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LTE Base Station

Testing Basics

Emilio Franchy
Senior Product Manager
March 31st, 2010

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Agenda

  LTE Technology Overview


  LTE Terms
  LTE vs. 3G Comparison
  LTE RF Measurements
  LTE Modulation Measurements
  LTE Over-the-Air (OTA) Measurements
  Question & Answer

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LTE Basic Technologies – OFDMA

  In the downlink, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDMA) is selected as


the air-interface for LTE.

  OFDMA communication systems do not rely on increased symbol rates in order to


achieve higher data rates.

  Transmission by means of
OFDM is a particular form of
multi-carrier modulation (MCM)
i.e. a parallel transmission
method which divides an RF
channel into several narrower
bandwidth subcarriers.

  Sub-carrier typically 15 kHz


  Standard allows for other
values

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What is OFDMA?
Different users
  “Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access”

  Assigns different subcarriers & symbols to each user

Subcarrier
  Can dynamically change

  Each subcarrier is modulated with QAM or PSK


  LTE uses QPSK, 16 QAM, and 64 QAM
  BPSK for some control signals
  PHICH, PUCCH

  Allows many users to be supported


  At variable bit rate
  Scheduling many users
  With different quality of service
  Complex Time

System Overhead

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LTE Physical Channel Names (Downlink)
  RS
  Reference Signal
  Similar to Pilots in 802.11
  Subcarrier varies with MIMO transmitter & Cell ID Shared

  P-SS, S-SS

Subcarrier
  Primary & Secondary Synchronizing Signals
  Contains cell ID

  PCFICH
  Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
  How many symbols are used for PDCCH
Shared
  PBCH
  Physical Broadcast Channel

  PHICH (not shown)


  Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel
  Sends Acknowledgements or Not Acknowledgements
  Part of Error Protection system for the uplink

  PDCCH
Shared
  Physical Downlink Control Channel
  Who’s assigned to what resources?

  PDSCH
  Physical Downlink Shared Channel Time
  Where all the user data goes

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LTE Frame Structure (FDD)
  Frame   Slot
  10 ms   500 us
  Subframe   2 per subframe, 20 per frame
  1 ms   7 or 6 symbols (normal or extended CP)
  10 per frame   Limited usefulness, as scheduling
limited to subframes

Subframe
Frame
10 ms

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Resource Blocks
  Resource Block (RB)
  12 subcarriers * 1 slot
  1 slot = 0.5 ms
  2 slots/subframe
  10 subframes/frame
1 frame = 10 ms

Subcarrier
 

Subframe

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Time
Compatible Bandwidths
1.4 MHz BW
Control Channels in
center of channel BW
3 MHz BW

5 MHz BW

10 MHz BW

15 MHz BW

20 MHz BW Frequency

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MIMO (2X2 examples)
  MIMO = Multiple Input, Multiple Output
  MIMO (Transmit Diversity)
  Multi-beam antenna’s
  Dual 2X2
  (eNodeB Tx) 4X2 (UE Rx)
  Quad 4X4
MIMO Tx Diversity
  Data stream repeated
  All signal paths
  Increase coverage

  MIMO (Spatial Multiplexing)


  Different data streams
  Higher data rate
  Relies on Multi-path
MIMO Spatial Multiplexing

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LTE terms similarity to 3G terms
LTE CDMA W-CDMA
  RS (Reference Signal) Pilot CPICH

  P-SS (Primary Synchronizing Signals) Sync P-SCH

  S-SS (Secondary Synchronizing Signals) NA S-SCH

  PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel) NA NA

  PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel) Paging BCCH

  PHICH (Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel) NA NA


  PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel ) Paging P/S-CCPCH & PICH

  PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel) Traffic Traffic

  EVM (Signal Quality) Rho EVM

  Frequency Accuracy Freq Accy Freq Accy

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LTE Measurements vs. W-CDMA Measurements

  RF   RF
  Channel Spectrum   Channel Spectrum
  Power vs. Time   Power vs. Time
  Spectral Emission Mask   Spurious Emission
  ACLR   ACLR

  Modulation Quality   Demodulator


  Resource Element Power   CDP (Code Domain Power)
  Control & Traffic Channel Power   Control & Traffic Channel Power
  Spectral Flatness   Constellation
  Constellation

  OTA
  OTA   Pilot Scan
  Sync Signal Scan   Multipath
  Channel Power Monitor

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LTE Measurements vs. CDMA Measurements

  RF   RF
  Channel Spectrum   Channel Spectrum
  Power vs. Time   Power vs. Time
  Operating Band Unwanted Emissions   Spurious Emission
(Spectrum Emission Mask)   ACPR
  ACLR

  Modulation Quality   Demodulator


  Resource Element Power   CDP (CDP MAC/Data, Graph/Table)
  Control & Traffic Channel Power   Control Channels
  Spectral Flatness
  Constellation

  OTA   OTA
  Sync Signal Scan   Pilot Scan
  Channel Power Monitor   Multipath

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eNodeB : Traditional install
Air
Interface   Traditional configuration
  2x2 MIMO
Interference
  2 Radios per sector
  Extreme weather
GPS Antenna Antennas
  Key HW in shelter
  Traditional Testing
Coaxial/Waveguide RF Cable
  Test Needs
Jumper if close to antenna
  Transmitter
  Antenna & jumper cables
  LTE signal quality
Traditional TMA’s
  Direct Connect
Coaxial Feedline to TMA   Use Test Port
  Interference
  Coverage
Fiber Optic Baseband Cable   Backhaul
with DC Power – short run Tx1 / Rx1   Fiber

Directional Coupler /
Test Port
Backhaul
GigE Channel
Cards
Remote Radio Heads
Power Supply
Radio Server Tx2 / Rx2 located close
to Base Band Radio

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Key Performance Indicators vs. LTE Field Measurement

Key Performance Indicators Occupied


vs. Test
 Sync
RS Power
BW,
EVM (pk) EVM Freq Error
Rx Noise
OTA EVM
Power ACLR, & Floor
SEM

Call/Session Blocking

Power shortage x x x

Resource Block shortage x xx xx

UL Interference x xx

Call/Session Drop

Radio Link Timeout x x x x x x x

UL Interference x x

DL Interference x x x x x x

x = probable, xx = most probable

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LTE Field Measurement vs. eNodeB Field Replaceable Units
Test vs. BTS Field Signal Antenna
Replaceable Units Freq Ref MCPA Filters Antenna
Generation Down Tilt

Sync Power x xx x

RS Power x xx x

Occupied BW x xx xx

Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio


x x xx x
(ACLR)

Spectral Emission Mask (SEM) x x xx x

Error Vector Magnitude Peak (EVM


x xx
pk)

Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) x x x x

Frequency Error xx

OTA EVM x x x x x

x = probable, xx = most probable

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LTE (RF) Occupied Bandwidth

  Guideline – Direct Connect


  Per defined LTE bandwidth
  1.4, 3.0, 5.0, 10, 15, 20 MHz
  Consequences
  Leads to interference with neighboring
carriers
  Dropped calls/data sessions
  Low capacity

  Common Faults
  Tx filter
  MCPA
  Occupied Bandwidth
  A measurement of the spectrum used   Channel cards
by the carrier   Antennas
  The occupied bandwidth contains 99%
of the signal’s RF power

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LTE Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR)

  Guideline – Direct Connect


  -45 dBc for the adjacent channels
  -45 dBc for the alternate channels

  Consequences
  Leads to interference with neighboring
carriers
  Low capacity
  Blocked calls/data sessions

  Common Faults
  Tx filter
  MCPA
  ACLR (single-carrier displayed)
  Measures how much of the carrier gets into   Channel cards
neighboring RF channels   Cable connectors
  Checks the closest (adjacent) and the next
closest (alternate)

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LTE Spectral Emission Mask (SEM)
  Guideline – Direct Connect
  Must be below mask
  Received power levels matter so be
sure to use the right external
attenuation value

  Consequences
  Interference with neighboring carriers
  Legal liability
  Low signal quality

  Common Faults
  Check amplifier output filtering
  Spectral Emission Mask
  Look for intermodulation distortion
  SEM checks closer to the signal than
ACLR does   Look for spectral re-growth
  Regulators may require regular
measurements of spectral emissions

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LTE Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)
  Guidelines – Direct Connect
  QPSK - 17.5%
  16 QAM – 12.5%
  64 QAM – 8%
  Consequences
  dropped calls/data sessions
  low data rate
  low sector capacity
  blocked calls/data sessions
  Common Faults
  distortion in the channel cards
  Power amplifier
  filter
  EVM   antenna system
  The ratio of errors, or distortions, in the
actual signal, compared to a perfect
signal
  EVM applies to the entire signal

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LTE Control Channels
  Guideline
  Per RF Engineering ± 0.5 dB
  Consequences
  If power set too low
  Blocked calls/data sessions
  Initiating calls/data sessions
  Dropped calls/data sessions
 During handoffs
  If power set too high
  Possible interference
  Lower Throughput
  Common Faults
  Improper settings in the eNodeB
  Control Channels
  Verifies Control Channel power is set   Signal processing
correctly   Control section

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LTE Frequency Error
  Guideline – OTA with GPS
  ± 0.05 ppm (wide area BS)
  ± 0.1 (local area BS)
  ± 0.25 (home BS)
  Consequences
  Calls will drop when mobiles travel at
higher speed
  In some cases, cell phones cannot hand
off into, or out of the cell
  Common Faults
  Reference frequency
  Frequency distribution system
  GPS, if used
  Frequency Error   Backhaul
  Checks to see that the carrier frequency
is precisely correct
  Regulatory requirement in many
countries

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eNode-B ; Remote Radio Unit
Air
Interface

Interference   Single Sector


  2x2 MIMO
GPS Antenna Antennas
2 Radios per sector
 

  Tx1 has Sync Signal


RF Cable
Jumper if close to antenna   Tx2 may have Sync Signal

  Test Needs
Remote Radio Heads   Transmitter
Ideally located close
to antenna   Antenna & jumper cables
  LTE signal quality

Fiber Optic Baseband Cable


  OTA if No Access to RRU

Directional Coupler /
with DC Power   Interference
  Coverage
  Backhaul
Backhaul Tx1 / Rx1   Fiber
GigE ….
Test Port
Channel
Cards
Tx2 / Rx2
Power Supply
Radio Server

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Company Confidential
LTE Synchronization Signal Scanner
  Guideline – Direct Connect
  3 or fewer codes
  Within 10 dB of dominant code
  Over 95% of the coverage area

  Consequences
  Low data rate
  Low capacity
  Excessive soft handoffs

  Common faults
  Antenna down tilt
Scrambling code power
Downlink Coverage Quality
 

  Illegal repeaters
  Synchronization Signal Power
  Indicates which sectors are present at
the current location
  Too many strong sectors creates pilot
pollution

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LTE OTA Modulation Quality Testing
  OTA Modulation Quality Testing
  Valid signal quality measurements can be
made OTA
  Guidelines are established from a known good
base station
  Must be taken in valid location
  Valid OTA Location
  OTA Scanner validates location
  Dominance >10 dB
  If Pass – becomes sweet spot
  Note GPS location
  Becomes location for future
OTA Modulation Quality Testing
  Record and create
OTA Modulation Quality OTA Pass/Fail limits

  MIMO presents a challenge to measure EVM


  Need to measure PBCH which has Transmit Diversity
  Measures both Tx1 & Tx2
  Valid EVM OTA measurement

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Downlink Coverage Mapping
  OTA Scanner has Auto-Save
  Need GPS Receiver and Antenna
  Collects data ≈ every 5-10 s
  Time depends on number of Sync
codes and whether Modulation is turned
on

  Master Software Tools can export data


to a KML file
  Import into Google Maps/Earth
  Mouse over point to see Scanner
results
Downlink Coverage Quality

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One quick test – OTA Pass/Fail – checks health of cell site
Start

  Find valid Over-the-Air (OTA) location


Found Start   If not, direct connect
Valid Direct Connect
OTA
spot? N
Transmitter
Test
  Run one-step Pass/Fail Test
  Checks Feed Line Quality, if OTA
Y
Run OTA or
  Checks RF Quality
Direct Connect   Checks Modulation Quality
Pass/Fail Test
  Test data throughput
Troubleshoot   Use PC data card
Feed Lines
Pass?
N
Base Station
Coverage
  If everything passes
Interference
  DONE
Y
Run PC-based
  If not troubleshoot
Throughput Test   Feed lines and antenna system
  Base station field replaceable units
Good   Downlink Coverage issues
Troubleshoot
Through-
put? N
Backhaul   Interference problems
  Backhaul bit-error-rates
Y
Done

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Troubleshooting Guide and
Coverage Mapping App Note

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LTE Measurements Training Course
  LTE Theory and Measurements Using the BTS & Spectrum Masters
An intense two-day instructor led training course that focuses on LTE Base Station
measurements, helping you reduce operating expenses by enhancing the skill set of your
employees. Available at your site or at a nearby Anritsu facility.
  Who Should Attend
  Cell Technicians
  System Performance Engineers/Field Engineers
  Base Station OEMs
  Site Managers
  BTS Installers
  How You Will Benefit
  Spectrum Analysis Basics - how to use a spectrum analyzer, identifying signal types, common
measurements such as Occupied Bandwidth, ACLR and Channel Power. Includes extensive labs.
  Digital Modulation Theory – PSK and QAM, EVM, Bit error rate vs. CINR, Orthogonal FDM theory
  RF Propagation & LTE Air Interface theory– time and frequency structure, air interface, MIMO, diversity,
physical channels description, 3GPP Transmitter performance specs, frequency reuse, C/I vs. co-channel
reuse. Includes extensive labs.
  LTE Downlink Quality Measurement – Channel Power, Occupied Bandwidth, Spectral Emission mask,
EVM, Constellation, Frequency error, OTA measurements such as Multiple-signal inventory, dominance, and
modulation quality. Includes extensive labs.
  LTE Pass/Fail Measurements - Learn what is critical and what is acceptable.

  See http://www.us.anritsu.com/training/ for more info.

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Question & Answers

  Thank you for your participation

  More information available at

www.us.anritsu.com

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