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METHODS AND SYSTEMS OF PRESTRESSING
INTRODUCTION

Prestressed concrete is a concrete that has had internal stresses introduced to counteract the
tensile stresses that will be imposed due to action of service loads. The stress is usually
imposed by tendons of individual hard-drawn wires, cables of hard-drawn wires, or bars of
high strength alloy steel. Prestressing may be achieved either by pretensioning or by post-
tensioning.

PRETENSION CONCRETE

In Pretension concrete the steel is first tensioned in a frame or between anchorages


external to the member. The concrete is then cast around it. After the concrete has developed
sufficient strength, the tension is slowly released from the frame or anchorage to transfer the
stress in to the concrete to which the tendons have by that time become bonded. The force is
transmitted to the concrete over a certain distance from each end of a member known as the
transfer length.

PRE-TENSIONING SYSTEMS

There are general guidelines of prestressing in Section 12 of IS: 1343 – 1980. In pre-
tensioning system, the high strength steel tendons are pulled between two end abutments
(also called bulkheads) prior to the casting of the concrete. The abutments are fixed at the
ends of a prestressing bed. Once the casted concrete attains the desired strength for the
transfer of prestress, the tendons are cut loose from the abutments.

For the pre tensioned members, the prestress is transferred to the concrete from the
tendons, due to the bond at their interface. During the transfer of prestress, the member
undergoes elastic shortening. If the tendons are located eccentrically, the member is likely to
bend and deflect upwards, which is called camber. The prestress is transferred from the steel
to the concrete by the bond at their interface over a certain length, which is called the
transmission length at the ends of the prestressed members.

STAGES OF PRE-TENSIONING OPERATION

The various stages of the pre-tensioning operation are summarized as follows:


1. Anchoring of tendons against the end abutments.
2. Placing of the jacks at the end abutments.
3. Applying tension to the tendons.
4. Casting of the concrete.
5. Curing of Concrete.
6. Cutting the tendons .

ADVANTAGES OF PRETENSIONED CONCRETE

1. Pre-tensioning operation is suitable for precast members produced in bulk where mass
production is necessary.
2. The second advantage is that the pre-tensioning does not need too much of anchorage
device which means that there is an absence of large anchorage device, which is present in
the post-tensioning system.

DISADVANTAGES OF PRE-TENSIONING IN CONCRETE

1. Requirement of prestressing bed.


2. Waiting period in the prestressing bed, before concrete attains sufficient strength.
3.Pre-tensioning requires good bond between the concrete and the steel, to transfer the
prestress from the steel to the concrete.

ESSENTIAL DEVICES USED FOR PRE-TENSIONING

1. Prestressing bed with end abutments


2. The mould or the shuttering
3. The jack
4. The anchoring device
5. The harping device, which can be optional.

HOYER SYSTEM

` An extension of the prestressing system is the Hoyer system. This system is generally
used for mass production. The end abutments are kept sufficient distance apart, and several
members are cast in a single line. As a result there is a increase in the production of the pre-
tensioned members. Shuttering is provided at the sides and between the members. This
system is also called the Long Line Method.
The transfer of prestress to concrete is usually achieved by large hydraulic or screw
jacks by which all the wires arc simultaneously released after the concrete attains the
requisite compressive strength. Generally, strands of up to 18 mm diameter and high-tensile
wires of up to 7 mm diameter anchor themselves satisfactorily with the help of the surface
bond.

The bond of prestressing wires may be considerably improved by forming surface


indentations and by helical crimping of the wires. Strands have considerably better bond
characteristics than plain wires of equal cross-sectional area. Supplementary anchoring
devices are required when single wires of larger diameter (exceeding 7 mm) are used in the
pretensioned units. The most commonly used devices arc the 'Weinberg clip' developed in
France` and the Vorland clip' developed in the United States. These clips are clamped on to
the tensioned wires close to the end diaphragms of the units before concreting operations.

POST TENSION CONCRETE

Post-tensioning is the one where the tension is applied to the tendons after hardening
of the concrete. This is different from pre-tensioning. In pre-tensioning, the tension is applied
first and then the concrete is cast.

PRINCIPLE POST TENSIONING SYSTEMS

In post-tensioning systems, the tendons are placed in ducts after the casting of
concrete. The duct prevents the bond between the concrete and the tendons during the
tensioning operation. This is very essential because, during the tensioning operation if any
resistance is present, then the tension will not be applied properly. The duct ensures that there
is no bond between the concrete and the steel during the tensioning process. In pre-
tensioning, the jacks need an end abutment to get the reaction; but in post-tensioning, no need
of such an end abutment because, the jacks are placed against the concrete member itself
from which it gets the reaction.

After the tensioning operation, if the ducts are grouted then it is known as bonded
post-tensioning. Grout is a neat cement paste or a sand cement mortar containing suitable
admixtures. The grouting is done to prevent the steel tendons from corrosion. After the
grouting, there is a contact between the concrete and the steel through the hardened grout.

Unbonded post-tensioning the ducts are not grouted and the tendon is held in tension
solely by the end anchorages. The purpose of unbonded post-tensioning is that it avoids the
process of grouting. It is usually used for slabs where grouting may be difficult in the small
duct holes.

Post-tensioning systems

The duct can have a curved form, based on the design of the profile of the tendon. The
tendons are attached in one end by some anchorage system and then on the other side, the
tendons are pulled by the jacks.

STAGES OF PRE-TENSIONING OPERATION

The various stages of the post-tensioning operation are as follows.


1) Casting of concrete.
2) Placement of the tendons.
3) Placement of the anchorage block and jack.
4) Applying tension to the tendons.
5) Seating of the wedges.
6) Cutting of the tendons.

ADVANTAGES OF POST-TENSIONING
The relative advantages of post-tensioning as compared to pre-tensioning are as follows.
1) Post-tensioning is suitable for heavy cast-in-place members.
2) The waiting period in the casting bed is less.
3) The transfer of prestress is independent of transmission length.

DISADVANTAGES OF POST-TENSIONING
The relative disadvantage of post-tensioning as compared to pre-tensioning is the requirement
of anchorage device and grouting equipment. Transporting this anchorage device and the
grouting equipment supply may be a hindrance for a project which is in a remote area.
ESSENTIAL DEVICES USED FOR POST-TENSIONING

The essential devices for post-tensioning are as follows.


1) Casting bed
2) Mould/Shuttering
3) Ducts
4) Anchoring devices
5) Jacks
6) Couplers (optional)
7) Grouting equipment (optional).
ANCHORING DEVICES

Most of the commercially patented prestressing systems are based on the following principles
of anchoring the tendons:
1. Wedge action producing a frictional grip on the wires.
2. Direct bearing from rivet or bolt heads formed at the end of the wires.
3. Looping the wires around the concrete.

WEDGE ACTION

The anchoring device based on wedge action consists of an anchorage block and
wedges. The strands are held by frictional grip of the wedges in the anchorage block. Some
examples of systems based on the wedge-action are Freyssinet, Gifford-Udall, Anderson and
Magnel-Blaton anchorages. The following figures show some patented anchoring devices.

Freyssinet System

DIRECT BEARING

The rivet or bolt heads or button heads formed at the end of the wires directly bear
against a block. The B.B.R.V post-tensioning system and the Prescon system are based on
this principle. The following figure shows the anchoring by direct bearing.
LOOPING THE WIRES

The Baur-Leonhardt system, Leoba system and also the Dwidag single-bar anchorage
system, work on this principle where the wires are looped around the concrete. The wires are
looped to make a bulb.

FREYSSINET SYSTEM OF POST-TENSIONING

The post-tensioning systems based on wedge-action include the Freyssinet, Gifford—


Udall, Anderson and Magnel - Blaton anchorages. The Freyssinet anchorage system, which is
widely used in Europe and India, consists of a cylinder with a conical interior through which
the high-tensile wires pass and against the walls of which the wires are wedged by a conical
plug lined longitudinally with grooves to house the wires.

The main advantage of the Freyssinet system is that a large number of wires or
strands can be simultaneously tensioned using the double-acting hydraulic jack.

GIFFORD-UDALL (C.C.L) SYSTEM

The Gifford-Udall (C.C.L) system developed in U.K. consists of steel split-cone and
cylindrical female-cone anchorages to house the high-tensile wires bearing against steel
plates.

Gifford-Udall system
Each wire is tensioned separately and anchored by forcing a sleeve wedge into a
cylindrical grip resting against a bearing plate. The ducts are generally formed by metal
sheaths cast into the concrete member.

Lee—McCall system

Lee—McCall system

In the Lee—McCall system, the tendons comprise high-tensile bars of diameter


varying from 12 to 40 mm which are threaded at the ends. After tensioning, each bar is
anchored by screwing a nut and washer tightly against the end plates. In this system the
forces are transmitted by the bearing at the end blocks: While the system eliminates the loss
of stress due to anchorage slip, it has a disadvantage in that curved tendons cannot be used.

MAGNEL—BLATON POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM

The Magnel—Blaton post-tensioning system adopts metallic sandwich plates, flat


wedges, and a distribution plate for anchoring the wires. Each sandwich plate can house up to
four pairs of wires. The distribution plate may be cast into the member at the desired location.
The number of wires in the Magnel cable varies from 2 to 64.

Magnel—Blaton post-tensioning system

B.B.R.V. POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM

The B.B.R.V. post-tensioning system was developed in 1949 by four Swiss engineers
Birkenmeier, Brandestini, Ros and Vogt. This system is well suited for transmitting large
forces. B.B.R.V. tendon consists of several parallel lengths of high-tensile wires, with each
end terminating in a cold-formed button head with a machined anchorage fixture. In the case
of tendons formed by strands, they are anchored to the machined fixture by split-cone
sleeves. At present, tendons capable of developing forces up to 12000 kN are available under
this system. For heavy constructions, such as long-span bridges and nuclear containment
vessels, tendons comprising 90 to 170 wires arc commonly used. The B.B.R.V. system
provides for the simultaneous stressing of all the wires in a tendon. After the desired
extension of the tendon is reached, a threaded nut is screwed to the anchor-head, which
transmits the forces by bearing against the end-plate.
FILL IN THE BLANKS

MULTIPLE CHOICE
KEY

FILL IN THE BLANKS

1. Prestressing of concrete

2. Pretensioning

3. Strength

4. Transmission length

5. Tension; Compression

6. Cracking Load

7. Rings

8. Freyssinet

9. Tendon

10. Thermoelectric prestressing

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1) a 2) c 3) c 4)b 5)a

6)b 7)c 8)d 9)b 10)c


UNIT II
LOSSES OF PRESTRESS
2.1 INTRODUCTION

In the early days, it was observed that the prestressing force does not stay constant,
but reduces with time. Even during prestressing of the tendons and the transfer of prestress to
the concrete member, there is a drop of the prestressing force from the recorded value in the
jack gauge. The various reductions of the prestressing force are termed as the losses in
prestress.

The initial prestress in concrete undergoes a gradual reduction with time from fix
stage of transfer due to various causes. This is generally referred to as "loss of prestress' . A
reasonably good estimate of the magnitude of loss of prestress is necessary from the point of
view of design.

The losses are broadly classified into two groups, immediate and time-dependent. The
immediate losses occur during prestressing of the tendons and the transfer of prestress to the
concrete member. The time-dependent losses occur during the service life of the prestressed
member. The losses due to elastic shortening of the member, friction at the tendon-concrete
interface and slip of the anchorage are the immediate losses. The losses due to the shrinkage
and creep of the concrete and relaxation of the steel are the time-dependent losses. The causes
of the various losses in prestress are shown in the following chart.

The different types of losses encountered in the pre-tensioning and post-tensioning systems
are as follows:

Table 2.1 Types of losses of prestress

S.NO PRETENSIONING S.NO POST-TENSIONING

No loss due to elastic deformation if all the wires are


Elastic deformation of simultaneously tensioned. If the wires are
1 1
concrete successively tensioned, there will be loss of prestress
due to elastic deformation of concrete
Relaxation of stress in
2 2 Relaxation of stress in steel
steel
3 Shrinkage of concrete 3 Shrinkage of concrete
4 Creep of concrete 4 Creep of concrete

5 Friction

6 Anchorage slip

In addition to the above, there may be losses of prestress due to sudden changes in
temperature, especially in steam curing of pretensioned units. The rise in temperature causes a partial
transfer of prestress (due to the elongation of the tendons between adjacent units in the long-line
process) which may cause a large amount of creep if the concrete is not properly cured. If there is a
possibility of a change of temperature between the times of tensioning and transfer, the corresponding
loss should be allowed for in the design.

2.2 LOSS DUE TO ELASTIC SHORTENING

In pretensioned members when the tendons are cut and the prestressing force is
transferred to the member, the concrete undergoes immediate shortening due to the prestress.
The tendon also shortens by the same amount, which leads to the loss of prestress.

In Post-tensioned Members if there is only one tendon, there is no loss because the
applied prestress is recorded after the elastic shortening of the member. For more than one
tendon, if the tendons are stretched sequentially, there is loss in a tendon during subsequent
stretching of the other tendons.

The loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of concrete depends on the modular ratio and
the avenge stress in concrete at the level of steel.
fc = Prestress in concrete at the level of steel
Es = Modulus of elasticity of steel.
Ec = Modulus of elasticity of Concrete.
𝐸𝑠
αe = = Modular ratio
𝐸𝑐
Strain in concrete at the level of steel = fc/ Ec
Stress in steel corresponding to this strain = (fc/ Ec) Es
Loss of stress in Steel = αe fc
If the initial stress in steel is known, the percentage loss of stress in steel due to the elastic
deformation of concrete can be computed.
EXAMPLE 2.2.1

A pretensioned concrete beam, 100 mm wide and 300 mm deep, is prestressed by straight
wires carrying an initial force of 150kN at an eccentricity of 50 mm. The modulus of
elasticity of steel and concrete are 210 and 35 kN/mm2 respectively. Estimate the percentage
loss of stress in steel due to elastic deformation of concrete if the area of steel wires is
188 mm2
EXAMPLE 2.2.2

A rectangular concrete beam, 300 mm deep and 150 mm wide, is prestressed by means of
eight 7 mm diameter high tensile wires located at 100mm mm from the soffit of the beam. If
the wires are initially tensioned to a stress of 1100 N/mm2, calculate the percentage loss of
stress in steel due to elastic deformation of concrete. Assume modulus of elasticity of
concrete and steel as 31.5 and 210 kN/mm2.
EXAMPLE 2.2.3

A post-tensioned concrete beam, l00 mm wide and 300 mm deep, is prestressed by three
cables, each with a cross-sectional area of 50 rnm2 and with an initial stress of 1200N/mm2.
All the three cables are straight and located 100 mm from the soffit of the beam. If the
modular ratio is 6, calculate the loss of stress in the three cables due to elastic deformation of
concrete for only the following cases:
(a) Simultaneous tensioning and anchoring of all the three cables; and
(b) Successive tensioning of the three cables, one at a time.
2.2.1 LOSS OF STRESS DUE TO SUCCESSIVE TENSIONING OF CURVED
CABLES
In most bridge girders, the cables are curved with maximum eccentricity at the centre
of the span. In such cases the loss of stress due to the elastic deformation of concrete is
estimated by considering the average stress in concrete at the level of steel. Consider a beam
shown below, which is post-tensioned by 3 parabolic cables. The stress distribution in
concrete at the level of cable 1 is also shown in the figure when cable 2 is tensioned. For
computing the loss of stress, the average stress (shown in figure) is considered. When cable 3
is tensioned, there will be losses of stress in both cables 1 and 2. This is illustrated in the
following example

.
Fig 2.1 Successive tensioning of curved cables
2.3 LOSS DUE TO SHRINKAGE OF CONCRETE

The shrinkage of concrete in prestressed members results in a shortening of tensioned


wires and hence contributes to the loss of stress. The shrinkage of concrete is influenced by
the type of cement and aggregates and the method of curing used. Use of high-strength
concrete with low water cement ratios results in a reduction in shrinkage and consequent loss
of prestress. The rate of shrinkage is higher at the surface of the members. The differential
shrinkage between the interior and surface of large members may result in strain gradients
leading to surface cracking. Hence, proper curing is essential to prevent shrinkage cracks in
prestressed members.

In the case of pre-tensioned members, generally moist curing is resorted to in order to


prevent shrinkage until the time of transfer. Consequently, the total residual shrinkage strain
will be larger in pretensioned members in comparison with post-tensioned members.This
aspect has been considered in the recommendations made by the Indian standard code (IS:
1343) for the loss of pre-stress due to the shrinkage of concrete and is detailed below.
εcs= total residual shrinkage strain having values of 300 x 106 for pretensioning and
200𝑋10−6
for post tensioning log10 (𝑡+2)
where, t = age of concrete at transfer in days.
This value may be increased by 50 per cent in dry atmospheric conditions, subject to a
maximum value of 300 x 104 units.
The loss of stress in steel due to the shrinkage of concrete is estimated as,
Loss of stress = εcs x Es.
when Es = modulus of elasticity of steel.
EXAMPLE 2.3.1

A concrete beam is prestressed by a cable carrying an initial prestressing force of 300kN. The
cross-sectional area of the wires in the cable is 300 mm2. Calculate the percentage loss of
stress in the cable only due to shrinkage of concrete using IS: 1343 recommendations
assuming the beam to be, (a) pre-tensioned and (b) post-tensioned. Assume Es= 210 kN/mm2
and age of concrete at transfer = 8 days.
2.4 LOSS DUE TO CREEP OF CONCRETE

The sustained prestress in the concrete of a prestressed member results in creep of


concrete which effectively reduces the stress in high-tensile steel.
The various factors influencing creep of concrete are relative humidity, stress level,
strength of the concrete, age of the concrete at loading, duration of stress, water/cement ratio
and the type of cement and aggregate in the concrete. The loss of stress in steel due to creep
of concrete can be estimated if the magnitude of ultimate creep strain or creep coefficient is
known.
I. Ultimate Creep Strain Method
If εcc = ultimate creep strain for a sustained unit stress
fc = compressive stress in concrete at the level of steel
Es= modulus of elasticity of steel
Then the loss of stress in steel due to creep of concrete = εcc fc Es
II. Creep Coefficient Method
If φ = creep coefficient
εc = creep strain
εe = elastic strain
αe = modular ratio
fc = stress in concrete
Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel
Creep strain
Creep coefficient = Elastic strain
ε𝑐
φ= ε𝑒
∴ εc= φ εe= φ(fc/ Ec)
Hence, loss of stress in steel = εc Ec φ Es = φ(fc/ Ec)Es= φ fc αe
The magnitude of the creep coefficient, φ varies depending upon the humidity, concrete
quality, duration of applied loading and the age of the concrete when loaded. The general
values recommended for the creep coefficient vary from 1.5 for watery situations to 4.0 for
dry conditions with a relative humidity of 35 per cent.
EXAMPLE 2.4.1

A concrete beam of rectangular section 100 mm wide and 300 mm deep, is prestressed by
five wires of 7 mm diameter located at an eccentricity of 50 mm, the initial stress in the wires
being 1200 N/mm2. Estimate the loss of stress in steel due to creep of concrete using the
ultimate creep strain method and the creep coefficient method (IS: 1343-1980). Use the
following data:
EXAMPLE 2.4.2

A post-tensioned concrete beam of rectangular section 100 mm wide and 300 mm deep, is
stressed by a parabolic cable with zero eccentricity at the supports and an eccentricity of
50mm at the centre of span. The area of the cable is 200mm2 and initial stress in the cable is
1200 N/mm2. If the ultimate creep strain is 30 x 10-6 mm/mm per N/mm2 of stress and
modulus of elasticity of steel is 210 mm2, compute the loss of stress in steel only due to creep
of concrete.

2.5 LOSS DUE TO RELAXATION OF STRESS IN STEEL

Most of the codes provide for the loss of stress due to relaxation of steel as a
percentage of the initial stress in steel. The Indian standard code recommends a value varying
from 0 to 90 N/mm2 for stress in wires varying from 0.5fPu to 0.8fPu . The loss of prestress due
to relaxation of steel recommended in British and Indian codes. Temporary over-stressing by
5-10 percent for a period of 2 min is sometimes used to reduce this loss as in the case of
drawn wires.
2.6 LOSS OF STRESS DUE TO FRICTION

In the case of post-tensioned members, the tendons are housed in ducts preformed in
concrete. The ducts are either straight or follow a curved profile depending upon the design
requirements. Consequently, on tensioning the curved tendons, loss of stress occurs in the
post-tensioned members due to friction between the tendons and the surrounding concrete
ducts. The magnitude of this loss is of the following types:
(a) Loss of stress due to the curvature effect, which depends upon the tendon form or
alignment which generally follows a curved profile along the length of the beam.
(b) Loss of stress due to the wobble effect, which depends upon the local deviations in the
alignment of the cable.

The wobble or wave effect is the result of accidental or unavoidable misalignment, since
ducts or sheath cannot be perfectly located to follow a predetermined profile throughout the
length of the beam.

The magnitude of the prestressing force, Px , at a distance x from the tensioning end follows
an exponential function of the type, Px = P0𝑒 −(𝛼𝜇+𝑘𝑥)

Fig 2.2 Loss Of Stress Due To Friction

where P0 = prestressing force at the jacking end


μ = coefficient of friction between cable and duct
α = the cumulative angle in radians through which the tangent to the cable
prank has turned between any two points under consideration
K = friction coefficient for 'wave' effect
e = 2.7183
The Indian standard code recommends the following values for μ and K.
Values for the coefficient of friction μ
0.55 for steel moving on smooth concrete
0.35 for steel moving on steel fixed to duct
0.25 for steel moving on steel fixed to concrete
0.25 for steel moving on lead
0.18-0.30 for multi-layer wire rope cables in rigid rectangular steel sheaths
0.15-0.25 for multi-layer wire rope cables with spacer plates providing lateral separation
These recommendations are based on the experimental work done by Guyon and Cooley.
Values for the friction coefficient for wave effect K
0.15 per 100 m for normal conditions
1.5 per 100 m for thin-walled ducts and where heavy vibrations are encountered and in other
adverse conditions.
The coefficient may be reduced to zero where the clearance between the duct and cable is
sufficiently large to eliminate the 'wave' effect.
Frictional losses can be reduced by several methods, such as
(a) over tensioning the tendons by an amount equal to the maximum frictional loss, and
(b) jacking the tendons from both ends of the beam, generally adopted when the tendons are
long or when the angles of bending are large.

EXAMPLE 2.6.1

A concrete beam of 10 m span, 100 mm wide and 300 mm deep, is prestressed by 3 cables.
The area of each cable is 200 mm2 and the initial stress in the cable is 1200 N/mm2. Cable I is
parabolic with an eccentricity of 50 mm above the centroid at the supports and 50 mm below
at the centre of span. Cable 2 is also parabolic with zero eccentricity at supports and 50 mm
below the centroid at the centre of span. Cable 3 is straight with uniform eccentricity of 50
ram below the centroid. If the cables are tensioned from one end only, estimate the
percentage loss of stress in each cable due to friction. Assume μ= 0.35 and K = 0.0015 per m.
Equation of a parabola is given by:
y = (4e/L2)x(L-x)
EXAMPLE 2.6.2

A cylindrical concrete tank. 40 m external diameter, is to be prestressed circumferentially by


means of a high-strength steel wire (E, = 210 kN/mm2) jacked at 4 points, 90 degrees apart. If
the minimum stress in the wires immediately after tensioning is to be 600 N/mm2 and the
coefficient of friction is 0.5, calculate
(a) the maximum stress to be applied to the wires at the jack, and
(b) the expected extension at the jack.
The prestressing force at the farther end, Px is related to the force at the jacking end, Po by the
expression
2.7 LOSS DUE TO ANCHORAGE SLIP

In most post-tensioning systems, when the cable is tensioned and the jack is released
to transfer prestress to concrete, the friction wedges, employed to grip the wires, slip over a
small distance before the wires are firmly housed between the wedges. The magnitude of slip
depends upon the type of wedge and the stress in the wires. In systems where the tendons are
looped around concrete anchorage blocks, loss of stress may take place due to the wires
biting into the anchorage
The magnitude of the loss of stress due to the slip in anchorage is computed as
follows:
If Δ = slip of anchorage, mm
L = length of the cable, mm
A = cross-sectional area of the cable, mm2
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel, N/mm2
P = Prestressing forte in the cable, N
PL
Then, , =Δ
AEs
P ΔEs
Loss of stress due to anchorage slip = =
A L
Since the loss of stress is caused by a definite total amount of shortening, the percentage loss
is higher for short members than for long ones.

EXAMPLE 2.7.1

A concrete beam is post-tensioned by a cable carrying an initial stress of 1000 N/mm2. The
slip at the jacking end was observed to be 5 mm. The modulus of elasticity of steel is
210 kN/mm2. Estimate the percentage loss of stress due to anchorage slip if the length of the
beam is (a) 30 m (b) 3 m.
FILL IN THE BLANKS

MULTIPLE CHOICE
KEY

FILL IN THE BLANKS

11) Shortening of concrete


12) Shrinkage of concrete
13) Deformation
14) Creep coefficient
15) Relaxation of stress
16) Anchorage slip
17) Post-tensioned
18) Percentage of creep
19) profile of cable
20)Trapezoidal

MULTIPLE CHOICE

11) d 12)c 13)b 14)d 15)c

16)a 17)b 18)c 19)a 20)c