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SECOND-LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS

Principles & Procedures

Jill Kerper Mora, Ed.D.


San Diego State University

Below is a description of the basic principles and procedures of


the most recognized methods for teaching a second or foreign
language.

For a survey of the history of second or foreign language teaching click


here.

Click here for L2 teaching methods described below:

Grammar-Translation Approach
Direct Approach
Reading Approach
Audiolingual Method
Community Language Learning
The Silent Way
Communicative Approach--Functional-Notional
Total Physical Response

The Grammar-Translation Approach


This approach was historically used in teaching Greek and Latin. The
approach was generalized to teaching modern languages.

Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue, with little active use
of the target language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated
word lists. Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided.
Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting words together;
instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. Reading
of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. Little attention is
paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in
grammatical analysis. Often the only drills are exercises in translating
disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother
tongue, and vice versa. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.

For a review of elements of grammar teaching click here.

The Direct Approach


This approach was developed initially as a reaction to the grammar-
translation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target
language in instruction.

Lessons begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in


the target language. Material is first presented orally with actions or
pictures. The mother tongue is NEVER, NEVER used. There is no
translation. The preferred type of exercise is a series of questions in
the target language based on the dialogue or an anecdotal narrative.
Questions are answered in the target language. Grammar is taught
inductively--rules are generalized from the practice and experience
with the target language. Verbs are used first and systematically
conjugated only much later after some oral mastery of the target
language. Advanced students read literature for comprehension and
pleasure. Literary texts are not analyzed grammatically. The culture
associated with the target language is also taught inductively. Culture
is considered an important aspect of learning the language.

The Reading Approach


This approach is selected for practical and academic reasons. For
specific uses of the language in graduate or scientific studies. The
approach is for people who do not travel abroad for whom reading is
the one usable skill in a foreign language.

The priority in studying the target language is first, reading ability and
second, current and/or historical knowledge of the country where the
target language is spoken. Only the grammar necessary for reading
comprehension and fluency is taught. Minimal attention is paid to
pronunciation or gaining conversational skills in the target language.
From the beginning, a great amount of reading is done in L2, both in
and out of class. The vocabulary of the early reading passages and
texts is strictly controlled for difficulty. Vocabulary is expanded as
quickly as possible, since the acquisition of vocabulary is considered
more important that grammatical skill. Translation reappears in this
approach as a respectable classroom procedure related to
comprehension of the written text.

The Audiolingual Method


This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology. It
adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method,
in part as a reaction to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading
Approach.

New material is presented in the form of a dialogue. Based on the


principle that language learning is habit formation, the method fosters
dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-
learning. Structures are sequenced and taught one at a time. Structural
patterns are taught using repetitive drills. Little or no grammatical
explanations are provided; grammar is taught inductively. Skills are
sequenced: Listening, speaking, reading and writing are developed in
order. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context. Teaching
points are determined by contrastive analysis between L1 and L2.
There is abundant use of language laboratories, tapes and visual aids.
There is an extended pre-reading period at the beginning of the
course. Great importance is given to precise native-like pronunciation.
Use of the mother tongue by the teacher is permitted, but discouraged
among and by the students. Successful responses are reinforced;
great care is taken to prevent learner errors. There is a tendency to
focus on manipulation of the target language and to disregard content
and meaning.

Hints for Using Audio-lingual Drills in L2 Teaching

1. The teacher must be careful to insure that all of the utterances which
students will make are actually within the practiced pattern. For
example, the use of the AUX verb have should not suddenly switch to
have as a main verb.

2. Drills should be conducted as rapidly as possibly so as to insure


automaticity and to establish a system.
3. Ignore all but gross errors of pronunciation when drilling for grammar
practice.

4. Use of shortcuts to keep the pace o drills at a maximum. Use hand


motions, signal cards, notes, etc. to cue response. You are a choir
director.

5. Use normal English stress, intonation, and juncture patterns


conscientiously.

6. Drill material should always be meaningful. If the content words are


not known, teach their meanings.

7. Intersperse short periods of drill (about 10 minutes) with very brief


alternative activities to avoid fatigue and boredom.

8. Introduce the drill in this way:

a. Focus (by writing on the board, for example)

b. Exemplify (by speaking model sentences)

c. Explain (if a simple grammatical explanation is needed)

d. Drill

9. Don’t stand in one place; move about the room standing next to as
many different students as possible to spot check their production.
Thus you will know who to give more practice to during individual
drilling.

10. Use the "backward buildup" technique for long and/or difficult
patterns.

--tomorrow

--in the cafeteria tomorrow

--will be eating in the cafeteria tomorrow

--Those boys will be eating in the cafeteria tomorrow.

11. Arrange to present drills in the order of increasing complexity of


student response. The question is: How much internal organization or
decision making must the student do in order to make a response in
this drill. Thus: imitation first, single-slot substitution next, then free
response last.

Community Language Learning


Curran, Charles A. Counseling-Learning in Second Languages. Apple
River, Illinois: Apple River Press, 1976.

This methodology is not based on the usual methods by which


languages are taught. Rather the approach is patterned upon
counseling techniques and adapted to the peculiar anxiety and threat
as well as the personal and language problems a person encounters in
the learning of foreign languages. Consequently, the learner is not
thought of as a student but as a client. The native instructors of the
language are not considered teachers but, rather are trained in
counseling skills adapted to their roles as language counselors.

The language-counseling relationship begins with the client's linguistic


confusion and conflict. The aim of the language counselor's skill is first
to communicate an empathy for the client's threatened inadequate
state and to aid him linguistically. Then slowly the teacher-counselor
strives to enable him to arrive at his own increasingly independent
language adequacy. This process is furthered by the language
counselor's ability to establish a warm, understanding, and accepting
relationship, thus becoming an "other-language self" for the client. The
process involves five stages of adaptation:

STAGE 1

The client is completely dependent on the language counselor.

1. First, he expresses only to the counselor and in English what he


wishes to say to the group. Each group member overhears this English
exchange but no other members of the group are involved in the
interaction.

2. The counselor then reflects these ideas back to the client in the
foreign language in a warm, accepting tone, in simple language in
phrases of five or six words.
3. The client turns to the group and presents his ideas in the foreign
language. He has the counselor's aid if he mispronounces or hesitates
on a word or phrase. This is the client's maximum security stage.

STAGE 2

1. Same as above.

2. The client turns and begins to speak the foreign language directly
to the group.

3. The counselor aids only as the client hesitates or turns for help.
These small independent steps are signs of positive confidence and
hope.

STAGE 3

1. The client speaks directly to the group in the foreign language. This
presumes that the group has now acquired the ability to understand his
simple phrases.

2. Same as 3 above. This presumes the client's greater confidence,


independence, and proportionate insight into the relationship of
phrases, grammar, and ideas. Translation is given only when a group
member desires it.

STAGE 4

1. The client is now speaking freely and complexly in the foreign


language. Presumes group's understanding.

2. The counselor directly intervenes in grammatical error,


mispronunciation, or where aid in complex expression is needed. The
client is sufficiently secure to take correction.

STAGE 5

1. Same as stage 4.

2. The counselor intervenes not only to offer correction but to add


idioms and more elegant constructions.

3. At this stage the client can become counselor to the group in stages
1, 2, and 3.
The Silent Way
Caleb Gattegno, Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent
Way. New York City: Educational Solutions, 1972.

Procedures

This method begins by using a set of colored rods and verbal


commands in order to achieve the following:

To avoid the use of the vernacular. To create simple linguistic


situations that remain under the complete control of the teacher To
pass on to the learners the responsibility for the utterances of the
descriptions of the objects shown or the actions performed. To let the
teacher concentrate on what the students say and how they are saying
it, drawing their attention to the differences in pronunciation and the
flow of words. To generate a serious game-like situation in which the
rules are implicitly agreed upon by giving meaning to the gestures of
the teacher and his mime. To permit almost from the start a switch
from the lone voice of the teacher using the foreign language to a
number of voices using it. This introduces components of pitch, timbre
and intensity that will constantly reduce the impact of one voice and
hence reduce imitation and encourage personal production of one's
own brand of the sounds.

To provide the support of perception and action to the intellectual


guess of what the noises mean, thus bring in the arsenal of the usual
criteria of experience already developed and automatic in one's use of
the mother tongue. To provide a duration of spontaneous speech upon
which the teacher and the students can work to obtain a similarity of
melody to the one heard, thus providing melodic integrative schemata
from the start.

Materials

The complete set of materials utilized as the language learning


progresses include:

A set of colored wooden rods A set of wall charts containing words of a


"functional" vocabulary and some additional ones; a pointer for use
with the charts in Visual Dictation A color coded phonic chart(s) Tapes
or discs, as required; films Drawings and pictures, and a set of
accompanying worksheets Transparencies, three texts, a Book of
Stories, worksheets

Functional-notional Approach
Finocchiaro, M. & Brumfit, C. (1983). The Functional-Notional
Approach. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

This method of language teaching is categorized along with others


under the rubric of a communicative approach. The method stresses a
means of organizing a language syllabus. The emphasis is on
breaking down the global concept of language into units of analysis in
terms of communicative situations in which they are used.

Notions are meaning elements that may be expressed through nouns,


pronouns, verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, adjectives or adverbs.
The use of particular notions depends on three major factors: a. the
functions b. the elements in the situation, and c. the topic being
discussed.

A situation may affect variations of language such as the use of


dialects, the formality or informality of the language and the mode
of expression. Situation includes the following elements:

A. The persons taking part in the speech act

B. The place where the conversation occurs

C. The time the speech act is taking place

D. The topic or activity that is being discussed

Exponents are the language utterances or statements that stem from


the function, the situation and the topic.

Code is the shared language of a community of speakers.

Code-switching is a change or switch in code during the speech act,


which many theorists believe is purposeful behavior to convey
bonding, language prestige or other elements of interpersonal relations
between the speakers.

Functional Categories of Language

Mary Finocchiaro (1983, p. 65-66) has placed the functional categories


under five headings as noted below: personal, interpersonal, directive,
referential, and imaginative.

Personal = Clarifying or arranging one’s ideas; expressing one’s


thoughts or feelings: love, joy, pleasure, happiness, surprise, likes,
satisfaction, dislikes, disappointment, distress, pain, anger, anguish,
fear, anxiety, sorrow, frustration, annoyance at missed opportunities,
moral, intellectual and social concerns; and the everyday feelings of
hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleepiness, cold, or warmth

Interpersonal = Enabling us to establish and maintain desirable social


and working relationships: Enabling us to establish and maintain
desirable social and working relationships:

• greetings and leave takings


• introducing people to others
• identifying oneself to others
• expressing joy at another’s success
• expressing concern for other people’s welfare
• extending and accepting invitations
• refusing invitations politely or making alternative
arrangements
• making appointments for meetings
• breaking appointments politely and arranging
another mutually convenient time
• apologizing
• excusing oneself and accepting excuses for not
meeting commitments
• indicating agreement or disagreement
• interrupting another speaker politely
• changing an embarrassing subject
• receiving visitors and paying visits to others
• offering food or drinks and accepting or declining
politely
• sharing wishes, hopes, desires, problems
• making promises and committing oneself to some
action
• complimenting someone
• making excuses
• expressing and acknowledging gratitude

Directive = Attempting to influence the actions of others; accepting or


refusing direction:

• making suggestions in which the speaker is included


• making requests; making suggestions
• refusing to accept a suggestion or a request but
offering an alternative
• persuading someone to change his point of view
• requesting and granting permission
• asking for help and responding to a plea for help
• forbidding someone to do something; issuing a
command
• giving and responding to instructions
• warning someone
• discouraging someone from pursuing a course of
action
• establishing guidelines and deadlines for the
completion of actions
• asking for directions or instructions

Referential = talking or reporting about things, actions, events, or


people in the environment in the past or in the future; talking about
language (what is termed the metalinguistic function: = talking or
reporting about things, actions, events, or people in the environment in
the past or in the future; talking about language (what is termed the
metalinguistic function:

• identifying items or people in the classroom, the


school the home, the community
• asking for a description of someone or something
• defining something or a language item or asking for a
definition
• paraphrasing, summarizing, or translating (L1 to L2
or vice versa)
• explaining or asking for explanations of how
something works
• comparing or contrasting things
• discussing possibilities, probabilities, or capabilities
of doing something
• requesting or reporting facts about events or actions
• evaluating the results of an action or event
Imaginative = Discussions involving elements of creativity and artistic
expression

• discussing a poem, a story, a piece of music, a play,


a painting, a film, a TV program, etc.
• expanding ideas suggested by other or by a piece of
literature or reading material
• creating rhymes, poetry, stories or plays
• recombining familiar dialogs or passages creatively
• suggesting original beginnings or endings to dialogs
or stories
• solving problems or mysteries

Total Physical Response


James J. Asher, Learning Another Language Through Actions. San
Jose, California: AccuPrint, 1979.

James J. Asher defines the Total Physical Response (TPR) method as


one that combines information and skills through the use of the
kinesthetic sensory system. This combination of skills allows the
student to assimilate information and skills at a rapid rate. As a result,
this success leads to a high degree of motivation. The basic tenets are:

Understanding the spoken language before developing the skills of


speaking. Imperatives are the main structures to transfer or
communicate information. The student is not forced to speak, but is
allowed an individual readiness period and allowed to spontaneously
begin to speak when the student feels comfortable and confident in
understanding and producing the utterances.

TECHNIQUE

Step I The teacher says the commands as he himself performs the


action.

Step 2 The teacher says the command as both the teacher and the
students then perform the action.
Step 3 The teacher says the command but only students perform the
action

Step 4 The teacher tells one student at a time to do commands

Step 5 The roles of teacher and student are reversed. Students give
commands to teacher and to other students.

Step 6 The teacher and student allow for command expansion or


produces new sentences.

Knowledge Base and Teaching Strategies


of Effective Biliteracy Teachers

Purpose and Objectives for MoraModules On-


Biliteracy Instruction line Resources

Curriculum Design for Primary-language Curriculum


(l1) and Second-language (L2) Literacy Development
Development
Theoretical
Biliteracy teachers are familiar with the Foundations of
curriculum for Language Arts/Reading (LAR) Bilingual/L2
and how dual language instruction is related to Education
LAR standards, as well as content standards at a
particular grade level. Models of Bilingual
Education
Biliteracy teachers understand the theoretical
principles of bilingual education and second- Curriculum
language acquisition to implement effective L2 Framework for
program models. Biliteracy
Development
Biliteracy teachers are knowledgeable about the
socio-cultural, policy and demographic factors What Works (and
that pose challenges to literacy, biliteracy and Doesn't Work) for
second-language acquisition. ELL

Thematic Unit Planning for ELD Thematic Planning


for ELLs
Biliteracy teachers plan instruction around
themes to maximize opportunities for students to Thematic Planning
acquire language and concepts. Guidelines, Models &
Resources
Biliteracy teachers know how to integrate the
A Model 4X4
language arts: Listening, speaking, reading and Thematic Unit
writing.
4X4 Activities by
Biliteracy teachers base their instruction on a Levels & Skills
thorough understanding of learning theory,
including metacognitive, cognitive and Outline of the
social/affective strategies and processes that Cognitive Academic
learners employ to enhance their linguistic and Language Learning
content-area knowledge. Approach

Classroom Organization and Management Literacy Instruction


for Effective English Language and Literacy for English Language
Development Learners

Biliteracy teachers coordinate the complex Characteristics of


elements of ELD instruction to organize a Effective Second-
classroom through multiple teaching strategies language Learning
and grouping patterns. Classrooms

Biliteracy teachers organize literacy instruction Organizing the


based on a logical progression from structured B/CLAD Classroom
teacher-guided activities toward increasing levels
of independent reading and writing activities. Literacy Framework:
Instructional
Procedures

Lesson Planning for Dual Language Theoretical Basis for


Instruction the Natural Approach

Biliteracy teachers select appropriate methods of


instruction to enhance second-language Lesson Planning for
acquisition, literacy development and content- ELLs
area knowledge.
A Model 5-Step
Biliteracy teachers structure step-by-step Lesson Plan for ELD
lessons to include presentations of concepts and
vocabulary and ample opportunities for guided Principles &
and independent practice. Procedures of L2
Teaching Methods
Biliteracy teachers plan for high levels of student
involvement focused on both process and L2 Methods
product of learning.
Guided Story
Biliteracy teachers provide ample guided and Construction
shared reading and writing activities for students
to formulate their thoughts and ideas into stories Guided Writing in the
and narratives. L2 Classroom
Maximizing Cross-linguistic Transfer in Definitions of Literacy
Biliteracy and ELD Instruction
A Smooth Road to
In a bilingual classroom, teachers are familiar Biliteracy
with how Spanish language arts and reading and
ELD are interrelated and coordinated. Spanish Reading

Biliteracy teachers are familiar with principles of Cross-linguistic


cross-linguistic transfer and points of interaction Transfer in Biliteracy:
between Spanish and English. Research and
Instructional
Biliteracy teachers are knowledgeable about Practices
Spanish reading methods and Spanish phonetics
and orthography to maximize students' abilities Metalinguistic
to read in their primary language. Transfer in
Spanish/English
Biliteracy teachers know how to create Biliteracy
conditions for supporting and promoting transfer
of learning in biliteracy development and the Research on
components of language and literacy skills that Metalinguistic
are transferable. Transfer

Biliteracy teachers understand how Components of


metalinguistic awareness, knowledge and skills Metalinguistic
develops across grade levels and students' Knowledge
levels of L2 proficiency.
Word Study in
Biliteracy teachers are able to structure and Biliteracy Classrooms
implement effective word study and
grammar/syntax study activities to maximize Rules for Written
students' implicit knowledge of how their L1 Accents
works (form and function) and how this in Spanish
compares and contrasts with their L2.
Metalinguistic
Knowledge
Development
Continuum K-3

Spanish Word Study


& Grammar Teaching
Points

Evaluation and Selection of Appropriate Model of Natural


Instructional Materials and Activities Approach Lesson

Biliteracy teachers select activities to meet the Activities for


ELD goals and objectives for each student based ELD/SDAIE Teaching
on formal and informal assessments of L2
learners' levels of linguistic and cognitive Teaching Vocabulary
development. & Concepts

Biliteracy teachers plan carefully for students' Activities for


concept development and critical thinking skills Vocabulary
using a variety of interactive and independent Development
teaching formats.
Sentence
Transformation
Activities

Points of challenge and instructional L2 Reading


interventions in L2 reading
L2 Writing
Biliteracy teachers understand the dynamics and
complexities of reading in a second language. A Phonics Sequence
for
Biliteracy teachers analyze and select literacy L2 Readers
texts for instruction and independent reading
based on learners' ability to handle the Text Analysis for L2
challenges of the text. Readers

Content-area Teaching Making the


Language-concept
Biliteracy teachers relate content-area Connection
knowledge and L2 language and literacy
development. Content-area
Reading for L2
Biliteracy teachers plan to integrate content and Learners
concept development into primary language and
ELD instruction and learning activities. Using Study Guides
to Enhance Content-
Biliteracy teachers design structured learning area Reading
activities to enhance content-area reading by
guiding students in their abilities to analyze and
reflect on content area text structures and
patterns of exposition.

Evaluation and Assessment Language


Assessment
Biliteracy teachers conduct on-going assessment
to monitor English language and literacy L2 Writing Rubrics
development
ELL Program
Biliteracy teachers collaborate with Implementation
administrators to ensure that the program for L2 Checklist
is congruent with sound pedagogical principles
Accountability FOR
and well-supported through appropriate material and TO Language
and personnel resources for effective Minority Students
implementation.
The Truth About the
CELDT

Multicultural Education Cultural Diversity in


B/CLAD Classrooms
Biliteracy teachers continually refine their
knowledge of linguistic and cultural factors that Understanding
promote L2 acquisition and the overall Cultural Values
development and well-being of diverse learners
Using Multicultural
Biliteracy teachers use multicultural literature to Literature to Teach
enhance and refine L2 learners' enjoyment and Reading Processes
appreciation of their own and each other's
diversity. Philosophical
Assumptions of
Biliteracy teachers understand the implications of English-only vs.
broader social, economic and political and Bilingual Education
demographic changes and dynamics that effect
their programs and their classroom instruction. Advocacy for
Language Minority
Students

Knowledge Base and Teaching Philosophy Formulating a


Philosophy of
Biliteracy teachers continually grow B/CLAD Teaching
professionally by reflecting on their practices and
engaging with current research in L2 language The Why's and How's
and literacy development and teaching. of CLAD Teaching

Biliteracy teachers articulate a philosophy of CLAD Teaching is


bilingual and second-language education based Good Teaching Plus
on a knowledge base that is congruent with their
values and beliefs and connected to their Teachers' Beliefs
personal and professional experiences. About Biliteracy
Instruction
Biliteracy teachers access research and
scholarly writing about policies and practices that A Heuristic Analysis
increase their effectiveness with language of the Performance of
minority students and second language learners. Bilingual Readers

Biliteracy teachers are informed about Bibliography on


controversial issues surrounding their profession Biliteracy and L2
and education reform in order to be proactive Reading
participants in the formulation of pedagogically
sound and coherent laws and policies regarding Bibliography on
the effective schooling for language minority Effective Schooling
students. Practices for
Language Minority
Students

A Road Map to the


Bilingual Education
Debate

For a complete description of the Four by Four Lesson Planning Model,


see this chapter:

Mora, J.K. (2006). Differentiating instruction for English Learners: The


Four-by-Four Model. In T.A. Young & N. L. Hadaway (Eds.). Supporting the
Literacy Development of English Learners: Increasing Success in All
Classrooms. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, pp. 24-40.

The 4X4 Thematic Unit


Purpose of the Assignment

The purpose of the 4X4 thematic planning assignment is to guide


preservice and inservice teachers of English Language Learners (ELL)
through the steps and procedures for designing and teaching an
integrated thematic unit using differentiated instruction. The 4X4 Thematic
Unit is based on the K-12 Content Standards. The 4X4 planning model
provides a framework that accommodates the needs and abilities of
students with various levels of language proficiency. The model provides
a systematic way of planning for English Language Development (ELD) or
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) for English
language learners. The 4X4 Thematic Unit is applicable in any of the
different programs that serve ELL. These include English immersion
programs in elementary schools, and English as a second language (ESL)
or English Language Development courses, sheltered content classes and
mainstream content classes in secondary schools. The 4X4 model is also
applicable for teaching in bilingual classrooms, where level 4 proficiency
learning and teaching are addressed through instruction in the ELLs' first
language, usually Spanish. Click here for a definition of terms and an
overview of different programs of instruction for second-language
learners.

This unit can be included in your professional presentation portfolio to


demonstrate your skills as a credentialed teacher with expertise in
adapting language arts and content for limited English proficient students
in interviews for teaching positions. If you are currently in a teaching
assignment, this unit design model will familiarize you more in depth with
the curriculum used in your school and classroom setting and strategies
for adapting language arts and content-area performance standards for
different levels of learners within your classroom. These guidelines for
lesson planning are provided to prepare you for submitting Embedded
Signature Assignment tasks in PLC 915A and PLC 915B Multiple Subjects
and Single Subject Credential Program courses.

Teacher credential candidates completing the 4X4 to earn the Multiple


Subjects or Single Subject credential will use a content-area textbook
currently in use in California schools or a children’s literature book as the
basis for the theme. There is a section of public school textbooks on the
fourth floor of the SDSU Love Library. You may select a textbook or
reader from this section to develop your unit. Click here for a link to the
Teacher Performance Expectations (TPE#7) that describe the teacher
competencies needed for effective instruction of ELL.

By completing this thematic unit you will learn to integrate content-area


standards with English Language Development (ELD) standards and
English language arts instruction through effective planning, classroom
organization and instruction for sheltered immersion classrooms. Click
here for the scoring rubric for the 4X4 Thematic Unit.

TO TOP OF PAGE

Conceptualizing the Structure of the 4X4 Thematic Unit

This table provides a visual representation of the concept of the 4X4


Thematic Unit. This form of planning allows the teacher candidate to
address the developmental needs of a diverse group of students within a
structured English immersion, bilingual or mainstream classroom. The
teacher will include activities to focus on each one of the four skills of
language: listening, speaking, reading and writing. This focus will shift for
each level. S/he will plan learning activities and use instructional
strategies adjusted for each of four levels of language proficiency.

Click on the cells of the 4X4 grid below for teaching strategies and
activities for each level and skill. Click here for a complete list of teaching
strategies and activities for each level of language proficiency. Click here
for a description of the focus of 4X4 thematic instruction according to
students' English proficiency levels.

The 4X4 Thematic Planning Model

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4


Listening Listening Listening Listening
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Speaking Speaking Speaking Speaking
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Reading Reading Reading Reading
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Writing Writing Writing Writing

For a model of a thematic unit designed using the 4X4 model, click here to
view Ocean Movements by Shauna Howard.

Overview of the 4X4 Unit


Your completed 4X4 thematic unit will contain the following elements:

Section 1- Rationale: A 3-5 page narrative description of the unit that


explains the goals and objectives under the Content Standards that you
address in your unit. The description also provides a narrative description
of the important points you considered in planning, such as students'
levels of language proficiency, prior knowledge of the subject matter, and
motivations for learning the content.

Section 2: Daily lesson plans for the four levels (1, 2, 3 and SDAIE) and the
four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) using the Five Step
Lesson Plan Model.

Section 3: Samples of handouts, visuals, and worksheets. Include enough


examples to give an idea of your development and use of instructional
materials

Section 4: A list of resources and references used in the unit, including


URLs for Internet sources and materials.
In designing the 4X4 ELD/SDAIE or sheltered instruction unit, follow the
questions, guidelines and structure presented below. These questions will
serve to stimulate your thinking about how to plan a thematic unit and
each lesson within the unit. Do not attempt to address all of the questions.
Focus on the important features of your own thematic unit and specific
subject matter.

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Components of the 4X4 Thematic Unit: Guide


Questions
Section 1 Rationale

Section 1 of the 4X4 unit will be divided into the following six subtopics:

1. Introduction

Questions:

What are the characteristics of the students for whom your unit is
designed in terms of native language(s), English language proficiency
levels and cultural characteristics?

Why did you choose this theme? Of what relevance or importance is it


to your students? How does the theme connect with state and/or school
district Content Standards for language arts and your specific content
area? Have you referenced the ELD Standards in your planning?

What are the overall goals and objectives of your unit? Include content
objectives, language objectives and critical thinking objectives. What are
the "Big Ideas" or "Essential Questions" students will address through
your unit? How have you selected or distilled a "subset" of the concepts
and relationships contained in the Content Standards you address in your
unit and in each lesson?

How will you structure your classroom to carry out the activities
planned in the unit?
2. Staging the concepts

Questions:

How will the students’ interest and motivation to learn the topic be
awakened?

What do the students already know about the topic?

What are the students interested in learning about the topic?

How does what the students know and want to learn match with what is
covered in the textbook or storybook?

What kind of graphic organizers, films or visuals will I use to discover


what students know and want to learn?

What key concepts and vocabulary words and terms do I as a teacher


believe are the most useful and important for students to learn from this
unit of the text or literature book. State these in terms of: a) their ability to
continue on in the text or language arts sequence with a good
foundation? b) their general knowledge of the content area? For example,
in history you may wish to address the lesson to promote critical thinking
about these issues: How development occurs; how society changes; or
how the economics of a region shape history. Look for the essential
questions or big ideas behind the content. You can refer to your content-
area Framework published by the California Department of Education for a
description of the global concepts addressed at your grade level.

Select or design an activity to help you visualize a framework or schema


to address the questions above. Examples are KWL procedures, a film
and discussion, graphic organizers, or other visual displays. For Section 1
you will write a one or two paragraph discussion of the procedures and
materials you will use.

3. Vocabulary

Questions:

How will I have students at different levels of language proficiency


practice using this vocabulary with the appropriate oral or written focus in
a meaningful way?

What level of linguistic and conceptual complexity can my students


handle successfully, with a challenge but without becoming frustrated?
What vocabulary will I teach because it is most important to
understanding the content and/or useful for enriching students’
conceptual level?

How do I teach this vocabulary in context without merely assigning


students dictionary work or activities to define vocabulary words through
isolated definitions?

Devise a Word Bank for your unit consisting of a) vocabulary words and
b) cognates or words that have similar spelling and meaning in English
and Spanish. Be sure to include different parts of speech: nouns, verbs,
adjectives and adverbs or adverbial phrases. The cognates will facilitate
understanding in L2 and enrich vocabulary in L1. The complete Word
Bank for all four levels will go in Section 3 of your unit. Write a one to two
paragraph description for Section 1 explaining why you selected the
words in your Word Bank and how you will teach the vocabulary for
Section 1. (For example, fill-in-the-blank with context clues or cloze
procedure).

4. The Reading Selection

Questions:

What elements of the content-area or literature text will be easy for my


limited English proficient students to understand? What elements will be
difficult? Have I conducted a thorough text analysis? How can I make a
grade-level textbook accessible to ELL through structured and guided
reading and use of the textbook?

What paragraph from the content-area lessons in the textbook or from


the storybook can I select to simplify by paraphrasing to focus on
vocabulary and concept learning without "overloading" my students with
difficulty in reading?

What types of reading activities will I use to reduce the difficulty of the
reading text and ensure comprehension of the language and content?
(For example, cooperative groups with comprehension questions,
semantic mapping.)

Select and paraphrase a paragraph of the text or storybook for Section 3.


Write one or two paragraphs for Section 1 describing why you selected a
certain passage or paragraph to paraphrase and how you paraphrased the
text for your students. Describe what level(s) of L2 students will be able to
read your paraphrased passage and how you will guide students at the
lower levels to understand the text. Click here for an example of a
paraphrased text or summary written to be accessible for ELL.

5. Guided Practice
Questions:

How will I organize the new concepts I have selected to teach and guide
students step by step through this organizational schema?

What configuration of individual or group activities will I use to have


them practice the concepts and manipulate the language of the lesson?

What reading and writing activities will the students participate in, with
the teacher, with each other, and/or on their own?

What product can the students produce through the guided practice
process? For example, a news story or short narrative about the topic; a
paragraph to begin a report, a fact sheet, the beginning of a timeline or
graphic organizer, or a language experience story or guided story can be
developed under the teacher's guidance.

For Section 1, write a paragraph describing what guided practice activities


you will use to teach the important vocabulary and concepts. This will be
an overview of the four levels of lessons you have included in your plan,
telling how you focused guided practice for each level of language
proficiency distinctly. Explain briefly your rationale for choosing the class
product or project using the activities you selected. Include samples of
graphic organizers or worksheets in Section 3.

6. Evaluation

Questions:

What product or display will demonstrate to me that students have


learned the concepts and vocabulary to the best of their ability?

How will I determine what I need to re-teach or review with some


students and which students can go on to more complex levels of
understanding of the concepts or vocabulary? (Examples: tests, pre- and
post- writing samples, reports, etc.)

How will I reward or recognize students’ efforts to learn and their


progress in the unit in a way that will build their confidence and self-
esteem?

TO TOP OF PAGE
Section 2: Lesson Plans

You will include four lesson plans, one for each of the four levels (1, 2, 3
and SDAIE) describing activities for each of the four skills (listening,
speaking, reading and writing). These four lesson plans will cover a day or
more of instruction and activities. Do not be concerned about the time
frame of the lesson. Focus rather on covering each of the components of
the lesson as shown in the model provided.

Questions:

What will the teacher do and what will the students do during each day
of the time span allotted to cover the theme in a logically related sequence
of lessons?

Have I utilized a variety of L2 teaching strategies (audiolingual method,


TPR, Communicative Approach) to ensure mastery of linguistic structures
and vocabulary?

How have the students used academic language during the lesson? For
what function or purpose? Is their academic language use integrated into
critical thinking and problem-solving activities?

What pace of presentation, activities and concept development is


reasonable to expect from L2 students? Have I avoided "leaps of logic"
that will confuse students because I moved too quickly from concrete and
semi-concrete concepts into complex and abstract concepts?

How can I best organize a logical, coherent and motivating sequence of


content and activities, culminating in students' being prepared for the
next stage of learning of the theme and the text or book I have selected?

Have I included activities that address all the diversity of learning


styles and cultures in my classroom through different sensory
modalities?

The lesson plans will be prepared using the Five Step Lesson Plan Model
(Hunter, 1982). This model provides a format to describe the objectives
and sequence of teaching strategies and activities you will use to
accomplish the purpose of the lesson. In each of the lessons for the four
levels, you will also provide a short rationale. This rationale will explain
briefly how you integrated the four skills of listening, speaking, reading
and writing and how you adjusted the focus of each lesson for to achieve
comprehensible input.
A format for the Five Step Lesson Plan Model and a sample language arts
lesson are provided on-line. Click on the highlighted text for The Old Lady
Who Swallowed a Fly Lesson Plan.

Click here for a model lesson plan for secondary math.

TO TOP OF PAGE

Section 3: Samples of materials

This section will include the following components:

The complete Word Bank (Vocabulary List) for your thematic unit

The paraphrased selection from your textbook or literature book

Samples of worksheets, visuals, handouts, etc. These can be either


your originally designed materials or commercially developed materials. If
you include commercial materials, be sure to cite the original source.

TO TOP OF PAGE

Section 4: List of references & resources

As professionals, we must always acknowledge others who have given us


ideas for our work. Give credit to your sources of ideas and materials. Use
the citation style of the American Psychological Association (APA).

Remember: It is the quality of the content and the thoughtfulness that


goes into the assignment, and not the length of the project, that will earn
the best grade.
TO TOP OF PAGE

Course Activities and Requirements


for 4X4 Unit Development
Cooperative Group Work

There will be three working sessions during class time for your groups to
accomplish its tasks. Additional time outside of class with your group
members is optional. During the time provided in class, you will select
your topic and determine the main concepts, principles and content that
will be your focus. You will also share ideas for activities and lesson plans
for the four levels of proficiency and four skills. Use Section D of the
course reader as a guide. However, all grading of the 4X4 Thematic Unit is
individual. There will be no group grade.

Questions or Comments?

E-mail Dr. Mora from here or off my Home Page if you have any questions.
I also invite you to send me the URL of any useful websites you may
discover as you search the Internet.

A Model Integrated Thematic Unit


for English Language Learners
Science/Language Arts

Ocean Movements
by

Shauna Howard
PLC 914 Teaching in the Content Areas: ELD/SDAIE
Spring Semester 1999

Presented to Dr. Jill Kerper Mora


CLAD Credential Program
San Diego State University

Dear Website Visitor:

Congratulations go to Shauna Howard, author of this excellent thematic


unit for science/language arts based on the 4X4 thematic planning model.
Shauna gave me permission to post this unit as a model for my PLC 914
students and for all of the visitors to my CLAD website. I have linked the
content of the thematic unit to instructional modules (MoraModules) that
explain the principles of sound curriculum design and lesson planning for
English language learners that are applied here. As time allows, I will add
commentary about the features of the unit to assist other educators in
improving instruction in CLAD classrooms.

A note to my PLC 914 students:

I have added discussion of the theoretical basis for ELD/SDAIE and


description of planning principles and explanations of Shauna's teaching
strategies within her narrative about instruction and guided practice.
Consequently, this unit is more elaborated than the units my PLC 914
students are required to submit. So, don't panic! Use this unit as a model
to guide your thinking process and as a source of examples of what can
be included in your unit.

I send a sincere thank you to Shauna Howard and to all the teacher
candidates who work very hard to prepare themselves for the challenges
of cultural and linguistic diversity in our public schools. As your
professor, I am proud to be a part of that process.

Jill Kerper Mora


Table of Contents

4X4 Unit Rationale Unit Goals Staging the Concept


Vocabulary Reading Passage Guided Practice
Level 1 Lesson
Evaluation Level 2 Lesson Plan
Plan
Level 3 Lesson Level 4 Lesson
Word Bank
Plan Plan
Paraphrased Text Sample News Story Graphic Organizer 1
Graphic Organizer
References On-line Resourses
2

Thematic Unit Rationale


The demographics of my third grade sheltered classroom are eleven females
and nine males. Of these twenty Mexican American students, their primary
language is Spanish and they are all learning English as their second
language. While this classroom is conducted in only English, my students are
at various levels of English and therefore need different levels of support to
guide their learning. Three students are at Level 1, the Pre-Production Stage of
English. Six students are at Level 2, the Early Production Stage of
English. Five students are at Level 3, the Speech Emergence Stage of
English. Six students are at Level 4, SDAIE, with an Intermediate Fluency Stage
of English.

The overall theme of this unit is oceans. This theme was chosen for two
reasons. One, I consulted the performance standards required by the school
district and found that in the San Diego City Schools adopted third grade
standards, understanding oceans is part of Grade 3 Science: Performance
Standard 3. 1. 1. "The students can identify geographical features in San
Diego county area, for example oceans." In planning this unit I also
consulted the district standards and state standards for cross-referencing for
Science and Reading/Language Arts. The state science standard for physical
science Grade 3-1.d and for earth science Grade 3-3. b & c were related to
concepts of ocean movements. Click here for a link to the CDE Science
Standards.Click here to link to the California Department of Education Website
for the grade level Language Arts Standards.

Secondly, I thought that oceans are important for students in San Diego to learn
about since San Diego is located on the Pacific Ocean. Since the students here
are so close, this unit opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in which
they can go see most of what they learn about, such as the waves and tides in
this unit. In addition, students living near the ocean have the opportunity to see
how oceans effect our environment, our sea life, our land forms, the food chain,
water transportation as well as a number of other things.

Goals of the Unit

There are five overall goals for the entire unit on oceans. These goals include
learning about the ocean movements, sea life, in particular whales, the food
chain within the ocean, the ocean floor, and pollution that occurs in the ocean
and its detrimental effects on our quality of life. In my section of the unit
following this rationale, the students will specifically learn about ocean
movements. The goals for this section of the unit is for the students to learn
about the two forms of ocean movements, waves and tides, how they occur,
and what effects they have on our beaches. For the students in levels three
and four, the goal is to deepen their level of understanding of the notion of
ocean movements and take it one step further by learning about the effects that
oceans movements have on other aspects of life, such as sea life. At each
level, the critical thinking tasks become progressively more complex and
demanding, so that students are challenged to grow in their ability to
comprehend, analyze, synthesize, make evaluative judgments and to transform
and apply the content in new and creative ways.

Since I am teaching this unit to a "sheltered" class of English language learners,


I also included specific language learning goals in planning for each level of
English proficiency. Consequently, I have integrated the four language arts:
listening, speaking, reading and writing. Students will develop their language
skills by expanding their vocabulary, using increasingly complex syntax and
grammar, and applying these skills in meaningful reading and writing tasks. For
level one, the focus is on developing listening skills to identify words and
associate these with visual images and concepts. For my level two learners, the
goal is to increase their speaking abilities by forming sentences to express their
ideas. Level three learners are capable of reading simplified text and extracting
meaning when prepared for the task in pre-reading activities. Level four learners
are "reading to learn" and are expanding their content area vocabulary and
comprehension of more abstract concepts, but still need structure and
"scaffolding" in order to handle the linguistic demands of the textbook.

In order to accomplish these goals, while teaching each of my four level groups
with varying degrees of complexity from easy (level one) to most difficult --level
four), I had to strategically set up the classroom to fit my students needs. Since
my students are very familiar with centers, I continued to use centers for this
unit. I incorporated five centers that rotated in a clockwise manner around the
classroom. The students rotated in the centers in their level groups. I chose to
do grouping by levels of language proficiency because the tasks at the teacher
and writing center need to be done with peers in the same grouping level. In this
way I am also focusing on students' second-language learning as well as on
academic content. Alternatively, the students can be grouped heterogeneously
across levels for some projects that are less language-dependent. A variety of
grouping patterns are used throughout the unit.

Level one began the rotation grouped with me for instruction and guided
practice at the rug. Level two was at the library looking at and reading assigned
level books about waves and tides. Level three started at the computers. They
were given specific internet sites to took up and research to help them gain
some background information about ocean movements. Level four began at
the art center were they begun painting the mural. The fifth center was the
writing center, which was left open during the first rotation. The rotation was set
up so that in the second rotation, the group that just left the teacher would
always move to the writing center where they would complete their independent
practice. No group was at the writing center for the first rotation because none
of the groups had met with the teacher yet. In the interest of time, each group
only went to one of these centers a day, therefore taking five days for the
students to get through all five of the centers.

Staging the Concept

In an effort to stage the concept of ocean movements and assess my student's


prior knowledge, I took one day at the beginning of the unit to do a KWL with
the students. On a large chart I wrote Ocean Movements. Then I headed the
three columns on the chart to state, "What We Know, What We Want to
Learn, and What We Have Learned." Then, with all twenty of the students, we
discussed what we know and wanted to learn and recorded all of the
information on the chart. I then hung the poster in the classroom, where it was
visible to all of the students, and left it there until the unit was complete.

After the KWL is completed, I introduced the theme of ocean movements to the
students by showing them a short video of the ocean. I chose to run a video
without the audio the first time since I did not want any of my students to get lost
with the vocabulary in the video. Besides, the purpose of the video was to
introduce ocean movements and show the students what the ocean looked
like. This was especially important since not all of my students had seen an
ocean before. Throughout the video as I pointed out scenes of the ocean, I was
able to capture my students interest and then further engage them by telling
them that after we learned all about the ocean movements, we were going to
make our own ocean in the classroom through a mural and then take a field trip
to visit the ocean.

Vocabulary Selection and Development

For this unit, I chose specific vocabulary and concepts. Among this list of words
placed in the word bank, I divided them among the four levels based on level of
difficulty of the concept and level of abstraction of each word or term. Each
level, starting with level one, builds off one another and progresses according to
my students varying level of English language proficiency. For example, in level
one the concept being taught, waves, is the easiest and least abstract.
Therefore the vocabulary chosen for this level is less difficult and more
concrete. The vocabulary came specifically from the paraphrased paragraph
about waves that I read to the students. In level two, the concept grows in
difficulty and abstraction. The student's new vocabulary builds on the concept
of waves to include words about tides, a more abstract and complex concept.
The vocabulary for this lesson also comes from the paraphrased paragraphs
that I extracted from a science textbook. However, I include not only the
paragraph on waves, but also the paragraph on tides.

In these early levels one and two, there is more of a focus on learning new
vocabulary. The reason is because the students at these stages have limited
vocabulary and need to be taught the key terms and vocabulary in order to
understand the content of the lesson. These vocabulary words are listed in the
Word Bank. As a result these lessons were designed to give the students some
basic understanding of the most concrete and widely used terms regarding
ocean movements, but in a meaningful context that they will understand.

Some strategies that are used in these lessons include science experiments so
that the students can actually see waves and the difference between a high and
low tide. Pictures are used to give students a visual representation of the words
they are leaning. A graphic organizer is created with the students so that they
can organize this new information in a clear, specific manner. And finally, the
paraphrased paragraphs are used which uses the information the students are
learning in a meaningful context.

In levels three and four, the students are slightly more challenged. There is no
direct vocabulary instruction of isolated words, but rather the students learn
progressively more difficult words and concepts through the context of the
narratives in level three and the news stories in level four. Similar to levels one
and two, the students all practice these new concepts and vocabulary orally
with the teacher by discussing the context of the text, and by writing
independently using frameworks for narratives and news stories.

Reading Selection

The reading selection about waves and tides that I chose to paraphrase for my
students came from a third grade science textbook titled The New Exploring
Science Textbook, by Blecha, Gega, and Green. I chose to paraphrase this
particular section from this textbook because I felt that it presented the
information is an extremely clear manner. In my process of modifying the
information and language of the text, I had to first decide what I wanted my
students to learn from the paraphrased passage. I only wanted to include what
I through was essential for their understanding, as I did not want to overload
them with unnecessary information and language that was too complex for their
level of comprehension. I then needed to spend time on lowering the level of
language used in the paragraphs so that I did not overload the students with
unnecessary difficult vocabulary.

The third task was making sure that I clearly defined all new vocabulary and
concepts through the context of the text. For example, I could not just use the
word energy without stating that it gives the waves more power. The final step
of the paraphrasing process was to re-read and edit it a number of times to
make sure that it was clear for my students.

In addition to the paraphrased paragraphs on waves and tides, I also made up


my own modified narratives and news stories to used with the level three and
four students. The purpose of this was to provide these students with reading
material at their level that that they could read and comprehend, but was also
high interest material that would teach the concepts and content selected. Using
an informal reading inventory and running records of students' reading
performance, I have determined their independent, instructional and frustration
levels for matching their reading skills with the demands of the text.

Principles of Guided Practice

To help guide all four levels of my students through the various readings, I used
a variety of reading strategies. I read the paragraph first so that the students
heard it once through before reading it themselves. I used echo and choral
reading to help the students read the passages. For the levels, one and two, I
used repetition of words and phases with the words in large print to read along.
In some instances when the students were working on their independent work, I
allowed them to work with partners or in cooperative groups so that they could
help one another.

Through the guided practice, I guided and facilitated my students into learning
the skills that they need to apply to the independent practice and ultimately use
to learn the new concepts and vocabulary. This strategy is referred to as
scaffolding. In my effort to do this effectively, I made sure that what I instructed
them with and what I guided them through, was what the students did on their
own in the independent practice. I made sure that when I was teaching I altered
my language based on the i+1 concept, in which the language used with the
students was only slightly harder that the students' level of proficiency. For
example, if students were using one or two words to respond, I encouraged
them to use complete sentences. If they could form rudimentary sentences, I
helped them elaborate, using more complex sentence formation.

In the instruction, I used kinesthetic activities and TPR (Total Physical


Response) to help my level one and two students who may not be ready to do a
lot of speaking, yet I still want to know they are listening. I used small groups
with teacher directed activities to make sure that all four levels of students were
receiving the attention and instruction appropriate for their needs, while also
challenging them to perform at a higher level. I made sure that when the
students do go to work on their independent work to apply and practice the
concepts that they learned, that they are sitting at a center with the other
members of their groups. This is so that they can assist each other if there are
questions or problems. Finally, I made sure that the library center and computer
center, in which the students would work at with their groups, was structured to
reinforce the concepts and vocabulary that they were learning with me during
direct instruction.

Evaluation
At the conclusion of the unit, the students will be evaluated as individuals and
as a class to see what they have learned and on the products they have
produced. The students will be formally assessed individually based on their
independent work that they did at the writing center, after they worked with me
for the instruction and guided practice. For example, the level three students
will be looked at whether they met the objectives and were able to write an
ending to a narrative. The students will also be individually assessed on their
individual contribution to the class mural, which was the overall objective for
each lesson. For example, level three students will also be assessed on their
letter that they had to write to the other classrooms inviting them to come and
see our mural on ocean movements.

The whole class assessment will be conducted through the completion of the
KWL that the students will do at the end of the unit. This KWL will informally
reveal to me how much the class learned about ocean movements as
compared to how much they started out knowing. Finally the whole class will be
assessed as a group based on the overall presentation of the mural and how
they talk about it to the other classes who come to view it. Based on these four
evaluation areas, I will be able to determine if there is anything that I need to re-
teach or review with my students and if any of my students are ready to go on to
even more complex levels of understanding.

After the students work together to complete the class mural and then show the
mural to other classrooms who come to view the mural and learn about ocean
movements, I will reward and recognize my students efforts to learn by taking
them to the beach where they can see all of the things that they learned about.
We will then turn this experience into an introduction for the next phase of our
study of the oceans. In this way, I make connections between the important
concepts and skills my students are learning at each point in the curriculum as I
follow the school districts performance and content standards.

Lesson Plans by Levels


Level 1

Ocean Movements: Understanding Waves

Lesson Rationale--Level 1

Students who are learning English as a second language need development of


key terms and vocabulary in order to understand the content of the lesson. This
lesson is designed to give the students some basic understanding of the most
concrete and widely used terms regarding ocean movements. The instruction
of this new vocabulary will be accomplished through a science experiment as
well as a variety of listening and speaking strategies in which the students will
be engaged into. A beginning knowledge and understanding of these terms,
will aid these second language learners in the transition from a pre-production
stage of English to the point where they can speak and/or understand some of
the English involved in this unit of ocean movements.

Oceans, and in particular ocean movements, are important for students in San
Diego to learn about because San Diego lies on the Pacific Ocean. Since
students are so close, it opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in
which they can go see most of what they learn about, such as the waves in this
lesson. In addition, students living near the ocean have the opportunity to see
how our oceans affect our environment, and ultimately how our environment
impacts our sea life.

Objectives--Level 1

I. After learning the key terms and vocabulary, the students will be able to listen
and signify recognition of vocabulary words related to ocean movements by
raising their hand when they hear the words read.

2. After listening and practicing speaking with the teacher as she models the
new key terms and their definitions on waves, the students will be able to use
the terms by filling in the missing word in a definition sentence.

3. After practicing reading the key terms and vocabulary words orally, the
students will be able to recognize and/or sight read the words related to ocean
movements from their word bank individually.

4. After practicing matching the key terms and vocabulary to the pictures with
the entire class, the students will individually be able to complete a handout in
which they write a short descriptive sentence using the correct key terms
related to ocean movements next to a picture.

5. Overall, the students will be able to use the graphic organizer and what they
learned about ocean movement to write three short sentences in narrative form
to explain the ocean movements of waves.

Anticipatory Set--Level 1

To motivate the students about ocean movements and especially waves,


engage them in a discussion about the water at the beach. Ask the students if
they have ever been to the beach and seen the ocean. If they went, did they
see the water moving? Have they seen surfers riding the waves in the water?
Have they seen a boat that bounces up and down in the water? Ask them if
they know why these things occur. Then explain to the students that today they
will be learning the words that will teach them why the water/ocean moves.
Also, further motivate the students by reminding them that when the unit is over
they will be visiting the ocean and looking at the movements that they are going
to be learning about.
Instruction/Presentation--Level 1

1. To begin to introduce the students to the important terms regarding waves,


do an experiment demonstrating waves. Use a large rectangular aluminum foil
backing tin. Tell the students to pretend that the water in the tin is the ocean.
Place a cork in the water in the center of the pan and wait till the water is still.
Then gently hit the top of the water at the end of the pan with a spoon until the
waves are made. Then ask the students, "What do they see happening with the
cork? It is rising and falling? What do they see happening with the water? It is
also rising and falling? Explain that the movement in the water/ocean is waves.
"Waves are the rise and fall of the water. We made the waves in the pan by
hitting the pan with a spoon, but in the real ocean the waves by made by the
wind blowing on the water."

2. To reinforce what the students just saw and to develop their vocabulary of the
key terms and concepts just introduced, continue the instruction by showing
students a large picture of waves in the ocean.

3 . As the card is held up, allow the students to use their prior knowledge of
oceans and the experiment that they just saw to guess what the picture is.

4. Then describe what the picture shows to the students. Since it is a picture of
waves, explain to the students that waves are the movement they see in the
ocean water. Also show waves with your hands and arms and say that "waves
go up and down or rise and fall."

5. Then show the students how the word "wave" looks and how it is spelled by
using sentence strips.

6. Place the picture of the waves beside the word in the pocket chart in front of
the classroom.

7. Have the students repeat after you "wave" three times so that they get some
listening and speaking practice of the word.

8. Continue this process of teaching these key terms and vocabulary for the rest
of the words related to waves (ocean, water, rise and fall, wind, energy, big,
tall).

9. Build on the students listening skills and vocabulary by reading the short
paraphrased paragraph on waves to the students. Tell the students to listen
carefully for the key words that they just discussed. When they hear one of the
key words have them raise their hand to signal that the word was heard.
Remind the students that if they need help remembering the key words, they
can look on the pocket chart.

Guided Practice--Level 1

1. Pull the words off the pocket chart and place them on the table. Remove and
scramble up the pictures and then place them back on the pocket chart.
2. Hold up the first word on the sentence strip and ask the students to try and
recognize the word. Provide the students with a sentence that gives the
meaning of the word in context. Have them chorally sight read it aloud. Allow
them to shout out the word and then again model the correct pronunciation by
repeating the word after them by saying, "Yes, the word is wave." Then have
the students repeat back the sentence with the word in it.

3. Then ask the students, "Who can come up to the pocket chart and place the
word wave next to the correct picture?" Calling on individual students, allow
them to come up and place the word in the appropriate place.

4. Continue holding up terms, saying them, and matching them to the correct
picture by placing the word next to the correct picture on the pocket chart.

5. Further work to reinforce the definitions of these words by placing them in a


graphic organizer, which the students will then use these to make sentences.
Have the students do this by eliciting the words through context questions.

Graphic Organizer Level 1

OCEANS

Movement Waves
Cause Wind
Effects "What we
Rise and fall of the waves
see"
More wind produces more energy to
Changes
make waves bigger

6. Informally assess the students during this entire process. If they are not
pronouncing and reading the words correctly, them continue to model and have
them repeat after you. If they are having trouble remembering what picture
matches what word and placing them in the graphic organizer, then they need
more instruction about what the words means and give them more practice
matching the right pictures and words. I don't continue on to independent
practice until I am confident that the students are successful with the language
and processes covered in the guided practice.

Independent Practice--Level 1

1. Pass out to students the handout, with the pictures of the vocabulary they just
learned and with the word bank filled with these words. Have the students draw
lines to connect the correct picture to the word.

2. Finally, using the graphic organizer that the students made together on the
board and their new knowledge of these important terms have the students
write three sentences on sentence strips that explain waves. They should use
seven of the nine words. (ocean, waves, water, wind, rise and fall, and energy,
tall, big) These sentence strips are going to be place on the final mural to
explain waves.

Closure/Evaluation--Level 1

As a final assessment of the students, look at whether or not they were able to
meet the reading and writing objectives. If the students were successful and
they met your goal then they should have been able to read all of the new
words given to them in the word bank and then write all 9 of those words in their
science journal under the appropriate cut out picture. Using this new
vocabulary, they should also have been able to write three short sentences in
narrative form. Together, these two assignments should demonstrate the
student's new understanding of waves.

Bring the lesson to a close by allowing the students a chance to share what
they have learned. Allow each student each an opportunity to read aloud the
narrative that them made. Finally bring the lesson to a full circle by asking them
what they will look for next time they visit the beach.

Level 2
Ocean Movements: Understanding Waves and Tides

Lesson Rationale--Level 2

Students who are learning English as a second language need development of


key terms and vocabulary in order to understand the content of the lesson. This
lesson is designed to build upon the basic understanding of some of the most
concrete and widely used terms regarding ocean movements. Students at this
stage still have a restricted vocabulary, so developing a more concrete
understanding of the previous lessons terms as well as some added new terms
in this lesson is necessary in order to help them speak and construct
sentences. The students all do this by building on the terms related to waves
from the level one lesson to more difficult words regarding tides in this lesson.
The instruction of this new vocabulary will be accomplished through a science
experiment as well as a variety of listening and speaking strategies in which the
students will be engaged into. By gaining more control of the vocabulary used
in discussing ocean movements, these second language learners will be able to
make the transition from limited speaking control to the point where they have
enough for communicating about ocean movements.

Oceans, and in particular ocean movements, are important for students in San
Diego to learn about because San Diego lies on the Pacific Ocean. Since
students are so close, it opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in
which they can go see most of what they learn about, such as the waves and
tides in this lesson. In addition, students living near the ocean have the
opportunity to see how our oceans affect our environment, and ultimately how
our environment impacts our sea life.

Objectives--Level 2

1. After learning the key terms and vocabulary, the students will be able to listen
and recognize at least 12 of the 18 definition sentences related to ocean
movements by raising their hand when they hear the words read.

2. After listening to the teacher modeling and using the key terms in definition
sentences and practice saying the key words, the students will be able to
restate all of the definition sentences with the key words given.

3. After the whole class chorally practices sight-reading the key terms in the
context of definition sentences related to waves and tides, the students will be
able to recognize and/or sight read chorally at least 75% of these same words.

4. After practicing sight-reading definitions of the key words regarding both


waves and tides, the students will individually be able to correctly sight word
spell at least 12 of the 18 of the key terms given and place them with the correct
definition in a modified cloze activity.

5. Overall, the students will be able to use a graphic organizer (organized by


ocean movement, cause, effect and changes) and what they learned about
ocean movement to write five sentences in a short narrative form, which include
at least 12 of the 18 key words, to explain the ocean movements of waves and
tides.

Anticipatory Set--Level 2

To motivate the students about ocean movement and especially tides, engage
them in another discussion about the water at the beach. Ask the students if
they have ever been to the beach and seen the ocean water extremely far away
from the end of the beach? Have they ever seen the ocean water up so high on
the beach that it is covering most of the sand? Ask them if they know why or
how the ocean does this? Then explain to the students that today they will be
learning the words that will teach them why the water/ocean moves in this
manner. Also, to further motivate the students, remind them that when the unit
is over they will be visiting the ocean and looking at the movements that they
are going to be learning about in this lesson.

Instruction/Presentation--Level 2

1. To begin to introduce the students to the important terms regarding tides, do


an experiment demonstrating tides. Use two large rectangular aluminum foil-
baking tins. Tell the students to pretend that the water in the tins is the ocean.
Mark the front and the back of the two tins so that one is the beach side and
one is the ocean. Have the students observe the water in one pan when it is
lying flat. With the second pan slightly tipped back, also have the students
observe the water. Ask the students, "what is different about the water in the in
the two pans?" Have them notice that in the first pan the water covers the whole
pan up to the beach, but in the second pan the water does not come all the way
up on to the beach.

2. Connect this experiment with a short language experience discussion in


which the students talk about their experiences seeing tides or movements in
the ocean water at the beach.

3. Then connect this experiment to the pictures of the high and low tides.
Explain that the first pan, in which the water goes all the way up the beach, is
like picture 1. Tell them that, "when the water goes up the beach and cover
most of the sand, we call that high tide." Then show picture 2 of the low tide and
make that same the same connection.

4. To reinforce what the students just saw, to develop their vocabulary of the
key terms and concepts just introduced, and to help them make the connection
of the word discussed to the written word, continue the instruction by showing
the students the picture of the high tide. Since it is a picture of a high tide,
explain to the students that when the water level is high along the beach then it
is called a high tide. Then show the students how the word "high tide" looks
and how it is spelled by using sentence strips.

5. Place the picture of the high tide beside the word in the pocket chart in front
of the classroom. (Note that the pictures and words about waves from the prior
day are on the top half of the pocket chart and today the new words will be
added to the bottom half of the chart.)

6. Have the students repeat after you "high tide" three times so that they get
some listening and speaking practice of the new word.

7. Continue this process of teaching these key terms and vocabulary through
pictures, discussion and sentence strips for the rest of the words related to tides
(high tide, low tide, earth, moon, gravity).

Guided Practice--Level 2

1. To reinforce what the students just saw and to further develop their
vocabulary of the key terms and concepts introduced in lesson I and in the
lesson today, continue the instruction by reading the paraphrased paragraphs
on waves and tides.

2. Tell the students that you want them to be listening carefully for key words
defined through the context of the paragraph and for them to raise their hand
when they hear one.

3. After reading the two short paragraphs through one at a time, tell the
students that now they are going to retell, in their own words, the key words and
their meaning through the context in which they just heard it. For example,
"Waves are caused by wind."
4. As the students are practicing speaking by retelling the key word through
their meaning, write their sentences that they say on sentence strips. Place
them one at a time in the pocket chart.

5. With the sentences in the pocket chart have the students practice
decoding/reading the short sentence and in particular the key words in that
sentence.

6. Guide the students into reading all of the sentences.

7. Then as a quick sight word reading assessment, point to the key words one
at a time and have the students orally decode them. To meet the assessment
goal, they should be able to decode at least 75% of the key words.

8. Reinforce the definitions of these words by placing them in a graphic


organizer, which the students will then use to guide them in making sentences
in the form of a narrative.

9. Informally assess the students during this entire process. If they are not
pronouncing and reading the key words correctly 75% of the time, them
continue to model and have them repeat the word and the definition sentences
after you, If they are having trouble restating all of the definition sentences after
listening to them, then they need more speaking practice with the ocean
movement vocabulary.

Level 2 Graphic Organizer

Movement Waves Tides


gravity from the moon
Cause wind
pulling on the ocean water
rise and fall of the water
Effect (What rise and fall of the
onto or away from the
we see) waves
beach
High tide is when the moon
More wind
is facing the ocean. Low
produces more
Changes tide is when the moon is
energy to make
facing away from the
bigger waves
oeacn.

Independent Practice--Level 2

1. To individually practice and to gain better control of the vocabulary discussed


in the lesson, provide the students with a modified cloze activity in which they
will practice sight word spelling the key words in the pharaphsed paragraph that
they heard and retold during the guided practice.

2. Finally, using the graphic organizer that the class made together on the board
and their new knowledge of the important terms, have the students write five
sentences in a short narrative form. They should include at least 12 of the I 8
key words to explain the ocean movements of waves and tides. These short
narratives should be written, corrected, and then rewritten. The final draft
should be written nicely on lined paper since it is going to be placed on the final
mural to explain waves and tides.

Closure/Evaluation--Level 2

As a final assessment of the students, look at whether or not they were able to
meet the writing objectives. If the students were successful and they met your
goal then they should have been able to sight word spell at least 7 of the 10 key
words and place them in the correct cloze definition sentence. They should
also have been able to write three short sentences on tides and waves using at
least six of the key words.

Bring the lesson to a close by giving the students a chance to share what they
learned. Allow the students an opportunity to read aloud their sentences in the
form of a narrative. Finally bring the lesson to a full circle by asking them what
they will look for next time they visit the beach. When they respond with ocean
movements or waves and tides, tell them that when they see these different
ocean movements at the beach, they should think about what is causing what
they are seeing.

Level 3
Ocean Movements: Beyond Waves and Tides

Lesson Rationale--Level 3

Students who are learning English as a second language at Level 3 still need a
lot of sheltering and modification to understand abstract concepts. At this
stage, they speak and understand enough English for communication, but they
still have difficulty with everyday class work in English. In particular, they are
limited with their reading and writing abilities. In this lesson, the students will
build on their English listening and speaking skills, but the focus will be mainly
on improving their reading and writing. They will be engaged in reading short,
modified narratives on ocean movements and then working with meaning by
learning to write the main idea and as well as new endings for these narratives.
Each narrative that the students will work with will help to deepen their level of
understanding of ocean movements as they each describe higher levels of
content such as how ocean movements affect sea life, tide pools, or pollution.
To accomplish this task, the students will be engaged in a short mini-lesson on
finding the main idea. The concept of paragraph structure will also be
reinforced to help them with these narratives. Finally, they will put to use all of
their new knowledge on ocean movements, paragraph writing, and their prior
knowledge of a letter format to complete their final writing task, a letter to other
students in the school inviting them to see their mural. With continuous
sheltering and practice of these skills, these second language learners will
eventually be able to make the transition from enough English so they can
communicate to the point where they attain full native-like fluency.

Oceans, and in particular ocean movements, are important for students in San
Diego to learn about because San Diego lies on the Pacific Ocean. Since
students are so close, it opens the doors to exciting learning experiences in
which they can go see most of what they learn about, such as the waves and
tides in this lesson. In addition, students living near the ocean have the
opportunity to see how our oceans affect our environment, and ultimately how
our environment impacts our sea life.

Objectives--Level 3

1. Prior to the start of the lesson, the students will be able to work on their
speaking skills by orally sharing at least one thing about their experiences with
the ocean.

2. After listening to modified narratives on ocean movements, the students will


be show that they have listened for meaning by orally describing at least one
main idea or a possible ending that would make sense.

3. After listening to modified narratives on ocean movements, the students will


be able to orally explain at least two reasons why they have chosen a particular
main idea or possible ending for the narratives.

4. After practicing echo reading of short narratives about ocean movements, the
students will be able to read the final passage independently for comprehension
with 75% accuracy.

5. After reviewing and discussing the meaning of several different narratives as


examples, the students will be about to write an ending to a narrative that
includes at least eight sentences.

6. Overall, the students will be able to apply what they learned about ocean
movement through the narratives, and their knowledge of paragraphs and the
letter format, to write a letter of at least eight sentences to other classrooms in
the school explaining why they should come to see our class mural on ocean
movements and what they will learn by coming.

Anticipatory Set--Level 3
Before the lesson begins, I motivate the students to be interested in learning
about ocean movement by engaging them in a conversation in which they all
have the opportunity to share about their experiences at the beach and with the
ocean. I structure the conversation so that I am guiding them to talk about the
ocean movements, in particular the waves and the tides. Use prompting
questing to guide them thought the thought process. Some questions may
include: Have you ever seen the ocean water extremely far away from the end
of the beach? Have you seen the ocean water up so high on the beach that it is
covering most of the sand? Why or how does the ocean do this? These
questions begin the critical thinking process that I continue throughout the
lesson. The students' responses also allow me to assess their level of prior
knowledge and experiences, and their facility with vocabulary related to the
topic.

After all of the students have had an opportunity to share their experiences,
explain to the students that today they will be learning more about the ocean
movements and why the ocean water moves. Finally, to further motivate the
students, remind them that when the unit is over they will be visiting the ocean
and looking at the movements that they are going to be learning about.

Instruction/Presentation--Level 3

I . Teach the students the critical thinking skill of finding the main idea or what
the narrative is about. Use modified narratives about ocean movements to
teach the students how to listen for the main idea.

2. Once the passage is read once by the teacher, have the students echo read
the same narrative.

3. Model for the students how to find the main idea of the narrative.

4. Then model for the students how to create an ending for the narrative.
Explain why that ending would make sense. Provide the students with a
different ending that would not make sense and explain why.

5. Lead the students in a discussion of the paragraph structure. Use the


narrative from above that the students are now familiar with, to describe the
paragraph structure and illustrate that the main idea is what the paragraph is
about.

Guided Practice--Level 3

I . Let the students now that now it is their turn to find the main idea of the
narrative and to create an ending.

2. First read the passage to the students and have them listen for the main idea.

3. Then echo read the same narrative by giving each student a copy of the
narrative to read from.
4. Engage in a discussion of the main idea. Have the students explain why it is
the main idea. Can they find evidence from the narrative that supports their
main idea?

5. Continue on by discussing possible endings for the narrative. Again the


students must explain why that ending could make sense.

6. Informally assess the students understanding of the narrative up to this


point. Are they reading for meaning? Are they able to express the main idea
and possible endings? Do they understand the information about the ocean
movements that the narrative is providing in the context of a story? If so, then
they can move on to independent practice where they will be given another
narrative on ocean movements to do on there own. If not, guide the students
with finding the main idea and possible ending through another narrative.

Independent Practice--Level 3

1. Give the students the independent narrative about how ocean movements
affect sea life to read on their own. After they read the narrative, they are to use
the blank lines that fill the rest of the paper to write at least eight sentences to
finish the narrative. These narratives will be posted around the class mural.

2. Using the letter format that they have learned recently, have the students
write a letter to the other classrooms in the school inviting them to come to our
classroom to see our mural on ocean movements. (Make sure to point out the
letter format poster hanging on the wall. Quickly have the students reread the
learning poster that they made while learning the letter writing format.) Tell the
students that the letter should include at least eight sentences to explain why
other classrooms should come and what they will learn. Once the letters are
written, edited and rewritten, then the students may distribute them to the other
classrooms.

Closure/Evaluation--Level 3

As a final evaluation of the students understanding of ocean movements, read


and help the students edit their letters to the other classrooms. What the
students understand about ocean movements will be revealed from the letter
where they write why the other classrooms should come and what they will
learn by coming. Also, evaluate the students understanding of ocean
movements by looking at their narrative and their creative ending that they had
to make up.

To finally close the lesson, allow the students an opportunity to share their
possible endings to the narrative to the rest of the class. Bring the lesson to a
full circle by having them describe the ocean movements in their narratives, as
well as how it affects our sea life.
Level 4
Ocean Movements: Beyond Waves and Tides

Lesson Rationale--Level 4

Students who are learning English as a second language, with Level 4


language abilities, are at an intermediate fluency level in English. This allows
them to develop academic concepts and vocabulary in the content areas.
However, they are not completely ready for full instruction in an English
mainstream classroom where all students are taught assuming that they are
fully proficient in English (Level 5 FSI). These students need specialized
strategies of SDAIE as well as some support in their LI. In this lesson on ocean
movements, these Level 4 students will learn with the support of some of these
SDAIE strategies. They include scaffolded texts, graphic organizers, note
taking, and large visuals through chart paper. In addition, they will continue
practicing their listening and speaking skills, but the focus will be mainly on
improving their reading and writing.

These goals will be accomplished by engaging the students in reading, outlining


and writing new stories about various things that have occurred as a result of
the ocean movements. Each news story that the students will work with will
help to deepen their level of understanding of ocean movements as they each
describe higher levels of content such as how ocean movements affects sea life
or water transportation. In addition, the final activity will end with the students
writing their own news story in which they have to synthesis what they learned
to write about the news headline, "The Oceans Stopped Moving Today." With
continuous support and use of SDAIE strategies to complete these tasks, these
second language learners, within a few years, will eventually be able to make
the transition from enough specialized instruction to mainstream English
instruction.

Since students are so close, it opens the doors to exciting learning experiences
in which they can go see most of what they learn about, such as the waves and
tides in this lesson. In addition, students living near the ocean have the
opportunity to see how our oceans affect our environment, and ultimately how
our environment impacts our sea life.

Objectives--Level 4

1. After listening to pretend modified new stories on ocean movements, the


students will be show that they have listened for meaning by orally contributing
at least three main ideas to the group's notes and graphic organizer.

2. After discussing the important information from the modified new stories on
ocean movements, the students will orally present to the class their own
creative news story.
3. After practicing echo reading the news stories about ocean movements, the
students will be able to read and outline, with 75% accuracy, the final news
story with their partner.

4. After modeling how to rewrite news stories, the students will be able to
rewrite in at least ten sentences their own news story.

5. Overall, the students will be to use what they learned about ocean movement
through the new stories to write, with at least ten sentences, their own creative
news story with the headline, "The Oceans Stopped Moving Today" to describe
the effects that an nonmoving ocean would have on our beaches, ocean life,
and transportation.

Anticipatory Set--Level 4

Before the lesson begins, motivate the students about ocean movement by
engaging them in a conversation in which they all have the opportunity to share
about their experiences at the beach and with the ocean. Structure the
conversation so that you are guiding them to talk about the ocean movements,
in particular the waves and the tides. Use prompting questing to guide them
thought the thought process. Some questions may include, have you ever seen
the ocean water extremely far away from the end of the beach? Have you seen
the ocean water up so high on the beach that it is covering most of the sand?
Why or how does the ocean do this? After all of the students have had an
opportunity to share their experiences, explain to the students that today they
will be learning more about the ocean movements and why the ocean water
moves. Finally, to further motivate the students, remind them that when the unit
is over they will be visiting the ocean and looking at the movements that they
are going to be learning about.

Instruction/Presentation--Level 4

I . Have the students listen to a short, modified news story about ocean
movements and how they affect sea life. While the teacher is reading, have the
students listen for the main points in the story.

2. Once the passage is read once by the teacher, reread the passage again,
this time echo reading with the students.

3. On large chart paper, model for the students how to take notes. Go through
each part of the news story and model for the students how to pull out the
important information.

4. Once all of the important information is pulled from the story, teach the
students how they can further organize the information by placing it into a
graphic organizer.

Guided Practice--Level 4
I . Guide the students into reading and organizing another sample news story
about how ocean movements affect our water transportation and trading.

2. First read the news story to the students and have them listen for the main
points.

3. Then echo read the same news story by giving each student a copy of the
new story to read from.

4. On chart paper, engage in a discussion of how they are to organize their


notes, Have the students explain what the main idea of the news story is.
Reread through each section of the news story. Stop and allow the students to
pull out all of the important points to write in their notes.

5. Once all of the notes are taken, allow the students an opportunity to organize
the information into a graphic organizer. Create this new graphic organizer on
chart paper. Each student should be orally contributing at least three ideas to
notes and the organizer.

6. As a group, guide the students into rewriting this news story in their own
words. Use the same information from the notes and the graphic organizer. As
the students are dictating, teacher models writing the story on the large chart
paper.

7. Informally assess the students understanding of the reading, writing and


understanding of news stories. Do they understand the content of ocean
movements that is taught through the context of the new story? Are they able
to express the main ideas in the notes and graphic organizer? As a group are
they able to write their own news story using this information. If so, then they
can move on to independent practice where they will be writing their own new
story related to ocean movements. If not, guide the students in reading and
organizing another news story.

Independent Practice--Level 4

I . Give the students another news story to read on their own. Using the same
outlining and organizing strategies that they just did with the whole group, allow
the students to work with partners to do the same with this new news story.

2. Then independently, have the students rewrite that same news story using
their notes and graphic organizer. This writing can be modeled directly after the
news story that they did as a group.

3 . As the final project that will be posted up around the mural, have the
students write a news story of their own. The news story has to answer this
news headline, "The Oceans Stopped Moving Today." In their story, have them
describe the effects that a nonmoving ocean would have on our beaches, ocean
life, and transportation. This news story has to be at least ten sentences.

Closure/Evaluation--Level 4
As a final evaluation of the students understanding of ocean movements, read
their notes and new stories given to them during independent practice. Were
they able to pull out all of the important information from the news story and
then rewrite the story in a way that makes sense? Were they able to create a
news story on their own, in which they explained what the affects would be if the
ocean stopped moving? What the students understand about ocean
movements will be revealed through these new stories.

To finally close the lesson, allow the students an opportunity to orally share their
creative news stories with the class. All students should present their stories as
a way to practice their speaking skills. Finally bring the lesson to a full circle by
having the students tell how essential the ocean movements are.

Word Bank

*Students are expected to master the concepts and vocabulary


for their level as well as the easier levels.

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4


waves tides sea life shore
ocean high tide tide pools ashore
water low tide pollution Blue Whale
to rise Earth oil spill rescue
to fall moon recreation wash up onto
energy force disaster transportation
trading, to
big gravity harm
trade
facing (away
tall sand goods
from)
surfers beach mess to contaminate

Paraphrased Text
Paraphrased Paragraph on Ocean Water Movement: Waves and Tides
Adapted from The New Exploring Science Green Book by Blecha, Gega, and
Green.

• Level I - The focus is on the paragraph on waves

• Level 2 - The focus is on the paragraph on tides

The water in the ocean is always moving. You may be wondering what makes
the water move. Two main types of ocean water movement are waves and
tides. Waves are one movement of the ocean water. Waves are the rise and
fall of the ocean water. They are caused by the wind. The waves are bigger
when there is more wind. The more wind produces more energy. This gives
more power to make the waves taller. Surfers ride the waves in the ocean.
They need wind to make tall waves to surf on. When there is no wind, there are
no waves for the surfers to ride.

The wind causes waves. The moon causes the tides. The moon has a force
called gravity. This force pulls on the Earth. When the ocean is facing the
moon, the moon pulls on the ocean water. Its pulls on the ocean because the
ocean is a very large body of water. This pull is strong enough to make the
water rise. When the water rises, it is called a high tide. When the moon is not
facing the ocean, there is no gravity pulling the water. The water that had risen
before now falls. This is called a low tide. It is easy to tell if it is a high or low
tide. When you go to the beach, look at the sand on the beach. It is a high tide
when there is almost no sand on the beach, only water. It is a low tide when
there is a big beach with a lot of sand.

Sample News Story


For use with Level 4

Blue Whale Found on La Jolla Beach

Last night a large blue whale was washed ashore on the beach in La Jolla. This
morning lifeguards on the beach found the blue whale. It was dead on the
sand. Lifeguards think that the water from the high tides carried the whale on to
the shore. One lifeguard told reporters, "When the tides are high, it can bring
dead sea life onto the beach." The animal rescue team is now waiting for the
low tides to come. They need the low tides because when the tides are low, the
water falls far back off the sand. Then they can drive the rescue trucks on the
sand to take away the whale. Unfortunately, the ocean's tides brought in a large
mess to pick up.
Paraphrasing Warmer

Aim: to develop students' paraphrasing skills


Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Parts 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7
Organisation: whole class
Materials needed: none

1. Begin by asking students how they can describe something when they don't know the
exact word. Introduce or practise the following structures:

• It's made of…


• It's used for…
• It's the same as…
• It's the opposite of...
• It's big, small, round, soft etc.

2. Ask for a volunteer to sit in a chair facing the rest of the class, with their back to the
board.

3. On the board write a word that the whole class knows e.g. restaurant.

4. The class has to help the volunteer guess the word by explaining it to them, saying things
like 'you go there to eat', 'there is a good one next to the school', 'Italian ones are my
favourite'.

5. Repeat with a different volunteer and a new word.

To make it more difficult, the student has to spell the word when they have guessed it.

Missing Word Jigsaw

Aim: to develop students' paraphrasing/defining skills


Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Parts 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7
Organisation: pairs
Materials needed: worksheets given here, or your own

1. Play Paraphrasing Warmer first, to teach students the principle behind this activity.

2. Then put students in pairs, facing each other. Ask students in each pair to decide who is
A and who is B.

3. Give the As the A handout and the Bs the B handout. Tell them not to look at each
others' paper.
4. Explain that where they see a gap, their partner will help them fill it by explaining the
missing word to them. Their partner will not say the exact word. Underlined words in the
text show where their partner has a gap, and they must explain these words to their
partner in the same way.

5. Go round listening and helping as necessary.

6. During feedback, discuss which words were difficult to explain and why.

Alternative Procedure

Divide students into two groups, A on one side of the room and B on the other. Give out
the handouts. Explain the task as in point 4. Then ask each group to work out the
paraphrases together, orally. When they are ready, ask each A to find a B and then do
the activity.

Missing Word Jigsaw A

Read this article about a doctor. When you see a gap, your partner will help you find the
right word. Your partner will not say the exact word! When you see a word in bold,
explain it to your partner so that your partner can guess what it is. Do not say the exact
word!

At school, I.....................science more than English or maths and I passed the exams easily.
Even before I started school, I wanted to be a doctor, so I decided to study medicine at Oxford
University. For the next two years, I studied hard and went to..................... For the next three, I
also helped doctors at the John Radcliffe Hospital four days a week. The days there seemed
very long and sometimes the work was....................., but it was easy and I learnt more there
than in the classroom. My last year of studying was at Harvard Medical School in the United
States.

Now I live in London and work at a hospital in the.....................of the city. My working hours are
Monday to Friday, 8am to 5.30pm, and every fourth day I have to work at the hospital all night
and the next day too. I also work every fourth ..................... and that's when I feel very tired!

I earn £20,000 a.....................- not much if you think about the hours! I'll earn more later, so I
don't mind. Life in a big hospital can be difficult, but I love working with people and I feel
happiest when I can help them.

Missing Word Jigsaw B


Read this article about a doctor. When you see a gap, your partner will
help you find the right word. Your partner will not say the exact word!
When you see a word in bold, explain it to your partner so that your
partner can guess what it is. Do not say the exact word!

At school, I liked science more than English or maths and I passed the
exams easily. Even before I started school, I wanted to be a doctor, so I
decided to study medicine at Oxford University. For the next two years,
I.....................hard and went to classes. For the next three, I also helped
doctors at the John Radcliffe Hospital four days a.....................The days
there seemed very long and sometimes the work was boring, but it
was.....................and I learnt more there than in the classroom. My last year
of studying was at Harvard Medical School in the United States.

Now I live in London and work at a .....................in the south of the city. My
working hours are Monday to Friday, 8am to 5.30pm, and every fourth day I
have to work at the hospital all night and the next day too. I also work every
fourth weekend and that's when I feel very.....................!

I earn £20,000 a year - not much if you think about the hours! I'll earn more
later, so I don't mind. Life in a big hospital can be ....................., but I love
working with people and I feel happiest when I can help them.

Reading and Writing Skills and Strategies in KET

Aim: to establish what reading and writing skills students need for the
KET exam
Target Audience: teachers
Relevance to KET: all parts of the Reading and Writing paper
Organisation: small groups or pairs
Materials needed: 1 copy of worksheet per small group / pair; 1 copy of Reading
and Writing Skills and Strategies in KET for each participant

1. Establish the idea of what is meant by text types by eliciting briefly from the group some
different text types that they read and write in their everyday lives.

2. From the list they give you, discuss whether one or two of them are the type of text they
would expect their KET-level students to be able to read or to write.

3. Divide the group into small groups or pairs and give out the skills worksheet. Allow
some time for them to discuss whether they think these are reasonable expectations for
KET-level students, or if any of these text types would need to be simplified.

4. Discuss the group's answers and ideas for how and where teachers can find these
types of text in your country/region.

Answers

Read...
a novel No, unless it was a simplified reader
a newspaper article Yes, if it was simplified
a street sign Yes
some information in a tourist office Yes
labels on clothes/food Yes
instructions on medicine bottles Yes
information in a junior encyclopaedia Yes, especially if it was simplified

Write...
a report No
a composition No
a story No
a postcard Yes
a formal letter No
a note to a friend or acquaintance Yes

Skills and Strategies

Which of the following could we reasonably expect a student at KET level to be able to
do?

Read...
a novel
a newspaper article
a street sign
some information in a tourist office
labels on clothes/food
instructions on medicine bottles
information in a junior encyclopaedia

Write...
a report
a composition
a story
a postcard
a formal letter
a note to a friend or acquaintance
Gappy Definitions

Aim: to give practice with definitions


Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Part 6
Organisation: pairs
Materials needed: worksheets

1. Remind students about the content of Part 6 of the exam.

2. Explain that they are going to do an adapted Part 6, where they have to find the answer
to the definition, but to make it more difficult they also have to fill a gap in the definition.

3. Give out the handout and let students work out the answers in pairs.

4. Ask students to think of two or three more jobs and try to write their own definitions with
gaps. These can then be passed around for the rest of the class to try.

Gappy Definitions Worksheet 1


Can you find the word for each definition? They are all jobs.

Which word is missing in each definition?

1. I show customers the _________ and bring them their food. w_____

2. People _________to my shop to buy medicine. c_ _ _ _ _ _

3. I will repair your car ______ you. m_______

4. If you ______ to change the colour of your room p_ _ _ _ _ _


I will do it for you.

5. I help my boss by answering the phone, s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


_________ letters and making appointments.

1. waiter (menu)

2. chemist (come)

3. mechanic (your)

4. painter (want)

5. secretary (writing)

Split Dialogue

Aim: to help students' awareness of appropriate responses in spoken


English
Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Part 3
Organisation: pairs
Materials needed: worksheets A and B, or your own along the same lines

1. Set the scene by telling students they are going to work on a dialogue where two
friends, Gordon and Marie, meet in a street.

2. Ask for some ideas on what they might talk about.

3. Divide the class in half, one side A the other side B

4. Explain the task carefully as it is complicated! 'A's can see what Gordon says, and 'B's
can see what Marie says. They should work in pairs to write the missing half of the
dialogue only on a separate sheet of paper.

5. When everyone has finished, each student should have a sheet of paper with half a
dialogue on it. To avoid 'cheating' later, ask students to hand in the original halves of
dialogue that you gave them. Now match up each 'A' student with a 'B' student. They
should read out their dialogue and see how well it matches.

6. This is usually a funny activity as the two halves rarely match perfectly. When students
have finished, hand back their copies so they can sit down with their new partner and
compare their dialogue with the original.

7. During feedback, go over why certain things did not match and explain the importance
of looking at what comes after as well as before the gap.

Split Dialogue A

What does Marie say?

Gordon: Hi, Marie. How are you?

Marie:

Gordon: I'm fine. That's a lovely sweater you're wearing. Where did you buy it?

Marie:

Gordon: It looks very expensive.

Marie:

Gordon: Do you know where he bought it?

Marie:

Gordon: Is that the shop next to the pizza restaurant?

Marie:

Gordon: Do they sell sweaters for men?

Marie:

Gordon: Good. I must go and have a look.

Split Dialogue B

What does Gordon say?

Gordon:

Marie: I'm fine, thanks, Gordon. How are you?

Gordon:

Marie: I didn't. My brother gave it to me for my birthday.

Gordon:
Marie: Yes, he always buys me nice things.

Gordon:

Marie: No, I don't. He didn't tell me, but he often buys things from New Look.

Gordon:

Marie: No, it's on the other side of the road.

Gordon:

Marie: Oh, I'm sure they do. They have clothes for everyone.

Gordon:

Written Conversations

Aim: to practise making appropriate responses in spoken English


Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Part 3
Organisation: pairs
Materials needed: blank paper, pens

1. Make sure each student has a blank sheet of paper in front of them.

2. Tell students they have just bumped into an old friend in the street. What would they
say? They should write down exactly what they would say on their piece of paper.

3. When everyone has finished, ask them to pass their papers to the person on their
left.

4. Ask students to read what is on the page in front of them, and to write their reply
down, as if they were speaking.

5. They then pass the paper back to the person on their right who gave it to them.

6. The conversation can continue like this as long as students have ideas about what
to write, (usually 4-6 exchanges).

7. When everyone has finished, mix up the dialogues for everyone to read. Ask
students to correct any errors they find. The teacher can monitor and help at this
stage. The best dialogues can be read out for everyone to hear.

Variations

Give students a different person to write to:

• a famous person
• a school friend
• your old teacher

For strong students, try giving more challenging situations:

• you have just spilt your drink on someone's new shoes


• your team mate just missed an easy goal

• your parents don't want you to go out tonight

Expressing Functions

Aim: to revise ways of expressing certain functions


Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Part 9 (Part 3 also)
Organisation: pairs
Materials needed: worksheets, or your own along the same lines.
The chart could easily be put on the board for students
to copy.

1. See if students can tell you what suggesting, inviting, accepting, describing mean. Explain if
necessary.

2. Get students to give you some examples of each. Give them some suggestions to start off if
necessary, e.g. 'shall we', 'what about', 'would you like', 'yes, please', 'I'd love to', 'it's big and
yellow'.

3. Give students the worksheets. Ask them to decide what the function of each sentence on the
first sheet (Functions Sentences) is and to put them in the right box on the second sheet
(Functions Table).

4. Go through the answers.

5. Follow up by asking students to write some notes to each other, using some of the functions
they have just seen. Here are a few ideas for notes:

• Invite a friend to lunch


• Thank a friend for a present
• Write to say why you can't play football today
• Describe something you have lost

Remind students to begin with Dear...


And finish with From, Love and their name.

6. These can then be swapped around the class for other students to answer (and correct).

Expressing Functions Sentences


Can you put these sentences into the right boxes on your handout?

It's black and it's made of leather.


Can you bring it to school tomorrow?

I'll see you outside the cinema on Green Street.

Let's go swimming.

I'd love to come to your house tomorrow.

It's small and round and made of gold.

I think I put it down in the bathroom.

He's tall and thin and wears glasses.

Shall we go shopping on Saturday morning?

I'm free on Tuesday.

She's got long blonde hair and green eyes.

I'll wait for you by the entrance.

The last time I saw it was in your house.

Can you give it to me tonight at the disco?

I'm not busy on Friday afternoon.

Expressing Functions Table

Describing something you lost


Saying where you lost it


Saying how to return it to you


Saying what day you can meet someone


Saying where you will meet someone


Describing someone


Suggesting what to do


Accepting an invitation

Guess the Situation

Aim: to help students' awareness of appropriate responses in spoken


English
Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Part 3
Organisation: pairs and whole class
Materials needed: paper and pens

1. Ask students to come up with a list of possible situations where dialogues might take
place and write them on one side of the board (in a bank, shop, airport, railway station,
in the street, at home, at school, at work, in a restaurant, in a museum, on the bus etc.).

2. On the other side of the board, put the following words. A problem. A present. An
invitation.

3. Invent two characters and put their names on the board. Ask students to choose a
situation and one of your three words. Together, build up a dialogue on the board,
practising as you go and getting different students to take part each time.

4. When you feel students have had enough practice, put them in pairs to write their own
dialogue, using one of the situations and one of the words on the right hand side of the
board.

5. Go round and help as necessary. When students have finished, ask them to perform
their dialogues for the rest of the class. The class has to guess the situation and the
word the pair chose.

6. Give feedback to the whole class on any strong or weak points that came out.

Cut Up Story
Aim: to develop students' awareness of coherence and cohesion in
texts
Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Parts 4 and 5
Organisation: pairs
Materials needed: a story, cut up into strips. Use the one provided, or make your
own.

1. Tell students they are going to read a story called 'The Ring and the Fish'. Ask if they
can predict what the story will be about. (But don't give too much away!)

2. Put students into pairs and give each pair one story, cut up into strips.

3. Ask students to work with their partner to put the strips into the right order. Go round the
class helping and encouraging.

4. Mix the pairs up and ask them to check each other's work.

5. Read the whole text to them so that they can check their order.

6. Discuss with students how they decided on the right order and go through any
difficulties they had.

You could follow this activity up by giving students the questions that go with the text.

Variations

• If you have the right number of students, get each student to memorise a different
sentence. They should then try to put themselves in the right order by saying their
sentences aloud to each other. (A good activity for a strong class.)

• After working on the story, get students to practice retelling it from memory. This is good
for paraphrasing and pronunciation.

The Ring and the Fish

Thomas and Inger, who live in Sweden, are the happiest couple in the world.

Two years ago, they were on a boat a few kilometres from the beach.

Thomas asked Inger to marry him and he gave her a gold ring.

He wanted to put the ring on Inger's finger, but he dropped it and it fell into the sea.

They were sure the ring was lost forever.

That is, until last week, when Mr Carlsson visited them.

He has a fish shop and he found the ring in a large fish which he was cutting up for one of his
customers.

The fish thought the ring was something to eat!


Mr Carlsson knew that the ring belonged to Thomas and Inger because inside the ring there
were some words.

They were, 'To Inger, All my love, Thomas.'

And so Mr Carlsson gave the ring back to them.

Inger now has two rings. When they lost the first one, Thomas bought Inger another one.

But they think the one the fish ate is the best one.

The Ring and the Fish Task

Read the article about a young man and woman who lost a ring.
Are sentences 21-27 'Right' (A) or 'Wrong' (B)?
If there is not enough information to answer 'Right' (A) or 'Wrong' (B), choose 'Doesn't say' (C).

Example:

0 Thomas and Inger's home is in Sweden.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say

21 Thomas asked Inger to marry him when they were on a boat.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say

22 Thomas put the gold ring on Inger's finger.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say

23 They returned from their boat trip without the ring.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say

24 Mr Carlsson often visited Thomas and Inger.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say

25 Mr Carlsson caught the fish.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say

26 Mr Carlsson found the ring when he ate the fish.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say

27 Thomas and Inger prefer the first ring.

A Right B Wrong C Doesn't say

The Ring and the Fish Answers

Thomas and Inger, who live in Sweden, are the happiest couple in the world. Two years
ago, they were on a boat a few kilometres from the beach. Thomas asked Inger to marry
him and he gave her a gold ring. He wanted to put the ring on Inger's finger, but he
dropped it and it fell into the sea. They were sure the ring was lost for ever.
That is, until last week, when Mr Carlsson visited them. He has a fish shop and he found
the ring in a large fish which he was cutting up for one of his customers. The fish thought
the ring was something to eat! Mr Carlsson knew that the ring belonged to Thomas and
Inger because inside the ring there were some words. They were, 'To Inger, All my love,
Thomas'. And so Mr Carlsson gave the ring back to them.

Inger now has two rings. When they lost the first one, Thomas bought Inger another one.
But they think the one the fish ate is the best one.

21. A

22. B

23. A

24. C

25. C

26. B

27. A

Definitions

Aim: to practise the language of definitions


Target Audience: students
Relevance to KET: Reading and Writing, Part 6
Organisation: whole class and pairs
Materials needed: some objects, paper and pens
1. Take a bag full of everyday objects (e.g. cork screw, tin opener, tape measure,
stapler, camera, binoculars) into the classroom. Hand them round the class.
2. Ask students if they know the names of the objects in English. If they don't, how
could they explain what they mean?
3. Build up the different ways on the board, e.g.
You use it to...
It's made of....
It's green, red, blue etc.
It's hard, soft, round, square, etc.
4. Put students in pairs to play a quick game. One thinks of an object and tries to define
it for his/her partner. The partner can guess the object in their own language.
Extension
Build up a crossword on the board. Begin by making sure students are familiar with
crosswords and how they work. Put a word on the board yourself, e.g.
INTERNATIONAL. Then ask a student to add a word vertically, using one of the
letters in international. Build up a grid of words. Then number them and get students to
write definitions in pairs. They can then give the crossword to another class in school to
see if they can complete it.
Focus on Part 9 Assessment
How is Part 9 assessed?
There are 5 marks for Part 9. Candidates at this level are not expected to produce faultless
English, but, to achieve 5 marks, a candidate should write a cohesive message which
successfully communicates all three parts of the message, with only minor grammatical and
spelling errors. A great variety of fully acceptable answers is possible.
What is the main focus of assessment?
The main focus for assessment is how successfully the three points have been
communicated. The accuracy of the language is important and will be rewarded, but it is
secondary.

Mark scheme for Part 9

Mark Criteria
5 All three parts of message clearly communicated. Only minor spelling
errors or occasional grammatical errors.
4 All three parts of message communicated. Some errors in spelling,
grammar and/or punctuation.
3 All three parts of message Two parts of message are clearly
attempted. Expression may require communicated. Only minor spelling
interpretation by the reader. errors or occasional grammatical
errors.
2 Only two parts of message communicated. Some errors in spelling and
grammar. The errors in expression may require patience and interpretation
by the reader.
1 Only one part of the message communicated.
0 Question unattempted, or totally incomprehensible response.

Assessment Activity

Assessing candidates performance

Look at this sample Part 9 task (PDF)

Here are four sample answers to the question.


What mark, from 0-5, do you think each answer achieved and why?

Now look at the examiners' comments. Do you agree?

Focus on Assessment Sample Answers

Sample 1

Dear Sam,
Here is my town, Marina de Pisa. It is a seaside resort near Pisa. It isn't very big, but I
think it's so nice! The nicest part of Marina is the seaside front.
On summer holiday, in the evening, I go always there!
Francesca

Sample 2

Dear Sam,
I lived in a small town, although it was small but lovely. People lived in my town are
friendly and nice, they always help each other. I think that's the nicest part of my town. I
hope you can come here. By the way I'm not went out in evenings.
Love
Ruby

Sample 3

Dear Sam,
Here is a postcard of my town. It looks like Huesca. The nicest part of my town is the
park and every evening my friends and I go to the park.
Gloria

Sample 4

Dear Sam,
Here is post cart shows you my tawn, it in south.
The nicest part is mountains.
In evening I go to jungle with my friend.
Bye
David

Focus on Assessment Examiners' Comments

Sample 1

This answer scored 5 marks. All three parts of the message are clearly communicated with only
minor errors.

Sample 2

This answer scored 4 marks. All three parts of the message are communicated but there are
frequent errors with tenses. It is acceptable that 'the people' should be the nicest part of the
candidate's town.

Sample 3

This answer scored 3 marks. Only two parts of the message are communicated. Information
about the size of the town is not given.

Sample 4
This answer scored 2 marks. Only two parts of the message are communicated and there are
errors in spelling and grammar which require patience on the part of the reader.

KET Reading and Writing Part 1

Task Description

In this task, candidates have to match a sign or notice with a simple paraphrase of its
meaning.

What sort of text do candidates have to read?

The kind of signs, notices and labels that we see around us in daily life.

Where do the texts come from?

From roads, railway stations, airports, offices, schools, the street, shops etc.

What skill is being tested?

Understanding the main message of the text.

Understanding the Task

To understand better how students need to approach this task, look at this sample Part 1
from a KET Reading and Writing paper. Complete the task and then consider the
questions below.

Sample Part 1 Task (PDF)


Answers

Things to Consider

Think about how you approached the task and then say whether the following
statements are true or false.

1. One way to get the right answer is to look for the same word in the notice and the
sentence (word-spotting).

2. You need to understand every word of the notice to be able to get the right answer.

3. You may need to change your mind about an answer as you go through the task.

4. The two extra notices should make the candidate think hard.