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A study on Academic Use of Social Networking Sites among the students of

the University of Sargodha

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


M.Phil. in library and information science

BY

Muddasar Hussain Khan

M.Phil. Scholar

Roll No. PLIF15E004

DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCES,


UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA, SARGODHA

2019
A study on Academic Use of Social Networking Sites among the students of
the University of Sargodha

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


M.Phil. in library and information science

BY

Muddasar Hussain Khan

M.Phil. Scholar

Roll o. PLIF15E004

Supervisor
Dr. Haroon Idrees

DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCES,


UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA, SARGODHA
2019
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CERTIFICATE OF SUPERVISION

It is hereby certified that the research work reported in this thesis entitled “A study

on Academic Use of Social Networking Sites among the students of the University of

Sargodha” by Mr Muddasar Hussain Khan Session 2015-2017 has been carried out under

my supervision in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of M.Phil.

in Library and Information Science and is hereby approved for submission. It is further

certified that the research work carried out by the scholar is original and data presented in this

work are fairly collected from the field.

____________________
Supervisor
(Dr. Haroon Idrees)
Associate Professor
Department of Library and Information Sciences
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DECLARATION

I, Muddasar Hussain Khan, M.Phil. Scholar, Department of Library &Information

Sciences, University of Sargodha, hereby solemnly declare that this thesis entitled “A study

on Academic Use of Social Networking Sites among the Students of the University of

Sargodha” submitted by me in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of degree

of “Master of Philosophy in Library & Information Science” is my own original research

work and has not been published or submitted to any other institution for any degree earlier.

It is further declared that this work, in future, will never be submitted to any other University

in Pakistan or outside for acquiring any degree.

Muddasar Hussain Khan


Session 2015-2017
M.Phil. Library and Information Science
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Saying of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ‘A person who is not thankful to his

benefactor is not thankful to ALLAH.’ All and every kind of praise is for ALLAH

ALMIGHTY, the sole source of strength of universe, Who helps in darkness and difficulties.

All kinds of his mercy be upon Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), who is unique,

comprehensive and everlasting source of guidance and knowledge for humanities.

Though only my name appears on the cover of this dissertation, a great many people

have contributed to its production; this would not have been possible without the help of

these people in so many ways.

I would like to express my gratitude to my respected supervisor Dr. Haroon Idrees,

Associate Professor, Department of Library and Information Sciences, University of

Sargodha for his support, care, availability, motivation and immense support during my study

and research. His guidance helped me in the time of research and writing of the thesis. I could

not have imagined having a better advisor and mentor for my M.Phil. study.

I would like to express my gratitude to my all respected teachers in the Department of

Library and Information Sciences, University of Sargodha, for their constant support, help

and encouragement, especially to Sir Arif Khan.

My friends (Aamar Rasheed, Fayyaz Hussain and Wasi Ullah) have helped me to

stay sane through these difficult times. A simple “Thank You” cannot present how much their

friendship mean to me.

Finally I am grateful to my parents Rab Nawaz Khan and Sagheer Fatima, to whom

this manuscript is dedicated to, my lovely sisters Dr. Asma Rubab, Taskeen Zahara,

Qandeel Liaqat and Dua Rubab, my brother Dr. Muzammil Hussain for their constant

love, concern, support, strength and providing a caring environment for me so that I

concentrate on my study. Love you all.


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Last but not least; I also place on record, my sense of gratitude to all those who

directly or indirectly have lent their helping hand in this venture and I could not mention their

names, including the respondent population of my study. May you all stay blessed, Ameen.

(Muddasar Hussain Khan)


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Table of Contents

1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Background of the Study............................................................................................. 1

1.2 Statement of the problem ............................................................................................ 5

1.3 Objectives of the study ................................................................................................ 5

1.4 Questions of the study ................................................................................................. 6

1.5 Significance of the study ............................................................................................. 6

1.6 Research design........................................................................................................... 6

1.7 Delimitations of the Study .......................................................................................... 7

1.8 Organization of the Study ........................................................................................... 7

1.9 Definition of important terms ..................................................................................... 8

2 Literature review ............................................................................................... 9

2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 9

2.2 Social Media ............................................................................................................... 9

2.3 Definition .................................................................................................................. 10

2.4 Social Media Categories ........................................................................................... 10

2.4.1 Social Networking Sites........................................................................................ 11

2.4.2 Wikis..................................................................................................................... 11

2.4.3 Blogs ..................................................................................................................... 11

2.4.4 Microblogs ........................................................................................................... 12

2.4.5 Media Sharing ...................................................................................................... 12

2.4.6 Myspace ............................................................................................................... 12


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2.4.7 Facebook .............................................................................................................. 13

2.5 The Use of Social Media ........................................................................................... 14

2.6 Academic Usage of Social Media ............................................................................. 14

Resource/material sharing ............................................................................................... 15

2.7 Use of social networking sites .................................................................................. 16

2.8 Purpose of using social networking sites .................................................................. 20

2.9 Pakistani perspective regarding purpose of using the sites of social networking ..... 22

2.10 Dangers associated with use of social networking sites............................................ 24

2.11 Strategies for minimizing the dangers of social networking ..................................... 26

2.12 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 28

3 Research Design and Methodology ................................................................. 30

3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 30

3.2 Research Design and Method ................................................................................... 30

3.3 Research Questions ................................................................................................... 31

3.4 Instrument ................................................................................................................. 31

3.4.1 Development of Instrument ................................................................................ 32

3.4.2 Validity of the instrument .................................................................................... 32

3.5 Population and Sampling .......................................................................................... 33

3.6 Data Collection ......................................................................................................... 33

3.7 Response Rate ........................................................................................................... 33

3.8 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................ 33

3.9 Writing Style ............................................................................................................. 34

4 Data Analysis and Interpretation ................................................................... 35


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4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 35

4.2 Demographic information ......................................................................................... 35

4.2.1 Gender of Respondents ....................................................................................... 36

4.2.2 Age of Respondents ............................................................................................. 36

4.2.2 Education level of Respondents........................................................................... 36

4.3 Purpose for using social networking sites ................................................................. 37

4.3.1 Living situation of the Students ........................................................................... 37

4.3.2 Use of social networking sites ............................................................................. 37

4.3.3 To access social media, which of the following devices do you use .................... 39

4.3.4 Usage of social media .......................................................................................... 40

4.4 Purpose of use of social networking sites ................................................................. 40

4.4.1 The purposes of use of social networking sites ................................................... 40

4.4.2 Programs initiated by UOS through social networking sites ............................... 42

4.4.3 Knowledge about use of social networking sites................................................. 43

4.4.4 Effects of social networking sites on learning ..................................................... 44

4.4.5 Uses of social networking sites for academic purpose ........................................ 46

4.5 Dangers associated with the use of social networking sites and their remedy .......... 48

4.6 Cumulative Means .................................................................................................... 50

5 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations ............................................... 52

5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 52

5.2 Summary ................................................................................................................... 52

5.3 Findings relevant to research questions .................................................................... 53


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5.3.1 Frequency of use of social networking sites ........................................................ 54

5.3.2 Purpose of the use of social networking sites ..................................................... 54

5.3.3 Strategies for minimizing the dangers associated with the use of social

networking site ............................................................................................................................. 55

5.4 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 56

5.5 Recommendations ..................................................................................................... 56

5.6 Implications for Future research ............................................................................... 58

6 References ........................................................................................................ 59

7 Appendices ....................................................................................................... 66
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List of Tables

Table Description Page No.

3.1 Research questions 31

4.1 Gender of respondents 36

4.2 Age of the respondents 36

4.3 Education of respondents 37

4.4 Living situation of respondents 37

4.5 Response regarding use of social media sites 39

4.6 Devices use for social media 39

4.7 Use of social media 40

4.8 Purpose of the use of social networking sites 41

4.9 Programs have been initiated by UOS through social 43

networking sites

4.10 Knowledge about use of social networking sites 44

4.11 Effect of social networking sites on learning 45

4.12 Response regarding academic use of social networking sites 48

4.13 Strategies for minimizing the dangers 49

4.14 Cumulative mean 50


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Abstract

This study was carried out to find out the utilization of social networking sites for the

academic purposes among the undergraduate students of university of Sargodha. Presently,

social networking sites and electronic media along with utilizing the Internet and web

applications are playing a vital role to communicate and getting connected by the people for

different purposes that also include academics. The objectives of this research were to

determine different kinds of social networking sites utilized by UOS Undergraduates, to

examine the frequency of usage of social networking sites, the purpose of the usage of social

networking sites and finding out dangers and remedy associated with the use of social

networking sites. The study adopted the survey research method which was employed to

collect responses from a sample size of 350 undergraduate students of the University of

Sargodha who were enrolled in main campus of the university and were chosen via simple

random sampling technique through ballots. Data were gathered from the population through

questionnaire. The 300 respondents completed and returned back the questionnaire correctly

representing 85.71% response rate. The collected data was analysed through SPSS.

Descriptive statistics were applied to calculate Percentages, Frequencies, Mean and Mode.

The results of the study show that most of the students use social networking sites for the

academic purpose, communication and sharing information with friends, discussing religious

& political issues and for the awareness of the student activities etc. There are commendable

advantages of utilizing social networking sites. The threats related to social networking sites

also exists and such dangers can be minimized utilizing the techniques presented in this work.

Drawn from the findings, it was recommended that university authorities should conduct

different workshops which can help the students to enhance their IT skills and teach how

social networking sites and applications could be useful for academic purposes.
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1 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The Internet revolution has changed the information world with respect to

production, sharing, speed, storing and recovery of information in all forms. This

phenomenon has impacted every field of life, regardless of individual's area. Through the

internet, various web advancements have emerged, but one innovation that is making

waves towards information sharing and communication are the online networking

systems and social media networks. Recently, the world has been restructured by the

developments of the internet. The dynamic assessment of internet has turned it into a

most well-known communication medium. Most of the people in the world are connected

by social networks through the internet (Oye, Salleh & Iahad, 2012). The universities are

confronting fully loaded classes of local students, who are requesting another sort of

teaching. They have been brought up under the influence of audio-visuals and the web.

The new innovative devices (social networks, blogs, video platforms, and so on) have

provided the ability to share, make, educate and communicate the personnel, and have

become an essential element in their lives. In these days social networking sites have

become pretty effective to connect people who are utilizing the internet and internet based

applications for communication, which were not in action during the previous years. This

is, generally, the outcome of a global paradigm shift in the usage and potential of internet

itself. With the development of the internet and social media, its use has changed the map

of the world. This change is called the globalization. The development of web 2

technologies and new online networking applications has coordinated the entire world to

share thoughts, knowledge, recordings, and messages, explore research findings and so

forth in social and academic condition. The communication done through social

networking sites and through their applications is called social media. Social networking
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sites are composed with new specialized communication apparatus to connect the general

population utilizing the web. In 1969, the pioneer of internet supply on commercial

premise to the general population was CompuServe in the United States. In 1991

European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN gifted the WWW technology to the

world. (Hussain, 2012).

Boyd and Ellison (2007) defined social networking sites as:

‘‘(1) Web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public

profile within a bounded system; (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share

a connection; and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others

within the system”.

Social networking sites are the technological tool used by the internet users as a

platform to develop a mutual relationship for personal interest, business, game or

academic purposes (William, 2009).

Subramani and Periyar (2015) define social media as democratic and collective

means for a society. There are so many social media sites like Facebook, Myspace,

Twitter, Tumbler, Viber, Whatsapp, and YouTube. The everyday use of these sites by the

young is a significant change in the use of internet for collecting information and

entertainment.

Mazman and Usluel (2010) portrayed instructive utilization as an essential

advantage of social networking sites. They depicted Facebook, a well-known social

networking site, as a valuable educational tool because of its structure and different

utilities, for example, giving users purposeful or around shared interests, exchanging

information, sharing ideas, discussion topics and collaborating., talk subjects and teaming

up. Specifically Mazman & Usluel (2010) contend that social networking sites bolsters

shared learning, draw in people in basic reasoning, and upgrade correspondence and

composing abilities through enacting users' work in customized conditions. Mazman &
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Usluel (2010) additionally refer to as social networks educational instruments since

individuals can utilize them for availability and social help, community-oriented

information revelation, and sharing, content creation, and learning and information

conglomeration and change.

Smart phones are another revolution in information collection. They have become

one of the main tool for general public to access information they need in the daily life.

Their dynamic and sophisticated use of smartphones keeps them up-to-date in their lives

(Alfawareh & Jusoh, 2014).

According to the Radicati Group (2014) a technology market research firm, the

mobile users in worldwide in 2014, reached 5.6 billion and at the end of 2018 this number

may be expected to reach 6.2 billion. “Roughly 84 per cent of world’s population will be

using mobile technology by end of year 2018” (Radicati Group, 2014, p. 2).

According to Chen and Denovelles (2013), the popularity of mobile internet

technologies such as smartphones, tablets, laptops and e-book readers, are increasing

among college students.

Most of universities are now utilizing mobile technologies and have created their

own websites for their students to access their subject related materials. (Rellinger, 2011).

The emergence of new apps or social networking sites show participations on the

parts of both producer and recipients. Especially worthy of notes are the networks that

have become a real wonder (Flores, 2009). Social networks have gone global. Teachers

can fully take advantage of this social media network wonder to inculcate in their

teaching methods. The use of social networks, blogs, and video applications means taking

information and education to the places the students associate with entertainment. The

teachers and the students can interact with one another with fewer biases. (Alonso &

Luna, 2010)
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The social networking sites in university teaching gives a collaborative and

interactive dimension to all of those in teaching and learning process. Subsequently, the

student takes a more active and relevant role. (Collins & Halverson, 2010; Cress &

Kimmerle, 2008; Schroeder, Minocha & Schneider, 2010; Wodzicki, Schwämmlein &

Moskaliuk, 2012).

According to Bergen (2000), the use of current technologies like as social media

shows one of the interesting transformations in higher education. The integration of social

media in education is thought to be easier because most college students appear to have

accounts on many social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube,

Google+, etc. (Tess, 2013).

Selwyn (2010) claimed that the rise of social media use in higher education is

partly to the students who come to enrol in the universities are already highly

interconnected. Pew Research Centre reported that college students are active users of

social networking sites. Their social media use is meant to say that the higher education

institutions need to change their curriculum accordingly. Indeed, educators and scholars

evenly are thrilled about the potential benefit of social media in increasing and supporting

interactive learning among students. Selwyn (2010) science the new technology is shows

that the students are busier in their learning experiences. In educational environment,

student interaction is a key idea because it may tell if a student could academically

perform well or not. (Ainin, Naqshbandi, Moghavvemi & Jaafar, 2015; Dyson, Vickers,

Turtle, Cowan & Tassone, 2015).

Past studies provide practical evidence about the positive role of student interactions in

academic performance. (Ainin, Naqshbandi, Moghavvemi & Jaafar, 2015; Hirsh, 2006).
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The above mentioned factors urged the researcher to come up with the idea and

conduct this study that could find out the current state of existence and indicate the way

ahead.

1.2 Statement of the problem

In the recent past social networking sites have changed from some patron built

sites into phenomena which have become more popular in billions of users. Development

and prevalence of social networking sites have created worries among the establishments

of university, corresponding authorities and social researchers regarding the social media

advantages. It has also brought dangers being faced by students that also range

undergraduates, as they take part in social networking to cater for their social and

information needs rather than oral or face-to-face communication. The suitability of

social networking sites give users opportunity to communicate with one another, but, on

the other side, it can damage their interpersonal communication. Moreover, social

networking sites make the users looking one another as “objects” to be accessed and only

for the parts that the users find useful, comforting and /or amusing. Thus, there is the need

to find out a few methods for selecting and utilizing the correct social networking site

responsibly. This study is concerned with the pattern of utilization of the sites, what

benefits students get from utilizing these sites, the perils connected with them and

approaches to turn away such threats. This study intended to examine the use of social

media among the undergraduate students for academic purposes in the UOS, which was

not done before and represented a gap that needed to be filled.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The objectives of the study are as follows:

1. To examine the frequency of usage of social networking sites by the

undergraduate students of the UOS.


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2. To examine the purpose of the usage of social networking sites by UOS

undergraduates.

3. To find out the dangers associated with the use of social networking site and

offering strategies of coping with these dangers.

1.4 Questions of the study

The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.

1. To what extent do the undergraduate students of the University of Sargodha use

the social networking sites?

2. What are the purposes of using social networking sites?

3. What are the dangers of social networking and how can these dangers be

minimized?

1.5 Significance of the study

It is expected that the yield of this examination will profit students and the

administration of UOS, and will demonstrate students’ level of utilization of social

networking site. This should help how to manage student’s consideration on utilizing

social networking sites. Additionally this work will provide many advantages especially

in the area of library and information science as it will be an addition to previous

literature and will likewise add to the accessible scholarly literary works on social

networking.

1.6 Research design

The study is based on quantitative approach to examine the academic utilization of

social networking sites within the undergraduates of UOS. A Survey method has been

adopted for data collection through a structured questionnaire. The Subjects of this research
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work were undergraduates of UOS. A simple random sampling technique was used to collect

data from the population.

1.7 Delimitations of the Study

The study has been delimited to the University of Sargodha main campus,

Agriculture College and Medical College. Undergraduate students are the selected

population for this study.

1.8 Organization of the Study

The main section of the thesis is divided into five chapters rather than preliminary

and reference section. The arrangement of five chapter is following.

Chapter 1: Chapter one presents the background of study, problem statement, objectives

and questions of the study, significance and delimitations, definitions of important terms

and organization of study chapters.

Chapter 2: This chapter presents the review of related literature, ideas and different

aspects of using social media among undergraduate students country wise and globally.

Its cover the concept of social media sites, frequency of the use, purpose of the use, and

academic use of social networking sites, strategies related to dangers associated with the

use of social networking sites.

Chapter 3: this chapter presents the detail information about the research design, method,

instrument, population, data collection processes and the analysis techniques that are used

for carry out this study.

Chapter 4: Chapter four presents the results, analysis and interpretation of the collected

data.

Chapter 5: This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions of the study,

recommendations and implications for the future research.


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1.9 Definition of important terms

Gender: It refers to male or female undergraduate students.

Age: Students of different age groups.

Social Media: Dave Kerpen, (2012) defines “Social media is online text, pictures, videos

and links, shared amongst people and organizations”.

Academic Use: Based on formal study especially at an institution of higher learning.

(Company, 2010) Related to teaching or learning in schools, colleges, universities etc.

(Press, 2013)

Student opinions: It refers to the views of the undergraduate students.

Social Media as an academic tool: It refers to the usage of social media applications

(Facebook, Whatsapp, YouTube, and Twitter etc.) for academic purposes.

Socialization: It refers to the act of adapting behaviour to the norms of a culture or

society or to make fit for companionship with others is called socialization.

Course related Activities: It refers to the activities of the undergraduates and

postgraduate students related to their course, class notes, lectures, assignments etc.
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2 Literature review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter describe the works related to this study. Published books, e-books,

articles, journals as well as encyclopaedia articles and theses have been consulted to carry

out literature review and ascertain the various aspect of this study.

Social networking sites have turned into an incredible enthusiasm for students in

higher education. In personal and academic use, the social networking sites’ utilization

has increased from a couple of the years. Most of the famous social networking sites in

recent time are enormous that range Myspace, Google Plus, Facebook, WhatsApp,

Twitter, LinkedIn, Yahoo, Research Gate, Academia, Blogs, and Wikis. It required a

comprehensive understanding of the analysis of impact of social networking sites usage

among the students of higher educations. This literature review presents a discussion

about the use of social networking sites by the students, the impact of use and

involvement of social networking sites in academics.

2.2 Social Media

Kaplan and Heinlein, (2010) discussed that Web 2.0 is a path for using the World

Wide Web that started its working in 2004. It is place where users interact with each other

and make the content and applications, published and modified with co-operation to

others in a proper way. It is considered that the place for social media growth is web 2.0.,

which is different from the web1.0, because the users of web1.0 are only readers. In

contrast, web 2.0 provides a platform of interaction between creators and readers.

Compared to the past social media technology nowadays the users have more control and

option of inputting their contents easily on social media. (Dabbagh & Reo, 2011; Ertmer,

P., Sadaf & Ertmer, D, 2011).


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The implementation of social media increased due the use of mobile devices and

smart phones. Therefore, built-in social media services into the smart phones and mobile

devices are available and other additional social networking sites can be downloaded into

the devices. When devices are connected with the internet, it is a facility to use social

networking sites at any time at any place. (Zgheib, 2014).

2.3 Definition

Social media and social networking terms are utilized by few scientists

conversely. Johnson and Maddox (2012) and others like Dabbagh and Reo (2011),

Lenartz (2013) and Kear (2010) utilize the term web-based social networking innovation

for the social media.

Social media is "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the

ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and

exchange of user-generated content” Kaplan and Heinlein (2010, P.61). It highlights the

social part of Internet utilization.

There are many social networking sites. From those social networking sites, some

are openly available and other are paid or shut. An extensive number of social networking

sites are accessible to the entire world and some are determined for particular countries.

For the purpose of organizing, further description of online networking will be found on

the classes of web-based social networking: Social networking sites, Blogs, microblogs,

podcasts, wikis, Facebook, Myspace, and media sharing (Zgheib, 2014).

2.4 Social Media Categories

Literature provides following categories of social media/networking sites.


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2.4.1 Social Networking Sites

Among the mature internet client the social networking sites are the highly ranked

kind of social media (Kaplan & Heinlein, 2010). The user have an opportunity to build a

personal profile on the social networking sites that are basically web based services and

user can share profile publicly or semi publicly to make connection with relative,

companions and with those that are work with him (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). “These

personal profiles can include any type of information, including photos, video, audio files,

and blogs” (Kaplan & Heinlein, 2010, P.63). These profiles can help people to find

contact with the people that have same interests. Facebook, Blogs, Microblog, Google+,

Myspace, and LinkedIn are the examples of social networking sites (Boyd & Ellison,

2008).

2.4.2 Wikis

Derived from the Hawaiian word which mean quickly (Laughton, P. 2011). A user

can be easily add, change or delete the contents on the wiki. Single user or collaboratively

by different users can add the contents on wiki (Kaplan & Heinlein, 2010). For the

creating and sharing of the contents foe the cooperative purposes wiki is a powerful tool.

A few sites, for example, Wikispaces and PbWorks take into account public and private

sharing (Zgheib, 2014). Other wiki sites like Wikipedia just permit open sharing. Since

any client approaches the content, clients ought to be aware of contents correctness

(Yarrow, 2012).

2.4.3 Blogs

A blog is “a personalized website with dated entries presented in reverse

chronological order” (Schirmer, 2011, P.17). Blogs are used by the users to published the

articles and write the diaries (Yang & Chang, 2012). Blogs are free and simple to utilize.
12

Users can comment, and interact with others and share multimedia files on blogs blogger

and WordPress are the examples of blogs (Kaplan & Heinlein, 2010).

2.4.4 Microblogs

Microblogs are like online blogs, however, they are shorter than blogs (Junco,

2014; Schirmer, 2011). A microblog is a type of social networking that empowers clients

to post and refresh their status and suppositions. The shared post can be customized either

its share publically or personally with a specific group of people. 140 characters are

maximum limit of each post. Microblog can be utilized by the users for conversation and

exchanging information or news. The smartness of microblog is that number of post

updated as a status daily as compared to blog on which one update after some days (Java,

Song, Finin & Tseng, 2007). Twitter is the well-known example of microblog Schirmer,

2011).

2.4.5 Media Sharing

Media searching is a type of social networking site which enable the user to share

the photos, videos and it’s provide social tagging between the users. Users are required to

create a personal profile page on the social networking site but on the media sharing it’s

not required. YouTube, Instagram, Snapchat, Flickr, Pinterest, and Vine are the most

prominent examples of the media sharing sites (Kaplan & Heinlein, 2010).

2.4.6 Myspace

Myspace is most famous social networking site that were established in August

2003(www.myspace.com). At that time it is the world 6th very famous website and has

got a great popularity in a community. MySpace was the most prominent of the social

networking sites, approximately 80% of the visits to online social sites. Myspace started

in the United States, however, has turned into a universal wonder with the production of

version for China and the United Kingdom. The start of Myspace is to unite friends and to
13

give a place for networking and making new online friends. A user can create their own

pages and post profiles about herself that are visited by other users. Different kind of

media like pictures, desired music, and videos can be shared on the profile page. Every

user keep a list of friends and also friend leave the messages that can be read by everyone.

When a user want to become friend with other user so they can simply send an online

friend request (Spraggins, 2009).

2.4.7 Facebook

Facebook is also another very famous social networking site that have got a

popularity in the last few years. Facebook beat the Myspace and become the social media

website of the word that have most traffic and fourth most famous website in general

(www.facebook.com). The Facebook has more than 8o million users throughout the

world and 250000 new users register in a day in July 2008. Facebook was developed by

the Harvard university student in 2004 who proposed it as an approach to know about the

other students in Harvard campus. The site is based upon paper “Facebook” that give to

the new admitted students at many universities to enable students to get know about each

other |(Spraggins, 2009).

Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe (2007) found that 94% of the 286 students

examined in their investigation were Facebook users. Like MySpace, users can post and

share messages on other user profile page and persona communication can be done

through email like message to other user’s inbox. On the basis of common interest a user

can join the different virtual groups on Facebook. Uses can likewise look Facebook for

different users that have something in a similar manner to them, like same profession, a

college, hometown, and high school etc.


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2.5 The Use of Social Media

The basic purpose for the development of the social media is to create social

communication between the people. Different fields join social media for fulfilling their

objectives. Social media have been used in education, business and in health care other

than the friend and family social communication. In medicinal services, the utilization of

web-based social media has helped in diminishing patients' vulnerability to heath

information (Winston, Medlin, & Romaniello, 2012). Health provider utilize social media

to convey information and projects to the group. In business, web-based social media was

used as fundamental in building brands, make a relationship between consumer and

buyer, and increasing income. In education, K– 12 educators in the U.S utilize Wiki as

resource sharing site, for content conveyance, students' projects, and student’s

cooperation (Reich, Murnane & Willett, 2012). In short, social media is "a group of

Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of

Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (Kaplan &

Heinlein, 2010, 61). Users of social media have more control and contribution to contents

and can work cooperatively. Social media can be defined as social networking sites,

blogs, microblogs, Myspace, Facebook, wikis, and media sharing etc. Social media has

been utilized in business, medical services, and education.

2.6 Academic Usage of Social Media

Mazman and Usluel (2010) portrayed instructive utilization as an essential

advantage of social networking sites. They depicted Facebook, a well-known social

networking site, as a valuable educational tool because of its structure and different

utilities, for example, giving users purposeful or around shared interests, exchanging

information, sharing ideas, discussion topics and collaborating., talk subjects and teaming

up. Specifically, (Mazman & Usluel|) contend that social networking sites bolsters shared
15

learning, draw in people in basic reasoning, and upgrade correspondence and composing

abilities through enacting users' work in customized conditions. (Mazman & Usluel)

additionally refer to that social networks educational instruments since individuals can

utilize them for availability and social help, community-oriented information revelation,

and sharing, content creation, and learning and information conglomeration and change.

They portrayed the instructive advantages of social networking sites in three ways.

Facilitation: Social networking sites encourage correspondence amongst students and

teachers, and give information about resources and connections identified with course

materials. Moreover, they enable students to take after declarations about classes and

courses, departments or schools, conveyance of homework and assignments by teachers.

Collaboration: Students can participate in communitarian learning by exchanging

thoughts, sharing information and cooperating in view of interests, and needs. Cases of

students coordinated effort incorporate participating in exercises, for example, joining

scholarly gatherings identified with their schools, offices or classes and carrying on group

works by sharing homework, projects, and thoughts.

Resource/material sharing: Resource sharing comprises of exercises like exchanging

multimedia assets, for example, recordings, sound materials, energized recordings, assets,

and documents. With highlights that enable users to transfer photographs and recordings,

and include or 'take after' connections to outside Web pages, social networking site

furnishes students with sound, and visual materials and resources. In this manner,

students can share visual materials, and reports, as they exchange thoughts and ideas on

social networking sites.


16

2.7 Use of social networking sites

Odell, korgen, Schumacher and Delucchi, (2004) evaluate the internet use

between the male and female undergraduate students of America. This study result show

that gender gap effect on minimizing the use of internet among the students. It was

concluded that use of internet is vary in male and female. Mostly male students use

internet for entertainment purposes and female students mostly use internet for getting the

information. More time is spending on the internet by those students that have their

personal internet connection.

Yang, Tsai, Kim, Cho and Laffey, (2006) discussed the relationship between

students’ academic motivation and social ability in the educational setting of social

networking. The finding of that study cleared that while using the social networks

students’ improvement in different skills like communication and writing capabilities,

social occurrence in educational settings, social occurrence of tutors, information

distribution gratification, and social steering.

In the present era web 2.0 technology creates a globalization and students have

used social software’s for interaction. The study was conducting on the students that use

Facebook to explore what they share on the Facebook academic information or not,

exchange of entertaining deeds. That study show that most students use Facebook for

entertaining activities and for informal information sharing. Few students use Facebook

for knowledge sharing purposes (Selwyn, 2007).

Social networking has assumed a more prominent part to coordinate the world and

students have learning amid the utilization of web-based social media. Social personality

and presence is another factor for which students utilize social media. The study is not

conducted specifically academic use the basic purpose of the researcher to find out the
17

general use of Facebook in students and also explore the dimension of academic learning

of students via using social media (Liccardi, 2008).

E-learning and training environment is also a part of social networking sites. This

study focus on the rules and regulation of some social networking sites like, Myspace,

Facebook are analysed and also study the privacy issues of shared information. The

results of the study show that the e-learning and teaching environment privacy issues

plays a very important role. Also analysed the utilization of social networking sites

aspects in positive and negative manner for e learning and teaching (Griffith & Livanage,

2008)

Facebook and Myspace were very famous social networking sites among the

young generation. This study examined the utilization of social networking site online or

offline with in the young adults. A quantitative approach was used to collect the data

through survey from college students in person and online. The finding of the study

shows that students are connecting with friends and family through social networking

sites. There is the cover of their online and offline use of social networking. It was

uncovered that students utilized distinctive online settings to make more diverse parts of

their offline connection. (Subrahmanyam, 2008).

In the era of globalization an innovation interaction have made between the

students and staff. The study shows that students are involved in the utilization of social

media fir share presentations, videos, photographs, messages, blogs, and online chatting.

The finding of the study were shown that students gain the opportunity from social media

in distance learning was also their practice. It is also very necessary for academic staff to

learn about the new social media technology (Oradini, 2008).

A diary like structure is developed to investigate the day to day engagement in a

week utilization of Facebook from the 92 undergraduate students. To complete the study
18

a survey was conducted at weekend. The findings show that student use Facebook 30

mins in a day. With the help of Facebook students can share their knowledge and focus

slightly sharing was very significant fact in study. The major activities of the students on

Facebook is to express their identity, make new friends and romantic relations

(Yermolayeva & Calvert, 2009).

The distance learning was extended at university and college level. It was also a

very popular method direction. The conclusion was that the use of social media increase

such as LinkedIn, Myspace, and Facebook was rising step by step by the students. In this

study investigate the use of social networking site for academic purposes such as the use

of Ning for distance education and that was analysed. This quantitative examination

investigated the attitude of the students toward Ning as social networking tool. The

analysis of the study result show that the Ning is very effective social networking tool for

distance learning and for teaching purposes (Kevin, Lori |& Smith, 2010).

Billons of people have shared their expertise, knowledge and information with the

use of social networks. The main reason for which the students use the social networks

was the social nearness. According to this study the group’s patterns also play important

role in the utilization of Facebook. If user use so many communities it will be difficult to

show any belongings with any group. Another reason for which students use social

networks is entertainment (Christy, Cheung & Lee, 2010).

The social networking technology play very important role in the higher education

for the enhancement of learning and teaching. It helps to create face to face

communication between teachers and learner to communicate knowledge. The population

of this study was the 67 students who were enrolled in face to face courses of two public

sector Taiwan University. The findings of the study show that many students have
19

positive attitude toward e learning in social media environment and community tools.

Difficulties of the learners and coordinator issues have discussed and also provide

recommendation for future research in this study (Hung, 2010).

Higher education institutions of the UK undergraduate students use internet for

academic purposes. Selwy analysed the students’ academic activities. The study

investigated the more extensive internet utilization of students, the year of study,

education level, age, gender, access and capability of the students. After the study result it

was concluded that the masculinity and area of subject is related to the use of internet for

academic purposes (Selwy, 2012).

Online networking opens up numerous alternatives ways of learning and

information processing. Especially, social networking sites enable students to join formal

and informal learning settings. Students can discovered the same interest of people and

share with organized informal knowledge. Be that as it may, little is thought about in

which way students utilize social networking sites for informal learning and about

qualities of these students. Results demonstrated that around one-fifth of members use

StudiVZ which is a Facebook of German to share study related knowledge with each

other and mostly these are the new comer students that are looking for contact with

different students. Reliable with past research, it is demonstrated that students utilize

social networking sites chiefly for social cooperation and integrations (Wodzicki,

Schwammlein & Moskaliuk, 2012).

A case study was conducted at University of Malaga to find out the utilization of

social networking site Facebook as a mean of interaction with student. Facebook use

provide a capability to teachers interact more with students its change the old trend of one

way communication it’s provide a different way of communication with students taking

on an active role. The result has shown that using social networking sites help to resolve
20

the competences of students that are reflecting during the dissertation writing. The

experimental nature of this study has also made it conceivable to find out the advantages

of communicating through Facebook (Ventura & Quero, 2013).

In academic institutions social networking is a new trend play a very effective and

efficient role for the communication and interaction between the academic communities.

The study show that research scholars spent a huge time daily on the use of social

networking sites for different sessions the study reveals that there are many benefits of

social networking sites and researchers show positive attitudes to adopt these tools for

research (Asmi, & Margam, 2018).

2.8 Purpose of using social networking sites

Facebook is used by the teachers and students for different learning and other

activities. The basic purposes of this study is to find out the Facebook usability to find out

the attitude of students and teachers and also find the effect of Facebook use. The result

of study show that the social presence was the basic objective of Facebook usage on the

other hand educational activities are very limited. The common risk in the use of

Facebook is privacy issues (Hew, 2011).

Teenagers were mostly use the social networking sites. In present era youngsters

are involved in different community groups and spent lot of time on the use of social

networking sites. This study have been use a theoretical frame work for the development

of understanding to know about the academic and social development of students by

using social networking sites. The result of study reveals that social networking sites

effect on the youth safety, privacy, social wealth psychological welfare and educational

achievement of youth. Usability of social networking sites have been creates many

controversies and concerns that are noted in youth (Ahn, 2011).


21

A study was conducted on use of electronic media by the students and its effect on

the academic achievement. In this study, researcher has used the diary and survey method

foe data collection. The study shows that majority of students used electronic media for

different purposes and the use of electronic media have a negative relation with their first

semester grades. This study concluded that the student’s use electronic media during

theirs work like during the class lectures, doing home assignments etc. which had

negative effect on their results. Sending messages and communication with their friends

had a negative impact, albeit they had succeeded to make social e groups in social identity

using social media (Jacobsen, 2011).

There is a relationship between the use of Facebook and student academic

achievement. This study cover a very large amount of population of students N=1839 and

also examined the day to day use of book and how many time they spent on their study

related activities. The study result show that the use of Facebook have negative impact on

the students GPA. The study focus only on the usability of Facebook and its impact on

the academic achievement but the basic purposed of study of the researcher will explore

the academic use of social media which will help to increase the academic performance of

students (Junco, 2012).

Madhusudhan determined the utilization of social networking sites among the

researchers in University of Delhi for the purposes of research. This research was

completed through structured questionnaire survey. The result of the study show that

large amount of the researchers use social networking sites for entertainment and some

researchers use social media for the promotion of each other’s’ work. Many researchers

replied that Research gate and Facebook were the best tools for academic purposes. The

study exposed that the current learning and sharing of the information was among the

major advantages of using social networking sites. Results show that research scholars
22

use some specific type of academic social media networks for their research.

(Madhusudhan, 2012).

E learning has changed the way of learning and also provides many easier ways of

learning to the students and with the help of e media students received reading material

like course notes could be only one click away and could be easily downloaded. Study

conclude that social networks like Facebook, wiki, delicious, and YouTube have Web2.0

technology and were much prospective for e learning and teaching. The study reveals that

the current e generation is called digital generation or net natives are reluctant to gain

their education through conventional methods of learning. In the University of Cape

Town lectures and students have been asked about using Facebook. Virtual ethnography

and qualitative interview method was used to conduct this study. Facebook was found to

have many benefits that are used in learning and teaching. They, by utilizing it, developed

an education group for e learning and sharing. To deal with different challenges,

information and communication technology literacy access matters (Bosch, 2014).

2.9 Pakistani perspective regarding purpose of using the sites of social networking

A study explored the behaviour of the students of the University of Punjab

regarding the utilization of internet. The results of study show that internet is used for

academic and course related activities by the students. The students used internet on many

places like home and libraries. Regarding the use of internet no training was provided to

the students. The students mostly used Google for searching the things and yahoo for the

emails. (Bashir, Mahmood & Shafique, 2008).

Another study explored the students of 3 universities of Islamabad and

Rawalpindi. The conclusion of the study described that the student awareness got

increased with the use of social networking. They were aware of the human rights,

freedom of speech and regarding democracy. The study result showed that the
23

dictatorship was weakened through the information shared on the social media. This

study focused only on the use of social networking sites for political emergencies. It did

not explore the academic use of social networking sites but the study proposed for the

research to focus the academic performance of the students using social media (Shaheen,

2008).

It was found through a study for which of purposes internet was used, interaction,

entertainment and education. The study results show that the internet café in the Lahore

was mostly used by male users. They used internet for entertainment, communication

with friends and also for email sending. The result of study concluded that internet use for

academic purpose was not present there. The main problems that was faced by the

internet users were lack of privacy and slow speed of internet (Batool & Mahmood,

2010).

Another study explored the trend of social media use among the students of

Islamia University of Bahawalpur through a survey. The results of the study show that

students used different kind of social network sites for research work, online learning and

making social relations etc. It was explored that expertise in IT skills helped in use of

social media applications. Results of the study provided the situation of students’ use of

social media in Pakistan and would be useful for future studies (Shafique, Anwer &

Bushra, 2010).

Towards the academic use of social networking sites, students have shown the

positive attitude. The study concluded that there are differences in the students who used

academic social networking sites. Some of them not use the social networking sites for

academic purposes because its utilization is not clearly mentioned. The result of study

show that internet is approximately used by 97% students out of these 95% of the

students used social networking sites. The utilization of social networking sites by the
24

students are for the purpose of exchanging learning experiences and also for the

communication with the mates. The study concluded that for the academic purposes

social networking sites are used by some students. (Javed & Jahan 2012).

In this study describes that the students have trend to use social media for

academic purposes. Islamia University of Bahawalpur students from Education

department were selected for the data collection with the help of questionnaire. The study

concluded that mostly students used Facebook, students also used social media for

academic purposes and relationship with their friends. Learning experiences were being

shared between students. Study revealed that students use social media for building new

friends, study related knowledge sharing, class room events and development of

educational groups to spend their free time (Hussain, Gulrez & Tahirkheli 2012).

2.10 Dangers associated with use of social networking sites

Another aspect of social networking sites is that it creates different kinds of

problems for the users, families, person, and groups of students. In these days, most of the

users use social networking sites for the communication rather than having face to face or

oral communication. Benniger (1987) was of opinion that technology had gradually

replaced interpersonal communication.

On the other hand, danger associated with the use of social networks are E-crime

or cybercrime, to encourage copyright violation when using the social media, specifically

the YouTube and videos which cause a serious issue of copyright. A user can easily

upload and download videos on the YouTube without considering any terms and

conditions. YouTube was blocked many times for these types of problems. For instance

Viacom charged YouTube demanding an enormous amount of one billion dollars for

transferring 160,000 clips belonged to Viacom on the basis of their unauthorized use. One

more disadvantage is that we can share a lot of information with the help of social media,
25

which is, sometimes harmful for someone. As a result of this many people can lose their

jobs, friendship for leaking their information on social networking sites. User information

can be passed through the friend list even a user’s use a very high level of privacy

settings. On the social media there are various hackers who can attempt to utilize our

identity and information for different crimes like fraud and theft (Ahmed, 2011).

Besides, there has been a current spike in phishing assaults related to networking

sites (Fisher, 2011). Numerous individuals see web-based social networking sites on

PDAs or other cell phones. This makes it harder to recognize genuine and fake sites.

Moreover, online networking empowers aggressors to send phishing messages that seem

to originate from somebody that the casualty knows. Having acquired long information

for a couple of records, con artists will then convey messages to everybody associated

with the traded off records, regularly with an alluring subject that proposes commonality

with the victim (Baker, 2009). Moreover, on the web there are many communication sites

are used to make vision of recognition and closeness, such as facebook and twitter.

Outcome is that individuals might slanted to communicate those kind of information that

they have wanted to save hidden. Once more, Cross- website ask for Forgery (CSRF) an

assault hat generate a client web program to accomplish activities of picking deprived of

client’s information. Installing malignant connection in website or transmitting

connection by mean of correspondence or talk, an aggressor can make clients of internet

application execute undesirable activities. All the more particularly, the assault makes the

client's program make solicitations to a site to which it has been validated, without the

client's or the sites learning. These activities may bring about bargained end-client

information tasks, or even a whole server or network.

The social networking sites have turned out to be risky because of the exercises of

crimes. Nigeria was looked with one of the most exceedingly awful dangers that the
26

informal community locales can create. The demise of Cynthia Onwkogu who succumbed

to one of the social network perils through "Facebook". This propensity for including

companions or communicating something specific without even batting an eye about the

outcomes had driven such a large number of individuals fallen in the casualty of extortion

and theft by a young woman and students of the Nasarawa University. (Amaka Eze,

2012).

Other threats found with the utilization of social networking sites are predators

and stalkers. At the point when youngsters finish their online profile, they have regularly

given away quite a bit of their own information. Any of their "companions" can approach

their full name, birth date, school and even their erect area. In addition to the fact that it is

feasible for somebody to hack your profile, they could likewise take your identity.

Furthermore, as social networks have ascended in notoriety over the previous years,

individuals have been investing an unreasonable measure of energy on the Internet by and

large and social networks in particular. This has driven specialists to talk about the

foundation of Internet dependence as a real clinical issue (Wikipedia, 2011). Social

networking sites can influence the degree to which a man feels desolate.

2.11 Strategies for minimizing the dangers of social networking

Strategies to minimize the dangers related to the social networking have been

mentioned by various researchers. Password protection is one of the measures that can

help. In many of the applications of social media, users’ data are distinguished in various

places that the security related to the password may help to eradicate these dangers.

Security policy give more focus on the password security. It is a very difficult for the

hackers to reach an account and database that have protected through a good passwords.

One of other key features of password policy includes using unbreakable passwords.
27

Clients must remember a strong password without written on the paper near the computer

from where someone can find it (Eke, Obiora & Odoh, 2014).

A study conducted by Acunetix show that 42% of the hot mail user’s accounts

have a very poor password (Timm & Perez, 2010). For memorisable of the password

there are many techniques For instance Byte interactive methods are useful for making

durable passwords for websites. The website for making good password is

“http://www.good passwords.com”. These passwords consist up to 60 letters with allied

keys on a standard keyboard. Alternative method “http://source forge.Net/ projects/

password safe/” are also available for making good passwords for applications are

harmless that allows its users to preserve and its encoded data with save passwords in

their PCs. To help in remembering passwords, different types of applications are available

for consultation and assist users to build essential passwords on their demand. Similarly

passwords can be reused and amendments can be made in the passwords. (Timm &

Perez) suggested that a user can must be aware about the hackers attack. They noted that

some of us accept different kind of promoting messages from friends and associates

without any validation on social networking sites. This kind of messages, mostly contain

alluring contents that force the clients to do those activities that are wanted by hackers

like installing an application or opening different add. (Timm & Perez, 2010) Studied in

requests to abstain from unveiling information to faker clients ought to take after some

judicious practices when imparting on social networking sites. Fundamentally, clients

should practice essential alert when imparting and communicating information to online

friends.

In the same way Rosman(2009) noted, the first thing to know about with those we

are communicating it is a basic consideration related with the security of social

networking, where people have many online friends but they are not really know about
28

them. It is a quit easy for an attacker to satirize somebody in social networking sites for

monetary advances. Also social media provide the facility with the help of that user

should controlled what kind of information they post and whom can access this

information and whom information is available.

Regardless of whether users attempt to ensure their protection by confining the

permeability of their own information and individual information and post on social

networking sites destinations ought to be careful of what they post in social media sites,

for instance, in 2009 Facebook changed its terms of administration to enable users to hold

documented duplicates of users content, regardless of whether the users had expelled

them content from their profile (Wikipedia, 2011).

2.12 Conclusion

The technology has emerged in every field of knowledge. Now the students need

social media to fulfil their educational needs. If we talk about the usage of social media, it

has revolutionized the students’ curricular as well as extra-curricular activities. The

access and dissemination of knowledge has been made easier with the emergence of the

use of social media. Social media usage has made it possible to share information within

no time. Although Pakistan is still a developing country but the technology has got

popularity and is widely used among the youth, especially university undergraduate

students.

After reviewing the published literature at international and national levels, it is

quite understandable that there is a literature gap on specific topic of academic use of

social media in Pakistan. Although a study on internet use among University of the

Punjab students has been conducted, but on the academic use of social media among the

university students has not been conducted yet. It indicates that there was a need to

conduct a study on academic use of social media or social networking sites among
29

students. This factor / gap has urged the researcher to conduct this study, “A study on

academic use of social networking sites among the students of the University of

Sargodha”, supposing to fill this literature gap.


30

3 Research Design and Methodology

3.1 Introduction

It is exceptionally essential for a researcher to build up a strong foundation of

knowledge for the study. The essential key to the achievement of research objectives is

the choice of proper method. This section depicts the research procedure and method

established to complete this study. The procedure of data collection and data analysis will

be clarified in this section. The reason for the research was to assess the attitude of the

undergraduate students toward the use of social networking sites for their academic

purposes.

3.2 Research Design and Method

Descriptive study is an examination which depicts subject characters and gives

important information about those subjects. It is utilized where, there is expected to

gather statistical data points about the present circumstances (Rowely, 2006). A self-

administrated survey strategy was utilized to complete this study. This research utilized a

quantitative research design with four independent demographic variables (i.e., age,

gender, class status, and current living situation) and three dependent variables (i.e.,

Frequency regarding use, Purpose of use of social networking sites and Strategies for

minimizing the dangers associated with the use of social networking site).

It is a quantitative study which utilizes a survey research technique to gather data

from the respondents. Survey method is considered as the most suitable and also accurate

method to get the required data “The research strategy where one collects data from all or

part of the population to assess the relative incidence, distribution and interrelations of

naturally occurring variables” (Connaway & Powell, 2004).


31

3.3 Research Questions

There were three research questions that guided this study, as follows:

1. To what extent do the undergraduate students of the University of Sargodha use the

social networking sites?

2. What are the purposes of using social networking sites?

3. What are the dangers of social networking and how can these dangers be minimized?

Table 3.1

Research Questions
Sr. No. Research Question Instrument Analysis Procedure

1 To what extent do the Survey item 1-4 Descriptive statistics

undergraduate students of the Percentages and

University of Sargodha use the Mean

social networking sites?

2 What are the purposes of using Survey item 5-9 Descriptive statistics

social networking sites? Percentages and

Mean

3 What are the dangers of social Survey item 10 Descriptive statistics

networking and how can these Percentages and

dangers be minimized? Mean

3.4 Instrument

A questionnaire was utilized to collect data from selected population sample that

was used to analyse the academic use of social networking sites among the students. The

self-administered close-ended questionnaire was utilized to gather data from the


32

respondents. A questionnaire is considered to be exceptionally valuable tool to gather

essential data from the respondents and the same had been utilized by various researchers

to quantify the utilization of social networking sites in various studies (Helen, 2014;

wade, 2011; Nowsheeba & Madhusudhan, 2018; Nández Gemma & Borrego Ángel,

2013; etc).

3.4.1 Development of Instrument

This questionnaire included four sections and each is partitioned into subsections.

Section one deals with the demographic characteristics, section two deals with the

frequency of using social networking sites by the students, section three deals with the

students’ perception regarding purpose of use social networking sites by the students and

section four deals with the students’ perception regarding the dangers associated with the

use of social networking sites and strategies for minimizing them. To gather the

information about the academic use of social networking sites, questionnaire was created

with the direction of the supervisor. The questionnaire was created by reviewing different

studies such as (R. Subramani & Periyar, 2015; Helen, 2014; wade, 2011; Nowsheeba &

Madhusudhan, 2018; Nández Gemma & Borrego Ángel, 2013; etc.).

3.4.2 Validity of the instrument

After reviewing the related literature a sample questionnaire was developed and

sent to the professionals for proof reading. Before data gathering, questionnaire was

reviewed by the supervisor and necessary changes were made and superfluous questions

were excluded as mentioned by the supervisor. A pilot testing was carried out on this

questionnaire; after the pilot testing final questionnaire was considered to be ready for

collecting the responses from the respondents.


33

3.5 Population and Sampling

The population of the study is the undergraduate students of the University of

Sargodha, main campus including constituent colleges (of agriculture and medical) in

Sargodha city. The target population was the undergraduate students of all the

departments in University of Sargodha main campus, Agriculture College and Medical

College Sargodha.

Simple random sampling technique was used to draw the sample for the purpose

of data collection from the respondents. The Total number of undergraduate students was

11766 that were enrolled in the main campus, Agriculture College and medical college.

The Sample size was the 370 undergraduate students of university of Sargodha as per

table for determining sample size given by Connaway and Powel (2004). The census of

the undergraduate students was prepared giving numbers to each of the students and

sample of 370 respondents was selected through balloting.

3.6 Data Collection

A self-administered survey technique was adopted to gather data through the

questionnaire. The Researcher visited all the departments to get the responses from the

subjects. The questionnaire was distributed among the undergraduate students of the

University of Sargodha. Data were gathered from 300 respondents.

3.7 Response Rate

The Questionnaire was distributed among the 370 selected participants and 300

responses were successfully collected back. The response rate was 81.08%.

3.8 Data Analysis

Descriptive statistics were employed to overview things keeping in mind the

objectives of the study to give data and results about the percentage of members who
34

related to each demographic characteristics and also the response to the ten questions

identified with social media use, questions related to purposes of use and the dangers of

that utilization. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the

responses. SPSS is a generally utilized program for statistical analysis in social sciences.

Survey response data was first coded and recorded in the SPSS software, and then

answers were aggregated and percentages calculated. Results have been shown in tables.

This investigation inspected the view of the impact of social networking sites on students’

learning, CGPA and graduation. In particular, this examination may help experts in the

regard to comprehend what are social networking communities and what social

networking sites are; and how they work, the part, they play in the university students’

experience, and how experts can cooperate with and guide the students in utilizing social

networking sites.

3.9 Writing Style

The research report has been prepared following the American Psychological

Association (APA) style sixth edition, which is recommended style for UOS social

sciences theses and dissertations.


35

4 Data Analysis and Interpretation

4.1 Introduction

The purpose behind this study was to distinguish the impression of the University

of Sargodha about the academic utilization of social networking sites and investigated the

effects of social networking sites on students’ learning, GPA, and graduation and also any

distinction in discernment in view of students’ demographic information. This chapter

contains the findings and interpretation given in the proceeding sections ordered by the

goals and research questions of the study. This study had three objectives. The first

objective of this study was to examine the frequency of usage of social networking sites

by the undergraduate students of the UOS. The second objective was to examine the

purpose of the usage of social networking sites by UOS undergraduates. The third

objective was to ascertain dangers/risks and offer strategies for minimizing the dangers

associated with the use of social networking site. Direct empirical data gathered from the

selected sample of the population, utilized in this research were collected from 300

students after studious efforts by the researcher.

4.2 Demographic information

In the study demographic information, such as age, sexual orientation, and level of

education (semesters) were gathered, that may affect their attitude towards the utilization

of social networking sits. Frequency measure is utilized to view and present collected

data. The 370 undergraduate students that were selected through simple random sampling

from all enrolled students at the time of study were asked to participate and data were

collected back from the students were 300 filled questionnaires that were used in this

study.
36

4.2.1 Gender of Respondents

Table 4.1 displays the frequency count of the respondents gender and according to

the results 154 (51.3%) are male respondents and 146 (48.7%) are female respondents.

The gender representation in the respondent population can easily be considered to be

balanced on the basis of comparative percentages of male and female respondents.

Table 4.1

Gender of Respondent
Gender Frequency Percent %
Male 154 51.3
Female 146 48.7

4.2.2 Age of Respondents

Table 4.2 displays the frequency count of respondents’ age groups. Age group

from 18-19 years, consists of 41 (13.7%) students, from 20-21 are 80 (26.7%) that were

among the respondents, from 22-23 are 150 (50.0%) and from 24 & above are 29 (9.7 %)

who participated in this survey. The result shows that majority of the students that were

included in this study belong to the age group of 22-23 years.

Table 4.2

Age of the respondents


Age group Frequency Percentage %
18-19 41 13.7
20-21 80 26.7
22-23 150 50.0
24 and above 29 9.7

4.2.2 Education level of Respondents

Table 4.3 displays the frequency count of the respondents by their level of

education, i.e., semester in which respondents are studying. The result shows that the

major part of respondents belong to the 2nd semester that counts 131 (43.66 %),
37

96(32.0%) from 4rth semester, 43(14.33%) from 6th semester and 30 (10.0%) from the 8th

semester. The results show that maximum response is given by 2nd semester (43.66%) and

minimum response from the 8th semester (10.0%).

Table 4.3

Education of respondent
Semesters Frequency Percentage
2nd 131 43.66
4rth 96 32.0
6th 43 14.33
8th 30 10.0

4.3 Purpose for using social networking sites

4.3.1 Living situation of the Students

Table 4.4 display the frequency count for the living situations of the respondents.

25 (8.3 %) live alone, 117 (39.9%) live in a hostel, 18 (6.0 %) live with the general

people that are not students and 140 (46.7 %) live with parents and guardians. The results

show that the largest group of the respondents (46.7%) live with their parents and

guardians and least common (6.0 %) live with the people that are not students.

Table 4.4

Living situation of respondents


Living situation Frequency Percentage
live alone 25 8.3
in a hostel 117 39.0
with who are not students 18 6.0
with parents and guardians 140 46.7

4.3.2 Use of social networking sites

Table 4.5 displays the frequency count for the social networking site use by the

respondent. Respondents’ response regarding the use of Myspace shows that (M= 1.73)

59.7 % never used, 14.7% rarely used, 20.0% used sometimes, 4.3% very frequently used

and 1.3% used all the time. Respondents’ response regarding the use of Google plus
38

shows that (M= 2.71) 14.0 % never used it, 34.0% rarely used, 24.7% used sometimes,

21.7% used very frequently and 5.7% used Google plus all the time. Respondents’

response regarding the use of Facebook shows that (M= 3.45) 9.0% never used, 9.0%

rarely used, 26.7% used sometimes, 38.7% used very frequently and 16.7% used

Facebook all the time. Respondent’s response regarding the use of WhatsApp shows that

(M= 3.79) 5.7 % never used it, 8.7% rarely used, 46.0% shows that sometimes, 26.0%

very frequently used and 26.6% used WhatsApp all the time. Respondents response

regarding the use of Twitter shows that (M= 2.47) 34.7 % never used it, 18.7% rarely

used, 19.3% used sometimes, 19.3% very frequently used and 8.0% used Twitter all the

time. Respondents response regarding use of LinkedIn shows that (M= 1.99) 48.0 %

never used it, 21.0% rarely used, 18.7% used sometime, 9.0% very frequently used and

3.3% used LinkedIn all the time. Respondents response regarding the use of Yahoo shows

that (M= 2.35) 35.7% never used it, 23.3% rarely used, 26.7% used sometimes, 12.0%

used very frequently and 2.3% used Yahoo all the time. Respondents response regarding

the use of Research Gate shows that (M= 2.16) 39.3% never used it, 23.0% rarely used,

22.0% used sometimes, 13.3% used very frequently and 2.3% used Research Gate all the

time. Respondents response regarding the use of Academia shows that (M= 2.04) 46.3%

never used it, 20.0% rarely used, 19.7% used sometimes, 11.7% used very frequently and

2.3% used Academia all the time. Respondents response regarding the use of Blogs

shows that (M= 2.23) 36.7% never used it, 24.0% rarely used, 25.0% used sometimes,

10.0% used very frequently and 5.3% used Blogs all the time. Respondents’ response

regarding the use of Wikis shows that (M= 2.62) 26.3% never used it, 16.7% rarely used,

30.3% used sometimes, 22.3% used very frequently and 4.3% used it all the time.

Respondents’ response regarding the use of other social networking sites (M= 1.08), no

networking site was mentioned by any of the respondents.


39

Table 4.5

Response regarding use of social networking sites


Social Never Rare Sometimes Very All the Mean
Networking F (%) F (%) F (%) frequent time X
Sites F (%) F (%)
Myspace 179(59.7) 44(14.7) 60(20.0) 13(4.3) 4(1.3) 1.73
Google Plus 42(14.0) 102(34.0) 74(24.7) 65(21.7) 17(5.7) 2.71
Facebook 27(9.0) 27(9.0) 80(26.7) 116(38.7) 50(16.7) 3.45
WhatsApp 17(5.7) 23(8.7) 44(14.7) 138(46.0) 78(26.0) 3.79
Twitter 104(34.7) 56(18.7) 58(19.3) 58(19.3) 24(8.0) 2.47
LinkedIn 144(48.0) 63(21.0) 56(18.7) 27(9.0) 10(3.3) 1.99
Yahoo 107(35.7) 70(23.3) 80(26.7) 36(12.0) 7(2.3) 2.35
Research 118(39.3) 69(23.0) 66(22.0) 40(13.3) 7(2.3) 2.16
Gate
Academia 139(46.3) 60(20.0) 59(19.7) 35(11.7) 7(2.3) 2.04
Blogs
110(36.7) 72(24.0) 75(25.0) 30(10.0) 13(5.3) 2.23
Wikis 75(26.3) 50(16.7) 91(30.3) 67(22.3) 13(4.3) 2.62
Others 287(95.7) 5(1.7) 6(2.0) 2(0.7) 0(00) 1.08

4.3.3 To access social media, which of the following devices do you use

Table 4.6 displays the frequency count for the devices which are used by the

respondents to access the social media. 15 (5.0%) respondents use social media on the

desktop, 161 (53.7%) use Laptop, 121 (40.3%) use cell phone and 3 (1.0%) use on other

devices. The result shows that maximum respondents, i.e., 161 (53.7%) access social

networking sites through their laptops.

Table 4.6

Devices use for social media


Devices Frequency Percent
Desktop 15 5.0
laptop 161 53.7
cell phone 121 40.3
others 3 1.0
40

4.3.4 Usage of social media

Table 4.7 displays the frequency count for the time that respondents spent on the

use of social media, daily. Results show that 26 (8.7%) used social media 10-30 min, 54

(18.0%) use social media 30 minutes -1 hour, 45 (15.0%) used social media 1-2 hours, 98

(32.7%) used social media 2-3 hours, 33 (11.7%) used social media 3-5 hours, and 44

(14.7%) used social media more than 5hourss. The result shows that maximum

respondents (98, i.e., 32.7%) spent 2-3 hours on social media and minimum respondents

26 (8.7%) spent 10-30 minutes on social media.

Table 4.7

Usage of social media


Time Frequency Percent
10-30min 26 8.7
30 min-1hr 54 18.0
1-2hrs 45 15.0
2-3hrs 98 32.7
3-5hrs 33 11.0
more than 5hrs 44 14.7

4.4 Purpose of use of social networking sites

This section will present the purpose of social networking sites, which is related to

research objective and research question number two. It can be mentioned as the core of

this study.

4.4.1 The purposes of use of social networking sites

Table 4.8 displays the frequency count for the purpose of the use of social

networking sites. It has been noted that 120 (40.0%) respondents were using social

networking sites for their academic purpose, 38 (12.7%) respondents were using social

networking sites for the awareness of new academic programs or events, 17 (5.9%)
41

respondents were using social networking sites for announcement of residence halls, 41

(13.7%) respondents were using social networking sites for the awareness of student

activities, 51 (17.0%) respondents were using social networking sites for sharing

information with friends, 15 (5.0%) respondents were using social networking sites for

religious learning and activities, 16 (5.3%) respondents were using social networking

sites for the political awareness and 2 (0.7%) respondents were using social networking

sites for the other purposes.

The result shows that the largest group of the respondents, i.e., 120 (40.0%) was

found to use the social networking sites for the academic purposes, but this group still

does not consist of majority, it is rather 40 % of the total population. It indicates that

academic use of social networking sites is getting a tendency of use and it is perceived

that it will be increased with the passage of time. Minimum respondents 2 (0.7%)

responded that they were using social networking sites for the other purposes that are not

mentioned in this study, which shows that all the important options that are in practice,

were included in the instrument.

Table 4.8

Purpose of the use of social networking sites


Purpose Frequency Percent
For academic purpose 120 40.0
Awareness of new academic programs or 38 12.7
events
Residence hall announcements 17 5.7
Awareness of students activities and
41 13.7
behavior
51 17.0
Sharing information with friends
15 5.0
Religious learning
16 5.3
Political awareness
2 0.7
Other
42

4.4.2 Programs initiated by UOS through social networking sites

Table 4.9 displays the frequency count for the programs that have been initiated

by the University of Sargodha through social networking sites. The data shows that 60

(20%) respondents get informed through the social networking sites about the

Advertisement of new academic programs and events, 31 (10.3%) respondents get

information through the social networking sites about the issues related to the students

conduct, 29 (9.7%) respondents get inform through the social networking sites about the

awareness of rules and regulations, 31 (10.3%) respondents get informed through the

social networking sites about the announcement for participation in workshops,

conferences, etc., 32 (10.7%) respondents get information through the social networking

sites about the celebration of different events, 29 (9.7%) respondents get informed

through the social networking sites about the sharing of class room activities, 47 (15.7%)

respondents get information through the social networking sites about the sharing of

assignments, 21 (7.0%) respondents get informed through the social networking sites

about the course materials, 13 (4.3%) respondents get information through the social

networking sites about the notifications of different affairs of academics. It has been

further ascertained that 5 (1.7%) respondents get informed through the social networking

sites about the calendars of activities and 2 (0.4) respondents response they get informed

through the social networking sites about the other miscellaneous activities.

The result of the study shows that maximum number of respondents associated

with one activity is 60 (20%), who get informed through the social networking sites about

the advertisement of new academic programs and events and only 2 (0.4%) respondents

use social networking sites for other activities that were not mentioned in the

questionnaire.
43

Table 4.9

Programs initiated by UOS through social networking sites


Programs Frequency Percent
Advertisement of new academic programs or 60 20.0
events
Issues related to student conduct
31 10.3
Awareness of rules and regulations 29 9.7
Announcement for participation in workshops, 31 10.3
conferences, etc. 32 10.7
Celebration of different events 29 9.7
Sharing of class room activities 47 15.7
Sharing of assignments
21 7.0
Course materials
13 4.3
Notifications regarding academics 5 1.7
Calendars of activities 2 0.4
Other
4.4.3 Knowledge about use of social networking sites

The participants of the survey were asked to share their experience and interaction

based perception about the knowledge of other students regarding the use of social

networking sites for academic purposes. The data presented in table 4.10 displays the

frequency of the respondents’ knowledge about the social networking sites. 67 (22.2%)

respondents responded that their peers are extremely knowledgeable, 91 (30.3%)

respondents responded that their peers are very knowledgeable, 99 (33.0%) respondents

responded that their peers are re moderately knowledgeable and 35 (11.7%) respondents

responded that their peers are slightly knowledgeable about the use of social networking

sites.

The result shows that the maximum response, i.e., of 99 (33.0%) respondents

showed that students have moderate knowledge of using social networking sites for their

academic purposes. Overall, it has been found that 85.6% of the undergraduate students
44

are perceived to have reasonably good knowledge of using social networking sites for

their academic pursuits.

Table 4.10

Students’ perception about knowledge of their peers in use of social networking sites
Knowledge level Frequency Percent
Extremely knowledgeable 67 22.3
Very knowledgeable 91 30.3
Moderately knowledgeable 99 33.0
Slightly knowledgeable 35 11.7
Not knowledgeable 8 2.7
4.4.4 Effects of social networking sites on learning

The data collected on effects of social networking sites on learning of students has

been presented in table 4.11. It displays the frequency count for the effects of social

networking sites on students learning, graduation and improvement in GPA.

The data on the statement “The time I spend on social media has a positive effect

on my learning outcomes”, shows that (M= 1.91) 113 (37.7%) are strongly agree with the

statement, 130 (43.3%) agrees, 40 (13.3%) are neutral, 5 (1.7%) disagrees, and 12 (4.0%)

of respondents are strongly disagreed with this statement. It means that 81 % of the

respondents think that the use of social networking sites have positive effects on their

outcomes.

Regarding the statement “Social networking sites help me academically in getting

educational materials to carry out assignments “shows that (M= 2.10), 68 (22.7%) are

strongly agree, 165 (55.0%) agree, 43 (14.3%) are neutral, whereas, 16 (5.3%) disagrees,

and 8 (2.7%) respondents strongly disagree with this statement. It also shows a positive

effect with a percentage of 77.7.

The data related to statement “Social networking sites are an effective tool for e-

learning”, shows that (M= 2.24), 71 (23.7%) respondents are strongly agree, 123 (41.0%)

agree, 73 (25.3%) are neutral, 24 (8.0%) disagrees, and 6 (2.0%) respondents strongly
45

disagree with this statement. Here again, a majority with 64.7 % of respondents is on the

positive side. Another statement “Use of social networking sites has helped me to

improve my GPA”, shows that (M= 2.53), has come up with a result of 41 (13.7%)

strongly agreeing respondents, 124 (41.3%) agreeing, 85 (28.3%) neutral, 36 (12.0%)

with disagreement, and 14(.4.7%) respondents strongly disagreeing with this statement.

This is also showing positive effects on majority of the population, i.e., 55%.

“These sites have been supportive in my progress towards completion of

graduation” was the last statement on effects of social networking sites. Data shows that

(M= 2.48) 51 (17.0%) are strongly agree, 121 (40.3%) agree, 80 (26.7%) are neutral, 28

(9.3%) disagrees, and 20 (6.7%) respondents strongly disagree with this statement. It also

shows a tendency of positive effect of social networking sites on the degree

accomplishment of students. The results show that overall students perceive that the use

of social networking sites has positive impact on the academic pursuits of the students.

Table 4.11
Effect of social networking sites on learning
Effects 1 2 3 4 5 Mean
F (%) F (%) F (%) F (%) F (%) X
The time I spend on social 113(37.7) 130(43.3) 40(13.3) 5(1.7) 12(4.0) 1.91
media has a positive
effect on my learning
outcomes.
Social networking sites 68(22.7) 165(55.0) 43(14.3) 16(5.3) 8(2.7) 2.10
help me academically in
getting educational
materials to accomplish
assignments etc.
Social networking sites 71(23.7) 123(41.0) 73(25.3) 24(8.0) 6(2.0) 2.24
are an effective tool for e-
learning
Use of social networking 41(13.7) 124(41.3) 85(28.3) 36(12.0) 14(4.7) 2.53
sites helped to improve
my GPA
These sites have 51(17.0) 121(40.3) 80(26.7) 28(9.3) 20(6.7) 2.48
supported in completion
of my graduation.
Scale: 1= strongly agree 2= Agree 3= Neutral 4= Disagree 5= strongly disagrees
46

4.4.5 Uses of social networking sites for academic purpose

Table 4.12 display the frequency count for different academic uses of social

networking sites. The results of collected data from the population show that (M= 2.81)

174 (58.2%) respondents are the ones who used social media networking sites all the

time, very frequently or sometimes for “Accessing educational material” and 126 (42%)

respondents are the ones who never used or rarely used social networking sites for

“Accessing educational material”.

It has also revealed that (M= 3.23) 114 (38.0%) respondents are the ones who

never used or rarely used social networking sites for Viewing course schedule and 186

(62.0%) respondents are the ones who used social media networking sites all the time,

very frequently or sometimes for viewing course schedule.

Further, (M= 2.96) 105 (35.0%) respondents are the ones who never used or

rarely used social networking sites for communication with teachers and 195 (64.6%)

respondents are the ones who used social media networking sites all the time, very

frequently or sometimes for communication with the teachers.

Next statement results show that (M= 3.13) 84 (27.6%) respondents are the ones

who never used or rarely used social networking sites for communication with other

students related to their course, whereas, 217 (71.6%) respondents are the ones who used

social media networking sites all the time, very frequently or sometimes for

communication with other students related to their course.

Another statement results show that (M= 3.06) 86 (28.7%) respondents are the

ones who never used or rarely used social networking sites as a tool for online discussion

and 214(71.3%) respondents are the ones who used social networking sites all the time,

very frequently or sometimes as a tool for online discussion. It has also come on the

record that (M= 2.92) 112 (37.3%) respondents are the ones who never used or rarely
47

used social networking sites for online quizzes about their courses, whereas, 188 (67.7%)

respondents are the ones who used social media networking sites all the time, very

frequently or sometimes for the same purpose, i.e., quizzes about their courses. Data

shows that (M= 3.31) 61 (20.3%) respondents are the ones who never used or rarely used

social networking sites for joining a social media group such as WhatsApp group etc. and

239 (79.6%) respondents are the ones who used social media networking sites all the

time, very frequently or sometimes for joining a social media group such as WhatsApp

group etc.

The collected data also revealed that (M= 3.25) 79 (26.0%) respondents are the

ones who never used or rarely used social networking sites for seeking help in higher

education courses, whereas, 222 (74.0%) respondents are the ones who used social media

networking sites all the time, very frequently or sometimes for seeking help in higher

education courses. Results of collected data also discovered that (M= 2.98) 93 (31.0%)

respondents are the ones who never or rarely thought of creating a separate account in

social media for their courses, however, 207(69.0%) respondents had been involved in

creating a separate account for their courses, all the time, very frequently or sometimes.

The overall results show that majority of the respondents use social media for

different academic purposes that reflects their perception that social media plays a vital

role in the academics.


48

Table 4.12

Response regarding academic use of social networking sites


Academic purpose Never Rare Sometime Very All the time Mean
F (%) F (%) s frequent F (%) X
F (%) F (%)
Accessing educational 69(23.0) 57(19.0) 71(23.7) 67(22.3) 36(12.2) 2.81
material
Viewing course schedule 29(9.7) 85(28.3) 99(33.0) 63(21.0) 24(8.0) 3.23
For communication with 46(15.3) 59(19.7) 109(36.3) 60(20.0) 26(8.3) 2.96
teachers
For communication with
other students related to my 31(10.3) 53(17.3) 94(31.3) 92(30.7) 31(10.3) 3.13
course
Use of the online discussion 41(13.7) 45(15.0) 102(34.0) 79(26.3) 33(11.0) 3.06
tool
Use of online quizzes relating
to my course 55(18.3) 57(19.0) 77(25.7) 78(26.0) 33(11.0) 2.92
Joining a social media group
such as WhatsApp group etc. 24(8.0) 37(12.3) 106(35.3) 88(29.3) 45(15.0) 3.31
Social media would be a
helpful in higher education
courses 26(8.7) 53(17.3) 87(29.0) 90(30.0) 45(15.0) 3.25

I would create a separate


account in social media for 55(18.3) 38(12.7) 98(32.7) 76(25.3) 33(11.0) 2.98
use in my courses

4.5 Dangers associated with the use of social networking sites and their remedy

Respondents were asked if they were aware of the dangers related to threats to

their personal information, identity, legal issues and open or hidden agreements liable to

some sort of penalties etc. All the respondents responded positively meaning that they

were aware of all these dangers. Next, they were asked about the strategies that they

should opt for minimizing such dangers. Table 4.13 displays the detail of responses

regarding the strategies for minimizing these dangers. A majority of (M= 1.88) 135

(69.0%) respondents are agreed and a meager minority, i.e., 24 (07.3%) disagreed with

the strategy of “changing social media settings” as per the preferences of every individual
49

user, whereas, rest had no opinion. A majority of (M= 2.37) 181 (60.3%) respondents are

agreed and a meager minority, i.e., 34 (11.3%) disagreed with the strategy “use a VPN

with enhanced security”, whereas, rest had no opinion. A majority of (M= 2.46) 175

(58.4%) respondents are agreed and a minority, i.e., 47 (15.6%) disagreed with the

strategy “knowing the risks of using cloud services”, whereas, rest had no opinion. A

majority of (M= 2.29) 199 (66.4%) respondents agreed and a minority, i.e., 42 (14.6%)

disagreed with the strategy “smart password practices”, whereas, rest had no opinion. A

majority of (M= 2.38) 182 (60.7%) respondents agreed and 51 (17.0%) disagreed with the

strategy “use secured websites”, whereas, rest had no opinion. A majority of (M= 2.48)

170 (56.7%) respondents agreed and 51 (17.0%) disagreed with the strategy “bypass

anonymous and fake attacks”, rest of the respondents had no opinion. A majority of (M=

2.33) 194 (64.7%) respondents agreed to adopt the strategy “don’t forget anti-malware

software”, a minority, i.e., 44 (16.0%) disagreed, whereas, rest had no opinion. A

majority of (M= 2.17) 209 (68.6%) respondents agreed with having the strategy “high

Internet privacy”, a meager minority, i.e., 39 (13.0%) disagreed, whereas, rest had no

opinion.

The result shows that a dominant majority agreed with existence of dangers to

personal security and risks attached with private information and adopting all the

mentioned strategies to safeguard the security and counter the dangers associated with the

use of social networking sites.


50

Table 4.13

Strategies for minimizing the dangers


Strategies 1 2 3 4 5 Mean
F (%) F (%) F (%) F (%) F (%) X
Change social media settings 135(45.0) 102(34.0) 39(13.0) 11(3.7) 13(4.0) 1.88

Use a VPN 55(18.3) 126(42.0) 85(28.3) 22(7.3) 12(4.0) 2.37

Know the risks of using cloud 53(17.7) 122(40.7) 78(26.0) 28(9.3) 19(6.3) 2.46
services

Smart password practices


68(22.7) 131(43.7) 59(19.7) 30(10.0) 12(4.0) 2.29

Use secured websites 68(22.7) 114(38.0) 67(22.3) 37(12.3) 14(4.7) 2.38

Bypass anonymous and fake attacks 53(17.7) 117(39.0) 79(26.3) 35(11.7) 16(5.3) 2.48

Don’t forget anti-malware software 68(22.7) 126(42.0) 62(20.7) 28(9.3) 16(5.7) 2.33

High Internet privacy 91(30.3) 118(39.3) 52(17.3) 27(9.0) 12(4.0) 2.17


Scale: 1= strongly agree 2= Agree 3= Neutral/ No opinion 4= Disagree 5= strongly

disagrees

4.6 Cumulative Means

Tale 4.14 display the cumulative means X of the factors. The response regarding

the academic use of social networking sites is the highest mean value X 3.06, Strategies

for minimizing the dangers mean value X is 2.29, Response regarding the use of social

networking sites mean value is 2.25 and the lowest mean value X is 2.16 of the Effect of

social networking sites on learning. The results shows that maximum respondent use

social networking sites for the academic purposes.

Table 4.14
51

Cumulative means
Factors Mean X
Response regarding the academic use of 3.06
social networking sites
Strategies for minimizing the dangers 2.29

Response regarding the use of social


networking sites 2.25

Effect of social networking sites on 2.16


learning
52

5 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

In this part of the report, summary of the study, findings, comparison of results

with the literature, conclusion, and recommendations have been presented. The purpose

of this study was to investigate the use, perceptions of Sargodha university undergraduate

students and allied implications with regard to the academic use of social networking

sites.

5.2 Summary

The first chapter of the study is an introduction in which gives the information

about concept of and how social networking sites help the students to communicate with

their academic (college and university) communities. Social media and social networking

sites are used by the university students to create, connect and develop online

communities. Consequently, higher education experts have built up an interest in figuring

out how to encourage and involve students to be more dynamic learners utilizing social

networking sites.

The three research questions that guided the research, derived from the objectives of the

study were as per the following:

1. To what extent do the undergraduate students of the University of Sargodha use the

social networking sites?

2. What are the purposes of using social networking sites?

3. What are the dangers of social networking and how can these dangers be minimized?

The second chapter gives a review of the literature produced on social networking

sites use among the students, the impact of use, academic use and learning. The review of

literature included current literature of universities discovering approaches to have an

internet-based life to connect with students. The chapter included research that showed
53

the role of social networking sites in colleges and universities among the students. The

research incorporated into chapter two gave findings that students can spend an awesome

planned time utilizing social networking sites, such as Facebook, WhatsApp , and

Myspace etc., that may have distinctive levels of engagement, with positive learning

outcomes.

Chapter three gives the information about the design of research, instrumentation,

data gathering and analysis procedures that were used in this study. This quantitative

research design included data gathered from the University of Sargodha. All students

registered at the University of Sargodha at the time of the conduct of research were taken

and a sample as per sample size determination table of Connaway and Powel (20014) was

drawn based on balloting. Selected sample subjects were requested to take part in the

survey. There were 300 respondents who responded to the survey. For analysing the

survey response SPSS was used.

Chapter four gave a presentation of the survey findings and data analysis. Data

were analysed and sorted out in light of the three research questions that guided the study.

Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data keeping in mind the the objectives of the

study giving data results related to every attribute.

This last chapter has the summary, conclusion and recommendations or

suggestions drawn from the research. The research is outlined inside the setting of the

research questions and conclusion. Recommendations and suggestions for experts and

policymakers, and additionally for future research, have been provided towards the

finishing lines of chapter five.

5.3 Findings relevant to research questions

This section provides the findings related to research questions that played a vital

role in guiding the conduct of this study.


54

5.3.1 Frequency of use of social networking sites

Questionnaire questions, number one to four asked about respondents’ frequency

of the use of social networking sites. The item one dealt with the living situations of the

respondents. The result shows that a major portion of the respondents, i.e., 46.7% were

living with the parents and/or guardians. Item two to four show the use of social media

and more often Facebook and WhatsApp are the preferred social networking sites. The

result of the study suggested that many university students use a different form of social

networking sites. The current study shows that Facebook and WhatsApp were the

preferred social networking sites; 38.7% of the University of students were using

Facebook and 46 % of students were using WhatsApp . Majority of the respondents

53.7% access the social media via laptops and major group of the respondents 32.7%

spend 2-3 hours on social media. Overall, almost all the students use social networking

sites.

5.3.2 Purpose of the use of social networking sites

Questionnaire questions number five to nine asked respondents about the purpose

of the use of social networking sites. Question five dealt with the purposes for which they

were using the social networking site. Responses show that when using the social

networking sites, the majority of the respondents were using social networking sites for

the academic purposes, in addition to sharing information with friends and for the

awareness of the student activities. Additionally, social networking sites are used for the

awareness of the new academic programs or events, for religious learning, for political

issues and for the residence hall announcements.

Questions six and seven dealt with the programs that have been initiated by UOS

through social networking and the knowledge about the use of social networking sites.

According to majority of respondents, university used social networking sites for the
55

advertisement of new academic programs, sharing assignments and celebration of

different events through the social networking sites. Additionally, there are some other

programs that take place through social networking sites such as issues related to the

student concerns, awareness of rules and regulations, announcements of conferences and

workshops and notifications about the academics. Majority of the respondents have

reasonably good knowledge of using social networking sites for their academic pursuits.

Question eight dealt with the respondents perceptions regarding the effect of

social networking sites on learning and having good results in the form of improvement in

CGPA at the end. A dominant majority of respondents agreed to have positive effects in

return of the time that they spent on social media positive on their learning outcomes and

in turn it helped them improve their results and CGPA.

Question nine dealt with academic purposes that the social networking sites were

used for. The responses show that majority of the students used social media for

communication with other students related to courses, for viewing courses schedule and

for communication with their teachers. The result shows that most of the respondents

perceived that social media play a vital role in their academics.

Social networking sites have enhanced the capacity of students to keep themselves

up to date with required information. The University of Sargodha is using social

networking sites for a lot of good purposes.

5.3.3 Strategies for minimizing the dangers associated with the use of social

networking site

Questionnaire question number ten asked the respondents’ perception about the

Strategies for minimizing the dangers associated with the use of a social networking site

related to threats to their personal information, identity, legal issues and open or hidden

agreements liable to some sort of penalties etc. All the respondents mentioned that they
56

were aware of all these dangers. The respondents agreed to adopt the strategies to

safeguard their security. The mentioned strategies included smart password practices,

knowing the risks of using cloud services, use of VPN with enhanced security and changing

social media settings.

5.4 Conclusion

The present research has come up with the conclusion that social networking sites

have become a phenomenon over the time that has effected and left impact on academic

activities and outcomes of the university students. Facebook and WhatsApp have become

as the most prevalent social networking sites and have kept growing in popularity. These

social networking sites make better approaches for correspondence with concerned ones

and furthermore impact students learning. Social networking sites, additionally, offer new

and inventive approaches to communicate with peer students in a brisk way. Also,

students are utilizing social networking sites at increasing rates. This is worth mentioning

that that students perceive that use of social networking sites has positive effects on their

academic pursuits and more importantly have been supportive in the increase of scores in

CGPA. The users are also aware of the gangers associated with use of social media. This

research makes a vital contribution to understanding the university of Sargodha students'

use of social networking sites and its effect of utilization on learning.

5.5 Recommendations

The present research is significant in the field of social networking sites’ usage.

Academic use of social networking sites has the significant effect on the study of the

students. This study indicates that today’s university students across Pakistan have

involved themselves in the use of social networking sites. This research shows that social

networking sites have a worth in conveying the information to students. Following are the

recommendations based on this research.


57

1. Free online courses and other training opportunities should be offered for students and

staff.

2. Different workshops which help the students to enhance their IT skills and tech how

social networking sites and applications should be conducted that are useful for

academic purposes.

3. The correspondence gap between students and teachers in use social networking sites

ought to be filled as much as possible.

4. Academic use of social networking sites awareness programs should be launched that

would possibly increase the positive use of social media.

5. The literacy aptitudes of online communities ought to be formally made tending

among the students under the supervision of teachers.

6. In the globalized world, nobody can live without information; online searching

methods are the way to get information. Courses for online searching methods and

techniques ought to be made accessible to the students.

7. Meet students where they are, and address the issues of the students. Teachers should

visit in their classrooms to check whether social networking sites are useful /helpful in

instructing and learning or not.

8. Teachers or staff should make a key arrangement to characterize essential objectives

and goals in utilizing social networking sites for their students. For instance, discover

approaches to deciding whether social networking sites will be used to increase

retention or graduation percentage or not.

9. Positive utilization of social networking sites should always be encouraged and

negative use should be discouraged through training and motivation.

10. Security and protection worries of the students should be addressed and guidance

should be provided for serenity and better utilization of social networking sites.
58

5.6 Implications for Future research

1. Future research could focus on why Facebook and WhatsApp have made such a

prominent phenomenon as compared to other social networking sites. Since there are

high quantities of utilization for both of social networking sites, it is exciting to

understand why people utilize these sites so much of the time.

2. Another discipline of research worth seeking after is the utilization of social

networking sites in different age groups. Furthermore, asking about students who

interacted with teachers in their majors might be valuable to the higher education

network.

3. A comparative study may also be conducted to find out the academic use of social

networking sites among undergraduate and postgraduate students in public and private

universities.

4. There should be more research done on gender and use of social networking sites to

comprehend the effects on women and men utilizing these sites.


59

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7 Appendices

Questionnaire

A study on Academic Use of Social Networking Sites among the students

of the University of Sargodha

NOTE: All the data collected will be kept confidential and will be used for research

purpose only. Tick out the relevant option matching your opinion.

Demographic Information:

Name (optional): _________________________________

Gender: Male Female

Department: ____________________________ Semester: ______

Your current age: 18-19 20-21 22-24 25 and above

(Frequency of use of social networking sites by the undergraduate

students)

Q.1Which of the following is applicable to your living situation.

 I live alone

 I live in a hostel with other students

 I live with roommates who are not students


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 I live with parent(s), relative(s), or guardian(s)

Q.2 A list of social networking sites has been given. Rank your use of the sites

according to the given scale:

No Social Networking Sites Never Rare Sometimes Very All the

frequent time

1. MySpace

2. Google Plus

3. Facebook

4. WhatsApp

5. Twitter

6. LinkedIn

7. Yahoo

8. Research Gate

9. Academia

10. Blogs

11 Wikis

12 Others (please mention) --------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------

Q.3 To access social media, which of the following devices do you use?

 Desktop

 Laptop

 Cell phone

 Others (please specify) --------------------------------------------------------


68

Q.4 How long do you use social networking site a day on an average? Mention the

time according to your usage:

 10-30 minutes

 30 min-1 hour

 1-2 hours

 2-3 hours

 3-5 hours

 More than 5 hours

(Purpose of use of social networking sites)

Q.5 For which of the following purposes do you use social networking sites?

 For academic purposes

 Awareness of new academic programs or events

 Residence Hall announcements

 Awareness of student activities/behavior

 Sharing information with friends

 Religious learning/ Preaching

 Political awareness

 Other (please mention) ______________________________.

______________________________.

Q.6 In the past year, what types of programs have been initiated by UOS through

social networking sites?

 Advertisement of new academic programs or events


69

 Issues related to student conduct

 Awareness of rules and regulations

 Announcement for participation in workshops, conferences, etc.

 Celebration of different events

 Sharing of class room activities

 Sharing of assignments

 Course materials

 Notifications regarding academics

 Calendars of activities

 Other (please specify) _____________________________________

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

Q.7 How knowledgeable are the students within your university on the use of social

networking sites for academic purposes

 Extremely knowledgeable

 Very knowledgeable

 Moderately knowledgeable

 Slightly knowledgeable

 Not knowledgeable

Q.8 considering the use of social networking sites please mention their role. Rate

your answer via scale 1. (SA: strongly agree) 2. (A: agree) 3. (N: Neutral/ No

opinion) 4 (D: Disagree) 5. (SD: strongly disagrees):

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5

SA A N D SD
70

1. The time I spend on social media has a positive effect on my

learning outcomes

2. Social networking sites help me academically in getting

educational materials to accomplish assignments etc.

3. Social networking sites are an effective tool for e-learning

4. Use social networking sites has help me to improve my GPA

5. These sites have been supportive in my progress towards

completion of graduation.

Q.9 Do you use social media for your academic purposes, mentioned below? Rate

your answer via scale 1. (N: Never) 2. (R: Rear) 3. (S: Some time) 4 (FR: Frequently)

5. (AL: Always):

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5

N R S F AL

1. Accessing educational material

2. Viewing course schedule

3. For communication with teachers

4. For communication with other students related to my course

5. Use of the online discussion tool

6. Use of online quizzes relating to my course

7. Joining a social media group such as WhatsApp group etc.

8 Social media would be a helpful in higher education courses

9 I would create a separate account in social media for use in

my courses
71

(Strategies for minimizing the dangers associated with the use of social

networking site)

Q.10. Do you understand the dangers indirectly mentioned in following statements

related to threats to your personal information, identity, legal issues and open or

hidden agreements liable to some sort of penalties etc.?

Yes No
If yes, what kind of strategies should be practiced for minimizing these dangers

associated with the use of social networking sites according to your opinion?

(1. SA: Strongly agree; 2. A: agree 3. N: Neutral/ No opinion 4. D: Disagree

5. SD: Strongly disagrees):

No Statement 1 2 3 4 5
SA A N D SD
1. Change social media settings

2. Use a VPN with enhanced security

3. Know the risks of using cloud services

4. Smart password practices

5. Use secured websites

6. Bypass anonymous and fake attacks

7. Don’t forget anti-malware software

8. High Internet privacy

Thank you for your valuable response

Muddasar Hussain Khan

M.Phil. Scholars Roll#PLIF15E004

Department of Library & Information Sciences

University of Sargodha
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Reference Letter for Collection of Population Data

Department of Library & Information


University of Sciences
Sargodha Central Library Building, Sargodha-
Pakistan
Tel: +92-48-9230587, Intercom ext. 524

No. UOS/LIS/ Dated: May 02, 2018.

The Director Academics


University of Sargodha
Sargodha

Subject: Request for Provision of Student Data

Sir,
Mr. Mudassar Hussain is an M.Phil scholar, working on his thesis research,

currently. His topic of thesis is: “A study on Academic Use of Social Networking Sites

among the students of the University of Sargodha”. His population is undergraduate

students of UOS for the collection of empirical data. It is therefore, requested that he may

kindly be provided with data, i.e., list of undergrad students, per discipline of the

university.

Thanking you in anticipation for your cooperation.

Dr. Haroon Idrees


Chairman,
Dept .of Library & Information Sciences

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