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Lab Report On

Packed Bed

Submitted to- Submitted by:


Mr. Shiv Om Meena Charu
(2018UCH1772)

Performed On:
Submitted On:

Department Of Chemical Engineering


Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (Rajasthan)
Session: 2019-2020
INDEX
S.no. DESCRIPTION Page no.

1 OBJECTIVE

2 THEORY

3 UTILITIES REQUIRED

4 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

5 SETUP DISCRIPTION

6 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

7 OBSERVATION TABLE

8 CALCULATION

9 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

10 CONCLUSION

11 NOMENCLATURE

12 REFERENCES
1. OBJECTIVE:
To obtain relation between modified friction factor and Reynolds number for flow of
fluid through a packed-bed.

2. THEORY:
Flow through a packed bed can be regarded as fluid flow past some number of
submerged objects. In this case, the objects are uniform spherical particles of diameter
dp.

When there is no flow through the packed bed, the net gravitational force (including
buoyancy) acts downward. When flow begins upward, friction forces act upward and
counterbalance the net gravitational force. For a high enough fluid velocity, the friction
force is large enough to lift the particles. This represents the onset of fluidization. The
frictional force can be expressed in terms of a friction factor. This leads to equations
describing the the flow of a fluid past a collection of particles. The Ergun equation is one
such equation.

Δp/L = 150μ(1-ε)2u/ε3 dp2 + 1.75(1-ε)ρu2/ε3 dp

The Ergun equation tells us a number of things. It tells us the pressure drop along the
length of the packed bed given some fluid velocity. It also tells us that the pressure drop
depends on the packing size, length of bed, fluid viscosity and fluid density.

 Relationship between pressure drop and flow rate


The flow of a fluid, either liquid or gas, through a static packed bed can be described
in a quantitative manner by defining a bed friction factor, fp, and a particle Reynolds
number, NRe,p, as follows:

Fp= Δp gcΦsDpε3/Ρv2L(1-ε)

Note that this equation cannot be derived directly by extrapolating the case of flow
through a circular conduit since friction factor defined in both cases is different
NRe,p = ρ Vo Dp/μ

3. UTILITIES REQUIRED:
 A Packed column with two pressure tap
 Manometer
 Stop-watch
 Measuring tank

4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:

5. SETUP DESCRIPTION:
6. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
 Connect the manometer to the two pressure tappings of the packed-column.
Make it sure that there is no air bubble trapped in the tapping lines. Ensure that
manometer indicates zero reading for zero flow rate through the packed-bed.

 Open the inlet valve to a certain valve opening and wait till the flow is stabilized. This is
indicated by the steady levels of manometric fluid in the limbs of the manometer.

 Note down the manometer readings.

 Measure the flow rate of water by collecting it in a measuring tank either for a known
period of time or for a known volume.

 Repeat the above procedure to obtain at least 10 evenly spaced readings. The last
reading should be taken at the maximum permissible flow (or maximum possible
manometer reading ) through the packed-bed.
OBSERVATIONS:

7. CALCULATIONS:
8. RESULT AND DISCUSSION:
9. CONCLUSION:
10.NOMENCLATURE:

 Δp = pressure drop across the bed


 L = bed depth or length
 gc = conversion constant (unity if SI units are used)
 dp = particle diameter
 ρ = fluid density
 ε= bed porosity or void fraction
 Vo = superficial fluid velocity
 μ = fluid viscosity
 fs = sphericity

11.REFERENCES:
o https://fluidflowoperation.wordpress.com/ex-9-flow-through-packed-bed/
o http://wwwcourses.sens.buffalo.edu/ce427/Bedsv2.PDF
o http://faculty.washington.edu/finlayso/Fluidized_Bed/FBR_Fluid_Mech/packe
d_beds_fbr.htm
o https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275426574_Experimental_Analysis
_of_Heat_And_Mass_Transfer_In_a_Packed_Bed
o https://web.njit.edu/~barat/ChE396_Spring2011/ChE396_manual_Spr11_ver2
b.pdf