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MA Curriculum Frameworks incorporating the Common Core State Standards: With

regard to how this lesson fits into the “big picture” of the students’ long-term learning, which

MA framework does the lesson most clearly address?

(including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with like denominators.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NF.A.2

Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole,

including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to

represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate

mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers. For example, recognize an incorrect result

2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7, by observing that 3/7 < 1/2.

Revisit/Solidify

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.NF.A.1- understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part

when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed

by a parts of size 1/b.

same size.

explain why they are equivalent.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.A.2

Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating

common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2.

Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole.

Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by

using a visual fraction model.

Standards of Mathematical Practice

Instructional Objective: By the end of the lesson, (1) what concept, information, skill, or

strategy will the students) learn and (2) how will they demonstrate that knowledge?

SWBAT add fractions with unlike denominators by finding equivalent fractions with common

denominators.

SWBAT model addition with fractions with unlike denominators using fraction strips to aid in

calculating the sum and visualizing the need for common denominators.

Assessment: What specific, tangible evidence will show that each student has met this

objective?

Students will demonstrate this knowledge as they break off into groups and complete addition

problems at each station (teacher and para will observe and probe during the station rotation, as

well as look at the notes students completed at each station to gain an understanding of student

comprehension).

Students will also complete a written exit ticket in which they must demonstrate either through

words or models why fractions must have like denominators when adding and subtracting.

Academic Language Objective: By the end of the lesson, (1) what language, relating to the

lesson and lesson content, will the student(s) know or learn, and (2) how will they demonstrate

that knowledge? Refer to Read Aloud Training (Elementary) or Academic Language Training

(Secondary) and to WIDA and Three Tiers of Vocabulary Beck, Kucan, and McKeown (2002) as

cited by Thaashida L. Hutton in Three Tiers of Vocabulary and Education.

fraction,” “whole,” and “ common denominator”.

Students will already be familiar with these terms, because they have found equivalent fractions

in the past and have found common denominators to compare fractions.

● Numerator: the top number in a fractions that tells how many equal parts there are

● Denominator: the bottom number in a fraction that tells the total number of equal parts

the whole is divided in to.

● Equivalent fractions: fractions that represent the same part of a whole.

● Whole: the overall unit that each fraction is referring to.

● Common denominator: denominators of two fractions are equivalent

Assessment: What specific, tangible evidence will show that each student has met this

objective?

Student understanding of these terms will be assessed based on student’s ability to use these

words appropriately in full class and small group discussions. Students will also be expected to

use the terms in their exit ticket description.

Content: What are the specific details of the lesson’s content knowledge?

During this lesson, students will learn about the importance of finding common denominators

before adding fractions. Students will understand the concept that in order to add fractions, the

fractions need to be in reference to the same object or unit size. It is to be assumed (given the

prior content standards in the Common Core), that students already have an understanding of

making equivalent fractions and the concept that a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction

(nxa)/(nxb) (CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.A.1). Students will also be familiar with finding

common denominators to compare fractions, so this lesson will offer another application of

common denominators. Students will understand that if you are adding fractions with unlike

denominators you are adding different size pieces. In order to add these fractions, a common unit

size is needed. This will be further illustrated by saying that when adding or subtracting objects

such as 2 dogs and 1 cat, you can only say that there are 3 animals, not anything specific to the

dogs or cats, because you cannot add two different kinds of objects.

In this section, provide specific directions, explanations, rationales, questions, potential

vignettes/scenarios, strategies/methods, as well as step-by-step details that could allow someone

else to effectively teach the lesson and meet the lesson objectives.

Opening (10 minutes): How will you introduce the instructional objective to the students,

pre-teach/ preview vocabulary, and prepare them to engage with the lesson content?

Have 4 groups of 5 students posted on the board and have students sit with their groups and work

on a warm-up activity individually.

The lesson will open with a warm-up activity which requires students to add and subtract

fractions with like denominators, finding common denominators.

Students will be given about 7 minutes to complete the warm up activity. After completing the

warm up, students will be asked to share their answers with the class, as the teacher explains if

the student’s proposed solution was correct. If not, be sure to correct students and go over the

problem.

When going over the addition and subtraction problems, remind students not to add/subtract the

denominators of fractions. Reminding students that changing the denominator would change the

size of each unit, thus altering the problem. (Note answers are on attached warm up sheet).

When finding common denominators remind students the procedure: multiplying the two

denominators will create a multiple of both denominators, or check to see if one of the

denominators is already a multiple of the other. After determining what the common

denominator is, multiply the numerator by the same factor as the denominator was multiplied by.

Place the new numerator over the common denominator. Also mention that there are many

possible answers for common denominators, because the questions did not specifically ask for a

least common denominator. As long as the denominator is a multiple of both original

denominators, it is common. Be sure that after the lesson, when checking the students’ warm

ups, you check that students properly identified common denominators to see which students

might still need help with this concept.

During Lesson (40 minutes): How will you direct, guide, and/or facilitate the learning process to

support the students in working toward meeting the instructional objectives?

Following the warm up, a scenario will be displayed on the board and guided notes sheets.

The scenario is that as part of a “Stay Active” campaign, the whole class is in a competition to

see what pair of students ran the most miles each week. The students were put in pairs, to hold

each other accountable for running and encourage each other. The success of the pairs rides on

the participation of both students. At the end of the week the teacher asks pairs to add up their

miles and then report them to the class to see which pair ran the farthest. (This page and the

values is attached to the end of the lesson plan).

After having students read the scenario by themselves, I will read it aloud and emphasize the

separate addition problems that the problem requires students to answer. I will then ask students

to work on the first pair’s distance (¾ +½) with their group of 5 (already in their groups from the

beginning of the lesson). Groups will be heterogeneous in terms of math ability (specifically

knowledge of fractions) so that all students can learn from his classmates, but not feel entirely

behind in the group.

After letting groups work on their answer for 3 minutes, I will pull the class back together to

discuss the answer. First I will have each group share their answer and strategy. I expect most

groups to add both the numerator and denominator to get an answer of 4/6 of a mile for the first

pair. I will then ask students if this answer makes sense. I will tell students to compare their

answer to the distance Partner A ran (they have experience with this, and will be able to see that

by 4/6 is less than ¾. After determining this, I will emphasize that this does not make sense,

because Partner A and Partner B are adding their (positive) distances so the total should be

greater than both of the addends.

Once this discrepancy has been identified, I will ask if students have any ideas as to why this

method does not work. I will encourage the students to draw fraction strips to model this.

Next, generalize the procedure for adding fractions with unlike denominators.

“When adding and subtracting fractions with unlike denominators, first find a common

denominator for the fractions” (students should already be familiar with this process and

reminded through the warm up procedure).

Go through each step of solving this problem: finding the common denominator, ensuring

fractions are equivalent to the originals, adding the numerators and placing the sum over the

common denominator. Converting to a mixed number if necessary. Students should be following

along on their notes sheet and filling in as the teacher goes through each step. (These steps are

included for the specific problem on the guided notes.)

After working through the Henry and Georgia pair problem, the teacher will designate a starting

point for each group and explain that each pair of runners is a different station that students will

be travelling to. The students should be verbally reminded of the rules of respectful and

productive small group work and told that each station will last approximately 6 minutes.

Each station should have cut out fraction strips (3 per student at each station), which students

will use to divide and visualize the different unit sizes (fractions of different sizes which cannot

be added until they are converted to equivalent fractions with a common denominator) within

each whole (mile).

Students should be allotted 6 minutes at each station, and should be expected to reach a

consensus as a group.

At the teacher’s discretion, he/she can be floating around as groups work, helping as needed and

overseeing discussions. Alternatively, the teacher may choose to remain at the same station

(choose a challenging partner most likely SP or CV partner pair ) to help each group at that

station, modelling how the problems should be thought about and how the group should be

discussing with each other. If there is a para in the room, he/she can take on one of the roles of

circulating the room and helping groups as question arise in other stations. Be sure that when

working with students the teacher and para are keeping in mind what students understand about

finding common denominators and the use of fraction strips to visualize the different sizes of

fractions that do not share denominators. Also prompt students to ask questions and persevere if

they are struggling.

After 25 minutes (6 minutes per station, plus rotating time). The teacher should call the class

together to review each station.

After groups have settled and the teacher has the attention of the entire class, ask a member of

the class to share the common denominator they used, the equivalent fractions, and the overall

sum. This should be done for each pair of runners and the answers should be written on the

whiteboard.

Once a class consensus is reached about the sum of each pair, each group should be asked to

determine which pair ran the most over the course of the week (at teacher’s discretion a

calculator can be used to aid in this comparison task, give students about 5 minutes to do this.)

Following this, have each group share their answers. Depending on if the class reaches a

consensus, the teacher will walk through the comparison.

The class should determine that Luis and Maggie ran the longest that week.

Closing (10 minutes): How will you bring closure to the lesson and, by doing so, review and

determine what students have learned?

Once the class scenario has finished, have students complete their exit tickets individually. Prior

to completing the exit ticket, remind students of the terms they should be using in question 1

(these are the vocabulary terms in the academic language section).

Once students have complete the exit ticket, collect them and utilize them to assess students’

grasp of the lesson objectives and their readiness to move on to the subtracting with unlike

denominators.

Classroom Management: If teaching a small group or whole class, how will you use classroom

routines, reinforce appropriate behavior, and/or handle behavioral issues? Give one example.

NA

Materials: What are the materials that you will need to organize, prepare, and/or try-out before

teaching the lesson?

● Fraction strips for each student at each station, teacher can decide if pre-divided or not to

aid in visualizing whole and different fraction amounts.

● Student Guided notes for each student

● Warm up activity for each student

● Exit ticket for each student

● Reminder of group work rules at each station.

Follow-up: How will you and/or your Supervising Practitioner reinforce the learning at a later

time so that the students continue to work toward the lesson’s overarching goal (i.e., the MA

Curriculum Framework incorporating the Common Core State Standards)?

Based on the exit ticket and student understanding of the concepts taught in this lesson, there will

be a transfer of the idea of calculating common denominators in adding fractions to subtracting

fractions. Homework problems can be provided which integrate both adding and subtracting

fractions with unlike denominators and continue to have students express why it is necessary to

find common denominators in these situations. Gradually, students can shift away from using

manipulatives and fraction strips when completing these problems, but early on they help

emphasize the need to find common denominators.

Name: Date:

WARM-UP

1. Compute the sum/difference using fraction strips if necessary:

a. 34 − 14

Answer: = 24 = 12

11 5

b. 12

+ 12

14 7

Answer: = 12

= 6

= 1 16

*Remember the fractions must be equivalent to the originals.

a. 35 & 25 4

15 4

New Fractions: 25 & 25

4 9

b. 7

& 10

Because 70 is a multiple of both 7 and 10 that is a common denominator. 4x10=

40; 9x7= 63

40 63

New Fractions: 70 & 70

Name: Date:

GUIDED NOTES: Adding Fractions with Unlike Denominators

Full Class Scenario:

As part of a “Stay Active” campaign, the whole class is in a competition to see what pair of

students ran the most miles in the past week. The students were put in pairs, to hold each other

accountable for running. The success of the pairs rides on the participation of both students. At

the end of the week the teacher asks pairs to add up their miles and report them to the class

below are the following running distances:

(HG)

(LM)

(SP)

(CV)

The “whole” is 1 mile.

How many miles did each pair run? Which pair ran the most?

HG: ¾+ ½ =5/4= 1 ¼ miles

How many miles did Henry and Georgia run? (group work)

Dependent on groups

How many miles did Henry and Georgia run? (class discussion)

Henry

1/4

Georgia

1/2

1 ¼ miles

To solve this, a common denominators between ½ and ¾ must be found. Because 4 is a multiple

of 2, a common denominator is 4. After finding the common denominator the equivalent fraction

for ½ must be found by multiplying the numerator by the same factor as the denominator so ½

becomes 2/4. We can then add the numerators 2 and 3 and get an answer of 5/4. We can then

convert this to a mixed number and discover that Henry and Georgia ran 1 and ¼ miles.

We cannot add fractions with different denominators, because they are not of the same size.

Even though the whole is a mile, each piece of a mile is not the same, so we cannot generalize

the sum until we find common denominators. Adding fractions with unlike denominators would

be like adding cats and dogs and giving the sum in terms of dogs.

Group Work:

Station 1: Jack and Luke

Together Jack and Luke ran miles.

7/12 of a mile

JL: ⅓ + ¼ = 7/12 of a mile

Common denominator of 12

Equivalent fractions ⅓ = 4/12 and 1/4 = 3/12

4+3=7

7

Sum is 12 miles

1 7/12 miles

11/12 + 2/3

Common denominator is 12

Equivalent fractions ⅔= 8/12

11+8=19

7

19/12= 1 12 miles

1 11/42 miles

⅚ + 3/7

Common denominator of 42

Equivalent fractions: ⅚=35/42 and 3/7=18/42

35+18= 53

11

53/42= 1 42 miles

Station 4: Carter and Valentina

1 29/72 miles

⅝ + 7/9

Common Denominator= 72

Equivalent Fractions: ⅝=45/72 and 7/9= 56/72

45+56= 101

29

101/72= 1 72 miles

Luis and Maggie ran the most miles, because

7 29 11 7

1 12 >1 72 >1 42

>1 ¼ > 12

Name: Date:

EXIT TICKET

Word Bank

Whole

Numerator

Denominator

Equivalent Fraction

Common Denominator

Use at least 3 words from the word bank, or use fraction strips as a model.

When adding fractions, it is important that the denominators of each fraction are the same. This

is because adding fractions with different denominators means adding different size units. Even

if the whole is the same, the size of the pieces being added must match both addends. Therefore,

when adding fractions with unlike denominators, a common denominator must be found by

finding equivalent fractions. After common denominators are found, the numerators can be

added, as would be done in other addition problems with like denominators.

2. Solve the following problem: Amir has ⅝ of a pizza and Jen has ¾ of an identical size

pizza. If Amir and Jen combine their pizzas, how many pizzas will the pair have?

5

8

+ 34 =

⅝ + 68 = (5+6)

8

= 11

8

= 1 ⅜ of pizza

Amir and Jen will have one pizza and 3 extra slices.

3. Thinking Ahead: do you predict you will need to find common denominators when

subtracting fractions with unlike denominators?

Yes, because just like with adding, you must be subtracting the same type object. If

fractions have different denominators they are different sizes and cannot be subtracted or

added before finding common denominators.

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