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857 queen victoria proclaimed as empress of India

· 1883 Indian national congress formed by A.O. Hume

· 1905 the province of Bengal partitioned

· 1906 formation of All India Muslim League

· 1909 the Morley-Minto reforms

· 1911 the reversal of the partition of Bengal

· 1914 the first world war starts

· 1916 the Lucknow pact between congress and Muslim league

· 1919 Montague Chelmsford reforms

· 1919 Rowlett act

· 1919 Amritsar massacre

· 1919 khilafat movement

· 1927 Simon commission


· 1928 Nehru report

· 1929 Jinnah’s fourteen points

· 1930 first round table conference

· 1931 second round table conference

· 1932 third round table conference

· 1935 government of India act

· 1937 elections and beginning of congress rule

· 1939 second world war and resignation of congress

· 1940 Pakistan resolution


a) What kind of revolts took place before the revolt of 1857?

Before the revolt of 1857 there were many rebellions. One was by Tipu Sultan of Mysore who
resented the continuous British control and interference in his territory and the other was in
Bengal by peasants who were tired of the famine and the poverty.

b) What were tribal revolts? Why did they take place?

The tribal revolts happened because of the annexation of tribal lands by the British. They forced
the local tribesmen to work as slave labor. The British used these lands for cash crop cultivation
and denied the local tribesman to grow food crops. They did not even allow them to graze their
cattle over there.

c) What were the political causes for the revolt of 1857?

The British were taking over the Indian subcontinent in a very harsh manner they refused the
Indian any say in their own country. The British introduced the Doctrine of Lapse, which allowed
the British EIC to take over the any region whose ruler did not have a natural heir.

d) What were the social causes for the revolt of 1857?

The Indian people were made to feel as if that they were second grade citizens in their own
country. The British changed the schooling and the official language. They even called in
Christian missionaries to help convert the Muslims and Hindus into Christians

e) What were the economic causes for the revolt of 1857?

The EIC which were the main force in India. Their main aim was to earn the maximum amount of
profit from this region. They forced the Indian people into starvation by forcing them to grow
only cash crops. They forced the people to buy English goods. In reality they turned India into a
raw material source and a market for their finished goods.

f) What were the military causes for the revolt of 1857?

The main military cause was the introduction of a new rifle. This rifle had a cartridge that was in
a packet. This packet was lubricated with pig or cow fat. These animals are either religious or
unclean for Indians. This angered the Indians and they revolted and this led to the war in 1857.

g) Consequences of the War of Independence;

· The British government took an interest in the Indian subcontinent

· British East India Company dissolved and recalled

· A rise in nationalism

· The formation of Indian political parties

· A rift between the Hindus and Muslims

· The British believed that the Muslims were main culprits

· The setting up of a viceroy in India

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