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Infrared Security System

PHYSICS
PROJECT

INFRARED SENSOR
BASED SECURITY
SYSYEM

NAME: UTSAV P. PATEL


CLASS : XII
Physics Project
Infrared Security System

Index
1. Certificate
2. Acknowledgment
3. Introduction
4. Literature Review
5. Aim
6. Materials Required
7. Circuit Diagram
8. Theory
9. Procedure
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Infrared Security System

10. Result

11. Precautions

12. Bibliography

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Infrared Security System

Introduction
Rapid growth in world population with
incommensurate employment opportunities and
Pressures of a more complex society, the incidences of
human intrusion and burglaries and crime in private and
public places are on the increase. Heightened security
concerns at homes, banks, shopping malls, schools,
offices, etc. have led to continued search for different and
improved security gadgets.

Such concerns are apparent in the form of installations of


remote cameras, the presence of security guards and
other monitoring devices and alarm systems which are in
constant use. However, many such devices and services
are relatively costly and usually require a high and
steady power supply for their operation. An infrared
sensor security alarming system which has been
constructed and tested, offers the advantages of low cost
and low power consumption in its operation.
Not so long ago an alarm was a rare sight, however
Now almost every house has an alarm of some kind. One
common kind of security system is an infrared home
security system. These are so popular because they are
easy to install without having to drill holes and lay
cables. Infrared radiation is invisible to the human eye
but can be detected by electronic devices designed for
such a purpose.

The sensors are set at the door (entrance point) and/or


some supervised area and an alarm is triggered when
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An intruder passes within its range of coverage to
Notify/alert the people/security personnel

Infrared science and technology has been, since the first


applications, mainly dedicated to security and
Surveillance especially in military field, besides
Specialized techniques in thermal imaging for medical
diagnostic and building structures and recently in
Energy savings and aerospace context. Till recently the
security applications were mainly based on thermal
Imaging as surveillance and warning military systems.
In all these applications the advent of room
Temperature, more reliable due to the coolers
Avoidance, low cost, and, overall, completely integrable
With Silicon technology FPAs, especially designed and
tailored for specific applications, smart sensors, has
Really been impacted with revolutionary and new ideas
And system concepts in all the infrared fields, especially
For security applications. Lastly, the advent of reliable
Infrared Solid-State Laser Sources, operating up to the
Long Infrared Wavelength Band and the new emerging
techniques in Far Infrared Sub-Millimeter Terahertz
Bands, has opened wide and new areas for developing
New, advanced security systems. A review of all the
Items with evidence of the weak and the strong points of
Each item, especially considering possible future
Developments, will be reported and discussed.

Literature Review
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Infrared Security System

Resistor:

Resistor is a kind of passive element which has 2 terminals.


It is used in a circuit in order to limit the current flow to an
adjacent electronic device. The current flow is directly
Proportional to the voltage that is given across the terminals of
the resistor. There are mainly 2 types of resistors:

Diode:
It is a device with two terminals and unidirectional which
means it permits the flow of current in only one direction when
it is forward biased. Hence in it flow of current is in one way
only and block the other way for the current flow (when

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Infrared Security System
Reversed biased). AC current can be converted into DC with
the help of diode unidirectional behavior.

Capacitor:
Electric charges are being stored by these two terminal
components which is passive by nature. A dielectric medium is
used which is used to separate two conductors. It started at the
time when the potential variation occurs in the conductors
polarizes the dipole ions to hold the charge in the medium
which is dielectric.

There are two varieties of capacitor available:


1. ceramic capacitor
2. Electrolyte capacitor.

Polarized capacitor- Capacitor marked with and + sign. They


are mainly used to hold the charge. And before troubleshooting
these capacitors carefully discharge them as they hold charges
there is a risk of shock.

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Infrared Security System

Non-polarized capacitor- Capacitors which do not have any


polarity marked over it. They are mainly used to remove the
noises appeared while converting AC into DC.

Transistor:
Transistor is a semiconductor device which can act as an
amplifier or a high-speed switch depending on the biasing
situation. We used a bipolar junction transistor. It’s
A 3-pin device.

This semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic


signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor
material with at least three terminals for connection to an external
circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's
terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals.
Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the
controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal.
Transistor is a three- terminal electronic device used to amplify
weak input signals. A transistor consists of two PN junction diode
connected back to back. Transistor are of different type such as
bipolar junction transistor, Field effect transistor and photo
transistor. They are mostly used in electrical appliances due their
smaller size and light weight. In addition, they possess less power
hence have greater efficiency.

Infrared Sensor:
An infrared sensor consists of two parts:
1. Transmitter
2. Receiver

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Infrared Security System

The transmitter is a LED, also known as IR transmitter, is a special


purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 40 kHz.
Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminum
gallium arsenide. They, along with IR receivers, are commonly
used as sensors. The appearance is same as a common LED.
Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations, it is not
possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or
not, unlike a common LED.
To overcome this problem, the camera on a cell phone can be used.
The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR
LED in a circuit.

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Infrared Security System

Aim

TO MAKE INFRARED SENSOR

BASED SECURITY SYSTEM USING

SOME PRINCIPLES AND

COMPONENTS OF PHYSICS.

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Infrared Security System

Requirements
 A 9 V BATTERY
 BATTERY CAP
 Integrated circuits
 PNP TRANSISTOR
 INFRARED TRANSMITTER AND
RECEIVER

 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE


 SMALL RESISTANCE
 BUZZER
 CONNECTING WIRE
 ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR
 DIODE – RECTIFIER AND ZENER

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Infrared Security System

Circuit Diagram

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Infrared Security System

Theory
Principle of operation:
The complete block diagram of the security alarming system is shown. The
regulated low voltage power supply produces 5 V for IR transmitter and
receiver, amplifier, switching circuit, trigger circuit (one shot multivibrator),
driver circuit and buzzer (sounder).
The anode of the transmitter and receiver (detector) are connected to the 5
V power supply and cathodes are connected to the ground. When the bias
voltage is applied to the security alarm circuit, the transmitter emits the Infra-
Red ray (IR).
This ray receives the receiver (detector) and produced an output signal.
The output signal of the receiver is very weak to drive the buzzer and need
to amplify.
Then this signal is coupled to the amplifier by a coupling capacitor. The
amplifier amplifies the weak signal four times to operate the output device
(e.g. speaker)
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Infrared Security System

INFRARED SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION CIRCUIT


Transmitter:
Transmitter circuit uses 74LS14 IC, which is Schmitt Trigger IC. Schmitt Trigger is
used to generate signals of different frequencies. Here IC 74LS14 generates 40
KHz signal which is transmitted by IR LED. Signal resistor R2, capacitor C1 &
Diode D1 is used for exact 40 KHz signal. Adjust P1 for maximum range. Red
LED shows that power supply is on when the brightness of LED decreases
change the battery for proper power operations.
R1- 680Ω C1 - 10μF/50V
R2 - 100KΩ C2 – 0.001μF-102
R3 – 47Ω C3, C4 – 0.1μF-104
R5, R11 – 18KΩ C5 – 2.2μF/50V
R6, R10 – 10KΩ T1 – 2N222A
R7 – 27KΩ L1 – Red LED
R12 - 47KΩ L2 – IR LED

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Infrared Security System

Receiver:
Receiver circuit operated at 5V D.C. and it derives power supply circuit. Here we
use 9V D.C. battery. IC LM7805 convert 9V D.C. to regulated 5V D.C. Instead of
9V battery, we can use transformer which converts 230V ac to 12V ac is converted
in to dc by diode D1 & D2. Then it is filtered by capacitor C1 and IC3 convert it in
to regulated 5V dc. IR receiver module detect 40 KHz signal that is transmitted from
transmitter circuit. When transmitter is ON IR sensor gets 40 KHz signal and its
output is low, when someone breaks the IR sensor does not get signal and its output
goes to high level. This output level is fed to Schmitt Trigger IC2 at pin 1. Output is
available at pin 8 of IC2 that is used to drive the transistor. Green LED shows the
ON. Output is available means buzzer is ON for approximately 10 seconds. After 10
second circuit reset automatically and it is ready to detect other object.
R1 – 220KΩ C1 – 1000μF/25V D1, D2, D3 – IN4007
R2 – 10KΩ C2, C4, C5 – 0.1μf-104 D4 – IN4148
R3 – 100KΩ C3 - 100 μF/25V
R4 – 1KΩ C6 - 10 μF/50V
P1 - 1MΩ IC1 – 74LS93
T1 – CL100 IC2 – 74LS14
L1 – Green LED IC3 - LM7805

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Infrared Security System

Symbols

BATTERY

DIODE

LIGHT EMMITIING DIODE

NPN TRANSISTOR

PNP TRANSISTOR

BUZZER

RESISTOR

AC POWER SUPPLY
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Infrared Security System

Procedure
Connect the Battery to The Switch Using Battery Cap to on-off

The Power Supply to The Circuit.

Connect the Switch to Small Resistance Which Will Stop Uneven

Power Supply.

Connect the Resistance to Infrared Transmitter in Series.

When Current Will Reach the Transmitter, It Will Send Infrared Rays

Which is invisible to Naked Eyes.

The Transmitter Is Forward Biased and The Receiver Is Reverse

Biased.

On the Other Side the Infrared Receiver Will Receive

The Rays.

The Receiver is connected to PNP TRANSISTOR Then

Transistor is connected to the Buzzer and LED in series


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Infrared Security System

The Circuit Is Complete When There Is Sending and Receiving of

IRRays.

Whenever There Is Interruption Between IRRays Transistor and

Receiver the Current Starts Flowing Through the Transistor Then the

Buzzer Starts Beeping and The Led Starts Glowing.

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Infrared Security System

Result
The result of this circuit depends on the

continuity of the infrared beam. If there is a

continuous beam towards the receiver there

will be no alarm. The interruption of the beam

will result in an intruder alarm.

Precautions
 The PCB and the components to be soldered must be

free of dirt or grease.

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Infrared Security System

 Use 15 to 25 watt soldering iron for general work

involving small joints.

 Do not move the components until the molten

soldier, at the joint is cooled.

 Mount the components at the appropriate places

before soldering.

 Follow the circuit description and component details

and their identification.

 Do not sit under a fan while soldering.

 Power supply should be 9V D.C.

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Infrared Security System

Bibliography
http://www.electroschematics.com/6239/invisible-alarm/

http://www.electroschematics.com/5457/entry-alarm/

http://www.academia.edu/5072782/Experiment_1_INVISIBLE_INTRUDER_
ALARM_AIM

http://www.electroschematics.com/9023/infrared-beam-break-
detector/

http://www.electronicshub.org/security-alarm-circuit/

http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/opamp/opamp_1.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_amplifier

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor#Transistor_as_a_switch

http://www.electroschematics.com/6239/invisible-alarm/

http://www.vascs.org

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