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Aceh and Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and

Early Warning System Project

Royal Netherlands Embassy

Hydrology

Flood Protection & Urban Drainage


November 2006

Sea Defence Consultants


ACEH AND NIAS SEA DEFENCE, FLOOD PROTECTION, REFUGES AND
EARLY WARNING PROJECT
BRR CONCEPT NOTE / INFRA 300GI

HYDROLOGY

FLOOD PROTECTION & URBAN DRAINAGE

SDC-R-60009

November 2006

Version 1

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SUMMARY

Topography
The area of the Aceh Province can be classified into 4 groups: 1) the lowland plain area; 2) the
northern part of mountainous area; 3) the middle part of the mountainous area, and 4) the
southern part of mountainous area.

Most of the lowland plain area along the western coast forms a narrow strip, except at the Lawe
Alas estuary area (i.e. Lae Singkil), and from the Kr. Tipa estuary up to the Kr. Teunom estuary.
These are flat areas adjacent to mountainous area. Most of the rivers flowing out of the mountains
are short and steep and subsequently are characterised by very high flow velocities.
The topographical condition in combination with the high rainfall intensity leads to regular
overflowing of the riverbanks. Moreover, backwater effects occur due to the very small river slope
in the flat area and the impact of the tide on the flow.
Large parts of the low lands in the western area have become swampy areas such as the Singkil
area, the Subulussalam area, the Seumayam area, the Alue Bilie, and the Lam Le.

The lowland plain at the northeast coast is broader, especially at the border of the Aceh and North
Sumatra province, but is narrower at the Peudada area up to the Darul Imarah, in Banda Aceh.

The northern part of the mountainous area, i.e. Aceh Besar, Pidie and Aceh Jaya, is a hilly region.
In this area there is the Kr. Aceh valley fault trough, which is not fully stable, and earthquakes are
possible that may result in land subsidence. This is trough a rift valley i.e. a vertical movement
fault system),

The middle part of the mountainous area is the Gayo highland plain, an area with thick soils that
are often cracked, but with a low infiltration rate.

The southern part of the mountainous area, i.e. the Alas mountainous area, consists in fact of 3
parallel mountainous ranges. The most southern part is the highest range, where Mount Leuser
(3466 m) is located. The middle range is lower, but the third range is connected with the Gayo
highland plain. In between the mountainous range, the Lawe Alas river is located flowing also in a
fault trough comparable to the situation of the Kr. Aceh (see Figure 1)

Hydrology
In Aceh the dry season normally starts in March and ends in August and the wet season occurs
between September and February. The wet season climate is identified by high temperature, high
humidity, and high rainfall intensity. This is the effect of the wind monsoon with low velocity to
mid velocity from north–east to the south–east that normally occurs from November to May.
However, the actual rainfall per year is very variable.

A distinction is made into four climate types. The location of these A, B, C, and D climate type are
given in Table 1.

Table 1: Types of climate in Aceh


Climate Annual Rainfall
Area
Type [mm/year]
A Aceh Jaya, West Aceh, South West Aceh, and South Aceh 2,000 – 4,500
B Middle Aceh, Gayo Lues 1,500 – 2,500
C Aceh Tamiang, East Aceh, North Aceh, Bireun, Pidie and Aceh Besar 1,400 – 2,000
D Sigli, Cot Paya, Kr. Raya 1,000 – 1,500
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

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Figure1: Topographical map of Aceh (levels in m above mean sea level)

Although there is a significant variation in annual rainfall between the West Coast area, the middle
region and the east coast, for the whole area of Aceh the following characteristics in the wet
season apply:

ƒ The annual rainfall is 1,000 – 3,000 mm/year;


ƒ The maximum daily rainfall occurs in November, and the minimum rainfall in July;
ƒ In the south Aceh area the second maximum occurs in April.

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Rainfall
The annual maximum of daily rainfall data is available for 140 rainfall stations, of which 14 stations
are located in the North Sumatra province. The location of these rainfall stations are shown in
Figure 2. For the estimation of point rainfall return period, 47 rainfall stations have been selected.
Results are presented in Table 2.

Figure 2: Location of the rainfall stations in the Aceh

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Table 2: Design rainfall values of daily rainfall for various return periods [mm]
Return Period (Years)
No No. Stn Stn Name Nb of Data
2 5 10 25 50
1 95 Rundeng 39 116 160 187 219 242
2 95 a Singkel/Aceh 37 142 199 238 286 321
3 96 Kutacane Jane 41 96 146 184 234 272
4 96 a Kandang 26 132 157 173 192 205
5 97 Tapaktuan 29 156 206 240 283 315
6 97 b Kotabuluh 44 155 202 230 260 281
7 97 c Blangpidie 43 156 191 211 233 248
8 98 Kwala Sinabung 24 108 137 153 170 182
9 99 Sinabung 25 109 153 184 224 253
10 101 Blangkejeren 27 73 92 107 125 141
11 102 Meulaboh Aceh 43 150 193 219 247 267
12 103 Calang 34 153 189 211 237 256
13 104 a Tangse 29 81 99 109 120 127
14 106 Lho Nga 34 125 161 182 206 223
15 106 b Olee Karang 21 107 144 169 199 221
16 107 Kutaraja 27 105 143 170 203 228
17 107 c Kutaraja Meteo 25 99 140 166 196 217
18 108 Sabang 27 99 134 160 195 222
19 108 b Sabang (meteo) 37 119 153 174 197 213
20 110 Krueng raja 25 84 140 183 239 282
21 111 Lam Teuba 25 113 164 196 235 263
22 112 Auli Glong/Seulimeum 31 89 114 129 148 161
23 113 Padang Tiji 25 92 118 135 156 172
24 113 a Sigli 45 91 132 163 205 236
25 113 b Meureudeo 43 102 144 171 203 225
26 114 Bireun 38 94 131 157 191 216
27 115 Lhoksemawe 43 103 142 176 225 264
28 116 b Telong 27 70 91 106 126 142
29 116 c Lampahan 31 63 84 96 109 118
30 116 d Baleg 21 74 95 110 127 140
31 117 Lhoksoekon 42 110 155 187 228 259
32 117a Panton Laboe 20 102 130 149 171 187
33 118 Takengon 33 67 79 87 97 104
34 118 h Takengon (Dep Pert.) 25 68 91 109 132 151
35 119 Lukup/ Lokop 25 125 152 169 189 204
36 120 a Perlak 35 95 131 166 220 265
37 120 c Gedubang 35 102 137 164 199 227
38 121 a Aleujambuk 23 113 145 162 182 195
39 122 Kuala Simpang 28 107 142 167 200 224
40 122 c Pulau Tiga 31 113 139 152 165 173
41 123 a Pangkalan Susu 22 116 135 146 157 164
42 123 b Pangkalan Brandan 35 104 126 139 156 167
43 85 Barus 46 153 193 216 242 260
44 85 b Pakkat 23 109 146 167 191 207
45 90 Panguruan 34 68 92 107 127 141
46 137 Lau Balang 25 75 93 103 114 121
47 138 Balang Dua 25 69 79 83 90 93
48 *) Binaka 10 97 134 158 188 211
Source : Dinas Sumber Daya Air NAD, Laporan Utama Studi Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) Provinsi NAD
CV Dypersi Consult, August 20, 2003

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River Basins - SWS (Satuan Wilayah Sungai)
Aceh Province is divided into 8 river basins. The largest catchments areas in each of the 8 river
basins are shown in Table 3 and Figure 3.

Table 3: The largest river catchments in each SWS


River catchments
No Area Length of main River basin
River name
[km2] stream [km]
SWS 01.01 Kr. Aceh 1,463 81 Kr. Aceh
SWS 01.02 Kr. Baro 329 38 Meureudu – Ureun
SWS 01.03 Kr. Peusangan 2,660 109 Pase – Peusangan
SWS 01.04 Kr. Jambo Aye 4,681 133 Kr. Jambo Aye
SWS 01.05 Kr. Tamiang 4,623 132 Tamiang – Langsa
SWS 01.06 Kr. Teunom 1,316 252 Woyla – Lambeusu
SWS 01.07 Kr. Tripa 3,828 154 Kr. Tipa
SWS 01.08 Kr. Lawe Alas (Lae Singkil) 13,112 94 Lawe Alas – Singkil
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main
Report) Study Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

Nias is included in Bt Gadis – Bt Toru (SWS 01.14).

Figure 3: Largest catchments in the SWS in the Aceh Province

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Flood discharges
Derivation of flood hydrographs for various design return periods Aceh will form the basis for the
assessment of the inundation areas. The methodology needs to be uniform for the whole of Aceh in
order to allow for comparison between the various locations and, evidently, avoid discontinuities
between neighbouring basins.

Preferably design floods are derived directly from frequency analysis of sufficiently long (e.g. 20
years) of continuous discharge measurements at gauging stations that are representative for the
hydrological regime of a major river basin. The absence of reliable and sufficiently long discharge
series requires an alternative methodology to be developed based on rainfall data. This alternative
method implies that the required flood hydrographs should be calculated using a rainfall-runoff
model. For this project the HEC-HMS model has been selected.

Part of the input of HEC-HMS model is the design rainfall. The methodology differs between river
basin and urban drainage. Based on raw rainfall data a frequency analysis was made to determine
the design (point) daily rainfall values for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 years. The results
are shown in the Table 4 below.

Table 4: Rainfall data per return period per area (river basins)
Study area Major Rivers Catchment Area Rainfall Stations MAM Daily Rainfall P2 P5 P10 P25 P50
[km2] [mm/day] *) [mm/day] *)
Lhoong Kr. Pudeng 24.2 Lho Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223
Kr. Blangmee 17.5

Calang Kr Butee Tutong 2 Calang (Stn 103) 153 153 189 211 237 256
Kr Calang 10.1 Tangse (Stn 104 a) 80 81 99 109 120 127
Kr Meurisi 8.4 Lho Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223

Meulaboh Kr Meurebo 1900.0 Meulaboh Aceh (Stn 102) 155 150 193 219 247 267
Takengon Dep.Pert.(Stn 118 h) 76 68 91 109 132 151

Samatiga Kr Bubon 235.9 Meulaboh Aceh (Stn 102) 155 150 193 219 247 267
Baleg (Stn 116 d) 78 74 95 110 127 140

Gunung Sitoli Nou River 54.3 Binaka 104 97 134 158 188 211

Lhokseumawe Cunda River 11.0 Lhokseumawe (Stn 115) 118 103 142 176 225 264
Cunda local_1 0.8
Cunda local 2 0.3
Cunda local_3 19.8
Paya Pinang 11.8
Paya bili 5.2
Total 49.0
Banda Aceh Kr Aceh 1535.6 Auli Glong/Seulimeun (Stn 112) 93 89 114 129 148 161
Kr Tanjong 52.5 Kutaraja meteo (Stn 107 c) 105 99 140 166 196 217
Kr Luang Paga 24.3 Kutaraja (Stn 107) 115 105 143 170 203 228
Kr Daroy and Olee Karang (Stn 106 b) 114 107 144 169 199 221
Kr Doy 13.6 Lhok Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223
Kr Nieng 6.0

Singkil Lae Alas River 11726 Kutacane Jane (Stn 96) 112 96 146 184 234 272
Simp Kanan 2480 Lau Balang (Stn 137) 76 75 93 103 114 121
Simp Kiri 9246 Rundeng (Stn 95) 123 116 160 187 219 242
Singkil Aceh (Stn95a) 149 142 199 238 286 321

Calibration HEC-HMS model on Kr. Aceh (Banda Aceh)


One of the most important locations for both calibration and flood hydrograph simulations is the
city of Banda Aceh on the Kr. Aceh. In this river basin various stations are available and there is
also sufficient information on the land use, drainage pattern, etc. to allow for an accurate
calibration effort.

In Figure 4 five of the historical floods are shown, scaled in time to have the peak on the same day.
In this way the form of the flood wave becomes evident and it seems that such flood peaks do have
a common form at the station of Darang. From this figure it is also possible to derive a general form
of the base flow line, which is shown as a heavy blue line.

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Historical floods on Kruang Aceh at Darang Station

275

250 1984

225 1985

1986
200
1986
175
1995
Discharge (m3/s)

150

Base flow line


125

100

75

50

25

0
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Time in days

Figure 4: Flood hydrographs on Kr. Aceh at Darang gauging station

The Kr. Aceh has three sub-basin: Kr. Jreue at Kp Jreue, Kr. Keumireu at Kp Siron Blang, and Kr.
Aceh at Kp Darang. Examples of the calibrated results are shown in Figures 5 and 6.
The peak discharges computed with the HEC – HMS model generally match well with the observed
values.

Observed

Simulated

Figure 5: Calibration results for the Kr. Jreue at Kp Jreue

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Observed

Simulated

Figure 6: Calibration results for the Kr. Aceh at Kp Lampisang Tunong

Urban Drainage
For the urban drainage rainfall analysis use is made of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves to
determine the rainfall intensity per return period. An example of an IDF curve is shown below.

Rainfall Intensity for Olee Kareng


300

2 year
5 year
250
10 year
25 year
Rainfall Intensity [mm/hr]

50 year
200

150

100

50

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400


Duration [m inutes]

Figure 8: Example IDF curve for Banda Aceh

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Rainfall Depth for Olee Kareng

300
2 years
5 years
10 year
250
25 year
50 year

200
Rainfall Depth [mm]

150

100

50

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Duration [m inutes]

Figure 9: Example of a typical IDF relation for Banda Aceh

Return period Rainfall depth Return period Rainfall depth


[years] [mm / day] [years] [mm / day]
2 107 25 199

5 144 50 221

10 169

Hourly storm distribution


It is the combination of the maximum daily rainfall for the required return period of the stations
and a chosen hourly distribution that is used to calculate the design storm input to the HEC-HMS
model for the calculation of the design flood with the same return period. Analysing the hourly
distribution the following values were defined.

Table 6: Hourly distribution of design rainfall [%]


Duration
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
[hours]
3 0 50 40 10 100

4 0 35 35 25 5 100

6 0 45 35 10 5 3 2 100

7 0 60 20 10 5 2 1 2 100

8 0 30 25 25 10 5 2 1 2 100

9 0 15 20 20 15 10 5 5 5 5 100

10 0 10 15 15 20 15 10 5 5 2 3 100

The choice of storm duration depends on the basin size (time of concentration).

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RINGKASAN

Topografi
Wilayah Propinsi Aceh dapat diklasifikasikan atas 4 bagian: 1) wilayah dataran rendah; 2: wilayah
pegunungan bagian Utara; 3) wilayah pegunungan bagian tengah, dan 4) wilyah pegunungan bagian
Selatan.
Sebagian besar dataran rendah disepanjang pantai Barat berbentuk memanjang dan sempit, kecuali
wilayah muara Lawe Alas (Lae Singkil), dan dari muara Kr. Tipa ke muara Kr. Teunom. Wilayah-
wilayah ini adalah wilayah datar yang berbatasan dengan wilayah pegunungan. Kebanyakan, sungai-
sungai yang alirannya berasal dari pegunungan memiliki karakteristik sebagai berikut: pendek,
terjal dengan kecepatan yang sangat tinggi. Kondisi topografi dan curah hujan yang tinggi
menyebabkan sering terjadinya luapan pada tanggul-tanggul sungai. Dan lagi, akibat-akibat aliran
balik yang terjadi karena kecilnya kelerangan sungai pada dataran rendah dan benturan arus
pasang-surut. Sebagian besar dataran rendah di wilayah Barat telah berubah menjadi daerah
berawa, seperti daerah Singkil, Subulussalam, Seumayam, Alue Bilie dan Lam Le.

Dataran rendah di timur-laut pantai meluas, khususnya pada perbatasan Aceh dan Propinsi
Sumatera Utara, akan tetapi menyempit pada wilayah Peudada sampai ke Darul Imarah, di Banda
Aceh.

Wilayah pegunungan bagian Utara, seperti Aceh Besar, Pidie dan Aceh Jaya, merupakan wilayah
berbukit. Pada daerah ini terdapat palung lembah Kr. Aceh yang rusak, tidak stabil, dan gempa
bumi-gempa bumi yang mungkin terjadi dapat menimbulkan penurunan tanah (land subsidence).
Retaknya sistem gerakan vertikal menimbulkan keretakanan pada palung.

Bagian tengah wilayah pegunungan adalah dataran tinggi Gayo, sebuah wilayah dengan tanahnya
tebal yang sering retak, tetapi kapasitas penyerapannya kecil.

Bagian selatan daerah pegunungan, seperti daerah pegunungan Alas, terbentang 3 (tiga)
pegunungan yang paralel. Wilayah paling Selatan terbentang wilayah tertinggi, dimana Gunung
Leuser berada (3466 m). Wilayah lebih rendah terdapat ditengah-tengah pegunungan, akan tetapi
pada bentangan ke-3 (tiga) terhubung dengan dataran tinggi Gayo. Di antara bentangan wilayah
pegunungan, terdapat sungai Lawe Alas yang juga mengalir pada palung yang rusak yang dapat
dijadikan perbandingan terhadap situasi yang terjadi di Kr. Aceh (lihat Gambar 1).

Hidrologi
Di Aceh, musim kering biasanya dimulai pada bulan Maret dan berakhir dibulan Agustus dan musim
hujan terjadi antara bulan September dan Pebruari. Iklim musim hujan diidentifikasikan dengan
temperatur, kelembaban, dan intensitas curah hujan yang tinggi. Hal ini akibat dari angin yang
bertiup dari Samudera Hindia dengan kecepatan rendah ke kecepatan sedang dari timur-laut ke
tenggara yang umumnya terjadi pada bulan Nopember sampai bulan Mei. Bagaimanapun juga, curah
hujan tiap tahun yang terjadi sangat bervariasi.
Pembagian dibuat atas 4 tipe iklim. Lokasi ke-4 iklim A, B, C, dan D ini dapat dilihat pada Tabel 1.

Tabel 1: Tipe-tipe iklim di Aceh


Curah Hujan
Tipe
Wilayah Tahunan
Iklim
[mm/tahun]
A Aceh Jaya, Aceh Barat, Aceh Barat Daya, dan Aceh Selatan 2,000 – 4,500
B Aceh Tengah, Gayo Lues 1,500 – 2,500
C Aceh Tamiang, Aceh Timur, Aceh Selatan, Bireun, Pidie dan Aceh Besar 1,400 – 2,000
D Sigli, Cot Paya, Kr. Raya 1,000 – 1,500
Sumber: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Agt 20, 2003 [1].

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Gambar 1: Peta Topografi Aceh (elevasi dalam m di atas permukaan laut)

Meskipun terdapat variasi yang berarti pada curah hujan tahunan antara daerah pantai Barat,
wilayah tengah dan pantai Timur, untuk seluruh Aceh karakteristik pada musim penghujan berikut
digunakan:

ƒ Curah hujan tahunan adalah 1.000 – 3.000 mm/tahun;


ƒ Curah hujan harian maksimum terjadi di bulan November, dan curah hujan minimum terjadi
di bulan Juli;
ƒ Curah hujan maksimum ke-2 terjadi di wilayah Selatan Aceh pada bulan April.

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Curah Hujan
Data curah hujan harian maksimum tahunan tersedia di 140 stasiun curah hujan, dimana 14 stasiun
terletak di propinsi Sumatera Utara. Lokasi stasiun-stasiun curah hujan ini ditampilkan pada
Gambar 2. Untuk perkiraan kala ulang curah hujan, 47 stasiun curah hujan telah dipilih. Hasilnya
dapat dilihat pada Tabel 2.

Gambar 2: Lokasi stasiun-stasiun curah hujan di Aceh

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Tabel 2: Disain nilai curah hujan dari curah hujan harian untuk berbagai kala ulang [mm]
Return Period (Years)
No No. Stn Stn Name Nb of Data
2 5 10 25 50
1 95 Rundeng 39 116 160 187 219 242
2 95 a Singkel/Aceh 37 142 199 238 286 321
3 96 Kutacane Jane 41 96 146 184 234 272
4 96 a Kandang 26 132 157 173 192 205
5 97 Tapaktuan 29 156 206 240 283 315
6 97 b Kotabuluh 44 155 202 230 260 281
7 97 c Blangpidie 43 156 191 211 233 248
8 98 Kwala Sinabung 24 108 137 153 170 182
9 99 Sinabung 25 109 153 184 224 253
10 101 Blangkejeren 27 73 92 107 125 141
11 102 Meulaboh Aceh 43 150 193 219 247 267
12 103 Calang 34 153 189 211 237 256
13 104 a Tangse 29 81 99 109 120 127
14 106 Lho Nga 34 125 161 182 206 223
15 106 b Olee Karang 21 107 144 169 199 221
16 107 Kutaraja 27 105 143 170 203 228
17 107 c Kutaraja Meteo 25 99 140 166 196 217
18 108 Sabang 27 99 134 160 195 222
19 108 b Sabang (meteo) 37 119 153 174 197 213
20 110 Krueng raja 25 84 140 183 239 282
21 111 Lam Teuba 25 113 164 196 235 263
22 112 Auli Glong/Seulimeum 31 89 114 129 148 161
23 113 Padang Tiji 25 92 118 135 156 172
24 113 a Sigli 45 91 132 163 205 236
25 113 b Meureudeo 43 102 144 171 203 225
26 114 Bireun 38 94 131 157 191 216
27 115 Lhoksemawe 43 103 142 176 225 264
28 116 b Telong 27 70 91 106 126 142
29 116 c Lampahan 31 63 84 96 109 118
30 116 d Baleg 21 74 95 110 127 140
31 117 Lhoksoekon 42 110 155 187 228 259
32 117a Panton Laboe 20 102 130 149 171 187
33 118 Takengon 33 67 79 87 97 104
34 118 h Takengon (Dep Pert.) 25 68 91 109 132 151
35 119 Lukup/ Lokop 25 125 152 169 189 204
36 120 a Perlak 35 95 131 166 220 265
37 120 c Gedubang 35 102 137 164 199 227
38 121 a Aleujambuk 23 113 145 162 182 195
39 122 Kuala Simpang 28 107 142 167 200 224
40 122 c Pulau Tiga 31 113 139 152 165 173
41 123 a Pangkalan Susu 22 116 135 146 157 164
42 123 b Pangkalan Brandan 35 104 126 139 156 167
43 85 Barus 46 153 193 216 242 260
44 85 b Pakkat 23 109 146 167 191 207
45 90 Panguruan 34 68 92 107 127 141
46 137 Lau Balang 25 75 93 103 114 121
47 138 Balang Dua 25 69 79 83 90 93
48 *) Binaka 10 97 134 158 188 211
Source : Dinas Sumber Daya Air NAD, Laporan Utama Studi Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) Provinsi NAD
CV Dypersi Consult, August 20, 2003

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Satuan Wilayah Sungai (SWS)
Propinsi Aceh dibagi atas 8 Satuan Wilayah Sungai. Daerah tangkapan air terbesar di ke-8 Satuan
Wilayah Sungai ditampilkan pada Tabel 3 dan Gambar 3.

Tabel 3: Daerah-daerah tangkapan sungai terbesar di masing-masing SWS


Daerah tangkapan sungai
No Wilayah Panjang sungai SWS
Nama Sungai
[km2] utama [km]
SWS 01.01 Kr. Aceh 1,463 81 Kr. Aceh
SWS 01.02 Kr. Baro 329 38 Meureudu – Ureun
SWS 01.03 Kr. Peusangan 2,660 109 Pase – Peusangan
SWS 01.04 Kr. Jambo Aye 4,681 133 Kr. Jambo Aye
SWS 01.05 Kr. Tamiang 4,623 132 Tamiang – Langsa
SWS 01.06 Kr. Teunom 1,316 252 Woyla – Lambeusu
SWS 01.07 Kr. Tripa 3,828 154 Kr. Tipa
SWS 01.08 Kr. Lawe Alas (Lae Singkil) 13,112 94 Lawe Alas – Singkil
Sumber: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main
Report) Study Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

Nias terletak pada Bt Gadis – Bt Toru (SWS 01.14)

Gambar 3: Daerah Tangkapan Terbesar pada SWS di Propinsi Aceh

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Debit banjir
Hidrograf banjir dari berbagai variasi disain kala ulang Aceh akan membentuk dasar penaksiran
daerah-daerah genangan. Metodologi perlu diseragamkan diseluruh Aceh untuk mempermudah
perbandingan dibeberapa lokasi dengan maksud menghindari terputusnya antar kolam-kolam
disekitarnya.

Disain banjir dibuat berdasarkan analisa frekuensi jangka panjang (contohnya 20 tahun) pengukuran
debit yang berkelanjutan pada stasiun pengukur yang menggambarkan rezim hidrologi dari satuan
wilayah sungai utama. Ketidak tersediaan dan terbatasnya data hitoris membutuhkan metodologi
alternatif yang akan dikembangkan berdasarkan data curah hujan. Secara tidak langsung, metode
alternatif ini memerlukan hidrodraf banjir yang dihitung dengan menggunakan model rainfall-
runoff. Proyek ini telah memilih model HEC-HMS untuk melakukan perhitungan tersebut.

Salah satu input model HEC-HMS adalah disain curah hujan. Metodologi dibedakan atas satuan
wilayah sungai dan drainase perkotaan. Berdasarkan data mentah curah hujan, analisa frekuensi
dibuat untuk menentukan disain (titik) nilai curah hujan harian untuk kala ulang 2, 5, 10, 25 dan 50
tahun. Hasilnya dapat dilihat pada Tabel 4 berikut ini.

Tabel 4: Data curah hujan per kala ulang per daerah (satuan wilayah sungai)
Study area Major Rivers Catchment Area Rainfall Stations MAM Daily Rainfall P2 P5 P10 P25 P50
[km2] [mm/day] *) [mm/day] *)
Lhoong Kr. Pudeng 24.2 Lho Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223
Kr. Blangmee 17.5

Calang Kr Butee Tutong 2 Calang (Stn 103) 153 153 189 211 237 256
Kr Calang 10.1 Tangse (Stn 104 a) 80 81 99 109 120 127
Kr Meurisi 8.4 Lho Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223

Meulaboh Kr Meurebo 1900.0 Meulaboh Aceh (Stn 102) 155 150 193 219 247 267
Takengon Dep.Pert.(Stn 118 h) 76 68 91 109 132 151

Samatiga Kr Bubon 235.9 Meulaboh Aceh (Stn 102) 155 150 193 219 247 267
Baleg (Stn 116 d) 78 74 95 110 127 140

Gunung Sitoli Nou River 54.3 Binaka 104 97 134 158 188 211

Lhokseumawe Cunda River 11.0 Lhokseumawe (Stn 115) 118 103 142 176 225 264
Cunda local_1 0.8
Cunda local 2 0.3
Cunda local_3 19.8
Paya Pinang 11.8
Paya bili 5.2
Total 49.0
Banda Aceh Kr Aceh 1535.6 Auli Glong/Seulimeun (Stn 112) 93 89 114 129 148 161
Kr Tanjong 52.5 Kutaraja meteo (Stn 107 c) 105 99 140 166 196 217
Kr Luang Paga 24.3 Kutaraja (Stn 107) 115 105 143 170 203 228
Kr Daroy and Olee Karang (Stn 106 b) 114 107 144 169 199 221
Kr Doy 13.6 Lhok Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223
Kr Nieng 6.0

Singkil Lae Alas River 11726 Kutacane Jane (Stn 96) 112 96 146 184 234 272
Simp Kanan 2480 Lau Balang (Stn 137) 76 75 93 103 114 121
Simp Kiri 9246 Rundeng (Stn 95) 123 116 160 187 219 242
Singkil Aceh (Stn95a) 149 142 199 238 286 321

Kalibrasi model HEC-HMS pada Kr. Aceh (Banda Aceh)


Salah satu lokasi terpenting untuk simulasi kalibrasi dan hidrograf banjir adalah sungai Kr. Aceh
yang terletak di Banda Aceh. Pada satuan wilayah sungai ini beberapa stasiun tersedia dan memiliki
informasi yang cukup mengenai penggunaan lahan, pola Drainase dan lain sebagainya, yang cukup
membantu tercapainya kalibrasi yang akurat.

Gambar 4 memperlihatkan 5 data historis banjir, skala dalam waktu, untuk memperoleh puncak di
hari yang sama. Dengan jalan ini bentuk gelombang banjir menjadi bukti dan kelihatannya puncak
banjir tersebut memiliki bentuk umum pada stasiun Darang. Dari gambar ini, dapat diperoleh pula
bentuk umum dari garis aliran dasar, yang diwakili dengan garis biru tua.

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Historical floods on Kruang Aceh at Darang Station

275

250 1984

225 1985

1986
200
1986
175
1995
Discharge (m3/s)

150

Base flow line


125

100

75

50

25

0
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Time in days

Gambar 4: Hidrograf banjir Kr. Aceh pada stasiun pengukur Darang

Kr. Aceh memiliki 3 buah sub-satuan wilayah sungai: Kr. Jreue pada Kp Jreue, Kr. Keumireu pada
Kp Siron Blang, dan Kr. Aceh pada Kp Darang. Contoh hasil kalibrasi dapat dilihat pada gambar 5
dan gambar 6.
Debit puncak yang dihitung dengan model HEC – HMS umumnya sesuai dengan hasil pengamatan.

Observed

Simulated

Gambar 5: Hasil kalibrasi untuk Kr. Jreue pada Kp Jreue

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Observed

Simulated

Gambar 6: Hasil Kalibrasi Kr. Aceh di Kp Lampisang Tunong

Drainase Perkotaan
Analisa curah hujan untuk Drainase perkotaan dilakukan untuk membuat kurva Intensity-Duration-
Frequency (IDF) untuk menentukan intensitas curah hujan tiap kala ulang. Sebuah contoh kurva IDF
dapat dilihat pada gambar dibawah ini.

Rainfall Intensity for Olee Kareng


300

2 year
5 year
250
10 year
25 year
Rainfall Intensity [mm/hr]

50 year
200

150

100

50

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400


Duration [m inutes]

Gambar 8: Contoh kurva IDF untuk Banda Aceh

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Rainfall Depth for Olee Kareng

300
2 years
5 years
10 year
250
25 year
50 year

200
Rainfall Depth [mm]

150

100

50

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Duration [m inutes]

Gambar 9: Contoh tipe IDF untuk Banda Aceh

Kala Ulang Curah hujan Kala Ulang Curah hujan


[tahun] [mm / hari] [tahun] [mm / hari]
2 107 25 199

5 144 50 221

10 169

Distribusi hujan badai per jam


Adalah merupakan kombinasi curah hujan maksimum harian, untuk memenuhi kala ulang dari
stasiun-stasiun dan distribusi per jam terpilih yang digunakan untuk menghitung disain badai
sebagai input dari model HEC-HMS untuk perhitungan disain banjir pada kala ulang yang sama.
Nilai-nilai berikut menjelaskan analisa distribusi berdasarkan jam.

Tabel: Distribusi jam-jaman dari disain curah hujan [%]


Durasi
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
[Jam]
3 0 50 40 10 100

4 0 35 35 25 5 100

6 0 45 35 10 5 3 2 100

7 0 60 20 10 5 2 1 2 100

8 0 30 25 25 10 5 2 1 2 100

9 0 15 20 20 15 10 5 5 5 5 100

10 0 10 15 15 20 15 10 5 5 2 3 100

Pemilihan durasi badai tergantung dari luasnya aliran sungai (waktu konsentrasi)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUMMARY........................................................................................ II

RINGKASAN .....................................................................................XI

TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................... 1

GLOSSARY ....................................................................................... 3

LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................... 4

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................ 5

LOCATION REFERENCE ACEH AND NIAS ................................................... 6

1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................... 7

2 DESCRIPTION OF ACEH AND NIAS ................................................. 8


2.1 TOPOGRAPHICAL CONDITION................................................................................................................... 8
2.2 HYDROLOGY ........................................................................................................................................... 9
2.2.1 Hydro-meteorological characteristics ........................................................................................ 9
2.2.2 Satuan Wilayah Sungai (SWS).................................................................................................. 10
3 HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL DATA ................................................. 12
3.1 OVERVIEW OF REQUIRED DATA ............................................................................................................. 12
3.2 RAINFALL DATA .................................................................................................................................... 12
3.2.1 Availability ............................................................................................................................... 12
3.2.2 Catchments rainfall .................................................................................................................. 14
3.2.3 Derivation of design daily rainfall values ................................................................................ 15
3.2.4 Hourly rainfall distribution of the design storm ....................................................................... 18
3.2.5 Rainfall Data for Urban Drainage Analysis............................................................................. 21
3.3 DISCHARGE DATA.................................................................................................................................. 24
4 METHODOLOGY DERIVATION DESIGN FLOODS ................................. 26
4.1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................ 26
4.2 CHOICE OF THE RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL ........................................................................................... 26
4.3 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE METHODOLOGY ................................................................................... 27
4.3.1 Definition of the river basin...................................................................................................... 27
4.3.2 Definition of point of outflow of the model ............................................................................... 27
4.3.3 Inventory of major historical floods for model calibration ...................................................... 27
4.3.4 Setup of the HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model .......................................................................... 28
4.3.5 Calibration of the HEC-HMS model for various river basins .................................................. 30
4.3.6 Design rainfall storms for various return periods .................................................................... 30
4.3.7 Calculation of the design flood hydrographs............................................................................ 30
4.4 ASSUMPTIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 31
4.4.1 Choice of model parameters..................................................................................................... 31
4.4.2 Design storm timing.................................................................................................................. 32
4.5 CALIBRATION OF THE HEC-HMS MODEL ............................................................................................. 32
4.6 URBAN HYDROLOGY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................. 34
5 REFERENCES.......................................................................... 37

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APPENDIX ...................................................................................... 38

APPENDIX A: SHORT DESCRIPTION HEC-HMS MODEL .................................. 39

APPENDIX B: VARIABLES COMPUTED BY WMS........................................... 42

APPENDIX C: ANNUAL MAXIMUM OF DAILY RAINFALL DATA ......................... 43

APPENDIX D: HISTORICAL STORMS DATA ................................................ 50

APPENDIX E: PARAMETERS OF MODEL CALIBRATION .................................. 53

APPENDIX F: MODEL CALIBRATION........................................................ 55

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GLOSSARY

A : Catchments area [km2]


BMG : Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika
C : Runoff coefficient
CTOMFD : Distance from centroid of the basin to nearest point associated with MFD [m]
Cy : Runoff coefficient for return period of y years
DTM : Digital Terrain Model
FAA : Federal Aviation Agency
GIS : Geographical Information System
h : Water level [m]
HYMOS : Hydrology Modelling System
I : Excess rainfall intensity [mm/h]
I60 : Rainfall Intensity for the duration of 1 hour [mm/hr]
IDF curves : Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves
It : Rainfall Intensity for the duration of t minutes [mm/hr]
Itc,y : Average rainfall intensity [mm/h] for return period of y years
Kd : Ratios
Kr. : Krueng
L : Flow length [m]
MFD : Maximum Flow Distance [km]
n : Mannings roughness coefficient
NAD : Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam
PMP : Probable Maximum Precipitation
Q : Discharge [m3/s]
Qy : Peak discharge [m3/s] for return period of y years
SDA : Sumber Daya Alam
Sf : Slope [m/m]
SRTM : Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission
SWS : Satuan Wilayah Sungai
T : Return period [years]
tc : Time of concentration [h]
WMS : Watershed Modelling System
X : Size of the basin [km2]

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1: Topographical map of Aceh (levels in m above mean sea level) .............................. 9
Figure 2-2: The largest catchments in the SWS in the Aceh Province .................................... 11
Figure 3-1: Location of the rainfall stations in the Aceh ................................................... 13
Figure 3-2: Reduction factor for conversion point rainfall to aerial rainfall ............................ 15
Figure 3-3: Examples of the data availability of the maximum daily rainfall values ................... 16
Figure 3-4: Standard storms with durations 3 – 9 hours (total Aceh province and Kota Bakti) ....... 20
Figure 3-5: Comparison original and reassessed (alternative) rainfall standard storms ............... 20
Figure 3-6: Example of a typical IDF relation for Banda Aceh ............................................. 22
Figure 3-7: Typical example of Design Storm for Banda Aceh ............................................. 23
Figure 4-1: Major river basins in the northern part of Aceh................................................ 28
Figure 4-2: Major river basins in the southern part of Aceh................................................ 29
Figure 4-3: Design chart for the estimation of time of entry of overland flow ......................... 36

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1: Types of climate in Aceh ........................................................................... 10


Table 2-2: Climate conditions in Aceh ......................................................................... 10
Table 2-3: The largest river catchments in each SWS ....................................................... 11
Table 3-1: Availability of rainfall data......................................................................... 12
Table 3-2: Available rainfall data series after validation screening ...................................... 14
Table 3-3: Results of the frequency analysis for Station 95 Rundeng [mm] ............................. 16
Table 3-4: Results of the frequency analysis for Station 96 Kutacane Jane [mm]...................... 16
Table 3-5: Results of the frequency analysis for Station 106 Lho Nga [mm] ............................ 17
Table 3-6: Design rainfall values of daily rainfall for various return periods [mm] .................... 18
Table 3-7: Rainfall Distribution Pattern for the whole study area [%].................................... 19
Table 3-8: Rainfall Distribution Pattern for Kota Bakti point rainfall [%] ................................ 19
Table 3-9: Alternative time distribution of design rainfall [%] ............................................ 21
Table 3-10: Available daily discharge data in Aceh.......................................................... 25
Table 4-1: Available rainfall data for the regions of study ................................................. 30
Table 4-2: Used parameter groups ............................................................................. 31
Table 4-3: Rainfall data and discharge used in calibration – part 01 ..................................... 33
Table 4-4: Rainfall data and discharge used in calibration – part 02 ..................................... 34
Table 4-5: Land use category and corresponding runoff coefficients..................................... 35
Table 4-6: Channel Velocities ................................................................................... 36

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LOCATION REFERENCE ACEH AND NIAS

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1 INTRODUCTION

The majority of the activities of the present project are focussed on tsunami forecasting and
damage mitigation and therefore most of the attention is directed towards the sea and coastal
regions of Aceh. However, a serious and relatively frequent threat of inundation is formed by the
many mountain rivers that produce flood inundations as a result of torrential rainfall in both the
mountainous areas and the coastal plain. Therefore as a parallel activity, attention needs to be
given to the flood hydrology of the Aceh province.

The principal aim of the hydrology study is the derivation of flood hydrographs for various design
return periods for the major river basins in Aceh province. These hydrographs will form the basis for
the assessment of the inundation of the coastal floodplains, either by modelling efforts or less
sophisticated methods, depending on the local conditions (risk level, data availability, topography,
etc.). This implies that it is not necessary to make separate calculations for all the rivers entering
the floodplain, but a total inflow should be available for each of the coastal zones that are
separated topographically. However, this is not a general rule and the actual choice of the basins to
be modelled depend on a combination of the length of the floodplain along the coast (in order to
avoid inflow at only one point along a long stretch) and the size of the river basins (large basins
requiring separate modelling).

For the urban areas storm water calculations are made defining the catchments areas and design
discharges per drain.

This document describes the general hydrology situation in Aceh and Nias, the available data and
the methodology applied by the SDC for the determination of the flood hydrographs for the
different project areas. For the results of the analysis, flood hydrographs, per project location
reference is made to the separate design reports.

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2 DESCRIPTION OF ACEH AND NIAS

2.1 TOPOGRAPHICAL CONDITION


The area of the Aceh Province can be classified into 4 groups:

ƒ The lowland plain area;


ƒ The northern part of mountainous area;
ƒ The middle part of the mountainous area, and
ƒ The southern part of mountainous area.

Most of the lowland plain area along the western coast forms a narrow strip, except at the Lawe
Alas estuary area (i.e. Lae Singkil), and from the Kr. Tipa estuary up to the Kr. Teunom estuary.
These are flat areas adjacent to mountainous area. Most of the rivers flowing out of the mountains
are short and steep and subsequently are characterised by very high flow velocities. This
topographical condition in combination with the high rainfall intensity leads to regular overflowing
of the river banks, because backwater effects occur due to the very small river slope in the flat
area and the impact of the tide on the flow. This is the reason why large parts of the low lands in
the western area have become swampy areas such as the Singkil area, the Subulussalam area, the
Seumayam area, the Alue Bilie, and the Lam Le.

The lowland plain area at the north east is broader, especially at the boundary of the Aceh province
and North Sumatra, but becomes narrower at the Peudada area up to the Darul Imarah, in Banda
Aceh.

The northern part of the mountainous area, i.e. Aceh Besar, Pidie and Aceh Jaya, forms a hilly
region. In this area there is the Kr. Aceh valley fault trough (rift valley) (i.e. a vertical movement
fault system), which is not fully stable and earthquakes are possible that may result in land
subsidence.

The middle part of the mountainous area is the Gayo highland plain, an area with thick soils that
are often cracked, but with a low infiltration capacity.

The southern part of the mountainous area, i.e. the Alas mountainous area, consists in fact of 3
parallel mountainous ranges. The most southern part is the highest range, where Mount Leuser
(3466 m) is located. The middle range is lower, but the third range is connected with the Gayo
highland plain. In between the mountainous range, the Lawe Alas river is located flowing also in a
fault trough comparable to the situation of the Kr. Aceh (see Figure 2-1).

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Figure 2-1: Topographical map of Aceh (levels in m above mean sea level)

2.2 HYDROLOGY
2.2.1 Hydro-meteorological characteristics
In Aceh the dry season normally starts in March and ends in August and the wet season occurs
between September and February. The climate is identified by high temperature, high humidity,
and high rainfall intensity in the wet season. This is the effect of the wind monsoon with low
velocity to mid velocity from north–east to the south–east that normally occurs from November to
May. However, the actual rainfall per year is very variable. A distinction is made into four climate
types, following Schmidt and Ferguson. The location of these A, B, C, and D climate type are given
in Table 2-1.

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Table 2-1: Types of climate in Aceh
Climate Area Annual
Type Rainfall
[mm/year]
A Aceh Jaya, West Aceh, South West Aceh, and South Aceh 2,000 – 4,500
B Middle Aceh, Gayo Lues 1,500 – 2,500
C Aceh Tamiang, East Aceh, North Aceh, Bireun, Pidie and Aceh Besar 1,400 – 2,000
D Sigli, Cot Paya, Kr. Raya 1,000 – 1,500
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

Although there is a significant variation in annual rainfall between the West Coast area, the middle
region and the east coast, for the whole area of Aceh the following characteristics in the wet
season apply:

ƒ The annual rainfall is 1,000 – 3,000 mm/year;


ƒ The maximum daily rainfall occurs in November, and the minimum rainfall in July;
ƒ In the south Aceh area the second maximum occurs in April.

The climatic conditions in Aceh are generally not stable in November and April, as shown in Table
2-2

Table 2-2: Climate conditions in Aceh


Condition Value
Maximum monthly temperature 30 C to 330 C
0

Minimum monthly temperature 230 C to 250 C


Maximum air pressure 1008 to 1017 mb
Mean monthly humidity 71 % to 85 %
Mean monthly wind velocity 0.5 to 0.7 knot/hr
Mean monthly sunshine duration 3.57 to 6.29 hr/day

Along the Alas valley, from Blangkeujeren up to Kutacane, there is a wind jump (“angin terjun”),
where the air temperature is higher compared to the surrounding region.

2.2.2 Satuan Wilayah Sungai (SWS)


The study area is divided into 8 SWS. There are 7 SWS in the NAD province itself (mainland):

ƒ Kr. Aceh (SWS 01.01);


ƒ Meureundu – Ureun (SWS 01.02);
ƒ Pase – Peusangan (SWS 01.03);
ƒ Kr. Jambo Aye (SWS 01.04);
ƒ Tamiang – Langsa (SWS 01.05);
ƒ Woyla – Lambeusu (SWS 01.06);
ƒ Kr. Tipa (SWS 01.07);
ƒ Lawe Alas – Singkil (SWS 01.08).

Nias is included in Bt Gadis – Bt Toru (SWS 01.14). The largest catchments area in each of the 8 SWS
is shown in Table 2-3 (see also Figure 2-2).

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Table 2-3: The largest river catchments in each SWS
River catchments
No Area Length of main SWS
River name
[km2] stream [km]
1 Kr. Aceh 1,463 81 Kr. Aceh
2 Kr. Baro 329 38 Meureudu – Ureun
3 Kr. Peusangan 2,660 109 Pase – Peusangan
4 Kr. Jambo Aye 4,681 133 Kr. Jambo Aye
5 Kr. Tamiang 4,623 132 Tamiang – Langsa
6 Kr. Teunom 1,316 252 Woyla – Lambeusu
7 Kr. Tripa 3,828 154 Kr. Tipa
8 Kr. Lawe Alas (Lae Singkil) 13,112 94 Lawe Alas – Singkil
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

Figure 2-2: The largest catchments in the SWS in the Aceh Province

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3 HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL DATA

3.1 OVERVIEW OF REQUIRED DATA


The hydro-meteorological data needed in this study include:

ƒ Daily rainfall;
ƒ Annual rainfall;
ƒ Annual maximum of daily rainfall;
ƒ Rainfall intensity;
ƒ The maximum storm rainfall in study area;
ƒ Discharge series.

The type of hydrological analysis and simulation that need to be done in the present project,
aiming at major flood events with higher return periods (2 – 25 years), implies that no
evapotranspiration data are required.

3.2 RAINFALL DATA


3.2.1 Availability
The availability of rainfall data for the Aceh province is given in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1: Availability of rainfall data


Rainfall data No. of Stations Period of data

Daily rainfall 40 -
Annual maximum of daily rainfall 140 1916-1988
Annual Rainfall 48 1916-1984
Rainfall Intensity 9 1981-1997
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

As shown in Table 3-1, the annual maximum of daily rainfall data is available for 140 rainfall
stations, of which 14 stations are located in the North Sumatra province. For the estimation of
point rainfall return period, 47 rainfall stations have been selected by doing several type of
screening, as shown in Table 3-2.

The location of the above rainfall stations are shown in Figure 3-1. From this figure it can be seen
that the spatial distribution of the stations is very uneven, with sufficient stations in the area of
Banda Aceh and along the eastern coast, but with a much lower density along the west coast and,
especially, the central region.

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Figure 3-1: Location of the rainfall stations in the Aceh

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Table 3-2: Available rainfall data series after validation screening
Available data Data to be collected
No of Data No of Stn No of
Data Period of Period of Remark
Stn/ available >= pass the Stn/
data data
Location 20 years screening Location
Hydrologic data
ƒ Daily rainfall 40 n.a
ƒ Annual
maximum of
daily rainfall 140 1916-1988 67 44*) 44 *) 1989-2005
ƒ Annual
Rainfall 48 1916-1984 n.a
ƒ Rainfall
Intensity 11 1981-1997 n.a 11 1998-2005
ƒ The maximum
storm rainfall 4 storms >= 100
happen in mm
NAD 11 113 storms <
100mm
Catchments
boundary 60 60
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].
Note: *) 6 stn out of 44 located at North Sumatra Province

Although officially there is many data, the actual number of data available is very limited. There
are many years of data missing and most of the data is not available in the offices in Banda Aceh.
Some data can be obtained from offices in Bandung, but in general the data available to the
project is very limited.

3.2.2 Catchments rainfall


In order to convert the point rainfall data, either historical or calculated (e.g. design rainfall
values), to catchments rainfall, a reduction factor need to be applied. This factor is a function of
the size of the basin. The function is based on the guideline Flood Design Manual for Java and
Sumatra [4] and is as follows:

Y = 1.152 – 0.1233 * Log10 (X)

In which:

Y = Reduction factor
X = size of the basin [km2]

The function applies for basins larger than 60 km2, i.e. for smaller basins no reduction is required
and the point rainfall is assumed to represent the aerial rainfall. The reduction factor as function of
the basin area is shown in Figure 3-2.

In practice only factors in the order of 1 – 0.6 will be used, because for larger basin sizes it is
doubtful whether a point rainfall value of a station is still applicable for the basin. In that case a
sub-basin should be defined that includes the particular rainfall station.

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Reduction Factor
1.05

0.95
Reduction Factor

0.9

0.85

0.8

0.75

0.7

0.65

0.6
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
Catchm ents Area [km 2]

Figure 3-2: Reduction factor for conversion point rainfall to aerial rainfall

3.2.3 Derivation of design daily rainfall values


For all the rainfall stations in Aceh design rainfall values are available of daily rainfall for return
periods between 2 and 1000 years. These values have been derived from the historical rainfall
series which have on average a length of about 25 – 30 years (see Appendix C). However, as can be
seen in Figure 3-3 many years of data is missing during the period 1950 - 1980. With the majority of
the available data before 1960, changes in the rainfall pattern after 1960 are hardly taken into
account in the derivation of the design storms.

The derivation of the design storms is based on frequency analysis of the maximum daily values of
47 stations [1]. Various types of functions are used, among which the 2-parameter log-normal,
Gumbel, Pearson-III and Log-Pearson-III. The choice of the actual function being used for a certain
station is based on statistical goodness-of-fit tests.

A number of comments need to be made on the procedure that was followed:

ƒ The fact that there are many years with missing data makes the application of a frequency
analysis in fact invalid;
ƒ Frequency analysis assumes that the data are homogeneous, i.e. there is no trend in the
data. This can not be checked seriously with the available series;
ƒ The choice of the ‘best’ frequency distribution for the analysis should be based on a visual
judgement of the goodness-of-fit as statistical tests for hydrological data, with a relatively
large variation, are not strong enough for rejecting bad fit of the line to the data.

For a few stations the calculation has been made again of the frequency analysis using the HYMOS
software with the data from the report on PMP of 2003. In general it is easy to fit either the 3-
parameter log-normal or the Gumbel distribution to the data, but in some cases there are clear
outliers with the Gumbel distribution. The results are shown in Table 3-3 to Table 3-5.

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Figure 3-3: Examples of the data availability of the maximum daily rainfall values

Table 3-3: Results of the frequency analysis for Station 95 Rundeng [mm]

Return Period Pearson Type III HYMOS


[Years] PMP Study (2003)
Log-Normal Gumbel
5 160 125 124
10 187 157 156
25 219 192 194
50 242 216 221
100 264 240 247
500 314 293 309
1000 334 316 335

Table 3-4: Results of the frequency analysis for Station 96 Kutacane Jane [mm]

Return Period Pearson Type III HYMOS


[Years] PMP Study (2003)
Log-Normal Gumbel
5 146 75 113
10 184 93 146
25 234 110 185
50 272 119 214
100 311 127 242
500 403 143 307
1000 443 149 334

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Table 3-5: Results of the frequency analysis for Station 106 Lho Nga [mm]

Return Period Pearson Type III HYMOS


[Years] PMP Study (2003)
Log-Normal Gumbel
5 161 123 122
10 182 151 150
25 206 182 181
50 223 204 204
100 238 225 226
500 271 273 277
1000 285 293 299

In general the results in the study of 2003 [1], which forms the basis for the derivation of the design
storms, are on the high side. In some cases this may be due to the misfit of the frequency
distribution, as was shown earlier with the Gumbel distribution. But there is no indication in the
report of 2003 [1] exactly which distribution is used for the individual stations (Pearson-III and Log-
Pearson-III). Despite the differences found, and the remarks made on the methodology that was
used, the results from the 2003 study will be used as they form the best information available and
the outcome may be regarded as ‘worst-case’ values given the possible overestimation in the
frequency analysis. Those results are summarized in Table 3-6.

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Table 3-6: Design rainfall values of daily rainfall for various return periods [mm]
Return Period (Years)
No No. Stn Stn Name Nb of Data
2 5 10 25 50
1 95 Rundeng 39 116 160 187 219 242
2 95 a Singkel/Aceh 37 142 199 238 286 321
3 96 Kutacane Jane 41 96 146 184 234 272
4 96 a Kandang 26 132 157 173 192 205
5 97 Tapaktuan 29 156 206 240 283 315
6 97 b Kotabuluh 44 155 202 230 260 281
7 97 c Blangpidie 43 156 191 211 233 248
8 98 Kwala Sinabung 24 108 137 153 170 182
9 99 Sinabung 25 109 153 184 224 253
10 101 Blangkejeren 27 73 92 107 125 141
11 102 Meulaboh Aceh 43 150 193 219 247 267
12 103 Calang 34 153 189 211 237 256
13 104 a Tangse 29 81 99 109 120 127
14 106 Lho Nga 34 125 161 182 206 223
15 106 b Olee Karang 21 107 144 169 199 221
16 107 Kutaraja 27 105 143 170 203 228
17 107 c Kutaraja Meteo 25 99 140 166 196 217
18 108 Sabang 27 99 134 160 195 222
19 108 b Sabang (meteo) 37 119 153 174 197 213
20 110 Krueng raja 25 84 140 183 239 282
21 111 Lam Teuba 25 113 164 196 235 263
22 112 Auli Glong/Seulimeum 31 89 114 129 148 161
23 113 Padang Tiji 25 92 118 135 156 172
24 113 a Sigli 45 91 132 163 205 236
25 113 b Meureudeo 43 102 144 171 203 225
26 114 Bireun 38 94 131 157 191 216
27 115 Lhoksemawe 43 103 142 176 225 264
28 116 b Telong 27 70 91 106 126 142
29 116 c Lampahan 31 63 84 96 109 118
30 116 d Baleg 21 74 95 110 127 140
31 117 Lhoksoekon 42 110 155 187 228 259
32 117a Panton Laboe 20 102 130 149 171 187
33 118 Takengon 33 67 79 87 97 104
34 118 h Takengon (Dep Pert.) 25 68 91 109 132 151
35 119 Lukup/ Lokop 25 125 152 169 189 204
36 120 a Perlak 35 95 131 166 220 265
37 120 c Gedubang 35 102 137 164 199 227
38 121 a Aleujambuk 23 113 145 162 182 195
39 122 Kuala Simpang 28 107 142 167 200 224
40 122 c Pulau Tiga 31 113 139 152 165 173
41 123 a Pangkalan Susu 22 116 135 146 157 164
42 123 b Pangkalan Brandan 35 104 126 139 156 167
43 85 Barus 46 153 193 216 242 260
44 85 b Pakkat 23 109 146 167 191 207
45 90 Panguruan 34 68 92 107 127 141
46 137 Lau Balang 25 75 93 103 114 121
47 138 Balang Dua 25 69 79 83 90 93
48 *) Binaka 10 97 134 158 188 211
Source : Dinas Sumber Daya Air NAD, Laporan Utama Studi Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) Provinsi NAD
CV Dypersi Consult, August 20, 2003

3.2.4 Hourly rainfall distribution of the design storm


The 24-hour design rainfall values need to be converted into an hourly distributed storm using
derived patterns for the region of study. As is typical for a tropical climate, the majority of the
rainfall occurs within a few hours and it is this high intensity of the rainfall which leads to the
severe flooding events.
The rainfall distribution pattern for various durations in hours (see Table 3-7) is derived from
statistical analysis of historical storms data at 9 rainfall station, i.e. Kota Bakti, Lheu, Glumpang,
Sawang Tube, Jantho, Tutut, Manggi Tutut, Kampung Siron, and Takengon (see Appendix D). This is

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described in CV Dypersi Consult [1]. The distribution patterns can be used for the whole study area.
However, there are a relatively large number of historical storm data available for the rainfall
station of Kota Bakti and therefore a special distribution pattern has been derived separately for
this station (see Table 3-8). These standard storms are shown in Figure 3-4 (cumulative) for both
the total Aceh province and those separate for the Kota Bakti basin. The 3 and 4 hour duration
storms have a similar form (but evidently with lower intensity), with the highest intensity in the
second hour as is common in tropical climates. For the longer durations the form of the storm is
more elongated. The difference between the two standard storms (total province and Kota Bakti) is
rather small and in fact there is no reason to use a separate standard storm for the Kota Bakti
region.

Table 3-7: Rainfall Distribution Pattern for the whole study area [%]
Time [h]
Storm duration [h] Total [%]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
3 35 47 18 100
4 28 40 24 8 100
5 18 40 27 13 2 100
6 15 29 33 14 5 4 100
7 16 22 32 16 8 4 2 100
8 10 17 23 25 11 8 4 2 100
9 14 16 20 16 13 9 6 4 2 100
10 8 12 18 16 14 11 9 6 4 2 100
11 8 10 12 14 18 12 11 7 4 2 2 100
12 6 9 11 12 14 16 10 8 5 4 3 2 100
13 6 14 14 15 17 12 9 5 3 2 2 1 100
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

Table 3-8: Rainfall Distribution Pattern for Kota Bakti point rainfall [%]
Time [h]
Storm duration [h] Total [%]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
3 32 53 15 100
4 28 40 22 10 100
6 16 26 34 16 6 2 100
7 11 14 21 18 14 12 10 100
8 5 16 19 20 19 10 6 5 100
9 6 14 22 20 14 9 8 4 3 100
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

A serious shortcoming, though, of the methodology of derivation of the hourly distributions, as


described in Chapter IV of the PMP report [1], may lead to serious underestimation of the actual
rainfall intensities that may occur during major storms. This may have been avoided by deriving the
standard rainfall distribution from the highest c.q. steepest storm distributions and/or study the
correlation between the depth of the storm and the form of the hyetograph. Now, in our opinion
the derived storm distributions are in general not steep enough. In the figures in the PMP study
report it is evident that the slope of the graphs of the average design storm is much lower than
each of the historical storms, i.e. the rainfall intensity is too low. This is due to the averaging of all
the historical storm graphs. More severe storms tend to have more extreme hourly intensities and
therefore a higher weight should be given to the steeper lines in the historical graphs. For this
reason it is suggested to use a steeper form for the design storms in order to avoid underestimation
of the design floods. New distributions are derived from the original graphs (Gambar 4.2 in the PMP
[1]). The new graphs, together with the original values, are shown in Figure 3-5 (new lines thick –
indicated with ‘Alt’, for ‘alternative’).

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Standard storms Aceh Province
(Total province and Kota Bakti (KB))
100
95
90
85
3 hour
80
75 3 - KB

70 4 hour
Rainfall distribution (%)

65
4 - KB
60
6 hour
55
50 6 - KB
45 7 hour
40
7 - KB
35
8 hour
30
25 8 - KB
20 9 hour
15
9 - KB
10
5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time in hours

Figure 3-4: Standard storms with durations 3 – 9 hours (total Aceh province and Kota Bakti)

Standard storms Aceh Province - Comparison original and alternative values

100
95
90
85
3&4
3 hour
80
3 - Alt
75
4 hour
70
4 - Alt
Rainfall distribution (%)

65
60 6 hour
55
9 & 10 6 - Alt
50
7 hour
45
7 - Alt
40
35 8 hour

30 8 - Alt
25 9 hour
20
9 - Alt
15
10 hour
10
10 - Alt
5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time in hours

Figure 3-5: Comparison original and reassessed (alternative) rainfall standard storms

For the shorter durations (3 & 4 hours) the difference is rather small, but for the longer storm
durations (6, 7 & 8 hours) the newly assessed storms have a much steeper line, i.e. the hourly
rainfall intensities are much higher. For the larger storms (> 9 hours), the difference is very small
again, because such storms do indeed show a relatively small intensity.

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It is suggested to use the alternative design storms as these will lead to a higher stress on the
system and avoids the possible underestimation of the drainage capacity that will be based, among
others, on the rainfall depth and hourly distribution / intensity. The new values are given in Table
3-9. Only the values for a 5-hourly storm have been omitted, because there are too few historical
storms to derive the ordinates of the graph. It will also be noticed that short-duration storms do not
always have the highest intensity: the 7-hour distribution has a higher intensity during the first two
hours than any of the shorter duration distributions. Although this is physically possible, as there is
no reason why short duration storms should be the most intensive, it is more likely due in this case
to the limited number of historical storms available for derivation of the design storms. This is also
the reason why design storms with durations larger than 10 hours have been omitted from the
analysis.

Table 3-9: Alternative time distribution of design rainfall [%]


Duration
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
[hours]
3 0 50 40 10 100
4 0 35 35 25 5 100
6 0 45 35 10 5 3 2 100
7 0 60 20 10 5 2 1 2 100
8 0 30 25 25 10 5 2 1 2 100
9 0 15 20 20 15 10 5 5 5 5 100
10 0 10 15 15 20 15 10 5 5 2 3 100

3.2.5 Rainfall Data for Urban Drainage Analysis


According to the Urban Hydrology Manual [2], for the purpose of qualifying potential runoff from
urban catchments areas in Indonesia, the following approach can be applied:

a) Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves
Based on the available data, for practical reasons and until more information is available, it is
recommended to use for drainage projects at locations, where detailed statistical – short duration
analysis is not available, the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relation based on the ratios:

K d = It / I 60.

Where:
Kd = Ratios
It = Rainfall Intensity for the duration of t minutes [mm/hr].
I60. = Rainfall Intensity for the duration of 60 minutes (1 hour) [mm/hr].

The relation can be represented by the following relation:


C
K d = It / I60 = A / ( A + t )

Where:
A = 95.7
B = 37.6
C = 0.99
Source: Technical Design Standards, Part III – Urban Hydrology Manual, November 1994 (page 2-22).

The proposed generalized relation was tested against IDF curves determined by independent
statistical analysis in various locations. Comparison of the five – year intensity – duration – graph
determined for Jakarta and Surabaya in the Master Plan Studies and the five – year generalized
relation proposed in these guidelines gave similar results. [2]
The IDF relations for this study were derived by using the I60 of 3 hours duration pattern (see Table
3-9) of Annual Maximum of Daily Rainfall for each corresponding study area and return period (see
Table 3-10 in the next chapter). A typical example of IDF relation is shown in Figure 3-6.

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Rainfall Intensity for Olee Kareng
300

2 year
5 year
250
10 year
25 year
Rainfall Intensity [mm/hr]

50 year
200

150

100

50

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400


Duration [m inutes]

Rainfall Depth for Olee Kareng

300
2 years
5 years
10 year
250
25 year
50 year

200
Rainfall Depth [mm]

150

100

50

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Duration [m inutes]

Return period Rainfall depth Return period Rainfall depth


[years] [mm / day] [years] [mm / day]
2 107 25 199
5 144 50 221
10 169

Figure 3-6: Example of a typical IDF relation for Banda Aceh

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b) Design Storm
Design storms are rainfall events which are specified by total rainfall and their temporal
distribution. A design storm can be derived from statistical analysis of historical storms whereby
rainfall characteristics are evaluated including rainfall depth (interrelationship with IDF curve),
time-to-peak, peak-intensity, amount of rainfall before time to peak etc.

The test done with Indonesian rainfall data and watershed show that acceptable results can be
obtained if the storm is discrete with a time step of 15 to 20 minutes [2].

The design storms for this study are derived by interrelationship with IDF curve. A typical example
of design storm for urban drainage is shown in Figure 3-12.

t Rainfall depth [mm] per return period


[minutes] 2 years 5 years 10 years 25 years 50 years
15.0 1.7 2.3 2.8 3.2 3.6
30.0 2.4 3.2 3.7 4.4 4.9
45.0 3.4 4.6 5.4 6.4 7.1
60.0 5.5 7.4 8.6 10.2 11.3
75.0 10.4 13.9 16.4 19.3 21.4
90.0 27.9 37.6 44.1 51.9 57.7
105.0 15.9 21.4 25.1 29.6 32.9
120.0 7.3 9.8 11.6 13.6 15.1
135.0 4.3 5.7 6.7 7.9 8.8
150.0 2.8 3.8 4.4 5.2 5.8
165.0 2.0 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.2
180.0 1.5 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.1

Design Storm

40.0
Olee Kareng 5-years
35.0

30.0
Rainfall Depth [mm]

25.0

20.0

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0
15.0

30.0

45.0

60.0

75.0

90.0

105.0

120.0

135.0

150.0

165.0

180.0

Time [minutes]

Figure 3-7: Typical example of Design Storm for Banda Aceh

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3.3 DISCHARGE DATA
Discharge data are also relatively scarce and it is difficult to make a validation of the values,
especially the flood events, in the absence of the original measuring information. The main
limitation of the discharge data is the time basis: there are only daily values available.
Nevertheless this is the only possible source for the calibration of the rainfall-runoff model in
combination with the rainfall data and therefore an attempt is made to use most of the flood
events found in the hydrological year books.

The daily values may be sufficient for calibration of the larger basins, but for the smaller and,
especially, steeper basins the travel time is in the order of hours and daily values do not capture
the actual form of the flood hydrograph. This is a serious limitation and calibration for those basins
can only be done in very general terms. The form of the design flood hydrograph can still be
assessed rather well based on sufficient knowledge of the standard hourly rainfall distribution and
basin response derived from basin (topographic) characteristics, but the peak flood value and
volume will remain an approximation.
The available daily discharge series in the province of Aceh are summarized in Table 3-10. Similar
to the situation for the rainfall series, there are no data before 1970 and no data after 1999.
Evidently there are also many missing values and in fact there is no series that would qualify for
frequency analysis using standard distribution functions (such as Gumbel-I) as nearly all the series
are too short and/or have many years with missing values. For this reason the hydrological analysis
and derivation of the design flood hydrographs will be based on the rainfall data for which an
analysis of the design values is available.

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Table 3-10: Available daily discharge data in Aceh
BarChart Pos Duga Air
Propinsi Daerah Istimewa Aceh
No No. PDA Induk Sungai Nama Sungai - Tempat 70 80 90
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 01-001-00-01 Kr. aceh Kr. Aceh - Seulimeum x x x x x x x x x x x


2 01-001-00-03 Kr. aceh Kr. Aceh - Kampung Darang x x x x x x x x x x x x
3 01-001-00-04 Kr. aceh Kr. Keumireu - Kampung Siron x x x
4 01-001-00-05 Kr. aceh Kr. Aceh - Kampung Pasi x x x x x x x x
5 01-001-00-06 Kr. aceh Kr. Aceh - Lampisang tunong x x x x x x x x x x
6 01-001-00-07 Kr. aceh Kr.Boga - Kampung Boga x x x x x x
7 01-001-00-08 Kr. aceh Kr.Jreue - Kp. Jreue x x x
8 01-009-00-03 Kr. Baro Kr. Baro - Kp. Geuni x x
9 01-010-00-01 Kr. Baro Kr. Baro - Klibeut x x x x x x x x x x x
10 01-010-00-02 Kr. Baro Kr. Baro - Keumaladalam x x x x x x x x x x
11 01-010-00-03 Kr. Baro Kr. Baro - Kampung Geuni x x x x x x x x x x
12 01-013-00-01 Kr.Meureudu Kr.Meureudu - Seuminong x x x x
13 01-015-00-01 Kr.Samala Kr.Samalangan Batee Iliek x x x
14 01-018-00-01 Kr.Peudada Kr.Peudada - Kp. Menasah Lawang x x x x x x x
15 01-019-00-04 Kr.Peusangan Kr. Peusangan - Beukah x x x x x x
16 01-019-00-06 Kr.Peusangan Kr. Peusangan - Kampung Beukah x x x x x x x x x x
17 01-019-00-07 Kr.Peusangan Kr. Peusangan - Simpang Jaya x x x x x x x x x x
18 01-019-00-09 Kr.Peusangan Kr. Sempo - Kr. Sempo x x x x x x x
19 01-020-00-01 Kr.Manee Kr. Manee - Lhok Kuyun x x x x
20 01-025-00-02 Kr. Mane Kr. Tuan - Lho Joek x x x x x x x x x x
21 01-027-00-02 Kr. Jambo aye Kr. Jambo Aye - Lhok Nibong x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
22 01-027-00-03 Kr. Jambo aye Kr. Jambo Aye - Rampah x x x x x
23 01-034-00-01 Kr. Langsa Kr. Langsa - Kp. Pentow x x x x
24 01-035-00-01 Kr. Tamiang Kr. Tamiang - Kuala Simpang x x x x x x x x x
25 01-035-01-01 Kr. Langsa Kr. Langsa - Kp. Pentow x
26 01-120-00-01 Kr. Lambeso Kr. Lambeso - Sango x x
27 01-190-00-01 Lawe Bulan Lawe Bulan - Kutacane x x x x x
28 01-190-00-02 Kr. Gumpang Lawe Alas - Gumpang x x x x x x
29 01-190-00-03 Lawe alas Lawe Alas - Sukarimbun x x x x x x x x x x
30 01-191-00-01 Kr. Kleut Kr. Kleut - Kp. Gunung Pudung x x x x x x x
31 01-195-00-01 Kr. Susoh Kr. Susoh - Kota Tinggi x
32 01-196-00-02 Kr.Bateue Kr. Bah Barot - Kp. Pantai x x x x x
33 01-197-00-01 Kr. Seumayam Kr.Seumayam - Kp. Seumayam x x x x x
34 01-197-00-02 Kr. Bakongan Kr. Bakongan - Kamp. Diren x x
35 01-197-01-01 Kr. Seumayam Kr.Seumayam - Seumayam x x x
36 01-198-00-01 Kr. Tripa Kr. Tripa - Gunung Kong x x x x x
37 01-200-00-01 Kr. Seunagan Kr. Seunagan - Dringuru ( Ujung Blang) x x x x x x x x x x x x x
38 01-200-00-02 Kr. Seunagan Kr. Seunagan - Kulu / Paya Udeng x x x
39 01-201-00-01 Kr. Seunagan Kr. Seunagan - Driengguru x x x
40 01-201-00-02 Kr. Meureuboi Kr. Meureuboi - Kp. Rayeuk x x
41 01-202-00-01 Kr. Meureubo Kr. Meureubo - Meunasah Rayeuk x x x x x x x x x x x x
42 01-203-00-01 Kr. Kr. Woyla Kr. Woyla Down stream - Kp. Kwala Bhee x x x x x x x x x x
43 01-205-00-01 Kr. Teunom Kr. Teunom - Tuwi Kareueng x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
44 01-207-00-01 Kr. Sabee Kr. Sabee - Panggong x x x x x x
45 01-211-00-01 Kr. Lambeso Kr. Lambeso - Sango x x x x x x x x x x x x
Source: Balai Hidrologi, Publikasi Data Debit Sungai, Puslitbang Pengairan, Balitbang PU, Dept. PU

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4 METHODOLOGY DERIVATION DESIGN FLOODS

4.1 OVERVIEW
Although the attention of the hydrology component of the project will first focus on the pilot and
priority regions, the methodology that will form the basis for the derivation of the flood
hydrographs for design standard return periods need to be uniform for the whole of the Aceh
province in order to allow for comparison between the various locations and, evidently, avoid
discontinuities between neighbouring basins.

There are a number of options for the methodology and the main criterion for the choice among
them is the data availability. Preferably design floods are derived directly from frequency analysis
of sufficiently long (e.g. 20 years) of continuous discharge measurements at gauging stations that
are representative for the hydrological regime of a major river basin. Important is also the range of
the data, i.e. whether the measurements include the extreme events and sufficient confidence can
be given to the values themselves. The latter is often doubtful as most rating curves (Q-h curves)
do not extend into the high water levels. In combination with a derivation of a ‘characteristic’
flood hydrographs, derived from historical floods, this methodology gives the most reliable estimate
possible of design flood hydrographs at the measuring locations. In order to obtain the design flood
hydrographs at different locations, the derived flood hydrographs at the gauging stations are
transposed by using transform factors that include the contributing area and the difference in
(monthly) rainfall, either average values or, preferably, peak values.
It is important to indicate that this methodology has been proposed originally for the present study.
However, during the initial stage of the project it has become evident that the available discharge
values for the province of Aceh are very limited, with only a limited number of years available and
many missing values (see Chapter 3.3). This absence of reliable and sufficiently long discharge
series discard the application of the original, and preferred, methodology. Therefore an alternative
has been developed, based on rainfall data.

The alternative method implies that the required flood hydrographs should be calculated using a
rainfall-runoff model. For the present project the HEC-HMS flood simulation model will be used. In
this case, it is essential to perform a well-founded calibration of the model, preferably using flood
events of various levels of severity and on different locations along the coastal region of Aceh.

In general the methodology that will be used is based on the following steps:

1. Definition of the river basins for which design flood hydrographs need to be derived;
2. Determination of the points of outflow for the hydrological model;
3. Inventory of major historical floods that may be used for model calibration;
4. Setup of the HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model for a number of basins that will be used in the
calibration;
5. Calibration of the HEC-HMS model for various river basins along the coast of Aceh;
6. Derivation of the design rainfall storms for various return periods;
7. Calculation of the design flood hydrographs as a result of the design storms using the HEC-
HMS model.

4.2 CHOICE OF THE RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODEL


The choice of the rainfall-runoff model is important as a major source of error can be expected
from the rainfall-runoff calculation. The choice of the model is made on the following criteria:
1. Type of process to be modelled;
2. Data availability;
3. International acceptance.

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The type of process refers to the hydrological events that need to be simulated with the model. For
most general purposes, a ‘continuous’ model is more apt, which is based on a full soil-moisture
accounting principle. Such models, of which the Sacramento model is the most famous example,
are very data-intensive and are well out of scope in the present project given the scarce data
resources.
A second type of models belongs to the ‘event’ group. Those models do not maintain a full internal
soil-moisture balance, but may be described as an ‘action-reaction’ model, i.e. there is a direct
discharge production as a result of a rainfall event. These models do need a proper choice of initial
values, e.g. for the initial rainfall losses, but need less data than the continuous models and are
particularly apt for the simulation of major flood events.
In view of the aim of the hydrological component of the project and the data availability the choice
of the event-type models is the most appropriate. There are a number of model candidates in this
group, but the HEC-HMS model, which is the successor of the well-known HEC-1 model, is a good
candidate in this case. The model has been widely tested in the last ten years, has an impressive
record of successful applications in many different (climatic) regions around the world and is very
user-friendly due to an up-to-date windows user interface. A short description of the HEC-HMS
model is given in Appendix A.

4.3 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE METHODOLOGY


4.3.1 Definition of the river basin
For a number of locations the inflow hydrographs of the river basins will prepared in order to
calibrate the model. Those regions are:

ƒ Lhoong;
ƒ Calang;
ƒ Meulaboh;
ƒ Samatiga;
ƒ Lhokseumawe;
ƒ Gunung Sitoli.
ƒ Banda Aceh;
ƒ Singkil.

For each of these locations the expected inflow flood hydrographs are determined for the design
return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 years. At some locations more than one river basin enters the
corresponding flood plain and for each of them inflow hydrographs need to be calculated.

4.3.2 Definition of point of outflow of the model


The design floods are actually calculated to be used as input to the inundation assessment, either
by modelling (e.g. Sobek1D or 1D2D) or other methods. At the same time the HEC-HMS model can
only be used in the steeper parts of the river basins, where major inundation of a floodplain and/or
backwater effects are relatively unimportant. For this reason it is necessary to determine for each
river basin the point for which the design floods need to be calculated. Often this point will be
found at the break of slope from the mountains to the floodplains along the coast.

4.3.3 Inventory of major historical floods for model calibration


The inventory of major historical floods that can be used for calibration of the HEC-HMS model is
based on the information available on rainfall storms at various rainfall stations. However, although
there is exist a sufficient number of large storms, in many cases there are no discharge data on the
corresponding flood event. In those cases where discharge data are available, these are daily values
which is sufficient for the larger basins with a long reaction time, but for the small and steep basins
along the coast floods may occur in a matter of hours and the daily values do not allow for the
representation of the flood hydrograph. However, as also the rainfall data are only available in
daily format, the calibration will need to be made on this basis, despite the restrictions this
approach poses.
An overview of the events used in the calibration process is given in Chapter 4.5.

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4.3.4 Setup of the HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model
In order to setup the HEC-HMS model for the river basins, it is necessary to obtain characteristics of
these basins such as basin area, subdivision into sub-basin, length of river reach in each basin, slope
of the river channels, etc. Such information is typically derived from topographical maps, either as
hard copies or from digital information (GIS files). For the province of Sumatra, digital maps are
available in various formats. The most important source is the digital version of the topographic
map, which gives contours of every 100 m. Another source is the Digital Terrain Model (DTM)
obtained from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission), which gives much more detailed
topographic information, but has a random error that makes it unsuitable for flat areas (e.g.
floodplains). Both sources have been used in this study to derive the topographic characteristics of
the river basins in Aceh for the hydrological modelling.

Figure 4-1: Major river basins in the northern part of Aceh

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Figure 4-2: Major river basins in the southern part of Aceh

An example of the derivation of the river basins for northern Aceh by the WMS software, showing
the corresponding basin areas, is given in Figure 4-1 (northern Aceh) and Figure 4-2 (southern
Aceh). In general only the larger basins (> 200 km2) are included. In these figures it can be seen
that along the coast there are many stretches that have only small river basins draining the
uplands, often with very steep basins from which the water enters the coastal plain by cascades.
The use of the WMS software allows for the direct setup of the HEC-HMS models within the
graphical user interface. A complete list of variables computed by WMS such as A [km2] the area of
the basin, the Maximum Flow Distance (MFD) within a basin including both overland and channel
flow, CTOMFD the distance from the centroid of the basin to the nearest point associated with the
MFD, and other variables of drainage basins used for setting up for HEC-HMS are shown in Appendix
B. In the example given above various sizes of river basins are shown. For the smaller steep basins
that drain directly to the coast (order 100 – 200 km2), just one model component in HEC-HMS is
sufficient. However, the larger basins are divided into sub-basins and routing needs to be applied
for the transformation of the flood hydrographs in the upper sub-basins towards the point of outlet.

These delineations will be used for the derivation of the design floods of the majority of the river
basins in the province of Aceh once the calibration step and the modelling exercise of the river
basins belonging to the study areas have been finalized. The calibration will be described in the
following paragraphs.

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4.3.5 Calibration of the HEC-HMS model for various river basins
Although the HEC-HMS model will be used for all the river basins in the Aceh province, it is not
necessary to apply exactly the same internal options in the model for all basins. During the
calibration stage of the hydrological analysis, models will be calibrated of a selection of river basins
at various locations such that an acceptable coverage is obtained of the variation in types of basins
and their hydrological reaction on rainstorms. Such calibrated models will form the basis for the
implementation of rainfall-runoff models in all the river basins for which design floods need to be
calculated. The calibration effort is discussed more in detail in a separate Chapter 4.5.

4.3.6 Design rainfall storms for various return periods


In Table 4-1 an overview is given of the rainfall stations for which data are available for each of the
initial study basins. The table gives the name of the study area, the major rivers draining towards
the localities and the existing rainfall stations in the river basins together with their maximum daily
rainfall and the design (point) daily rainfall values for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 years. It
is the combination of the maximum daily rainfall for the required return period of the stations and
a chosen hourly distribution that is used to calculate the design storm input to the HEC-HMS model
for the calculation of the design flood with the same return period.

Table 4-1: Available rainfall data for the regions of study


Study area Major Rivers Catchment Area Rainfall Stations MAM Daily Rainfall P2 P5 P10 P25 P50
[km2] [mm/day] *) [mm/day] *)
Lhoong Kr. Pudeng 24.2 Lho Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223
Kr. Blangmee 17.5

Calang Kr Butee Tutong 2 Calang (Stn 103) 153 153 189 211 237 256
Kr Calang 10.1 Tangse (Stn 104 a) 80 81 99 109 120 127
Kr Meurisi 8.4 Lho Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223

Meulaboh Kr Meurebo 1900.0 Meulaboh Aceh (Stn 102) 155 150 193 219 247 267
Takengon Dep.Pert.(Stn 118 h) 76 68 91 109 132 151

Samatiga Kr Bubon 235.9 Meulaboh Aceh (Stn 102) 155 150 193 219 247 267
Baleg (Stn 116 d) 78 74 95 110 127 140

Gunung Sitoli Nou River 54.3 Binaka 104 97 134 158 188 211

Lhokseumawe Cunda River 11.0 Lhokseumawe (Stn 115) 118 103 142 176 225 264
Cunda local_1 0.8
Cunda local 2 0.3
Cunda local_3 19.8
Paya Pinang 11.8
Paya bili 5.2
Total 49.0
Banda Aceh Kr Aceh 1535.6 Auli Glong/Seulimeun (Stn 112) 93 89 114 129 148 161
Kr Tanjong 52.5 Kutaraja meteo (Stn 107 c) 105 99 140 166 196 217
Kr Luang Paga 24.3 Kutaraja (Stn 107) 115 105 143 170 203 228
Kr Daroy and Olee Karang (Stn 106 b) 114 107 144 169 199 221
Kr Doy 13.6 Lhok Nga (Stn 106) 129 125 161 182 206 223
Kr Nieng 6.0

Singkil Lae Alas River 11726 Kutacane Jane (Stn 96) 112 96 146 184 234 272
Simp Kanan 2480 Lau Balang (Stn 137) 76 75 93 103 114 121
Simp Kiri 9246 Rundeng (Stn 95) 123 116 160 187 219 242
Singkil Aceh (Stn95a) 149 142 199 238 286 321
Source: Proyek Pengendalian Banjir dan Pengamanan Pantai Dinas SDA, PemProv NAD, Laporan Utama (Main Report) Study
Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) provinsi Nanggro Aceh Darussalam - Aug 20, 2003 [1].

4.3.7 Calculation of the design flood hydrographs


For the calculation of the design flood hydrographs for all the river basins in Aceh, the following
steps will be made:

ƒ Calibrate the HEC-HMS model on a number of (preferably characteristic) river basins spread
out along the coastal regions of Aceh;
ƒ Derive the river basin boundaries that belong to the rivers discharging towards each of the
study areas;
ƒ Assign a calibrated HEC-HMS model to each of the basins;

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ƒ Derive the design storm from the maps in the reports (Dinas Sumber Daya Air NAD – C.V.
Dypersi Consult, 2003 [1]);
ƒ Calculate the design flood hydrographs with the HEC-HMS calibrated model for the
particular basin.

The assignment of the calibrated HEC-HMS model is done based on a judgement of the most
representative set of calibrated model parameters. This is a function of distance to the calibrated
model set, land use, basin orientation, etc.

For the design storm, a combination must be made of daily rainfall depth (volume in mm) belonging
by the required return period from Table 3-6 and an hourly rainfall distribution from Table 3-9. This
table gives the hourly distributions as a function of length of the storm. Normally the length is
chosen such that it is preferably larger than the time-of-concentration of the basin, which results in
the highest flood event. In most cases the time-of-concentration of the basins is less than 5 hours
and it is suggested to apply e.g. the 7-hour design storm distribution, which has relatively high
rainfall intensity in the first 2 hours, resulting in a severe flood peak, typical for extreme situations
in tropical regions such as Aceh province. For the larger basins the typical storm durations should
be longer and the corresponding rainfall hourly distributions show much lower rainfall intensity.
Such storms may result in lower design floods, possibly an underestimation of the required design
flood. Preferably different storm durations are sampled and run by the HEC-HMS model to find the
impact of this choice. In order to avoid any underestimation of the design flood, the resulting
design flood is chosen with the highest runoff volume per time unit, which puts the highest stress
on the drainage system in the region of study.

4.4 ASSUMPTIONS
It is important to be aware of the various assumptions that are made in the process of the
derivation of the design floods.

4.4.1 Choice of model parameters


Preferably the same type of parameter groups is used for the various models of the HEC-HMS model
for the province of Aceh. The choice of the parameter groups is a function of the type of modelling
(flood events), the characteristics of the basins and the data availability. The following groups will
be used:

Table 4-2: Used parameter groups


Element Calculation type Method
Sub-basins Loss rate Initial and constant
SCS Curve number
Transformation SCS Unit Hydrograph
Snyder Unit Hydrograph
Base flow Recession
Reach (link) Routing Lag routing
Muskingum-Cunge

For the loss rate, the ‘initial and constant’ method assumes a constant loss during the storm, which
is probably too simple assumption. The ‘SCS curve number’ method is a more realistic method and
is preferred. However, it is difficult to assess the value of the required Curve Number as tabled
values are only available for the (semi-arid zone) USA. It is, though, one of the most commonly
used methods and the results are very good, also outside the USA.

For the transformation of the rainfall, use can be made of a standard form ‘Unit Hydrograph’. Both
the ‘SCS’ and the ‘Snyder hydrographs’ are commonly used and it depends on the particular basin
which one can be used. The results of the modelling are not very sensitive to the choice of the type
of unit hydrograph.

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For the base flow there are a number of more complicated methods available, but given the fact
that base flow is normally a less important component of the total flood hydrograph, the simple
‘recession’ type base flow is preferred in this study.

For the routing of the hydrographs from the various sub-basins towards the outlet of the basin, two
methods are considered. For the steeper sub-basins, with relatively narrow flood cross-sections,
attenuation of the flood wave is negligible and only time-shift is important. For those basins, the
lag routing is appropriate, which only requires the time of the shift in hours.
In case a wider valley is present, where attenuation of the flood wave occurs due to inundation of
flood plains along the river, the Muskingum-Cunge method is more appropriate, although this
method requires data on the form of the cross-section.

For more details on these methods reference is made to the Technical Manual of the HEC-HMS [3].

4.4.2 Design storm timing


In principle the absolute timing of the flood event in the final derivation of the design floods is less
important: all attention should be drawn to the flood peak and volume. However, in those basins
that are too large to be represented by one model component, i.e. where a division is required into
sub-basins, it is the possible coincidence of the flood hydrographs from the various sub-basins that
may lead to lower or higher floods at the point of outflow and timing of the individual events is
crucial. This also implies that there are various scenarios possible of flood generation, depending on
the rainfall distribution within the river basin. However, for the present project the assumption is
made that floods are the result of one flood that covers the entire basin.

4.5 CALIBRATION OF THE HEC-HMS MODEL


Calibration of the HEC-HMS model is done on a number of different basins, spread out over the
Aceh province. It is important to draw the attention to the fact that for the measured discharges,
essential for the calibration of the model, only daily average values are available. This implies that
it will not be possible to make a very precise calibration in terms of time of the flood peak, but in
view of the purpose of the modelling exercise (flood hydrographs for design of drainage systems in
urban regions) it is more important to have a good approximation of the peak value and, especially,
the volume of the flood hydrograph.

Calibrations have been made for the following basins:

ƒ Kr. Peusangan Smp Jaya;


ƒ Kr. Woyla;
ƒ Kr. Meureubo (Meulaboh study area);
ƒ Kr. Aceh;
ƒ Kr. Manee (close to the Lhokseumawe study area).

The results are shown in Appendix F.

The rainfall data and the discharge used in these calibrations are shown in Table 4-3 and Table 4-4.

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Table 4-3: Rainfall data and discharge used in calibration – part 01
1)
No Location Catchments Area Period of calibration Rainfall Station Historical storm Recorded flood discharges
Gaging Station Main River [km2] Date Time[hrs] Rainfall [mm/hr] Date Time Discharge Q [m3/sec]

1 Kerueng Peusangan
2)
Kr Peusangan at Simpang Jaya Kr Peusangan 1868.1 12 Oct 1994 to 18 Oct 1994 Takengon 14-Oct-94 17:00 0.0 Gauging station: Kr Peusangan at Simpang Jaya
Kr Peusangan at Beukah Kr Peusangan 2248.4 18:00 0.6 12-Oct-94 12:00 78.4
19:00 24.3 13-Oct-94 12:00 75.3
20:00 7.0 14-Oct-94 12:00 78.4
21:00 5.0 15-Oct-94 12:00 239.0
22:00 5.0 16-Oct-94 12:00 176.0
23:00 6.1 17-Oct-94 12:00 121.0
15-Oct-94 00:00 1.0 18-Oct-94 12:00 134.0
01:00 1.0
2)
02:00 1.3 Gauging station: Kr Peusangan at Beukah
03:00 0.3 12-Oct-94 12:00 358.0
13-Oct-94 12:00 211.0
Total = 51.6 14-Oct-94 12:00 165.0
15-Oct-94 12:00 157.0
16-Oct-94 12:00 390.0
17-Oct-94 12:00 324.0
18-Oct-94 12:00 264.0

2 Krueng Woyla
Gauging station: Kr Woyla at
2)
Manggi Tutut Kr Woyla 1748 02 Dec 2001 to 7 Dec 2001 Manggi Tutut 2-Dec-01 12:00 5.5 Gauging station: Kr Woyla at Manggi Tutut
Manggi Tutu Local Kr Woyla 401.1 13:00 29.7 01-Dec-01 12:00 292.0
Kwala Bhee Kr Woyla 2149.1 14:00 9.4 02-Dec-01 12:00 386.0
15:00 4.8 03-Dec-01 12:00 320.0
16:00 4.9 04-Dec-01 12:00 267.0
17:00 0.1 05-Dec-01 12:00 328.0

2)
Total = 54.4 Gauging station: Kr Woyla at Kwala Bhee
01-Dec-01 12:00 270.0
02-Dec-01 12:00 228.0
03-Dec-01 12:00 192.0
04-Dec-01 12:00 481.0
05-Dec-01 12:00 270.0

4 Kr Meureubo 23 Jul 1987 to 28 Jul 1987


2)
Kr Beutong G Kota Sub B Kr Meureubo 883 Sawang Taube 23-Jul-01 16:00 0.8 Gauging station: Kr Meureubo at MNS Rayeuk
Kr Meureubo Mns Rayeuk Sub B Kr Meureubo 814.2 17:00 4.5 22-Jul-01 12:00 14.0
Kr Meureubo - MNS Rayeuk Kr Meureubo 1697.2 18:00 73.1 23-Jul-01 12:00 233.0
19:00 21.6 24-Jul-01 12:00 45.0
20:00 19.5
21:00 1.2
22:00 0.2
23:00 0.1

Total = 121.1

Notes :
1)
Source of data : Sub Dinas Pengembangan Pedesaan dan Konservasi SDA, Dinas SDA, Propinsi NAD, Publikasi Data Klimatologi dan Curah Hujan Prop. NAD Th 2001, Banda Aceh
2)
Source of data : Sub Dinas Pengembangan Pedesaan dan Konservasi SDA, Dinas SDA, Propinsi NAD, Data Debit Sungai Prop. NAD Th 2001 dan Th 1994, Banda Aceh
3)
Source of data : Balai Penyelidikan Hidrologi, Puslitbang Pengairan, Balitbang PU, Dept PU, Bandung

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Table 4-4: Rainfall data and discharge used in calibration – part 02
1)
No Location Catchments Area Period of calibration Rainfall Station Historical storm Recorded flood discharges
Gaging Station Main River [km2] Date Time{hrs] Rainfall [mm/hr] Date Time Discharge Q [m3/sec]

5 Kr Aceh
5-1 Kr Jreue - Kp Jreue Kr Aceh 181.7 07 Mar 2001 to 12 Mar 2001
2)
Kampung Siron 7-Mar-01 23:00 4.1 Gauging station: Kr Jreue at Kp Jreue
8-Mar-01 0:00 3.1 7-Mar-01 12:00 3.8
1:00 2.4 8-Mar-01 12:00 10.0
9-Mar-01 12:00 5.2
Total = 9.6

5-2 Kr Keumireu - Kp Siron Blang Kr Aceh 216.2 11 Feb 2001 to 16 Feb 2001
2)
Kampung Siron 12-Feb-01 17:00 19.8 Gauging station: Kr Keumireu at Kp Siron Blang
18:00 2.4 11-Feb-01 12:00 5.2
19:00 3.6 12-Feb-01 12:00 31.1
20:00 3.0 13-Feb-01 12:00 3.2

Total = 28.8

5-3 Kr Aceh at Kp Darang/Indrapuri


KrAcehLpsTunongSubBasin Kr Aceh 643.7 08 Jun 2001 to 13 Jun 2001
2)
Kr Jreue Kp Jreue Kr Aceh 181.7 Gauging station: Kr Aceh Lampisang Tunong
Kr Keumireu Kp Siron Blang Kr Aceh 216.2 Lambheue 10-Jun-01 0:00 1.5 7-Jun-01 12:00 14.4
Lps Tunong Local Kr Aceh 237.6 1:00 17 8-Jun-01 12:00 40.5
Kr Aceh at Kp Darang/Indrapuri Kr Aceh 1279.2 2:00 6.5 9-Jun-01 12:00 27.9
3:00 4.5 10-Jun-01 12:00 22.6
4:00 0

2)
Total = 29.5 Gauging station: Kr Aceh Kp Darang/ Indrapuri
7-Jun-01 12:00 68.0
8-Jun-01 12:00 65.8
9-Jun-01 12:00 74.7
10-Jun-01 12:00 126.0
11-Jun-01 12:00 97.9
12-Jun-01 12:00 78.1

6 Kr Manee
3)
Kr Tuan - Kp Lhok Joek Kr Manee 96.9 18 Apr 1986 to 22 Apr 1986 Glumpang Gauging station: Kr Tuan at Lhok Joek
18-Apr-86 12:00 2.3
20-Apr-86 3:00 0.0 19-Apr-86 12:00 2.0
4:00 4.7 20-Apr-86 12:00 69.4
5:00 15.1 21-Apr-86 12:00 6.7
6:00 14.5 22-Apr-86 12:00 4.7
7:00 23.7
8:00 4.9
9:00 5.6

Total = 68.6

Notes :
1)
Source of data : Sub Dinas Pengembangan Pedesaan dan Konservasi SDA, Dinas SDA, Propinsi NAD, Publikasi Data Klimatologi dan Curah Hujan Prop. NAD Th 2001, Banda Aceh
2)
Source of data : Sub Dinas Pengembangan Pedesaan dan Konservasi SDA, Dinas SDA, Propinsi NAD, Data Debit Sungai Prop. NAD Th 2001 dan Th 1994, Banda Aceh

4.6 URBAN HYDROLOGY ANALYSIS


According to the Technical Design Standards [2], for urban area the Rational Method will be used
within its limitation. The Rational Method transforms a meteorological input into an output which is
a runoff discharge rate. A meteorological input for the Rational Method techniques is a rainfall with
uniform intensity obtained from an Intensity – Duration - Frequency (IDF) relation (see Chapter
3.2.5). The transformation requires that the drainage system be characterized by an area, a runoff
coefficient, which assumes rainfall losses by infiltration are constant in time, and a response time,
which is the time of concentration.

The formula is stated as:

Q y = 0.00278 x Cy x Itc, y x A

Where:
Qy = peak discharge [m3/s] of return period of y years
Cy = runoff coefficient for y years for contributing dub-area
Itc, y = average rainfall intensity [mm/h] corresponding to the time of concentration [h]
and return period of y years;
A = area of contributing catchments [ha].

a) Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves
The IDF relations for this study were derived by using the I60 of 3 hours duration pattern (see Table
3-9) of Annual Maximum of Daily Rainfall for each corresponding study area and return period (see
Chapter 3.2.5). A typical example of IDF relation is shown in Figure 3-6.

b) Design Storm
The test done with Indonesian rainfall data and watershed show that acceptable results can be
obtained if the storm is discrete with a time step of 15 to 20 minutes. [2] The design storms for this
study are derived by interrelationship with IDF curve. A typical example of design storm for urban
drainage is shown in Figure 3-7.

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c) Catchments Runoff Coefficients
Runoff coefficients applied to the computation of peak discharges for the various catchments were
obtained from Part III – Urban Hydrology Manual, Technical Design Standard [2]. The values are
shown in Table 4-5.

It should be noted that in the computation of storm water runoff, the catchments were assumed to
be fully developed (ultimate). The selection of the runoff coefficients for the various land use
categories and the values applied therefore reflected anticipated (as per land-use planning maps
for 2015) future catchments conditions. For sub-catchments consisting of different land use types, a
composite runoff coefficient was calculated.

Table 4-5: Land use category and corresponding runoff coefficients


Type of land use Characteristic Run off coefficient (C)
Business District and Shopping Centre 0.90
Industrial Full built-up 0.80
Residential (medium-high density) 20 houses/ha 0.48
30 houses/ha 0.55
40 houses/ha 0.65
60 houses/ha 0.75
Residential (low density) 10 houses/ha 0.40
Parks Flat area 0.30

Amongst other factors, the runoff coefficient depends on the return period of the storm. A
literature search indicated that the values shown in Table 4-5 are close to the 10-year return period
storm event. The 10-years storm runoff coefficients were adjusted to correspond to the 5-year
return period values.
The relationship shown below was used to estimate the 5-year storm event runoff coefficients.

C5 = 0.95 C10

d) Time of Concentration
The time of concentration, which refers to the time taken by storm water runoff to travel from the
most remote part of the catchments to the location of interest was calculated by summing the
overland flow time (entry time) and the time of travel in the drains. The time of concentration is
required for the estimation of rainfall intensities.

e) Overland Flow Time


For each sub - catchments, the overland flow time was extracted from the chart shown in Figure
4-3. However, a minimum overland flow entry time of 10 minutes was assumed in accordance with
the Technical Design Standard, Part III – Urban Hydrology [2].

Other methods used for a minimum overland flow (entry time) include empirical relation having the
form of:

Kinematics wave formula:

T C = L 0.6 N 0.6
I -0.4 S -0.3

Where:
L = Flow length [m]
N = Manning’s roughness coefficient
I = excess rainfall intensity [mm/h]
Sf = Slope [m/m]
Source: Technical Design Standards, Part III – Urban Hydrology Manual, November 1994 ( page 3-22).

However, a minimum overland flow entry time of 10 minutes was assumed in accordance with the
Technical Design Standard, Part III – Urban Hydrology [2].

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Source : Drainage management for Jakarta Priority Assistance DKI 3-8, PT Indah Karyaa, March 2004
Figure 4-3: Design chart for the estimation of time of entry of overland flow

f) Time of Travel in Drains


Time of travel in the drains was computed using the hydraulic properties of the drains and the
velocities shown in Table 4-6.

Table 4-6: Channel Velocities


Velocity Channel slope (S)
[m/s] [m/m]
2.0 1/200 < S
1.5 1/500 < S ≤ 1/200
1.0 1/1000 < S ≤ 1/500
0.5 S < 1/1000
Source: Master Plan Study, JICA 1991

Time of travel in drain = flow length [m] / velocity [m/s] / 60 [min]


Time of concentration (min) = Overland flow time + Time of travel in drain

g) Recommendation on using of the Rational Formula

In accordance with the Technical Design Standard Page 4-13 [4] the maximum limit for improved of
Rational Formula application should be smaller with the following:

Maximum Area = 300 hectares


Maximum rural = 30 % distributed percentage

Other restrictions, such as presence of storage, special (meandering channel), should also be
considered.

Any restriction mentioned above come across in this study is solved by using the HEC – HMS model.

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 36
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
5 REFERENCES

[1] CV Dypersi Consult (2003): “Laporan Utama (Main Report) Studi Probable Maximum
Precipitation (PMP) Provinsi Nangroe Aceh Darussalam”. 20 Agustus 2003.

[2] Agra Earth & Environment/Wisner Consulting, November 1994, "Urban Drainage Guidelines
and Technical Design Standards WSTCF 092/020, Volume II". Prepared for DGWRD by CIDA.

[3] US Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrology Engineering Center, Hydrology Modelling System
HEC-HMS, Technical Reference Manual, March 2000.

[4] Directorate General of Water Resources Development (DEWRD), Ministry of Public Works,
Guideline Introduction to Flood Design Manual for Java and Sumatra, by institute of
Hydrology (U.K.) and Direktorat Penyelidikan Masalah Air, 1981 - 1983

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 37
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
APPENDIX

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 38
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
APPENDIX A: SHORT DESCRIPTION HEC-HMS MODEL

HEC-HMS is designed to simulate the precipitation-runoff processes of dendritic watershed systems.


It is designed to be applicable in a wide range of geographic areas for solving the widest possible
range of problems. This includes large river basin water supply and flood hydrology, and small
urban or natural watershed runoff. Hydrographs produced by the program are used directly or in
conjunction with other software for studies of water availability, urban drainage, flow forecasting,
future urbanization impact, reservoir spillway design, flood damage reduction, floodplain
regulation, and systems operation.

Storage and retrieval of data is handled by the program and is generally transparent to the user.
Precipitation and discharge gage information can be entered manually within the program or can be
loaded from previously created DSS files. Data entry can be performed for individual basin elements
such as sub-basins and stream reaches or simultaneously for entire classes of similar elements.
Tables and forms for entering necessary data are accessed from a visual schematic of the basin.
The computation engine draws on over 30 years experience with hydrologic simulation software.
Many algorithms from HEC-1 have been modernized and combined with new algorithms to form a
comprehensive library of simulation routines. Future versions of the program will continue to
modernize desirable algorithms from legacy software. The current research program is designed to
produce new algorithms and analysis techniques for addressing emerging problems.

The physical representation of watersheds or basins and rivers is configured in the basin model.
Hydrologic elements are connected in a dendritic network to simulate runoff processes. Available
elements are: sub-basin, reach, junction, reservoir, diversion, source, and sink. Computation
proceeds from upstream elements in a downstream direction.

Figure A-1: General outline of the hydrological processes in HEC-HMS

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 39
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
Assortments of different methods are available to simulate infiltration losses. Options for event
modelling include initial and constant, SCS curve number, gridded SCS curve number, and Green
and Ampt. The one-layer deficit and constant model can be used for simple continuous modelling.
The five-layer soil moisture accounting model can be used for continuous modelling of complex
infiltration and evapotranspiration environments. The easiest method, applied here is based on a
combination of initial loss and constant loss. The underlying concept of the initial and constant-rate
loss model is that the maximum potential rate of precipitation loss, fc, is constant throughout an
event. Thus, if pt is the MAP depth during a time interval t to t+ t, the excess, pet, during the
interval is given by:

An initial loss, Ia, is added to the model to represent interception and depression storage.
Interception storage is a consequence of absorption of precipitation by surface cover, including
plants in the watershed. Depression storage is a consequence of depressions in the watershed
topography; water is stored in these and eventually infiltrates or evaporates. This loss occurs prior
to the onset of runoff.
Until the accumulated precipitation on the pervious area exceeds the initial loss volume, no runoff
occurs. Thus, the excess is given by:

Several methods are included for transforming excess precipitation into surface runoff. Unit
hydrograph methods include the Clark technique, the Snyder technique, and the SCS technique.
User-specified unit hydrograph ordinates can also be used. The modified Clark method, ModClark, is
a linear quasi-distributed unit hydrograph method that can be used with gridded precipitation data.
An implementation of the kinematic wave method with multiple planes and channels is also
included. For the present project, in general use is made of the Snyder unit hydrograph.

Figure A-2: Concept of the Snyder unit hydrograph

Snyder's UH model requires specifying the standard lag, tp, and the coefficient, Cp. Snyder collected
rainfall and runoff data from gaged watersheds, derived the UH as described earlier, parameterized
these UH, and related the parameters to measurable watershed characteristics. For the UH lag, he
proposed:

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 40
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
where Ct = basin coefficient; L = length of the main stream from the outlet to the divide; Lc =
length along the main stream from the outlet to a point nearest the watershed centroid; and C = a
conversion constant (0.75 for SI units). The parameter Ct and Cp are best found via calibration, as
they are not physically-based parameters.

A variety of hydrologic routing methods are included for simulating flow in open channels. Routing
with no attenuation can be modelled with the lag method. The traditional Muskingum method is
included. The modified Puls method can be used to model a reach as a series of cascading level
pools with a user-specified storage-outflow relationship. Channels with trapezoidal, rectangular,
triangular, or circular cross sections can be modelled with the kinematic wave or Muskingum-Cunge
method. Channels with overbank areas can be modelled with the Muskingum-Cunge method and an
8-point cross section. Although popular and easy to use, the Muskingum model includes parameters
that are not physically based and thus are difficult to estimate. Further, the model is based upon
assumptions that often are violated in natural channels. An extension, the Muskingum-Cunge
model, overcomes these limitations.

Meteorological data analysis is performed by the meteorological model and includes precipitation
and evapotranspiration. Four different historical and synthetic precipitation methods are included.
One evapotranspiration method is included at this time.
Four different methods for analyzing historical precipitation are included. The user-specified
hyetograph method is for precipitation data analyzed outside the program. The gage weights
method uses an unlimited number of recording and non- recording gages. The Thiessen technique is
one possibility for determining the weights. The inverse distance method addresses dynamic data
problems. An unlimited number of recording and non-recording gages can be used to automatically
proceed when missing data is encountered. The gridded precipitation method uses radar rainfall
data.

The time span of a simulation is controlled by control specifications. Control specifications include
a starting date and time, ending date and time, and computation time step. A computation run is
created by combining a basin model, meteorological model, and control specifications. Run options
include a precipitation or flow ratio, capability to save all basin states at a point in time, and
ability to begin a simulation from previously saved states. Computation results are viewed from the
basin model schematic. Global and element summary tables include information on peak flow and
total volume. Time-series tables and graphs are available for elements. All graphs and tables can be
printed on a Postscript 1 capable printer.

Most parameters for methods included in sub-basin and reach elements can be estimated
automatically using the optimization manager. Observed discharge must be available for at least
one element before optimization can begin. Parameters at any element upstream of the observed
flow can be estimated. Four different objective functions are available to estimate the goodness-
of-fit between the computed results and observed discharge. Two different search methods can be
used to find the best fit between the computed results and observed discharge. Constraints can be
imposed to restrict the parameter space of the search method.

Computation results are viewed from the basin model schematic. Global and element summary
tables include information on peak flow and total volume. Time-series tables and graphs are
available for elements. Customizable graph and report generators are planned for future versions.

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 41
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
APPENDIX B: VARIABLES COMPUTED BY WMS

A complete list of variables computed for drainage basins that are available for use in defining
equations, along with the acronyms used in WMS is given below:

A The area of the basin in the units specified prior to computing basin parameters.
BS The average basin slope, or average slope of the triangles comprising this basin. A triangle's
slope is computed as the change in elevation divided by the change in XY or plan distance.
AOFD The average overland flow distance within the basin. This is computed by averaging the
overland distance traveled from the centroid of each triangle to the nearest stream.
%NF The percentage of the basin whose aspect is directed North where North is defined as the
positive Y direction.
%SF The percentage of the basin whose aspect is directed South where South is defined as the
negative Y direction.
L Basin length.
P Perimeter of the basin.
Shape The shape factor of the basin, or the length divided by the width.
Sin Sinuosity factor of the stream in the basin. Defined by dividing the maximum stream length in
the basin by the length.
AVEL The mean basin elevation.
MFD The maximum flow distance within a basin including both overland and channel flow.
MFDS The slope of the MFD.
CTOMFD The distance from the centroid of the basin to the nearest point associated with the MFD.
CSD The distance from the centroid of the basin to a point in the stream which is a part of the MFD.
The CSD differs from the CTOMFD in that it is only concerned with the channel or stream flow
portion of the MFD, whereas the CTOMFD also incorporates the portion of the MFD which is overland
flow.
CSS The slope of the CSD.
MSL The maximum stream length within the basin. This is computed by determining the maximum
distance travelled when "flowing" down from the top of streams in a basin and where the streams
exit the basin.
MSS The slope of MSL.
In addition to the basin attributes defined above the following stream attributes are computed:
L Stream lengths for each segment.
SS Stream slopes for each segment.

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 42
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
Annual Maximum of daily rainfall data for study area (NAD and Nias) [mm/day]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Blangkedjeren Meulaboh - Aceh Tjlang Tangse Lho Nga Olee Karang Kutaraja
Tahun Pos 101 Tahun Pos 102 Tahun Pos 103 Tahun Pos 104a Tahun Pos 106 Tahun Pos 106b Tahun Pos 107 Tahun Pos 107
1916 69 1916 117 1916 193 1923 69 1916 167 1920 91 1879 67 1922 169
1917 62 1917 140 1917 153 1924 91 1917 165 1921 69 1880 277 1923 101
1918 67 1918 123 1918 116 1925 95 1918 109 1922 154 1881 90 1924 106
1919 84 1919 174 1919 128 1926 59 1919 107 1923 95 1882 98 1925 87
1920 68 1920 253 1920 134 1927 98 1920 105 1924 96 1883 68 1926 174
1921 120 1921 147 1921 168 1928 85 1921 112 1925 101 1884 72 1927 68
1922 63 1922 180 1922 217 1929 112 1922 134 1926 218 1885 88 1928 110
1923 92 1923 101 1923 132 1930 76 1923 105 1927 74 1886 144 1929 70
1924 75 1924 87 1924 143 1931 53 1924 132 1928 135 1887 103 1930 92

BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI


1925 68 1925 110 1925 119 1932 99 1925 92 1929 61 1888 89 1931 165
1926 54 1926 136 1926 168 1933 105 1926 168 1930 84 1889 122 1932 92

Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology


1927 80 1927 258 1927 260 1934 62 1928 135 1931 109 1890 92 1933 202
1928 71 1928 149 1928 105 1935 74 1929 101 1932 89 1891 105 1934 93
1929 79 1929 200 1930 146 1936 75 1930 80 1933 142 1892 154 1935 192
1930 83 1930 169 1931 151 1938 65 1931 90 1934 85 1893 91 1936 195
1931 72 1931 195 1932 155 1939 85 1932 102 1935 177 1894 85 1937 84
1932 72 1932 250 1933 197 1941 71 1933 184 1936 186 1895 155 1938 162
1933 97 1933 152 1934 244 1955 102 1934 115 1937 97 1896 133 1939 92
1934 83 1934 266 1935 140 1957 50 1935 140 1938 123 1897 103 1941 103
1935 77 1935 198 1936 132 1958 110 1936 81 1939 96 1898 84 1953 86
1936 93 1936 110 1937 130 1959 100 1937 120 1941 115 1899 168 1954 123
1937 61 1937 124 1938 140 1960 87 1938 127 1900 64 1955 75
1938 80 1938 130 1939 184 1961 57 1939 90 1901 87 1956 86
1939 98 1939 135 1941 156 1976 98 1941 190 1902 139 1958 91
1941 63 1941 169 1955 231 1978 86 1951 163 1903 123 1959 57
1975 156 1953 200 1956 146 1980 130 1952 202 1904 148 1960 110
1984 51 1954 125 1957 129 1981 46 1953 209 1905 93 1963 80
1955 154 1978 190 1983 56 1954 191 1906 105 1964 125
1957 171 1979 196 1984 77 1955 85 1907 102 1967 106
1958 177 1980 167 1956 105 1908 101 1968 129
1961 149 1981 149 1981 90 1909 118 1969 119
1964 132 1982 100 1982 67 1910 96 1970 97
1969 204 1983 165 1983 192 1911 138 1971 243
1970 164 1984 106 1984 132 1912 124 1972 127

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project
1971 72 1913 80 1973 150
1972 137 1914 127 1974 183
1973 175 1915 94 1975 95
1974 97 1916 97 1976 106
1975 154 1917 214 1977 183
1981 103 1918 114 1978 105
1982 198 1919 78 1979 86
1983 92 1920 100 1980 104
1984 77 1921 65 1981 72
1983 56
1984 135
Jml data = 27 Jml data = 43 Jml data = 34 Jml data = 29 Jml data = 34 Jml data = 21 Jml data = 88
APPENDIX C: ANNUAL MAXIMUM OF DAILY RAINFALL DATA

43
Annual Maximum of daily rainfall data for study area (NAD and Nias) [mm/day]
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Kutaraja Meteo Sabang Sabang Meteo Krueng Raja Lam Teuba Auli Glong/Seulimeun Padang Tidji Sigli
Tahun Pos 107c Tahun Pos 108 Tahun Pos 108b Tahun Pos 110 Tahun Pos 111 Tahun Pos 112 Tahun Pos 113 Tahun Pos 113a
1960 80 1916 132 1925 59 1916 80 1916 113 1916 92 1916 81 1919 87
1961 86 1917 114 1926 105 1917 84 1917 214 1917 164 1917 126 1920 48
1962 192 1918 221 1927 77 1918 57 1918 71 1918 150 1918 91 1921 95
1963 62 1919 104 1928 75 1919 92 1919 75 1919 63 1919 66 1922 76
1964 110 1920 78 1929 70 1920 55 1920 102 1920 70 1920 71 1923 175
1965 110 1921 80 1930 112 1921 60 1921 58 1921 125 1921 180 1924 68
1966 180 1922 87 1931 88 1922 305 1922 233 1922 70 1922 77 1925 66
1967 125 1923 88 1935 216 1923 68 1923 126 1923 84 1923 101 1926 104

BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI


1968 78 1924 104 1936 139 1924 106 1924 161 1924 115 1924 98 1927 89
1969 94 1925 165 1937 135 1925 61 1925 124 1925 83 1925 55 1928 74

Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology


1970 91 1926 100 1938 106 1926 240 1926 150 1926 91 1926 137 1929 100
1971 194 1927 82 1939 100 1927 78 1927 53 1927 85 1927 128 1930 93
1972 53 1928 77 1941 140 1928 50 1928 254 1928 75 1928 93 1931 113
1973 166 1929 110 1953 163 1929 40 1929 65 1929 110 1929 65 1932 78
1974 60 1930 107 1954 173 1930 156 1930 118 1930 100 1930 89 1933 85
1975 106 1931 115 1955 97 1931 114 1931 192 1931 57 1931 141 1934 92
1976 73 1932 98 1956 95 1932 94 1932 174 1932 91 1932 125 1935 52
1977 68 1933 126 1957 111 1933 123 1933 103 1933 142 1933 96 1936 77
1978 182 1934 127 1958 90 1934 65 1934 65 1934 94 1934 71 1937 147
1979 87 1935 225 1959 179 1935 120 1935 78 1935 92 1935 96 1938 88
1980 106 1936 122 1960 130 1936 156 1936 80 1936 70 1936 84 1939 127
1981 52 1937 85 1961 137 1937 153 1937 130 1937 71 1937 98 1940 103
1982 48 1938 90 1963 100 1938 49 1938 100 1938 84 1938 96 1953 275
1983 85 1939 104 1964 129 1939 43 1939 75 1939 54 1939 88 1954 248
1984 136 1941 91 1970 111 1941 94 1941 117 1941 90 1941 74 1955 57
1982 72 1971 167 1972 67 1956 135
1983 74 1972 100 1973 60 1957 136
1973 185 1974 87 1958 100
1974 114 1975 126 1960 125
1975 120 1976 100 1961 58
1976 122 1977 114 1970 105

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project
1977 189 1971 85
1978 131 1972 86
1979 120 1973 164
1981 189 1974 84
1982 70 1975 79
1983 93 1976 158
1977 128
1978 84
1979 90
1980 85
1981 130
1982 90
1983 51
1984 125
Jml data = 25 Jml data = 27 Jml data = 37 Jml data = 25 Jml data = 25 Jml data = 31 Jml data = 25 Jml data = 45

44
Annual Maximum of daily rainfall data for study area (NAD and Nias) [mm/day]
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Meureudoe Bireun Lhokseumawe Telong Lampahan Baleg Lhoksoekon Panton Laboe
Tahun Pos 113b Tahun Pos 114 Tahun Pos 115 Tahun 116 b Tahun Pos 116c Tahun Pos 116d Tahun 1701 Tahun Pos 117
1918 138 1916 112 1916 149 1936 80 1936 75 1936 62 1916 105 1920 78
1919 150 1917 94 1917 110 1937 68 1937 75 1937 50 1917 151 1921 118
1920 126 1918 97 1918 101 1938 122 1938 67 1938 66 1918 133 1922 90
1921 253 1919 103 1919 98 1939 157 1939 72 1939 110 1919 101 1923 186
1922 45 1920 137 1920 137 1941 82 1941 72 1941 80 1920 75 1924 87
1923 102 1921 127 1921 91 1952 92 1951 65 1951 65 1921 85 1925 90
1924 130 1922 86 1922 141 1953 53 1952 65 1952 55 1922 165 1926 120
1925 175 1923 119 1923 131 1955 62 1953 81 1953 54 1923 100 1927 76
1926 117 1924 99 1924 132 1957 60 1954 108 1964 95 1924 87 1928 120

BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI


1927 118 1925 153 1925 94 1958 70 1955 75 1965 114 1925 158 1929 127
1928 123 1926 95 1926 111 1959 72 1957 30 1966 60 1926 113 1930 93

Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology


1929 59 1927 65 1927 126 1964 67 1958 50 1967 141 1927 72 1931 125
1930 118 1928 65 1928 150 1965 72 1959 57 1968 112 1928 142 1932 104
1931 74 1929 102 1929 78 1966 64 1960 57 1969 73 1929 77 1933 95
1932 89 1930 103 1930 119 1967 80 1961 50 1970 67 1930 79 1934 70
1933 123 1931 97 1931 92 1968 85 1962 99 1971 80 1931 95 1935 165
1934 119 1932 85 1932 77 1969 97 1963 79 1972 85 1932 112 1936 104
1935 73 1933 161 1933 90 1970 64 1964 40 1976 60 1933 135 1938 82
1936 89 1934 65 1935 83 1971 95 1966 30 1977 71 1934 81 1939 140
1937 100 1935 121 1936 108 1972 44 1967 26 1978 74 1935 89 1984 70
1938 55 1936 132 1937 142 1973 80 1968 42 1979 74 1936 180
1939 95 1937 102 1938 105 1974 69 1969 76 1937 75
1941 100 1938 65 1939 110 1975 50 1970 74 1938 175
1953 182 1939 110 1941 87 1976 64 1972 50 1939 69
1955 100 1941 98 1953 112 1977 85 1973 50 1941 61
1956 93 1953 58 1954 140 1978 70 1974 32 1953 100
1957 185 1954 73 1955 88 1979 71 1976 86 1954 250
1958 53 1955 88 1960 110 1977 119 1955 90
1959 60 1964 72 1961 119 1978 44 1964 125
1960 109 1965 80 1965 115 1979 106 1972 144
1963 205 1970 58 1966 240 1982 55 1973 160

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project
1965 180 1972 96 1969 113 1974 145
1966 135 1973 221 1970 72 1975 175
1973 95 1974 135 1971 88 1976 145
1974 65 1977 90 1972 128 1977 100
1975 66 1980 120 1973 319 1978 88
1976 67 1981 239 1975 113 1979 115
1979 120 1982 55 1976 115 1980 100
1980 127 1977 103 1981 150
1981 115 1978 104 1982 155
1982 41 1979 97 1983 305
1983 58 1981 255 1984 103
1984 64 1982 95

Jml data = 43 Jml data = 38 Jml data = 43 Jml data = 27 Jml data = 31 Jml data = 21 Jml data = 43 Jml data = 20

45
Annual Maximum of daily rainfall data for study area (NAD and Nias) [mm/day]
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Takengon Takengon(dep.pert) Lukup Periak Gedubang Alue Jambuk Kuala Simpang
Tahun Pos 118 Tahun Pos 118h Tahun Pos 119 Tahun Pos 120a Tahun Pos 120c Tahun Pos 12a1 Tahun Pos 122
1916 56 1953 55 1916 115 1919 91 1933 264 1919 93 1916 120
1917 81 1954 60 1917 124 1920 83 1934 78 1920 108 1917 251
1918 94 1955 57 1918 119 1921 122 1935 71 1921 75 1918 97
1919 68 1956 100 1919 136 1922 111 1936 107 1922 51 1919 130
1920 68 1957 94 1920 88 1923 127 1937 103 1923 103 1920 96
1921 75 1958 90 1921 153 1924 91 1938 90 1924 100 1921 126
1922 575 1959 75 1922 168 1925 92 1939 160 1925 202 1922 110
1923 75 1960 51 1923 138 1926 146 1941 79 1926 152 1923 112

BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI


1924 74 1961 69 1924 113 1927 75 1953 168 1927 111 1924 76
1925 55 1962 85 1925 138 1928 95 1954 120 1928 80 1925 146

Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology


1926 74 1964 163 1926 185 1929 117 1955 103 1929 128 1926 117
1927 73 1965 57 1927 95 1930 110 1956 106 1930 95 1927 85
1929 67 1966 73 1928 140 1931 124 1957 100 1931 165 1928 99
1930 97 1967 75 1929 106 1932 100 1958 110 1932 97 1929 91
1931 50 1968 63 1930 109 1933 127 1959 92 1933 117 1930 72
1936 69 1970 65 1931 105 1934 90 1962 60 1934 140 1931 148
1937 77 1971 68 1932 110 1935 75 1963 90 1935 127 1932 83
1938 57 1972 86 1933 144 1936 131 1964 94 1936 166 1933 176
1939 75 1973 130 1934 110 1937 100 1965 85 1937 114 1934 135
1941 77 1974 62 1935 96 1938 123 1968 118 1938 123 1935 105
1952 71 1975 59 1936 208 1939 140 1969 93 1939 114 1936 94
1953 63 1976 60 1937 147 1941 106 1970 80 1941 140 1937 170
1954 55 1977 48 1938 160 1972 84 1971 165 1984 49 1938 115
1955 57 1978 78 1939 125 1973 132 1972 121 1939 74
1956 65 1979 80 1941 112 1974 75 1973 126 1941 102
1960 51 1975 96 1974 99 1953 82
1961 69 1976 130 1976 87 1954 139
1969 65 1977 98 1977 127 1984 130
1977 60 1978 99 1978 192
1979 82 1979 87 1979 123

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project
1981 44 1980 65 1980 102
1984 55 1981 185 1981 128
110 1982 170 1982 142
1983 65 1983 75
1984 345 1984 103

Jml data = 33 Jml data = 25 Jml data = 25 Jml data = 35 Jml data = 35 Jml data = 23 Jml data = 28

46
Annual Maximum of daily rainfall data for study area (NAD and Nias) [mm/day]
31 32 33 34 35 36
Pulau Tiga Pangkalan Susu Pangkalan Brandan Rundeng Singkel/Aceh Kutacane Jane
Tahun Pos 122c Tahun Pos 123a Tahun Pos 123b Tahun Pos 95 Tahun Pos 95a Tahun Pos 96
1953 100 1919 91 1919 113 1916 131 1918 112 1916 91
1954 101 1920 101 1920 127 1917 120 1919 117 1917 108
1955 103 1921 129 1921 127 1918 160 1920 365 1918 101
1956 135 1922 138 1922 107 1919 158 1921 202 1919 290
1957 135 1923 87 1923 112 1920 151 1922 105 1920 135
1958 125 1924 137 1924 80 1921 138 1923 135 1921 79
1959 115 1925 155 1925 121 1922 240 1924 250 1922 101

BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI


1960 50 1926 131 1926 136 1923 95 1925 110 1923 122
1961 50 1927 110 1927 77 1924 56 1926 173 1924 140
1963 144 1928 91 1928 105 1925 110 1927 278 1925 141

Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology


1964 100 1929 98 1929 110 1926 145 1928 130 1926 89
1965 145 1930 103 1930 77 1927 84 1929 220 1927 58
1966 128 1931 114 1931 140 1928 147 1930 168 1928 90
1967 147 1932 95 1932 80 1929 86 1931 210 1929 110
1968 145 1933 120 1933 110 1930 256 1932 123 1930 90
1969 120 1934 147 1934 90 1931 125 1933 204 1931 80
1970 80 1935 88 1935 109 1932 125 1934 135 1932 130
1971 85 1936 140 1936 126 1933 100 1935 120 1933 63
1972 71 1937 127 1937 101 1934 100 1936 117 1934 98
1973 124 1938 120 1938 102 1935 85 1937 245 1935 104
1974 125 1939 150 1939 124 1936 107 1938 125 1936 80
1975 128 1941 85 1941 100 1937 110 1939 221 1937 69
1976 85 1951 85 1938 78 1941 171 1938 78
1977 109 1952 119 1939 80 1954 119 1939 70
1978 170 1953 150 1941 80 1955 109 1941 142
1979 118 1954 92 1960 196 1956 57 1953 100
1980 172 1955 184 1962 174 1957 72 1954 315
1981 62 1956 126 1963 112 1972 123 1955 133
1982 98 1957 91 1964 132 1973 178 1957 157

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project
1983 60 1958 97 1965 177 1974 157 1958 119
1984 120 1959 110 1966 196 1975 144 1959 100
1960 90 1967 167 1976 153 1969 178
1961 84 1968 88 1977 132 1971 150
1963 103 1972 100 1978 102 1972 119
1964 72 1973 50 1979 149 1977 54
1976 110 1980 115 1979 161
1981 46 1981 67 1980 134
1982 96 1981 125
1983 80 1982 45
1983 36
1984 43

Jml data = 31 Jml data = 22 Jml data = 35 Jml data = 39 Jml data = 37 Jml data = 41

47
Annual Maximum of daily rainfall data for study area (NAD and Nias) /mm/day]
37 38 39 40 41 42
Kandang tapaktuan Kotabuluh Biangpidie Kwala Sinabung Sinabung
Tahun Pos 96a Tahun Pos 97 Tahun Pos 97b Tahun Pos 97c Tahun Pos 98 Tahun Pos 99
1923 97 1916 167 1923 75 1923 117 1916 110 1916 115
1924 91 1917 174 1924 195 1924 125 1917 73 1917 75
1925 139 1918 134 1925 101 1925 206 1918 141 1918 137
1926 90 1919 197 1926 169 1926 163 1919 138 1919 142
1927 156 1920 139 1927 176 1927 200 1920 88 1920 108
1928 145 1921 233 1928 139 1928 190 1921 148 1921 133
1930 181 1922 226 1929 152 1929 90 1922 71 1922 72
1931 125 1923 99 1930 125 1930 135 1923 164 1923 158
1932 111 1924 136 1931 266 1931 136 1924 167 1924 201

BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI


1933 134 1925 140 1932 210 1932 177 1925 76 1925 123
1934 116 1926 144 1933 151 1933 198 1927 132 1926 72

Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology


1937 128 1927 281 1934 205 1934 182 1928 146 1927 101
1938 133 1928 205 1935 175 1935 129 1929 54 1928 152
1939 140 1929 140 1936 184 1936 142 1930 83 1929 166
1941 223 1930 260 1937 111 1937 204 1931 86 1930 100
1972 136 1931 176 1938 81 1938 134 1932 142 1931 82
1973 128 1932 123 1939 142 1939 159 1933 118 1954 49
1974 155 1933 130 1941 125 1941 173 1934 73 1960 144
1975 145 1934 330 1953 146 1954 101 1935 80 1961 99
1976 150 1935 120 1954 162 1955 151 1936 71 1963 127
1977 140 1936 131 1955 289 1956 265 1937 105 1964 112
1978 126 1937 109 1956 152 1957 248 1938 93 1965 89
1979 149 1938 150 1957 190 1958 159 1939 143 1970 99
1980 140 1939 118 1958 195 1959 164 1941 113 1974 279
1982 145 1941 182 1959 187 1961 142 1975 81
1984 135 1972 145 1960 145 1967 84
1973 177 1961 140 1968 138
1974 173 1964 150 1969 175
1983 132 1965 269 1970 187
1966 199 1971 160

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project
1967 200 1972 107
1968 157 1973 186
1969 100 1974 182
1970 230 1975 120
1971 110 1976 182
1976 225 1977 218
1977 235 1978 173
1978 91 1979 149
1979 125 1980 117
1980 125 1981 171
1981 133 1982 128
1982 64 1983 159
1983 75 1984 114
1984 100
Jml data = 26 Jml data = 29 Jml data = 44 Jml data = 43 Jml data = 24 Jml data = 25

48
Annual Maximum of daily rainfall data for study area (NAD and Nias) [mm/day]
43 44 45 46 47 48
Barus (3m) Pakkat Panguruan (900m) Lau Balang (220 m) Balang 2 (610 m) Binaka
Tahun Pos 85 Tahun Pos 85b Tahun Pos 90 Tahun Pos 137 Tahun Pos 138 Tahun Pos Gn Sitoli
1916 134 1923 55 1916 160 1916 58 1916 65 1996 107
1917 148 1924 65 1917 61 1917 112 1917 65 1997 86
1918 175 1925 137 1918 64 1918 83 1918 82 1998 106
1919 130 1926 99 1919 85 1919 64 1919 71 1999 75
1920 107 1927 83 1920 90 1920 51 1920 52 2000 110
1922 132 1928 80 1921 50 1921 55 1921 50 2001 58
1923 148 1929 186 1922 66 1922 45 1922 71 2002 204

BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI


1924 160 1930 130 1923 98 1923 98 1923 63 2003 124
1925 107 1931 73 1924 40 1924 48 1924 85 2004 106
1926 168 1932 98 1925 73 1925 62 1925 82 2005 70

Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology


1927 171 1933 195 1926 40 1926 85 1926 83
1928 118 1934 127 1927 90 1927 110 1927 60
1929 154 1935 75 1928 58 1928 59 1928 48
1930 165 1936 175 1930 63 1929 65 1929 72
1931 240 1937 98 1931 50 1930 89 1930 75
1932 241 1938 157 1932 80 1931 81 1931 66
1933 157 1939 70 1933 77 1932 60 1933 64
1934 290 1941 80 1934 60 1933 100 1934 84
1935 134 1954 140 1935 48 1934 110 1935 80
1936 115 1955 127 1936 56 1935 83 1936 74
1937 98 1956 132 1937 70 1936 94 1937 56
1938 123 1958 139 1938 50 1937 86 1938 68
1939 168 1959 70 1939 78 1938 70 1939 50
1941 118 1941 90 1939 56 1941 90
1953 188 1953 115 1941 76
1954 209 1954 45
1955 229 1955 65
1956 180 1956 90
1962 117 1973 35
1963 182 1974 100
1964 219 1975 115

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project
1965 145 1976 80
1966 168 1977 75
1967 159 1978 75
1968 154
1969 92
1970 196
1971 102
1976 148
1977 150
1978 192
1979 126
1980 166
1981 138
1984 196

Jml data = 45 Jml data = 23 Jml data = 34 Jml data = 25 Jml data = 24 Jml data = 10

49
APPENDIX D: HISTORICAL STORMS DATA

DURASI 3 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3
1 Kota Bakti 13.1.85 41.7 0 45.6 67.1 100.0
2 Kota Bakti 25.9.87 97.0 0 47.0 91.2 100.0
3 Kota Bakti 26.2.94 55.7 0 45.6 81.7 100.0
4 Kota Bakti 13.5.94 58.7 0 62.0 96.8 100.0
5 Kota Bakti 27.7.94 59.8 0 16.9 84.3 100.0
6 Kota Bakti 30.9.94 64.1 0 5.9 53.0 100.0
7 Kota Bakti 25.10.94 57.8 0 48.8 83.7 100.0
8 Kota Bakti 28.2.95 53.4 0 53.4 91.2 100.0
9 Lheu 24.9.84 43.5 0 36.6 50.1 100.0
10 Glumpang 6.6.86 63.0 0 26.8 92.4 100.0
11 Glumpang 13.11.87 51.4 0 65.6 99.8 100.0
12 Tutut 27.9.85 42.8 0 3.0 99.1 100.0
13 Tutut 24.10.85 42.9 0 28.0 59.4 100.0
14 Sawang Tube 31.1.85 40.7 0 64.9 85.0 100.0
15 Sawang Tube 2.3.87 56.4 0 35.5 67.0 100.0
16 Sawang Tube 17.4.87 86.6 0 1.7 86.0 100.0

DURASI 4 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3 4
1 Kota Bakti 23.4.86 46.6 0 31.3 52.8 74.2 100.0
2 Kota Bakti 15.5.87 59.2 0 55.9 82.6 96.5 100.0
3 Kota Bakti 21.2.94 54.4 0 9.4 74.1 92.6 100.0
4 Kota Bakti 29.9.94 69.8 0 37.4 49.0 90.3 100.0
5 Jantho 23.2.82 58.9 0 23.6 61.5 96.9 100.0
6 Glumpang 26.11.86 57.7 0 0.2 1.2 60.3 100.0
7 Glumpang 27.5.87 45.2 0 0.9 4.0 88.3 100.0
8 Glumpang 2.6.87 40.1 0 21.2 99.0 99.8 100.0
9 Tutup 20.3.85 49.0 0 61.8 82.2 99.0 100.0
10 Tutup 31.10.85 41.4 0 81.2 88.4 97.8 100.0
11 Manggi Tutut 12.3.86 48.5 0 59.4 81.2 92.6 100.0
12 Manggi Tutut 21.3.86 47.6 0 79.8 83.6 99.2 100.0
13 Manggi Tutut 22.3.86 43.4 0 13.8 74.4 96.8 100.0
14 Manggi Tutut 22.12.86 78.2 0 5.1 48.6 74.4 100.0
15 Sawang Tube 15.4.87 73.5 0 8.4 97.1 99.9 100.0

DURASI 5 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3 4 5
1 Kota Bakti 20.11.94 54.8 0 9.7 82.7 91.8 96.5 100.0
2 Lheu 23.10.81 58.0 0 9.5 70.7 96.7 99.5 100.0
3 Glumpang 23.6.87 88.8 0 1.9 30.2 66.6 97.9 100.0
4 Manggi Tutut 2.4.86 40.6 0 30.8 81.3 89.4 93.8 100.0
5 Sawang Tube 26.4.86 51.7 0 31.3 38.9 46.2 99.6 100.0
6 Sawang Tube 13.3.87 66.8 0 88.6 90.6 96.3 99.6 100.0
7 Sawang Tube 22.11.87 42.7 0 2.3 37.9 97.0 99.8 100.0

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DURASI 6 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Kota Bakti 26.1.85 40.0 0 65.0 68.8 73.3 96.5 99.0 100.0
2 Kota Bakti 8.2.85 56.2 0 11.7 37.9 39.0 74.7 97.0 100.0
3 Kota Bakti 11.3.84 68.0 0 1.3 34.3 63.5 92.9 99.1 100.0
4 Kota Bakti 8.4.94 58.8 0 50.9 85.0 92.3 99.7 99.8 100.0
5 Kota Bakti 11.4.94 63.9 0 73.1 88.9 95.6 97.5 99.1 100.0
6 Kota Bakti 16.5.94 55.5 0 50.8 87.7 93.2 97.5 98.9 100.0
7 Kota Bakti 30.7.94 84.9 0 42.4 43.9 90.0 97.1 99.4 100.0
8 Lheu 26.10.81 50.9 0 2.4 2.8 5.9 80.4 97.4 100.0
9 Glumpang 19.4.86 68.6 0 6.9 28.9 50.1 84.7 91.8 100.0
10 Glumpang 2.7.86 49.4 0 84.0 93.5 95.3 97.4 99.0 100.0
11 Tutut 30.11.85 66.4 0 54.7 80.9 86.6 91.0 96.1 100.0
12 Manggi Tutut 1.3.86 53.2 0 70.7 89.5 97.2 97.9 99.2 100.0
13 Manggi Tutut 29.4.86 55.3 0 5.1 55.7 92.0 98.7 99.8 100.0
14 Manggi Tutut 5.10.86 45.1 0 8.6 66.1 83.8 93.8 99.1 100.0
15 Sawang Tube 14.3.87 55.0 0 2.2 4.2 5.6 11.3 14.5 100.0
16 Kampung Siron 26.1.94 73.7 0 7.2 10.6 14.0 38.5 63.1 100.0

DURASI 7 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 Kota Bakti 31.1.85 49.2 0 1.6 9.8 40.2 58.5 60.8 82.1 100.0
2 Kota Bakti 3.11.86 51.3 0 19.5 39.0 54.6 71.2 76.6 80.5 100.0
3 Kota Bakti 8.8.87 57.0 0 30.7 41.6 43.2 45.4 86.6 99.6 100.0
4 Jantho 17.4.85 95.9 0 84.0 87.6 91.2 93.2 96.4 97.6 100.0
5 Jantho 26.2.83 54.1 0 38.3 39.7 41.6 80.4 98.0 99.8 100.0
6 Jantho 22.12.84 81.0 0 1.0 4.9 54.9 96.2 98.6 99.0 100.0
7 Glumpang 12.12.87 68.5 0 64.7 88.9 93.6 94.2 99.4 99.7 100.0
8 Tutut 10.5.85 52.2 0 62.6 63.2 64.0 96.7 98.7 99.4 100.0
9 Manggi Tutut 9.6.86 54.8 0 8.9 31.9 63.7 73.5 81.8 96.1 100.0
10 Manggi Tutut 2.3.86 40.6 0 35.5 83.3 87.9 91.1 93.6 96.1 100.0
11 Manggi Tutut 3.3.86 49.9 0 30.5 56.1 79.6 82.8 85.2 87.8 100.0
12 Manggi Tutut 11.12.86 76.0 0 12.9 45.8 80.9 87.8 92.6 98.0 100.0
13 Sawang Tube 1.4.86 46.2 0 12.6 68.0 86.1 88.7 92.6 96.1 100.0
14 Sawang Tube 4.4.86 43.1 0 1.9 88.2 90.5 94.4 97.9 99.8 100.0
15 Sawang Tube 3.5.86 46.1 0 1.3 1.5 45.3 68.1 97.4 98.9 100.0
16 Sawang Tube 20.12.87 102.4 0 1.2 50.0 74.4 77.9 94.0 98.4 100.0
17 Takengon 2.5.87 46.3 0 58.1 79.0 84.9 97.8 98.1 99.4 100.0
18 Takengon 28.5.87 57.6 0 38.0 64.8 81.9 91.5 92.2 92.5 100.0
19 Takengon 6.2.86 50.7 0 1.4 11.2 40.8 80.3 98.0 99.0 100.0

DURASI 8 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Kota Bakti 13.2.85 53.8 0 9.3 11.5 13.6 50.2 67.8 82.7 87.2 100.0
2 Kota Bakti 1.2.94 54.8 0 4.4 7.5 8.0 14.1 69.5 88.0 99.3 100.0
3 Kota Bakti 2.2.94 94.9 0 2.7 45.2 55.8 87.8 98.4 99.3 99.6 100.0
4 Kota Bakti 10.2.94 125.2 0 6.5 30.2 48.2 53.8 77.1 92.4 97.6 100.0
5 Kota Bakti 24.1.97 54.0 0 3.7 13.0 16.7 72.2 83.3 87.3 88.9 100.0
6 Kota Bakti 5.11.85 57.8 0 10.9 45.5 73.9 78.4 90.8 97.2 99.3 100.0
7 Glumpang 27.8.85 53.1 0 33.3 90.8 94.0 92.7 97.4 99.1 99.6 100.0
8 Glumpang 6.10.85 66.5 0 1.2 5.3 20.3 72.0 91.9 96.2 98.3 100.0
9 Glumpang 1.8.87 78.6 0 8.7 41.3 79.9 86.6 91.6 95.8 98.6 100.0
10 Glumpang 23.11.87 43.6 0 43.6 74.1 84.4 91.5 92.4 95.4 99.3 100.0
11 Tutut 9.12.87 46.1 0 13.0 20.8 27.3 45.3 65.1 83.7 99.6 100.0
12 Tutut 12.12.86 89.5 0 4.2 26.6 82.5 95.8 97.4 98.3 99.0 100.0
13 Manggi Tutut 18.3.86 54.7 0 2.7 14.6 45.5 85.7 93.4 98.8 99.1 100.0
14 Sawang Tube 12.4.86 40.8 0 18.9 40.4 60.8 64.2 67.4 84.8 95.1 100.0
15 Sawang Tube 24.7.87 121.1 0 0.7 4.4 64.8 82.6 98.7 99.7 99.9 100.0
16 Sawang Tube 25.7.87 109.9 0 14.1 57.1 75.3 80.0 81.3 84.0 98.6 100.0
17 Sawang Tube 1.11.87 71.5 0 0.7 8.4 14.0 17.1 61.8 89.8 96.4 100.0
18 Sawang Tube 5.12.87 113.0 0 31.6 36.2 45.9 83.1 94.2 99.2 99.8 100.0
19 Takengon 3.12.87 40.5 0 43.7 48.6 57.3 73.6 87.2 95.3 98.8 100.0
20 Takengon 27.5.96 52.8 0 7.2 20.6 26.3 83.9 85.4 91.5 97.0 100.0

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DURASI 9 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 Kota Bakti 6.5.86 40.3 0 6.2 16.1 45.9 83.1 90.6 96.8 98.0 99.5 100.0
2 Kota Bakti 13.2.94 86.9 0 30.5 41.9 50.1 51.2 76.8 88.4 94.7 97.1 100.0
3 Kota Bakti 13.2.95 86.3 0 0.5 35.5 41.8 42.5 69.1 80.2 86.0 91.2 100.0
4 Kota Bakti 18.1.97 62.0 0 3.2 11.3 43.5 52.4 58.1 62.9 87.1 91.9 100.0
5 Kota Bakti 27.3.97 59.9 0 1.8 5.2 22.0 38.7 55.4 72.1 88.8 98.7 100.0
6 Tutut 13.2.85 48.1 0 41.2 74.2 79.8 80.2 83.0 86.7 93.3 97.3 100.0

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7 Manggi Tutut 18.4.86 63.7 0 5.5 11.5 18.7 28.3 37.4 69.2 79.7 97.5 100.0
8 Manggi Tutut 16.8.86 44.8 0 31.9 49.6 55.6 60.3 75.2 91.7 98.4 99.8 100.0

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9 Sawang Tube 19.10.87 62.5 0 0.2 0.3 33.9 91.0 94.2 94.4 94.9 97.8 100.0
10 Takengon 7.11.87 54.9 0 41.0 72.3 77.2 82.7 91.4 96.4 98.9 99.9 100.0

DURASI 10 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Kota Bakti 11.5.87 74.8 0 10.4 11.0 36.2 36.5 36.8 73.5 73.8 73.9 97.6 100
2 Jantho 19.3.85 54.5 0 1.3 5.7 11.6 18.9 19.8 41.1 45.9 49.4 85.7 100
3 Glumpang 17.10.85 45.8 0 3.5 7.6 58.7 63.3 83.0 86.7 92.4 65.0 97.2 100
4 Tutut 16.5.85 42.4 0 6.4 26.7 61.8 80.9 85.4 97.6 98.3 99.1 99.8 100
5 Tutut 18.8.85 49.0 0 0.6 4.9 24.5 41.2 54.9 66.1 76.1 96.7 99.4 100
6 Sawang Tube 9.3.86 58.2 0 39.2 40.7 41.2 59.8 79.9 93.3 93.6 94.9 97.1 100
7 Takengon 14.10.94 51.6 0 1.2 48.3 61.8 71.5 81.2 93.0 65.0 96.9 99.4 100

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8 Takengon 9.4.96 53.4 0 9.9 29.0 36.7 38.0 47.9 67.0 82.2 86.1 95.7 100

DURASI 11 JAM

Jumlah Kumulatif Jam ke [%]


No Nama Pos Tanggal
[mm] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1 Jantho 11.12.84 63.1 0 4.1 7.3 7.8 10.6 24.1 85.1 98.1 98.9 99.4 99.7 100
2 Glumpang 12.11.87 43.4 0 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 90.1 91.7 100
3 Tutut 6.5.85 60.4 0 8.9 10.3 11.6 29.5 79.1 91.2 95.5 96.5 97.7 98.8 100
4 Tutut 10.11.85 56.9 0 12.7 36.4 54.5 58.3 60.6 72.6 81.5 89.3 96.7 98.6 100
5 Manggi Tutut 6.9.86 51.3 0 10.3 31.4 47.0 49.3 58.3 65.5 69.0 90.1 97.5 99 100
6 Takengon 13.2.94 70.6 0 36.0 50.1 52.8 58.6 63.3 70.5 76.9 87.1 94.1 97 100

52
APPENDIX E: PARAMETERS OF MODEL CALIBRATION

Snyder parameters
Sub Basin Area Initial Loss Constant Rate Impervious Lag Time Peaking Coefficient
[km2] [mm] [mm/h] [%] [h]
Kr Aceh River system
KrAcehLpsTunongSubBasin 643.7 4.2 3 5 8.8 0.3
Kr Jreue Kp Jreue 181.7 2.1 0.8 15 9.8 0.3
Kr Keumireu Kp Siron 216.2 10 2 15 5.4 0.3
Lps Tunong Local 237.6 3.8 2.5 10 7.9 0.3

Kr Woyla Kwala Bhee


Kr Woyla Manggi Tutut 1748 10.2 3 0 16.8 0.3
Manggi Tutut Local 401.1 9.6 3 0 11.1 0.5

Kr meureubo
Kr Beutong G Kota Sub B 883 23.3 3 0 14.8 0.3
Kr Meureubo Mns Rayeuk Sub B 814.2 23.3 3 0 14.2 0.3

Kr Peusangan
Kr Peusangan Smp Jaya 1868.1 9.6 2 0 16.8 0.3
Smp Jaya Local 380.3 3.8 1 5 11.1 0.3

Kr Tuan (Tributary of Kr Manee)


Kr Tuan Lhok Joek Sub Basin 97 17.2 3 10 7.4 0.5

Sub Basin Initial Type Initial Discharge Initial discharge Recession Constant Threshold type Threshold flow
[m3/sec/km2] [m3/sec] [m3/sec]
Kr Aceh River system
KrAcehLpsTunongSubBasin Discharge Per Area 0.027 17.4 0.90 Ratio to Peak
Kr Jreue Kp Jreue Discharge Per Area 0.022 4.0 0.85 Ratio to Peak
Kr Keumireu Kp Siron Discharge Per Area 0.019 4.1 0.85 Ratio to Peak
Lps Tunong Local Discharge Per Area 0.120 28.5 0.88 Ratio to Peak

Kr Woyla Kwala Bhee


Kr Woyla Manggi Tutut Discharge 0.123 215.0 0.995 Ratio to Peak
Manggi Tutut Local Discharge 0.037 15.0 0.85 Ratio to Peak

Kr meureubo
Kr Beutong G Kota Sub B Discharge 0.058 51.2 0.99 Ratio to Peak
Kr Meureubo Mns Rayeuk Sub B Discharge 0.043 35.0 0.99 Ratio to Peak

Kr Peusangan
Kr Peusangan Smp Jaya Discharge 0.043 80.0 0.95 Ratio to Peak
Smp Jaya Local Discharge 0.237 90.0 0.95 Ratio to Peak

Kr Tuan (Tributary of Kr Manee)


Kr Tuan Lhok Joek Sub Basin Discharge Per Area 0.024 2.3 0.85 Ratio to Peak

Routing parameters
Reach Length Slope Manning's n Shape Diameter Width Side Slope L.B Manning's n R.B Manning's n Cross section Table
[m] [m/m] [m] [m] [xV: 1H]
Kr Aceh River system
Keumireu Kp Darang Reach 20050 0.00125 0.03 Eight Point 0.05 0.05 CrossKrAcehIndrapuri
Lps Tunong - Kp Darang Reach 19400 0.00125 0.03 Eight Point 0.05 0.05 CrossKrAcehIndrapuri
Kr Woyla Kwala Bhee
Manggi Tutut Kwala Bhee Reach 35640 0.00125 0.03 Eight Point 0.05 0.05 Table chan
Kr meureubo
G Kota Mns Rayeuk reach 73550 0.0007 0.03 Eight Point 0.05 0.05 Table chan3
Kr Peusangan
SmpJaya Beukah Reach 19780 0.00125 0.03 Eight Point 0.05 0.05 Table chan
Source : Sea defence

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Table Chan3

CrossKrAcehIndrapuri

Table chan

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APPENDIX F: MODEL CALIBRATION

F-1: Kr. Peusangan Smp Jaya


On the Northern coast of Aceh the river basin of the Kr. Peusangan Smp Jaya is typical of the many
mountain rivers that discharge from the high regions with an abrupt change in slope towards the
coastal plain. The location of this basin is shown on Figure F-1.

Figure F-1: Location of the Kr. Peusangan Smp Jaya basin

The total basin area is about 2,250 km2. There are two gauging (river) stations in the basin, which
allows for a calibration of both the upper and the lower part of the basin, with basin areas
respectively 1,868 km2 and 380 km2. The distinction into two sub-basins is shown in Figure F-2.

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Figure F-2: Sub-basins of the Kr. Peusangan Smp Jaya

The upper basin is limited at the gauging station of Jaya. The results for the calibration at this
location are shown in Figure F-3 for the upper basin (Simpang Jaya) and in Figure F-4 at the outlet
of the basin (Beukah).

For the parameters of the model use is made of the following options:

ƒ Loss method: initial and constant rate loss;


ƒ Transform: Snyders unit hydrograph
ƒ Base flow: recession;
ƒ Routing: Muskingum-Cunge with 8-point cross-section.

See Appendix E for the Snyder parameters and Routing parameters.

Observed

Simulated

Figure F-3: Calibration results for Kr. Peusangan at Jaya (upper sub-basin)

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Observed

Simulated

Figure F-4: Calibration results for Kr. Peusangan at Beukah (at outlet basin)

In both cases it is evident that it is not possible to reproduce faithfully the form of the measured
flood hydrograph, because the measurements are only available as daily (average) values. However,
for the purpose of the design of drainage works it is more important to reproduce sufficiently
correct the volume of the flood, which has sufficiently been achieved.

The parameters of this calibrated basin can be used for the simulation of design flood hydrographs
at other (similar) basins along the northern coast of Aceh.

F-2: Kr. Woyla Kwalabhee


A second basin that was used for calibration is located along the southern coast, directly north from
Samatiga.

Figure F-5: Location of the Kr. Woyla basin

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Meulaboh
Samatiga

Figure F-6: Location of Kr. Woyla, Samatiga and Meulaboh river basins

Evidently the location of the Kr. Woyla makes this an excellent candidate for transposition of the
calibrated model parameters to the neighbouring Samatiga basin. It can also be used for
comparison with the Meulaboh region, but for this basin there are also data to make a separate
calibration.

Observed

Simulated

Figure F-7: Calibration results for the Kr. Woyla (upper basin at Manggi Tutut station)

The calibration results for the upper basin (Figure F-7) seem to indicate that the simulated
hydrographs is too early, but it should be remembered that the observed discharges are only
available as daily values and do not allow for a more precise calibration. The simulated volumes are

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similar and the underlying model parameters are within reasonable limits. See Appendix E for the
Snyder parameters and Routing parameters.

Simulated

Observed

Figure F-8: Calibration results for the Kr. Woyla (total basin at Kwala Bhee station)

For the calibration results of the total Kr. Woyla basin at the station of Kwala Bhee there is a lack
of total simulated volume (Figure F-8). This will obtain attention in the near future when more data
become available, although the model parameters used for this simulation are reasonable.

F-3 Kr. Meureubo (Meulaboh region)


It is a lucky coincidence that there is a gauging station located on one of the rivers of the 6 study
areas. The gauging station of Kr Meureubo at Kp MNS Rayeuk is located at just upstream of the
study area of the Meulaboh city. Considering the topographical condition, the basin is divided into
two sub basin, i.e. Kr. Beutong at Gn Kota sub basin and Kr. Meureubo MNS Rayeuk, with total basin
area of about 1,697 km2. The location of the basin is shown on Figure F-9 and the sub basin of Kr.
Meureubo is shown on Figure F-10.

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Figure F-9: Location of the Kr. Meureubo basin

Figure F-10: Sub-basin of the Kr. Meureubo

As long as no data available for Kr. Beutong sub basin, the gauging station at Kp MNS Rayeuk is used
for calibration of the whole basin. The double peak appears as the effect of hourly simulation of
flood routing from Kr. Beutong with reach length of 73,550 m and slope of S = 0.0007 (source: PT
Mediatama Indokonsult , “Gambar Desain, survey, investigasi, dan desain, sungai Kr Meureubo, dan
Sungai Kr Arongan, Kab Aceh Barat, Prov. NAD”, th 2005)

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Observed

Simulated

Figure F-11: Calibration results for the Kr. Meureubo at Kp MNS Rayeuk

The calibration results for the basin (Figure F-11) seem to indicate that the simulated hydrographs
is too early, but it should be remembered that the observed discharges are only available as daily
values and do not allow for a more precise calibration.

F-4 Kr. Aceh (Banda Aceh)


One of the most important locations for both calibration and flood hydrograph simulations is the
city of Banda Aceh on the Kr. Aceh. In this river basin various stations are available and there is
also sufficient information on the land use, drainage pattern, etc. to allow for an accurate
calibration effort.

In Figure F-12 five of the historical floods are shown, scaled in time to have the peak on the same
day. In this way the form of the flood wave becomes evident and it seems that such flood peaks do
have a common form at the station of Darang, which is close to the outlet of the total Kr. Aceh
river basin. From this figure it is also possible to derive a general form of the base flow line, which
is shown as a heavy blue line.

Historical floods on Kruang Aceh at Darang Station

275

250 1984

225 1985

1986
200
1986
175
1995
Discharge (m3/s)

150

Base flow line


125

100

75

50

25

0
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Time in days

Figure F-12: Flood hydrographs on Kr. Aceh at Darang gauging station

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There are three sub-basin in Kr. Aceh which are calibrated, those are Kr. Jreue at Kp Jreue, Kr.
Keumireu at Kp Siron Blang, and Kr. Aceh at Kp Darang.

Figure F-13: Location of Kr. Aceh basin

a) Kr Jreue at Kp Jreue
Kr. Jreue is one of a tributary of Kr. Aceh which is located just upstream of the Kp Darang gauging
station. The Kp Jreue gauging station is located about 1 km upstream of the junction with Kr. Aceh,
where the catchments area of the sub basin is about 185 km2. The Sub Basin Kr. Jreue at Kp Jreue
is shown in Figure F-14.

The calibration results for the Kp Jreue sub basin (Figure F-16) seem to indicate that the simulated
hydrographs is too early, but it should be remembered too, that the observed discharges are only
available as daily values and do not allow for a more precise calibration. The simulated volumes are
similar and the underlying model parameters are within reasonable limits.

See Appendix E for the Snyder parameters.

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Figure F-14: The sub-basin of Kr. Aceh

Figure F-15: Calibration results for the Kr. Jreue at Kp Jreue

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b) Kr. Keumireu at Kp Siron Blang
Kr. Keumireu is also a tributary of Kr. Aceh which is located a little further upstream of the Kp
Darang gauging station. The Kp Siron Blang gauging station is located about 11 km upstream of the
junction with Kr. Aceh, and the catchments area of the sub basin is about 216 km2. The sub-basin
Kr. Keumireu at Kp Siron Blang is shown in Figure F-16.

Observed

Simulated

Figure F-16: Calibration results for the Kr. Keumireu at Kp Siron Blang

For the calibration results of the Kr. Keumireu basin at the station of Kp Siron there is a lack of
total simulated volume (Figure F-16). This will obtain attention in the near future when more data
become available, although the model parameters used for this simulation are reasonable.

See Appendix E for the Snyder parameters.

c) Kr Aceh at Kp Darang.
There are two gauging (river) stations in the basin, which allows for a calibration of both the upper
and the lower part of the basin, with basin areas respectively 644 km2 and 1,279 km2. The
distinction into two sub-basins is shown in Figure F-14.

Observed

Simulated

Figure F-17: Calibration results for the Kr. Aceh at Kp Lampisang Tunong

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 64
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
The Kr Aceh at Kp. Lampisang Tunong gauging station data is used for the upper part of the basin
calibration and the Kr Aceh at Kp. Darang gauging station data for lower part of the basin
calibration results of the Kr Aceh basin at Kp. Lampisang Tunong station shows a lack of total
simulation volume (see Figure F-17) as well as of the Kr Aceh at Kp. Darang station for the
downstream part of the basin (see Figure F-18). This will also obtain attention in the near future
when more data become available, although the model parameters used for this simulation are
reasonable. See Appendix E for the Snyder parameters.

Observed

Simulated

Figure F-18: Calibration results for the Kr. Aceh at Kp Darang

F-5 Kr. Manee (close to the Lhokseumawe study area)


Kr. Tuan is a tributary of Kr. Manee in the East Coast of NAD province (see Figure F-19). The Kr
Tuan at Kp Lhok Joek gauging station is located about 5 km upstream of the junction with Kr.
Manee, and the catchments area of the sub basin is about 97 km2 . The Sub Basin Kr. Tuan at Kp
Lhok Joek is shown in Figure F-19.

The calibration results for the sub-basin (Figure F-21) seem to indicate that the simulated
hydrographs peak is too high, but it should be remembered that the observed discharges are only
available as daily values and do not allow for a more precise calibration. The simulated volumes are
similar and the underlying model parameters are within reasonable limits. See Appendix E for the
Snyder parameters.

Figure F-19: Location of Kr. Tuan basin

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 65
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology
Figure F-20: The sub-basin of Kr. Tuan

Figure F-21: Calibration results for the Kr. Tuan at Kp Lhok Joek (Trib of Kr. Manee)

Aceh Nias Sea Defence, Flood Protection, Refuges and Early Warning Project 66
BRR Concept Note / INFRA 300GI
Sea Defence Consultants - Hydrology