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21st Century Literature from the Philippines 
and the World Unit 13:​ ​European Literature 
 
 
 
Answer Key to ​Check Your Understanding 
 
Lesson 1: Ancient and Medieval Literature (800 BC–1500 AD) 
 
1. The earliest form of literature is oral literature. 
2. Homer is the author of ​The Iliad a ​ nd ​The Odyssey​. 
3.  The  two  epics  showed  the  quest  for  glory  earned  through  a  heroic  battle,  also  known  as 
kleos​. 
4.  Medieval  literature  focused  on  different  religious  beliefs,  use  of  physical  force,  lives  of 
aristocracy,  and  answering  issues  such  as  inconsistencies  in  chivalry,  personal bravery versus 
group needs, and individual destiny. 
5. Beowulf is described as a strong warrior who has a hand grip with the strength of 30 men.  
 
 
Lesson 2: Renaissance and Enlightenment (1300–1800) 
 
1. Humanism is the belief that people could attain earthly perfection. 
2. Writers have their own patrons. These patrons belong to the upper class or nobility. 
3. The Age of Enlightenment focused on scientific and industrial progress. 
4.  ​Paradise  Lost  focused  more  on  spiritual  heroism  or  Christian  heroism  rather  than  martial 
heroism. 
5.  The  societies  Gulliver  encountered  in  ​Gulliver’s  Travels  represent  different  aspects of British 
societies. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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Lesson 3: Romanticism and Realism (1800–1920) 
 
1. Imagination and emotion are the aspects given importance in romantic literature. 
2. Poetry was prevalent during the Romantic period. 
3. Realism presents the truth with all its flaws. 
4. ​Debit and Credit ​shows the bourgeois qualities of the German merchants. 
5.  The  poem  “The  World  Is  Too  Much  With  Us”  ​focuses  on  the  appreciation  for  nature  and 
man's neglect due to consumerism. 
 
 
Lesson 4: Modernism and Postmodernism (1920–Present) 
 
1. Modernism believes that knowledge is constantly shifting. 
2.  The  characteristics  of  a  postmodernist  text  are  the  use  of  paradox,  use  of  fragmentation, 
and an unreliable narrator. 
3. Pastiche and metafiction are the literary techniques used in postmodernist texts. 
4.  “In  a  Station  of  the  Metro”  provides  the  reader  a  visualization  of  the  imagery  using  a  few 
words. 
5.  ​Waiting  for  Godot  is  a  postmodernist  text  because  it  incorporates  past  literary  movements 
and influences from popular culture. 
 


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