Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

A Training Report

submittedin partial fulfillmentfor the award of the Degree of


Bachelor of Technologyin Department of Information
Technology Engineering

Submitted To: Submitted


By:
Asst. Prof. Chetan Kumar Vikas
H.O.D (I.T)
07EKTIT059
Ms.SnehlataKumawat
Lecturer (I.T)

Department of Information Technology Engineering


Kautilya Institute of Tech. & Engineering
Rajasthan Technical University
2010-2011

1
Candidate’s Declaration

I hereby declare that the work, which is being presented in the case study ,
entitled “3rd Generation Technology” in partial fulfillment for the award of
Degree of “Bachelor of Technology” in Deptt. of Information Technology
Engineering, and submitted to the Department of Information Technology
Engineering, Kautilya Institute of Technology & Engineering, Rajasthan
Technical University is a record of my own investigations carried under the
Guidance of Mr. C.J Ahuja, Admin Of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.
Gurgaon.
I have not submitted the matter presented in the Project any where for the award
of any other Degree.

Vikas
07EKTIT059

Asst. Prof. Chetan Kumar


H.O.D ( I.T )
Ms.SnehlataKumawat
Lecturer (I.T)

2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction and elation of successfully completing a task would be


incomplete without acknowledging the people who are involved with us under it,
with their constant guidance, encouragement and efforts. This project training is
special as it was undertaken as a requirement for the completion of Bachelor of
Technology degree. It is not only a technical endeavor but also the initiation of a
fresher into the world of information technology.

I am thankful to our training Mr. C.J Ahuja, for lending me the opportunity to
work with “Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.” as the case study of networks”.

Also I am very much grateful to case study of networks for BSNL guidance,
inspiration and constructive suggestions which helped me in the preparation and
completion of the project training work. His encouraging remarks from time to
time greatly helped me in improving my skills.

And chiefly to my project development team mates, without whose assistance,


the project wouldn’t be of so much success.

And to the all mighty who made all the things possible.

3
PREFACE

Telecommunications was the most discussed subject of the past decade. From
Wi-Fi to WiMax, and from cellphones to smartphones, the sky is the limit for
heated debates. There are now diverse media for communications and the rate of
phone calls have dropped drastically. Now we are totally connected, through not
only the much improved phone lines but also the internet, wireless networks and
gadgets that allow us to stay connected anywhere and at anytime.

Developments are so fast that even before a technology becomes the market rule,
another is already out to replace it. While we talk about 4G, we are still stuck
with 2.5G networks. But then it is the characteristics of the humans to keep
innovating.

This report includes wireless telephonic generations as the central


theme.Wireless phone standards have the life of their own. They are spoken of
reverently in terms of generations.

This report has been written with the goal of making it as easy as possible for
everyone to understand properly. This has been done by giving the details of the
history of wireless telephonic generation and its present scenario, also by giving
different examples and diagrams wherever possible.

This report includes the introduction of all the generations i.e. 1G, 2G, 3G and
4G
and the cellular evolution over the years. It also includes the study of various
technologies that were present in different generations.

The first generation of wireless telecommunication systems, back in the


1970’s,had more than ten analogue standards established worldwide. Cellular
radio systems that were simultaneously developed in Europe and Japan have
been identified as the first generation (1G). The first generation systems had a
low capacity and hit the saturation level soon. This forced the development of
the second generation (2G) systems in 1980s, which took two directions: while
the global system for mobile communication (GSM) was chosen by Europe and
the US, Japan and Korea adopted the code division multiple access (CDMA)
technology.

4
The success of GSM has been widely held as an achievement for the telecom
industry. This encouraged major telecom firms to begin work on new
technologies for the third generation (3G) of telecommunication.For evolution
from 2Gto 3G, a range of wireless systems, including General Packet Radio
Services (GPRS), Enhanced Data-rates for Global evolution(EDGE), IMT-2000,
Bluetooth, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and HiperLAN, were
developed. We are currently at the stage between 2G and 3G(hence called 2.5G).
2.5G represent a digital revolution where data speeds andbroadband on mobiles
becomes a reality. The 2.5G GPRS networks havebrought about 28kbps bit rate
for data transfer.

This report brings out the evaluation of each generation through the advantages
and disadvantages of the technologies used in these generations and through the
description of their dataspeed.

This report describes the complete explanation of 4G, which includes the reasons
for having 4G, its broadband and wireless ubiquity, its architecture and the
changes that are expected to be adapted in 4G. This report also provides the
adoption of new technology in 3G to bring the 4G. It also gives the future view
of the world after the implementation of 4G.

The bibliography appearing at the end of this report includes the details of
several websites and magazines that provide the reference material related to
this topic.

Telecommunications was the most discussed subject of the past decade. From
Wi-Fi to WiMax, and from cellphones to smartphones, the sky is the limit for
heated debates.

For the layman to, things have changed remarkably over the last two decades.
There are now diverse media for communications and the rate of phone calls
have dropped drastically. Now we are totally connected, through not only the
much improved phone lines but also the internet,wireless networks and gadgets
that allow us to stay connected anywhere and at anytime.

Developments are so fast that even before a technology becomes the market rule,
another is already out to replace it.While we talk about 4G, we are still stuck
with 2.5G networks. But then it is the characteristics of the humans to keep
innovating.

With generations of telecom networks behind us, its time to turn the corner and
see where we stand today and the shape of things seven years from now.

5
6
7
Type State-owned enterprise

Industry Telecommunication

Founded 19th century, incorporated 2000

Headquarters New Delhi, India

Key people Gopal Das

(CMD)

Products Wireless

Telephone

Internet

Television

Revenue 32,045 crore (US$ 7.27 billion)(2009-10)[1]

Net income 575 crore (US$ 130.53 million)(2009-10)

Employees 299,840 (March 31, 2009)[2]

Website Bsnl.co.in

8
VOCATION TRAINING REPORT: 2010

CONTENTS:
1).Preface

2).Introduction

3).What is 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G

4).Cellular Evolution over the Years

5). 1G
5.1.Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS)

6). 2G
6.1.Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

7).2.5G
7.1 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

8).2.75G
8.1 CDMA2000 1XRTT (Radio Transmission Technology)
8.2 Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution(EDGE)

9).3G
9.1CDMA2000
9.2CDMA2000 1XEV
9.3Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)
9.4Data Speed

10).3.5G
10.1High Speed Download Packet Access(HSDPA)

11).3.75G
11.1 High Speed Uplink Packet Access(HSUPA)
11.2 Data Speed

12).4G
12.1 Reasons to have 4G
12.2 What’s new in 4G
12.3 Comparison of 3G and 4G
12.4 Revolution 4G
12.5 Broadband and wireless ubiquity
12.6 4G architecture

9
12.7 Radio access

13).From 3G to 4G
13.1 ZigBee
13.2 UWB
13.3 WiBro
13.4 Wireless System Discovery

14).4G: the future look

15).Bibliography

10
WHAT IS 1G,2G,3G AND 4G

Wireless phone standards have a life of their own. You can tell, because they're
spoken of reverently in terms of generations. There's great-granddad who's
pioneering story pre-dates cellular, grandma and grandpa analog cellular, mom
and dad digital cellular, 3G wireless just starting to make a place for itself in the
world, and the new baby on the way, 4G.

Most families have a rich history of great accomplishments, famous ancestors,


skeletons in the closets and wacky in-laws. The wireless scrapbook is just as
dynamic. There is success, infighting and lots of hope for the future. Here's a
brief snapshot of the colorful world of wireless.

First of all, this family is the wireless telephone family. It is just starting to
compete with the wireless Internet family that includes Wi-Fi and the other 802
wireless IEEE standards. But it is a completely different set of standards. The
only place the two are likely to merge is in a marriage of phones that support
both the cellular and Wi-Fi standards.

Wireless telephone started with what you might call 0G if you can remember
back that far. The great ancestor is the mobile telephone service that became
available just after World War II. In those pre-cell days, you had a mobile
operator to set up the calls and there were only a handful of channels available.

The big boom in mobile phone service really began with the introduction of
analog cellular service called AMPS (Analog Mobile Phone Service) starting in
1981. This generation is 1G, the first for using cell technology that let users
place their own calls and continue their conversations seamlessly as they moved
from cell to cell. AMPS uses what is called FDM or frequency division
multiplexing.Each phone call uses separate radio frequencies or channels. You
probably had a 1G phone, but never called it that.

The next generation, quick on the heels of the first, is digital cellular. One
standard uses a digital version of AMPS called D-AMPS using TDMA (Time
division Multiple Access). A competing system also emerged using CDMA or
Code Division Multiple Access. As you might suspect, the two are incompatible
but you can have a phone that works with both. Europe embraced yet a third
standard called GSM which is based on TDMA. Digital transmissions allow for

11
more phone conversations in the same amount of spectrum. They also lay the
groundwork for services beyond simple voice telephone calls. Data services such
as Internet access, text messaging, sharing pictures and video are inherently
digital.

This is where the whole "G" thing got started. The original analog and digital
cellular services were invented to cut the wire on landline phone service and give
you regular telephone service you could take with you. As such, the bandwidth
they offer for adding data services is pretty meager, in the low Kbps region. Now
that a cell phone is not merely a cell phone, but also a PDA, a messaging system,
a camera, an Internet browser, an email reader and soon to be a television set,
true broadband data speeds are needed. That new generation of cell phone
service has been dubbed 3G for 3rd generation.

3G has proven to be a tough generation to launch. The demand for greater


bandwidth right now has spawned intermediate generations called 2.5G and even
2.75G. One such standard is GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) which is an
extension of the GSM digital cellular service popular in Europe. It
offersdownload speeds up to 144 Kbps.

3G phones and services are just starting to come into their own. One service
you'll find is called EVDO which stands for EVolution Data Only. EVDO has
download speeds up to 2.4 Mbps, which is faster than T1, DSL or Cable
broadband service. There is also an evolution that includes voice called EVDV
which is in the works.

While 3G is going to enable telephones to also become Internet computers,video


phones and television receivers, its maturity phase will find it competing with
wireless VoIP telephone services on Wi-Fi, WiMax, WiTV and the new wireless
mobile standard 802.20, which doesn't seem to have a catchy name yet.The slug
fest between analog wireline phone service and wired VoIP seems likely to be
continued on the wireless front.

There is also an emerging cellular standard we should be aware of called 4G.The


fourth generation being championed in Japan will boost the data rates to 20
Mbps. These speeds enable high quality video transmission and rapid download
of large music files. The first 4G phones may appear as soon as 2006. That
means we better starting thinking about what to do with 5G if this generation is
going to continue.

The first generation of wireless telecommunication systems, back in the


1970’s,had more than ten analogue standards established worldwide: the Nippon

12
Telegraph & Telephone Public Corp. (NTT) and narrowband Total Access
Communication System (NTACS) in Japan, Total Access Communication
System (TACS) in Italy and UK, and the Advanced Mobile Phone
Service(AMPS) in America. Cellular radio systems that were simultaneously
developedin Europe and Japan have been identified as the first generation (1G).

The first generation systems had a low capacity and hit the saturation level
soon.This forced the development of the second generation (2G) systems in
1980s,which took two directions: while the global system for mobile
communication(GSM) was chosen by Europe and the US, Japan and Korea
adopted the code division multiple access (CDMA) technology.

The success of GSM has been widely held as an achievement for the telecom
industry. This encouraged major telecom firms to begin work on new
technologies for the third generation (3G) of telecommunication.For evolution
from 2Gto 3G, a range of wireless systems, including General Packet Radio
Services (GPRS), Enhanced Data-rates for Global evolution(EDGE), IMT-2000,
Bluetooth, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and HiperLAN, were
developed. We are currently at the stage between 2G and 3G(hence called 2.5G).
2.5G represent a digital revolution where data speeds and broadband on mobiles
becomes a reality. The 2.5G GPRS networks have brought about 28kbps bit rate
for data transfer.

13
1G

Advanced Mobile Phone System or AMPS


is the analog mobile phone
system standard, introduced in the Americas during the early1980s. Though
analog is no longer considered advanced at all, the relatively seamless cellular
switching technology AMPS introduced was what made the original mobile
radiotelephone practical, and was considered quite advanced at the time.

Technology

It was a first-generation technology, using FDMA which meant


each cell site would transmit on different frequencies, allowing many cell sites to
be built near each other. However it had the disadvantage that each site did not
have much capacity for carrying calls. It also had a poor security system which
allowed people to steal a phone's serial code to use for making illegal calls. It
was later replaced by the newer Digital TDMA systems, such as Digital AMPS
and GSM,which brought improved security as well as increased capacity.

Introduction of digital TDMA

Later, many AMPS networks were partially


converted to what became (incorrectly) known as TDMA, a digital, TDMA,
based 2G standard used mainly by Cingular Wireless (who has purchased AT&T
Wireless in October 2004) and U.S. Cellular. The misuse of the term TDMA
(which is a type of channel sharing scheme) to refer to a particular access
protocol has caused some confusion. The first version of the TDMA standard
was known as IS-54 and was supplanted by IS-136.

Introduction of GSM and CDMA

14
AMPS and TDMA are now being phased
out in favor of either CDMA and GSM which allow for higher capacity data
transfers for services such as WAP and imode,Multimedia Messaging Services
(MMS), and wireless Internet Access. The major difference between the two
options is that CDMA has a much higher capacity then GSM, as well as some
other features (i.e. being able to talk to six different cell sites simultaneously, and
a higher bitrate Vocoder). There are some phones capable of supporting AMPS,
TDMA and GSM all in one phone (using the GAIT standard; see the Nokia
6340, for example); however, AMPS/CDMA phones supports nearly seamless
roaming between CDMA and AMPS/TDMA(with the loss of some features)
while GAIT phones cannot.

2G

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)


is the most popular
standard for mobile phones in the world. GSM phones are used by over a billion
people across more than 200 countries. The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes
international roaming very common with "roaming agreements" between mobile
phone operators. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both
signalling and speech channels are digital, which means that it is seen as a
second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This fact has also meant that data
communication was built into the system from very early on. GSM is an open
standard which is currently developed by the 3GPP.

From the point of view of the consumer, the key advantage of GSM systems has
been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls such
as text messaging. The advantage for network operators has been the ability to
deploy equipment from different vendors because the open standard allows easy
inter-operability. Also, the standards have allowed network operators to offer
roaming services which mean subscribers can use their phone all over the
world.GSM retained backward-compatibility with the original GSM phones as
the GSM standard continued to develop, for example packet data capabilities
were added in the Release '97 version of the standard, by means of GPRS.
Higher speed data transmission have also been introduced with EDGE in the
Release '99 version of the standard.

Subscriber Identity Module

One of the key features of GSM is the


Subscriber Identity Module (SIM),commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is
a detachable smartcard containing the user's subscription information and

15
phonebook. This allows the user to retain his information after switching
handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the
handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing
the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice
is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries.

In the USA and Europe, most operators lock the mobiles they sell. This is done
because the price of the mobile phone is usually subsidised with revenue from
subscriptions and operators want to try to avoid subsidising competitor's
mobiles.A subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a
fee (which operators sometimes try to claim to be ignorant of), utilize private
services to remove the lock, or make use of ample software and websites
available on the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. Some providers in the
USA, such as T-Mobile and Cingular, will unlock the phone for free if the
customer has held an account for a certain period. Third party unlocking services
exist that are often quicker and lower cost than that of the operator. In most
countries removing the lock is legal.

2.5G

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)


is a mobile data service available to
users of GSM mobile phones. It is often described as "2.5G", that is a technology
between the second (2G) and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony. It
provides moderate speed data transfer, by using unused TDMA channels in the
GSM network. Originally there was some thought to extend GPRS to cover other
standards, but instead those networks are being converted to use the GSM
standard, so that is the only kind of network where GPRS is in use. GPRS is
integrated into GSM standards releases starting with and onwards.First it was
standardised by ETSI but now that effort has been handed onto the 3GPP.

GPRS service

GPRS is different from the older Circuit Switched Data (or CSD)
connection included in GSM standards releases before Release 97 (from 1997,
the year the standard was feature frozen). In CSD, a data connection establishes
a circuit, and reserves the full bandwidth of that circuit during the lifetime of the
connection. GPRS is packet-switched which means that multiple users share the
same transmission channel, only transmitting when they have data to send. This
means that the total available bandwidth can be immediately dedicated to those
users who are actually sending at any given moment, providing higher utilization
where users only send or receive data intermittently. Web browsing, receiving
emails as they arrive and instant messaging are examples of uses that require
intermittent data transfers, which benefit from sharing the available bandwidth.

16
Usually, GPRS data is billed per kilobytes of information transceived while
circuitswitched data connections are billed per second. The latter is to reflect the
fact
that even during times when no data is being transferred, the bandwidth is
unavailable to other potential users.

GPRS speeds and profiles

Packet-switched data under GPRS is achieved by


allocating unused cell bandwidth to transmit data. As dedicated voice (or data)
channels are setup by phones, the bandwidth available for packet switched data
shrinks. A consequence of this is that packet switched data has a poor bit rate in
busy cells.

The theoretical limit for packet switched data is approx. 170 kbit/s. A realistic bit
rate is 30–70 kbit/s. A change to the radio part of GPRS called EDGE allows
higher bit rates of between 20 and 200 kbit/s. The maximum data rates are
achieved only by allocation of more than one time slot in the TDMA frame.
Also, the higher the data rate, the lower the error correction capability.
Generally, the connection speed drops logarithmically with distance from the
base station. This is not an issue in heavily populated areas with high cell
density, but may become an issue in sparsely populated/rural areas.
Impetus for 2.5G

The major impetus for 2.5G is the "always-on" capability. Being packet based,
2.5G technologies allow for the use of infrastructure and facilities only when a
transaction is required, rather than maintaining facilities in a session-like
manner.This provides tremendous infrastructure efficiency and service delivery
improvements.

17
2.75G

Code Division Multiple Access


is a digital radio system that transmits streams of
bits. Channels are divided using codes (PN Sequences). CDMA permits several
radios to share the same frequencies. Unlike TDMA "time division multiple
access" a competing system used in GSM and DAMPS, all radios can be active
all the time, because network capacity does not directly limit the number of
active radios. Since larger numbers of phones can be served by smaller numbers
of cell-sites, CDMA-based standards have a significant economic advantage over
TDMA-based standards, or the oldest cellular standards that used frequency-
division multiplexing.
CDMA2000's 1xRTT is the first technology for the evolution of cdmaOne 2G
networks to 2.5G networks.

CDMA2000 1xRTT (Radio Transmission Technology)


is the basic layer of
CDMA2000, which supports up to 144 kbit/s packet data speeds. While 1xRTT
officially qualifies as 3G technology, 1xRTT is considered by some to be a 2.5G
(or sometimes 2.75G) technology. This has allowed it to be deployed in 2G
spectrum in some countries which limit 3G systems to certain bands. 1Xrtt

18
doubles voice capacity over IS-95 networks. While capable of higher data rates,
most deployments have limited the data rate to around 150 kbit/s.

Enhanced Data Rates Evolution(EDGE)


EDGE is a digital mobile phone
technology which acts as a bolt-on enhancement to 2G and 2.5G
(a.k.a.GPRS(General Packet Radio Service)) networks. This technology works
in TDMA and GSM networks. EDGE (also known as EGPRS) is a superset to
GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it (provided the
carrier implements the necessary upgrades).

EDGE provides Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), which can be used for any packet
switched applications such as an Internet connection. High-speed data
applications such as video services and other multimedia benefit from EGPRS'
increased data capacity.

It can carry data speeds up to 384 kbit/s in packet mode and will therefore meet
the International Telecommunications Union's requirement for a 3G network,
and has been accepted by the ITU as part of the IMT-2000 family of 3G
standards. It also enhances the circuit data mode called HSCSD, increasing the
data rate of this service also. EDGE has been introduced into GSM networks
around the world since 2003, initially in North America.

As of 2004, EDGE is more actively supported by GSM operators in North


America than anywhere else in the world because GSM/GPRS has a
strongcompetitor: CDMA2000. Most other GSM operators view UMTS as the
ultimate upgrade path and either plan to skip EDGE altogether or use it outside
the UMTS coverage area. However, the high cost and slow uptake of UMTS (as
demonstrated by the upstart network 3) have made some western European GSM
operators reevaluate EDGE as an interim upgrade.
Although EDGE requires no hardware changes to be made in GSM core
networks, base stations must be modified. An EDGE compatible tranceiver unit
must be installed and base station system needs to be upgraded to support
EDGE. New mobile terminal hardware and software is also required to
decode/encode using the new shift keying scheme.

The status of EDGE as to if it is 2G or 3G depends on implementation. While


Class 3 and below EDGE devices clearly are not 3G, class 4 and above devices
perform at a higher bandwidth than other technologies conventionally considered
as 3G (such as 1xRTT). With a maximum bandwidth of 230k at Class 10, EDGE
transcends both common 2G and 3G definitions.

19
3G

3G (or 3-G) is short for third-generation mobile telephone technology.The


services associated with 3G provide the ability to transfer both voice data (a
telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading
information,exchanging email, and instant messaging).

The first country which introduced 3G on a large commercial scale was Japan. In
2005 about 40% of subscribers use 3G networks only, and 2G is on the way out
in Japan. It is expected that during 2006 the transition from 2G to 3G will be
largely completed in Japan, and upgrades to the next 3.5G stage with 3 Mbit/s
data rates is underway.

20
Third generation (3G) networks were conceived from the Universal Mobile
Telecommunications Service (UMTS) concept for high speed networks for
enabling a variety of data intensive applications. 3G systems consist of the two
main standards, CDMA2000 and W-CDMA, as well as other 3G variants such as
NTT DoCoMo's Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA) and Time
Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA) used
primarily in China.

3G Standards

CDMA2000
CDMA is a 3G mobile telecommunications standard that uses
CDMA,a multiple wan access scheme for digital radio, to send voice, data and
signaling data (such as a dialed telephone number) between mobile telephones
and cell sites.

Wide Area Network


Wan is a computer network covering a wide
geographical area, involving a vast array of computers. This is different from
personal area networks (PANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs) or local

21
area networks (LANs) that are usually limited to a room, building or campus.
The best example of a WAN is the Internet.

WANs are used to connect local area networks (LANs) together, so that users
and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in
other locations. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are
private. Others, built by Internet service providers, provide connections from an
organization's LAN to the Internet. WANs are most often built using leased
lines.

At each end of the leased line, a router connects to the LAN on one side and a
hub within the WAN on the other. Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver
transport and addressing functions. Protocols including Packet over
SONET/SDH, MPLS, ATM and Frame relay are often used by service providers
to deliver the links that are used in WANs. X.25 was an important early WAN
protocol, and is often considered to be the "grandfather" of Frame Relay as many
of the underlying protocols and functions of X.25 are still in use today
(withupgrades) by Frame Relay.

Local Area Network


(LAN) is a computer network covering a local area, like a
home, office or small group of buildings such as a college.When using Ethernet
the computers are usually wired to a hub or to a switch.This constitutes the
physical layer.

A layout known as a spanning tree protocol is often used to maintain a loop free
network topology within a LAN, particularly with ethernet.A number of network
protocols may use the basic physical layer including TCP/IP. In this case DHCP
is a convenient way to obtain an IP address rather than using fixed addressing.
LANs can be interlinked by connections to form a Wide area network. A router
is used to make the connection between LANs.

As of May 2005,UMTS is in service on 67 networks in 33 countries and an


additional 76 UMTS networks are in either precommercial, planning, licenced or
deployment stage. It is designed to deliver bandwidth hungry services such as
streaming multimedia, large file transfers and video conferencing to a wide
variety of devices, including cellphones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and
laptops.

CDMA2000 1Xev

(CDMA2000 1xEV (Evolution) is CDMA2000 1x with High Data Rate (HDR)


capability added. 1xEV is commonly separated into two phases:

Phase 1 of CDMA2000 1xEV, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (Evolution-Data


Optimized) (AKA Ev-DO) supports downlink (Forward Link) data rates up to

22
3.1 Mbit/s and uplink (Reverse Link) rates up to 1.8 Mbit/s in a radio channel
dedicated to carrying high speed packet data.

Phase 2 of CDMA2000 1xEV, CDMA2000 1xEV-DV (Evolution-Data and


Voice), supports downlink (Forward Link) data rates up to 3.1 Mbit/s and
uplink(Reverse Link) rates of up to 1.8 Mbit/s. 1xEV-DV can also support
concurrent operation of legacy 1x voice users, 1xRTT data users, and high speed
1xEV-DV data users within the same radio channel.

UMTS
(Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is a so-called "third-
generation (3G)," broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice,
video, and multimedia at data rates up to and possibly higher than 2 megabits per
second (Mbps), offering a consistent set of services to mobile computer and
phone users no matter where they are located in the world. Based on the GSM
communication standard, UMTS,endorsed by major standards bodies and
manufacturers, is the planned standard for mobile users around the world by
2002. Once UMTS is fully implemented,computer and phone users can be
constantly attached to the Internet as they travel and, as they roaming service,
have the same set of capabilities no matter where they travel to. Users will have
access through a combination of terrestrial wireless and satellite transmissions.
Until UMTS is fully implemented, users can have multi-mode devices that
switch to the currently available technology (such as GPRS and Edge) where
UMTS is not yet available (CF spectrum page).

With UMTS, you will directly dive straight into the mobile multimedia wave.

Today's cellular telephone systems are mainly circuit-switched, with connections


always dependent on circuit availability. packet-switched connection, using the
Internet Protocol (Internet Protocol), means that a virtual connection is always
available to any other end point in the network. It will also make it possible to
provide new services, such as alternative billing methods (pay-per-bit, pay-
persession,flat rate, asymmetric bandwidth, and others). The higher bandwidth of
UMTS also promises new services, such as video conferencing. UMTS promises
to realize the Virtual Home Environment in which a roaming user can have the
same services to which the user is accustomed when at home or in the
office,through a combination of transparent terrestrial and satellite connections

23
24
W-CDMA
(Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is the radio access
scheme used for third generation cellular systems that are being rolled out in
various parts of the globe. The 3G systems to support wideband services like
high-speed Internet access, video and high quality image transmission with the
same quality as the fixed networks. In WCDMA systems the CDMA air
interface is combined with GSM based networks. The WCDMA standard was
evolved through the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) which aims to
ensure interoperability between different 3G networks.

The standard that has emerged through this partnership project is based on
ETSI's Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) and is commonly
known as UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA). The access scheme for
UTRA is Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA). The
information is spread over a band of approximately 5 MHz. This wide bandwidth
has given rise to the name Wideband CDMA or WCDMA.

In WCDMA, there are two different modes of operation possible:

• TDD: In this duplex method, uplink and downlink transmissions are


carried over the same frequency band by using synchronized time
intervals. Thus time slots in a physical channel are divided into
transmission and reception part.
• FDD: The uplink and downlink transmissions employ two separated
frequency bands for this duplex method. A pair of frequency bands with
specified separation is assigned for a connection. Since different regions
have different frequency allocation schemes, the capability to operate in
either FDD or TDD mode allows for efficient utilization of the available
spectrum

25
Frequency use

Comparison of W-CDMA to CDMA2000


Both use a coding
scheme that separates each subscriber from other subscribersBoth use control
channels to manage the network.

26
W-CDMA and CDMA2000 are not compatible from the perspective that they
have different chip rates - 3.84 MCPS for W-CDMA vs. 1.2888 MCPS for
CMDA2000. W-CDMA uses a 5 MHz channel. Initially, CDMA2000 uses only
a 1.25 MHz channel, but with CDMA2000 3x, three 1.25 MHz channels can be
combined to form a super channel structure.

W-CDMA is synchronous, relying on mobile station time measurements


between
two base stations, rather than using GPS as CDMA2000 does.

Difference between regular CDMA and W-CDMA

Impetus for 3G

The major impetus for 3G is to provide for faster data speed for
data-intensive applications such as video. In addition, 3G to providing faster data
speeds on a per-user basis, 3G is also helpful to provide greater overall capacity
for voice and data users. 3G wireless technology represents a shift from voice-
centric services to multimedia-oriented services like video, voice, data and fax.

A step into 3G will see an explosion of personal communication devices and


systems that deliver freedom of communication through mobility as well as
wideband wireless access to the internet and advanced multimedia services.

Data Speed
The data speed of 3G is determined based on a combination of
factors includingthe chip rate, channel structure, power control, and
synchronization.

An example of calculating the theoretical 3G data speed is as follows:


W-CDMA assigned code 400-500 Kpbs/code. 6 codes X 400 > 2Mbps (UMTS
target for 3G data speed in fixed location) Actual data speeds will vary in
accordance with several factors including: Number of users in
cell/sectorDistance of user from cell

27
User is moving or stationary Network operator capacity and network
optimization requirements 1xEV-DO is a data-only solution, supporting a
theoretical data speed of up to 2.457 Mbps 1xEV-DV is a data and voice
solution, supporting a theoretical data speed of up to 3.072 Mbps FOMA has two
operational modes, supporting a dedicated 64 Kbps connection or a 384 Kbps
downlink/64 Kbps uplink best-effort connection.
TD-SCDMA can operate in 1.6 MHz or 5 MHz mode for 2 Mbps or 6 Mpbs
respectively.

3.5G

High-Speed Downlink Packet Access


HSDPA 2G and 3G definitionsis a new
mobile telephony protocol. Also called 3.5G (or "3½G"). High Speed Downlink
Packet Access (HSDPA) is a packet-based data service in W-CDMA downlink
with data transmission up to 8-10 Mbit/s (and 20 Mbit/s for MIMO systems)
over a 5MHz bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. HSDPA implementations
includes Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC), Multiple-Input Multiple-
Output (MIMO), Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ), fast scheduling, fast cell
search,and advanced receiver design.

In 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) standards, Release 4 specifications


provide efficient IP support enabling provision of services through an all-IP core
network and Release 5 specifications focus on HSDPA to provide data rates up
to approximately 10 Mbit/s to support packet-based multimedia services. MIMO

28
systems are the work item in Release 6 specifications, which will support even
higher data transmission rates up to 20 Mbit/s. HSDPA is evolved from and
backward compatible with Release 99 WCDMA systems.

3.75G

HSUPA, High-Speed Uplink Packet Access,


is a data access protocol for mobile
phone networks with extremely high upload speeds upto 5.8 Mbit/s. Similar to
HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access), HSUPA is considered 3.75G or
sometimes 4G.

DATA SPEED

GPRS data speeds are expected to reach theoretical data speeds of up to 171.2
Kbps. However, this is based on optimal conditions in terms of available

29
cell/sector capacity in terms of available time slots, maximum coding
scheme(CS-4) as well as mobile phone availability to support the maximum
number of time slots - eight. Morepractical data rates are currently in the order of
40-60Kbps.

CDMA2000 1xRTT data speeds are averaging about 70-80 Kbps.EDGE will
boost data theoretical data rates to 384 Kbps if/when deployed.EDGE
accomplishes these higher rates through introduction of a new modulation
scheme known as Eight Phase Shift Keying (8PSK). 8PSK provides for up to 3
bits per symbol (rather than GPRS's 1 bit per symbol), facilitating an up to 3 X's
improvement over GPRS.

HSCSD will provide speeds of up to 64 Kbps. However, HSCSD perpetuates the


inefficient use of spectrum and transmission that is relegated by any circuit
switched mechanism.

Prior to the introduction of these technologies, Cellular Digital Packet


Data(CDPD), offered only up to 19.2 kbps on AMPS networks. Other current
means of mobile data such as NTT DoCoMo's PDC network offer only 9.6 kpbs,
such as used for the highly successful I-mode.

3G technologies such as CDMA2000 (1xEV-DO and 3x) and W-CDMA will


theoretically provide up to 2 Mbps in a fixed location. There will, however, be
some significant limitations to this theoretical capacity.

4G

4G (or 4-G) is short for fourth-generation the successor of 3G and is a wireless


access technology.

It describes two different but overlapping ideas.

1. 4G technology stands to be the future standard of wireless devices. A leading


wireless company NTT DoCoMo is testing 4G communication at 100Mbps
while moving, and 1Gbps while still. NTT DoCoMo plans on releasing the first
commercial network in 2010. Despite current wireless devices seldom utilize full

30
3G capabilities, there is a basic attitude that if you provide the pipeline then
services for it will follow.

2.Pervasive networks. An amorphous and presently entirely hypothetical


concept where the user can be simultaneously connected to several wireless
access technologies and can seamlessly move between them (See
handover).These access technologies can be Wi-Fi, UMTS, EDGE or any other
future access technology. Included in this concept is also smart-radio technology
to efficiently manage spectrum use and transmission power as well as the use of
mesh routing protocols to create a pervasive network.

3. Ideally, this would provide users with on demand high quality video and
audio. The killer application of 4G is not clear, but video is one of the big
differences between 4G and 3G. 4G uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing), and also can implement OFDMA (Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiple Access) to better allocate network resources to
multiple users. 4G devices may use SDR (Software-defined_radio) receivers
which allows for better use of available bandwidth as well as making use of
multiple channels simultaneously.

Reasons to Have 4G

1.Support interactive multimedia services: teleconferencing, wireless


internet, etc.
2.Wider bandwidths, higher bit rates.
3.Global mobility and service portability.
4.Low cost.
5.Scalability of mobile networks.

What's New in 4G

1.Entirely packet-switched networks.


2.All network elements are digital.
3.Higher bandwidths to provide multimedia services at lower cost (up to
100Mbps).
4.Tight network security.

Comparison of 3G and 4G

• 3G • 4G

• Back compatible to 2G. • Extend 3G capacity by one


order

31
of magnitude.

• Circuit and packet switched •Entirely packet switched


Networks networks.

• Combination of existing & evolved • All network elements are


digital.
equipment.

• Data rate (up to 2Mbps). • Higher bandwidth (up


to100Mbps).

Advent of 3G

32
While 2G systems such as GSM, IS-95and cdmaOne were designed to carry
speech and low-bitrate data, 3G systems are being designed solely to provide
high-data rate services. This generation of wireless communications attempt to
converge various 2G and 2.5G networks into a single uniform system. The 3G
telecom networks include both terrestrial and satellite components.

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has been developing the 3G


wireless standard since 1985. Two different standards are competing for the title
of the 3G standard: while QualComm has proposed CDMA-2000, the European
Telecommunications Standards Institute endorses the Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS).

Revolution 4G

33
4G has sprung from a usage-driven research framework o invent new
technologies for the wireless world vision. The evolution of such a wireless
system (also called ‘beyond 3G’ or ‘B3G’) is closely linked to rapid advances in
digital and component technologies.

The merger of consumer electronics, computer systems, telecommunications and


broadcasting is leading to an information convergence that will require
increasingly seamless connections. Seamless means getting over barriers of
different wireless standards and bands. So future mobile devices will be capable
of supporting multiple wireless standards, and operate in a multimode, multiband
fashion.

The 4G wireless communication system can be integrated with the Internet


protocol (IP) backbone network to provide quality-of-service (QoS) support for
multimedia applications. It will support dynamic scheduling, link adaptation and
frequency selection as well as full roaming capabilities. 4G will also mean
mobile telephony at a data rate of 100 Mbps globally (between any two points in
the world) and 1 Gbps locally.
Broadband and wireless ubiquity

According to NTT-DoCoMo, a leading Japanese wireless company, the current


data download speed for the I-Mode mobile Internet service is 9.69 kbps
theoretically, although in practice the rates tend to be slower. 3G rates are
expected to each speeds 200 times that, while 4G will yield further
increases,reaching 20 to 40 Mbps. 4G services would allow data transfer speeds
of up to 20 MB/s for uplinks and 100 MB/s for downlinks-up to 260 times faster
thanpopular 3G services, which allow for downlinks at 384 kB/s.

4G architecture

The conceptual 4G system by DoCoMo isvery different from the present 2.5G
architecture as it has cells for outdoors, indoors and inside moving vehicles (see
Fig.). Outdoor cells cover a wide area and allow data transfer at high bitrates for
fast-moving terminals. Indoors, we will find separate access points.

Cells will be created within moving vehicles (like buses and trains) and served
by a mobile router having wireless functions. Signals will be relayed through this
router instead of the terminals individually communicating with the base station.

Shadows and electronic interferences couse dead spots-areas within the coverage
of a wireless network in which transmission falls off. A multihop connection,
which is effective in expanding the cell size, is being investigated as a way to

34
overcome dead spots. Smart antennae can also help prevent dead spots resulting
from multipath propagation.

Radio access

4G radio access equipment will employ the variable-spreading-factor spread


orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radio access method and
multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiplexing techniques. They will also
use a new signal-detection algorithm to achieve 1 Gbps peak data transmission
with a 100 MHz downlink.

Smart antennae, OFDM, software-defined radio and mesh networking will be


building bocks of the 4G infratructure. In fact, cell sites in the 4G world will
eventually reside in the handset and towers will become as ubiquitous as
handsets that will be ‘on’ all the time.

Smart antennae. A smart antenna combines several antenna elements with a


signal-processing capability to optimize its transmission and reception patterns
automatically. Each antenna element ‘sees’ each propagation path differently.
The smart antenna transmitters can encode independent streams of data onto
different paths, thereby increasing the data rate, or they can encode data
redundantly onto paths that fade independently to protect the receiver from
catastrophic signal fades. This leads to an increase in the signal quality through a
more focused transmission and also enhances the capacity through frequency
reuse. This increased capacity will translate to higher data rates for a given
number of users or more users for a given data rate per use.Another feature of
smart antennae is that they don’t need manual placement. They can
electronically adapt to the environment by looking for pilot tones that the
transmitted signal is known to have. Smart antennae can also separate signals
from multiple users who are separated by distance but use the same radio
channel with a technique called space-division multiple access (see Fig.)

FROM 3G TO 4G

4G wireless networks will bring in some major changes. We will see more ad
more battery-driven devices in use, sensors integrated into communication
networks and use of new frequency bands with the release of the
bandwidth.Cooperation across terminals and sub-networks and features such as
reconfigurability, adaptivity, programmability and flexibility of access
schemes,services and terminal devices will also be seen.

Low-cost mobile devices will access contest conveniently and


seamlessly,interacting with users in a multisensory manner. Devices customized
for disabled people will be commonplace. The targeted data rates will be 50 to
100 Mbps.

35
There will be a shift from wide range radio communications to short range radio
communications. Pervasive broadband wireless networking will encompass
personal area networks(PANs), which use Bluetooth, ZigBee and ultra-wide
band (UWB) technologies, sensor networks as well as other advanced
applications and services like radio-frequency identification (RFID) and mesh
networking.

Some technologies that will facilitate transition from 3G to 4G are:

1. ZigBee: Zigbee is a new wireless standard based on IEEE’s 802.15.4


specification that could serve as a lower cost alternative for wireless sensing and
control. It allows small devices to quickly transmit small amounts of data such as
temperature reading for thermostats and on/off request for light switches or other
remote monitoring and control needs. ZigBee devices can transmit information
beyond 20 meters and run for years on inexpensive primary batteries.

ZigBee finds applications in professional installation kits for lighting control,


heating, ventilation, air conditioning and security. It is also well suited to
building
automation, industrial, medical and residential control and monitoring
applications.

2. UWB: UWB is a short range wireless RF signal that can be used to relay data
from a host device to other devices in the immediate area. A signal is UWB if its
bandwidth is greater than “0.25 X carrier frequency”. It works for devices 10
meters apart, helping to create a wirefree home or office.

UWB technology can transmit data between consumer electronics, PC


peripherals and mobile devices at very high speeds while consuming little power.

3. WiBro: The WiBro technology, short for “wireless broadband”, is based on


the 802.16e standard. It offers mobility, wide area services and global
standardization for wireless broadband applications. With WiBro, users can
wirelessly receive data applications and multimedia content, at speeds upto 121
kmph, while traveling across large geographic areas. The application of WiBro
are diverse, including m-commerce, mobile trading, entertainment (for real time
streaming and broadcasting), 3D gaming, interactive news and distance
education.
4. Wireless System discovery: To use 4G services, devices should be able
todynamically select the wireless system. This process is complicated in a 4G
network because of its heterogeneous nature. One solution is to use software
radio devices that can scan all the available networks. After scanning, these
devices will load the required software and reconfigure themselves for the
selective network. The software can be downloaded from such media as a PC
server, smart card or memory card, or
over the air.

36
37
4G: The future look

E-mail:
4G wireless network are expected to sweep the cellphone users off their
feet, and make our lives less complicated. With abandon services and media rich
broadband that will be 20 times faster than DSL, 4G networks will make even
the common e-mail facility more interactive than it already is. Sending e-mail
could turn into a multi-media affair in a 4G world. Mobile users will have a
multimedia inbox, and receive mail attachments in the form of high resolution
images, audio and video clips. The user can reply by recording an audio
message, snapping a photo or shooting a video, and sending it right back using
just a mobile.

Health Monitoring:
4G could result in an increase in remote health monitoring of
patients, as faster, real time communication enables better two way transmission
of vital medical data.

Personal Mobility and Presence:


4G will offer personalized communications to
the mass market regardless of location, network and terminal used. High
bandwidth and global capabilities of 4G could bring some useful applications for
consumer and businesses. Personal mobility concentrates on the movement of
users instead of user’s terminals, and involves provision of personal
communications and personalized operating environments.

Tracking:
The virtual presence system would also be able to track the exact
whereabouts of individuals in case they need to be contacted. This capability
might be used for law enforcement (checking whether the prisoners are where
they are supposed to be) and tracking of packages and cargo shipments more
precisely. For example, a large company will get to know not only that the
package has arrived but also exactly whose desk it is sitting on at any given time
using the network.

38
Networking and Global roaming:
4G will allow any mobile device
run differentwireless technologies automatically, and maintain connections
seamlessly, usingsmall software. The software will also be capable of choosing
the bestconnection available according to the users intentions. 4G will deliver
not only enhanced multimedia and smooth streaming video but also universal
access and port ability across all types of devices. 4G will connect the entire
globe and be operable from practically anywhere on the Earth. It would allow for
more complex voice-over-IP services, more media rich messaging services and
more native support for local area networking on handsets.

39
Conclusion
G environments offer the ability to deliver mass-market, high-
quality, wireless multimedia applications that include extraordinary capabilities
such as location-based services and global roaming. The $64,000 question (make
that $64 billion question) is whether these new, advanced services will offset the
costs required to design, develop, and deploy the networks. Many analysts have
been increasingly critical of the large sums of money being tossed into 3G
spectrum auctions, however; from the carrier's point of view, the economics of
voice communications are becoming increasingly bleak. The first 2.5G services
should appear in 2001, with the first 3G services appearing across the globe in
2004 (probably in Japan first). It will be very interesting to see what innovative
applications will be developed for these networks and how willing consumers
are to pay up. Stay tuned.

40