1. Using your observations, list the minimum
substance’s composition is altered, a chemical substances necessary to produce each of the
change has taken place. following chemical changes:
a. color change
OBJECTIVES: b. exothermic reaction
1. To observe evidence that a chemical reaction c. endothermic reaction
may have occurred. d. production of a gas
2. To learn how to write specific observations.
3. To deduce an answer from a collection of Note: Neatness counts in all your lab reports. If
data. you cannot write legibly, then you will have to
learn how to type. The only excuse for sloppiness
is laziness, which is not acceptable. If I cannot
read it, it is wrong!

43
Names__________________________________________________________________ Period __________

OBSERVATION TABLE
Substances Mixed Observations

Color change _____________________________________________________________________

Exothermic Reaction _____________________________________________________________________

Endothermic Reaction _____________________________________________________

Production of gas _____________________________________________________________________

44
An Investigation of Physical and
Chemical Changes What’s the Matter?
INTRODUCTION: 2. Loosely crumple the aluminum foil sample into
A good understanding of materials around us a ball. Place the ball of aluminum into the
requires some knowledge of the chemical and copper II chloride solution. Let the mixture sit
physical characteristics of matter. Because no two until the end of the lab period; then record all
substances have the same combination of of your observations in Table I, change # 2.
chemical and physical properties under identical Pour the liquid contents of the test tube down
conditions, these properties can be used to the sink; discard the solid material in the trash
identify a substance. can.

In this experiment, you will examine a variety of 3. CAUTION: Do not look at burning magnesium. Its
substances and then cause some changes to take flame is very bright and can damage your eyes.
place. Based on observations and the results of Keep burning magnesium at arm's length at all
the tests you perform, you will decide whether times and do not inhale the fumes that are given
these changes are chemical or physical in nature. off.
Place a watch glass on the laboratory table
MATERIALS: close to your burner. Light the burner. Using
magnesium ribbon aluminum crucible tongs to hold ONE strip of
sodium bicarbonate sodium chloride magnesium ribbon, place the strip in the
sand (silicon dioxide) sucrose Bunsen burner until the magnesium ignites.
6M hydrochloric acid (HCl) copper II chloride Position the magnesium so that the product
(and only the product) of the combustion falls
EQUIPMENT: onto the watch glass. Do not drop any
test tubes glass stirring rod unburned magnesium onto the watch glass;
2 beakers graduated cylinders throw it into the trash can. Compare the
funnel filter paper appearance of the product with that of the
ring stand wire gauze original magnesium ribbon. Record your
iron ring evaporating dish observations in Table I, change # 3.
Bunsen burner tongs
watch glass test tube rack 4. CAUTION: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is corrosive. If
small metal cup or foil boat
you spill any on your clothing or skin, wash
immediately with water.
PROCEDURE: Causing a Chemical or Physical
Change Transfer the product of step 3 (make sure
no unburned Mg goes into the test tube) from
Obtain seven small sheets of paper. Label each with
the watch glass to a clean, dry test tube. Add
the name of a solid from the materials listed above.
10 drops of 6M HCl to the test tube. Feel the
Obtain two pieces of magnesium and one small square bottom of the test tube and observe any
of aluminum foil; place them on the appropriately changes in the solid. Record your
labeled pieces of paper. Using a clean plastic spoon, observations in Table I. Wash the contents of
transfer a PEA size sample of each of the other solids the test tube into the sink.
to the appropriately labeled pieces of paper.
5. Place the 2ND, unburned strip of magnesium
1. Fill a large test tube about one-fourth full of into a clean, dry test tube. Add 10 drops of
tap water. Add the sample of copper II 6M HCl to the test tube. Feel the bottom of
chloride to the water. Stir the mixture with each test tube and observe any changes in
your glass stirring rod until the crystals are the solid. Record your observations in Table I.
completely dissolved. Record your
observations in Table I. Pour the liquid in the test tube into the sink. If
there is any unreacted Mg, throw it in the
trash can.

45
6. Place the baking soda (which is also called 10. Pour 10 mL of the filtrate into an evaporating
sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen dish. Set the dish on a wire gauze supported
carbonate) into a small test tube. Add 10 by an iron ring attached to the ring stand.
drops of 6M HCl (hydrochloric acid) and
observe. Make sure you feel the bottom of the Using a Bunsen burner, heat the dish gently
test tube. Record your observations in Table I. until the liquid almost evaporates. Turn off the
Bunsen burner and allow the last bit of water
7. Combine the samples of sodium chloride and to evaporate on its own. Examine the dry
sand on a clean piece of paper. Examine the residue in the evaporating dish and record
mixture and record your observations in Table your observations in Table I.
I.
Discard the filter paper in the waste can. After
8. Transfer the salt-sand mixture to a clean 150- the evaporating dish has been cooled, the
mL beaker. Add 30 mL of tap water and stir filtrate and residue in the dish may be washed
the mixture with your glass stirring rod. down the sink.
Record your observations in Table I.
11. Obtain an aluminum pan/boat from the central
9. Filter the mixture as follows: distribution table.
a. Fold a piece of filter paper as shown
below: Place half of the sucrose sample into the
aluminum pan. Place the pan containing the
1. 2. sugar on a hot plate that has been preheated
to 250° C and heat for one minute. Observe
any changes in the sugar; record your
FOLD FILTER
observations in Table I.
FOLD INTO HALF AGAIN
PAPER IN HALF
12. Place the other half of the sucrose sample in
3. the same pan and place on the wire gauze
supported by a ring stand and iron ring. (You
OPEN CONE do NOT have to discard the sample from step
11.) Heat strongly with a Bunsen burner. Use
tongs to periodically remove the pan from the
wire gauze and check for any odor generated.
b. Place the filter paper in the glass (Never check for odor while heating.) Record
funnel; moisten with a small amount of your observations in Table I.
water. Press the moistened paper
against the funnel to seal it. After the pan has cooled, throw it in the trash
c. Set up your ring stand and attach the can.
small iron ring. Place the funnel in the
iron ring to support it. CONCLUSION:
d. Place a 150 mL beaker below the For each of the 12 changes you observed, fill in
funnel. Make sure that the mouth of Table II. Indicate whether it was a physical
the funnel is inside the beaker and change by writing P or chemical by writing C in
touching the side of the beaker. the second column. In the last column of Table II,
e. Pour the salt-sand-water mixture into cite the specific evidence for each of your choices.
the funnel, making sure the liquid level
never totally fills the filter paper. The Some examples of evidence (observations) of a
liquid that passes through the filter chemical change are the following:
paper and is collected in the beaker is • a color change
called the filtrate. • production of a gas
f. Examine the wet residue on the filter • production of heat or light.
paper and record your observations in
Table I. This list is not conclusive. You CANNOT state that
a new substance was formed because this is a
hypothesis, not an observation.

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Names__________________________________________________________________ Period __________

TABLE I ~ What’s the Matter


Change # Observations

10

11

12

47
Names__________________________________________________________________ Period __________

TABLE II ~ What’s the Matter


Change # C or P? Evidence

10

11

12

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WHAT dO I need to know??
Unit 2: Matter, Energy, & the Periodic Table
 Matter tree
o Homogeneous
 Solution
 Pure substance
 Element
 compound
o Heterogeneous
 Mixture
 Properties of metals/nonmetals
 Evidence of chemical/physical changes
 Organization of the periodic table
 Diatomic elements (Br2, I2, N2, Cl2, H2, O2, F2)
 Vocabulary
o i.e. group, period, precipitate, malleable, solid, liquid,
gas, matter tree, etc.
 Law of Conservation of Mass

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