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Deming’s 14 Points for Total Quality Management

Wade Allen Nicole Bush Michael Graham Dave Isham Kathryn Hilker

Overview

History of Dr. W. Edwards Deming The 14 Points Explained Criticisms of the 14 Points Concluding Thoughts

History of Dr. W. Edwards Deming
History of
Dr. W. Edwards Deming

Born in 1900 1928 – Received PhD in Physics 1946 – Led formation of American Society for Quality Control mid-1940s – TQM developed late 1940s – Introduced statistical quality control to Japan 1951 – Japan created Deming Award 1970s-1980s – Ford, IBM, Xerox adopt TQM 1980 – Deming “Discovered” in America

1. Create a Vision and Demonstrate Commitment

Management must find core values and goals Involve all employees Maintain a constancy of purpose Application:

Establish a policy Invest in research and education Always work on improvement

in research and education Always work on improvement Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

2. Learn the New Philosophy

Work more toward QUALITY rather than quantity Do not tolerate errors and faulty workmanship Application:

Focus on the customer’s needs, not on the competition Establish an understanding as to what kind of work is acceptable from employees

as to what kind of work is acceptable from employees Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

3. Understand Inspection

Workers depend too much on inspection Inspection is never 100% accurate and is costly Use inspection as an information tool Application:

Encourage workers to take responsibility in their work

Encourage workers to take responsibility in their work Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

4. Stop Making Decisions Purely on the Basis of Cost

Judge incoming materials by both quality and price Focus on minimizing total cost not initial cost Work toward long-term relationships with suppliers Application:

Reduce variation by using fewer suppliers Use statistical evidence to choose suppliers

suppliers Use statistical evidence to choose suppliers Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

5. Improve Constantly and Forever

Reject notion that things are ever “good enough” Necessary in both Design and Operations Less Variation, Lower Cost Application:

Market Surveys, World Class System for regular performance review

World Class System for regular performance review Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

6. Institute Training

People are the most valuable resource Reduces Barriers Ancillary Skills

Analyzing Diagnosing

Best People to Train Application:

Production Floor Training Training “Department”

Production Floor Training Training “Department” Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

7. Institute Leadership

Job of management is to Lead, not Supervise Focus on process improvements, not quotas Know the work Application:

Accountability for quality Forgive a mistake

Application: Accountability for quality Forgive a mistake Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

8. Drive Out Fear

Underlies many of Deming’s 14 Points First that should be implemented Many Fears- all have to be recognized Application:

180° Accountability Continue to be sensitive BAF safety record

B A F “ s a f e t y ” r e c o r

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

9. Optimize the Efforts of Teams

Teamwork destroys barriers Barriers occur when:

Managers fear losing power Employees compete for raises and ratings

Lack of cooperation leads to poor quality Application:

Restructure into teams that support processes Aim for consensus rather than compromise

processes Aim for consensus rather than compromise Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

10. Eliminate Exhortations

Exhortations typically assume all quality problems are behavioral They overlook the source of many problems—the system Application:

Improve quality with statistical thinking & training Motivate with leadership & trust instead of slogans

Motivate with leadership & trust instead of slogans Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

11. Eliminate Numerical Quotas, Management by Objective

Quotas and Objectives often used to punish, not encourage Can cause workers to short- cut quality to reach the goal Application:

Provide ongoing feedback based on quality indicators Emphasize the means (quality) as much as the results

Emphasize the means (quality) as much as the results Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

12. Remove Barriers to Pride in Workmanship

Performance appraisals can destroy teamwork and foster mediocrity Deming sorted non-system performance statistically:

Superior performance – reward Inferior performance – train or replace

Application:

Ask “What keeps you from doing better?” - act on answers Recognize results and quality over problems

on answers Recognize results and quality over problems Illustration by Pat Oliphant

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

13. Encourage Education and Self-Improvement

Education outside of specific job skills Responsibility to improve value of individuals Can stimulate innovation Application:

Pay for “work-related” courses Provide course information Encourage office clubs

n c o u r a g e o f f i c e c l

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

14. Take Action to Transform

Change includes everyone Change begins at the top

“Quality is made in the boardroom….Limitations on quality are also made in the boardroom” –Deming

Application:

Lead by example Provide training Implement with cross- functional teams

with cross- f u n c t i o n a l t e a m

Illustration by Pat Oliphant www.managementwisdom.com/free.html

Criticisms of the 14 Points

They are redundant.

Could indicate inadequate understanding If it helps to condense the points, do it

They lack specific direction.

This is intentional - Deming wanted people to study his ideas and derive their own approaches The 14 points are a framework or foundation for application, not a prescriptive approach

Concluding Thoughts…

A philosophy, not a program Applies anywhere and everywhere

Challenge: Use Deming’s 14 Points as a guide to write out a personal management philosophy.

References

The W. Edwards Deming Institute Webpage

http://deming.org “Chapter 3: Philosophies and Frameworks” pp. 100-106

The Management and Control of Quality, Sixth Edition, 2005, James R. Evans & William M. Lindsay Pat Oliphant Illustrations

http://www.managementwisdom.com/free.html “Total Quality in Education, Lesson 6 - Integrating the Principles”

http://www.tqie.com/lesson 6.html “Deming’s 14 Point Plan for TQM” by D. Wilson, 1995

http://www.educesoft.com/quality/demming.htm “W. Edwards Deming’s Fourteen Points and Seven Deadly Diseases of Management”

http://www.endsoftheearth.com/Deming14Pts.htm

“Total Quality Management”

http://tkdtutor.com/05Instructors/TQM.htm

“Quality Management: Deming’s 14 Points for Management”

http://www “Decades-old Management Advice Has Value for the Future” by Ronald Swift, 10/11/2001 http://www.infoworld.com/articles