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CHEMICAL BONDING II

8th Ed

1 What a Bonding Theory Should Do


2 The Valence-Bond Method
3 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
4 Multiple Covalent Bonds
5 Molecular Orbital Theory
6 Delocalized Electrons: Bonding in the
Benzene Molecule
7 Bonding in Metals

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ApakahTeori “IKATAN” itu ?
• Atom-atom datang (bersamaan) dari jarak
tertentu. Akan terjadi:
– elektron saling terikat ke kedua inti.
– elektron saling tolak menolak antara
keduanya.
– Inti saling tolak menolak antara keduanya.
• Plot total potensial energi terhadap jarak.
– (-) energi potensial sebanding dengan
total gaya tarik menariknya.
– (+) energi potensial sebanding dengan
gaya tolak menolaknya.

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Potential
Energy
Diagram

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The Valence-Bond Method
• Atomic orbital overlap describes
covalent bonding.
• Area of overlap of orbitals is in
phase.
• A localized model of bonding.

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Bonding in H2S

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Example
Using the Valence-Bond Method to Describe
a Molecular Structure.
Describe the phosphine molecule, PH3, by the
valence-bond method..
Identify valence electrons:

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Sketch the orbitals:

Overlap the orbitals:

Describe the shape: Trigonal pyramidal


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Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
sp3 Hybridization

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sp3
Hybridization

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Bonding in Methane

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sp3 Hybridization in Nitrogen

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Bonding in Nitrogen

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sp2 Hybridization

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Orbitals in Boron

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sp Hybridization

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Orbitals in Beryllium

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sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridization

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Hybrid Orbitals and VSEPR

• Write a plausible Lewis structure.


• Use VSEPR to predict electron
geometry.
• Select the appropriate
hybridization.

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Multiple Covalent Bonds
• Ethylene has a double bond in its Lewis
structure.
• VSEPR says trigonal planar at carbon.

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Ethylene

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Acetylene
• Acetylene, C2H2, has a triple bond.
• VSEPR says linear at carbon.

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ORBITAL MOLEKUL
• Atomic orbitals are isolated on atoms.
• Molecular orbitals span two or more
atoms.
• LCAO
– Linear combination of atomic orbitals.
Ψ 1 = φ1 + φ2 Ψ 2 = φ1 - φ2

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Molecular Orbital Theory

Ψ = cA Ψ1sA ± cB Ψ1sB
σ1s = c1 (Ψ1sA + c1s Ψ1sB) σ1s* = c1 (Ψ1sA - c1s Ψ1sB)

[σ1s]2 = c12 [(Ψ1sA )2 + (Ψ1sB)2 + 2.Ψ1sA.Ψ1sB]

[σ1s*]2 = c22 [(Ψ1sA )2 + (Ψ1sB)2 - 2.Ψ1sA.Ψ1sB]

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Penggabungan Orbital Atom

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Molecular Orbital Theory
• Modification of VB theory that considers that the orbitals
may exhibit interference.
• Waves may interfere constructively or destructively
• Bonding orbitals stabilize, antibonding destabilize.

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Diagram Orbital Molekul
• Show atomic energy level diagram for each atom
• Show molecular orbitals (bonding and antibonding*)
• 1 MO for each Atomic orbital.
• Show electron occupancy of the orbitals.

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Concerning MOs
• Number of MOs = Number of AOs.
• Bonding and antibonding MOs formed
from AOs.
• e- fill the lowest energy MO first.
• Pauli exclusion principle is followed.
• Hund’s rule is followed

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Pengisian diagram Orbital Molekul
1. Electrons fill the lowest-energy orbitals that are
available.
2. No more than two electrons, with spins paired,
can occupy any orbital.
3. Electrons spread out as much as possible, with
spins unpaired, over orbitals that have the
same energy.
4. Bond order = e- in bonding orbital-e- in
nonbonding orbitals.

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Molecular
Orbitals
of
Hydrogen

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Molecular Orbitals of the Second Period

• First period use only 1s orbitals.


• Second period have 2s and 2p orbitals available.

• p orbital overlap:
– End-on overlap is best – sigma bond (σ).
– Side-on overlap is good – pi bond (π).

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Molecular Orbitals of the Second Period

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Combining
p orbitals

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Expected
MO
Diagram
of C2

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Modified MO Diagram of C2

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Diatomic MO diagrams differ by group
I – V group

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Diatomic MO diagrams differ by group
VI-VIIIA group

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MO Diagrams of
Heteronuclear
Diatomics

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Orde Ikatan (OI)
• Stable species have more electrons in
bonding orbitals than antibonding.

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Number of Number of
bond order =
1
2 ( electrons in
bonding
MOs
- electrons in
antibonding
MOs
)

bond
½ 1 ½ 0
order
OI Molekul diatom - periode pertama
BO = (e-bond - e-antibond )/2

BOH += (1-0)/2 = ½
2

BOH += (2-0)/2 = 1
2

BOHe + = (2-1)/2 = ½
2

BOHe + = (2-2)/2 = 0
2

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Delokalisasi Elektron

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Benzene

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Benzene

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Ozone

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Bonding in Metals
• Electron sea model
– Nuclei in a sea of e-.
– Metallic lustre.
– Malleability.

Force
applied

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Bonding in Metals
Band theory.
• Extension of MO theory. N atoms give N orbitals that are
closely spaced in energy.
• N/2 are filled : The valence band.
• N/2 are empty : The conduction band.

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Band Theory

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Semiconductors

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Photovoltaic Cells

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Photoelectron Spectroscopy

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