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<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Bird</h1>

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<div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
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<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-
parser-output"><div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux"
style="display:none">Warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrates with wings, feathers and
beaks</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For other uses, see <a
href="/wiki/Bird_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Bird (disambiguation)">Bird
(disambiguation)</a> and <a href="/wiki/Birds_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig"
title="Birds (disambiguation)">Birds (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"Aves" and "Avifauna" redirect
here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Aves_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig"
title="Aves (disambiguation)">Aves (disambiguation)</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Avifauna_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Avifauna
(disambiguation)">Avifauna (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
<p class="mw-empty-elt">

</p>
<table class="infobox biota" style="text-align: left; width: 200px; font-size: 100%">

<tbody><tr>
<th colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(235,235,210)">Birds<br
/><div style="font-size: 85%;">Temporal range: <br /><span style="display:inline-
block;"></span><span style="display:inline-block;"><a href="/wiki/Early_Cretaceous"
title="Early Cretaceous">Early Cretaceous</a> (<a href="/wiki/Aptian"
title="Aptian">Aptian</a>) – <a href="/wiki/Holocene" title="Holocene">Present</a>,<sup
id="cite_ref-divergence_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-divergence-
1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup> 121–0 Mya</span> <span style="display:inline-
block;"></span><div id="Timeline-row" style="margin: 4px auto 0; clear:both; width:220px;
padding:0px; height:18px; overflow:visible; border:1px #666; border-style:solid none;
position:relative; z-index:0; font-size:13px;">
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; left:0px; width:208.07692307692px; padding-
left:5px; text-align:left; background-color:rgb(254,214,123); background-image: -moz-linear-
gradient(left, rgba(255,255,255,1), rgba(254,217,106,1) 15%, rgba(254,217,106,1));
background-image: -o-linear-gradient(left, rgba(255,255,255,1), rgba(254,217,106,1) 15%,
rgba(254,217,106,1)); background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(left, rgba(255,255,255,1),
rgba(254,217,106,1) 15%, rgba(254,217,106,1)); background-image: linear-gradient(to right,
rgba(255,255,255,1), rgba(254,217,106,1) 15%, rgba(254,217,106,1));"><a
href="/wiki/Precambrian" title="Precambrian">PreЄ</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(129,170,114); left:36.892307692308px; width:18.818461538462px;"><a
href="/wiki/Cambrian" title="Cambrian">Є</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(0,169,138); left:55.710769230769px; width:14.08px;"><a href="/wiki/Ordovician"
title="Ordovician">O</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(166,223,197); left:69.790769230769px; width:8.3261538461539px;"><a
href="/wiki/Silurian" title="Silurian">S</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(221,150,81); left:78.116923076923px; width:20.409230769231px;"><a
href="/wiki/Devonian" title="Devonian">D</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(63,174,173); left:98.526153846154px; width:20.307692307692px;"><a
href="/wiki/Carboniferous" title="Carboniferous">C</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(247,88,60); left:118.83384615385px; width:15.907015384615px;"><a
href="/wiki/Permian" title="Permian">P</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(153,78,150); left:134.74086153846px; width:17.126830769231px;"><a
href="/wiki/Triassic" title="Triassic">T</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(0,187,231); left:151.86769230769px; width:19.055384615385px;"><a
href="/wiki/Jurassic" title="Jurassic">J</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(111,200,107); left:170.92307692308px; width:26.738461538462px;"><a
href="/wiki/Cretaceous" title="Cretaceous">K</a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(254,161,99); left:197.66153846154px; width:14.543692307692px;"><a
href="/wiki/Paleogene" title="Paleogene"><small>Pg</small></a></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:100%; text-align:center; background-
color:rgb(254,221,45); left:212.20523076923px; width:6.9215384615385px;"><a
href="/wiki/Neogene" title="Neogene"><small>N</small></a></div>
<div id="end-border" style="position:absolute; height:100%; background-color:#666;
width:1px; left:219px"></div><div style="margin:0 auto; line-height:0; clear:both;
width:220px; padding:0px; height:8px; overflow:visible; background-color:transparent;
position:relative; top:-4px; z-index:100;"><div style="position:absolute; height:8px;
left:165.57538461538px; width:54.424615384615px; background-color:#360;
opacity:0.42;"></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:8px; left:179.04615384615px;
width:40.953846153846px; background-color:#360; opacity:1;"></div>
<div style="position:absolute; height:6px; top:1px; left:180.04615384615px;
width:38.953846153846px; background-color:#6c3;"></div>
</div>
</div></div>
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center"><div class="noresize" style="height: 418px; width:
300px; "><map name="ImageMap_3a686dd780cdcd23"><area href="/wiki/Red-
crested_turaco" shape="rect" coords="0,0,100,70" alt="Red-crested turaco" title="Red-crested
turaco" /><area href="/wiki/Steller%27s_sea_eagle" shape="rect" coords="0,70,100,141"
alt="Steller's sea eagle" title="Steller's sea eagle" /><area href="/wiki/Rock_dove"
shape="rect" coords="0,209,100,141" alt="Rock dove" title="Rock dove" /><area
href="/wiki/Southern_cassowary" shape="rect" coords="0,279,100,210" alt="Southern
cassowary" title="Southern cassowary" /><area href="/wiki/Gentoo_penguin" shape="rect"
coords="0,348,100,279" alt="Gentoo penguin" title="Gentoo penguin" /><area
href="/wiki/Bar-throated_minla" shape="rect" coords="0,418,100,348" alt="Bar-throated
minla" title="Bar-throated minla" /><area href="/wiki/Shoebill" shape="rect"
coords="200,0,100,70" alt="Shoebill" title="Shoebill" /><area
href="/wiki/Grey_crowned_crane" shape="rect" coords="200,70,100,141" alt="Grey crowned
crane" title="Grey crowned crane" /><area href="/wiki/Anna%27s_hummingbird"
shape="rect" coords="200,209,100,141" alt="Anna's hummingbird" title="Anna's
hummingbird" /><area href="/wiki/Rainbow_lorikeet" shape="rect" coords="200,279,100,210"
alt="Rainbow lorikeet" title="Rainbow lorikeet" /><area href="/wiki/Grey_heron"
shape="rect" coords="200,348,100,279" alt="Grey heron" title="Grey heron" /><area
href="/wiki/Eurasian_eagle-owl" shape="rect" coords="200,418,100,348" alt="Eurasian eagle-
owl" title="Eurasian eagle-owl" /><area href="/wiki/White-tailed_tropicbird" shape="rect"
coords="300,0,100,70" alt="White-tailed tropicbird" title="White-tailed tropicbird" /><area
href="/wiki/Indian_peafowl" shape="rect" coords="300,70,100,141" alt="Indian peafowl"
title="Indian peafowl" /><area href="/wiki/Atlantic_puffin" shape="rect"
coords="300,209,100,141" alt="Atlantic puffin" title="Atlantic puffin" /><area
href="/wiki/American_flamingo" shape="rect" coords="300,279,100,210" alt="American
flamingo" title="American flamingo" /><area href="/wiki/Blue-footed_booby" shape="rect"
coords="300,348,100,279" alt="Blue-footed booby" title="Blue-footed booby" /><area
href="/wiki/Keel-billed_toucan" shape="rect" coords="300,418,100,348" alt="Keel-billed
toucan" title="Keel-billed toucan" /></map><img alt="Bird Diversity 2013.png"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/Bird_Diversity_2013.png/300px-
Bird_Diversity_2013.png" decoding="async" width="300" height="418"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/Bird_Diversity_2013.png/450
px-Bird_Diversity_2013.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bf/Bird_Diversity_2013.png/600px-
Bird_Diversity_2013.png 2x" data-file-width="999" data-file-height="1392"
usemap="#ImageMap_3a686dd780cdcd23" /><div style="margin-left: 280px; margin-top: -
20px; text-align: left;"><a href="/wiki/File:Bird_Diversity_2013.png" title="About this
image"><img alt="About this image" src="/w/extensions/ImageMap/resources/desc-
20.png?15600" style="border: none;" /></a></div></div>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: center; font-size: 88%">Examples of various avian orders.
<p>Row 1: <a href="/wiki/Red-crested_turaco" title="Red-crested turaco">Red-crested
turaco</a>, <a href="/wiki/Shoebill" title="Shoebill">shoebill</a>, <a href="/wiki/White-
tailed_tropicbird" title="White-tailed tropicbird">white-tailed tropicbird</a><br />Row 2: <a
href="/wiki/Steller%27s_sea_eagle" title="Steller&#39;s sea eagle">Steller's sea eagle</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Grey_crowned_crane" title="Grey crowned crane">grey crowned crane</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Common_peafowl" class="mw-redirect" title="Common peafowl">common
peafowl</a><br />Row 3: <a href="/wiki/Rock_dove" title="Rock dove">Rock dove</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Anna%27s_hummingbird" title="Anna&#39;s hummingbird">Anna's
hummingbird</a>, <a href="/wiki/Atlantic_puffin" title="Atlantic puffin">Atlantic
puffin</a><br />Row 4: <a href="/wiki/Southern_cassowary" title="Southern
cassowary">Southern cassowary</a>, <a href="/wiki/Rainbow_lorikeet" title="Rainbow
lorikeet">rainbow lorikeet</a>, <a href="/wiki/American_flamingo" title="American
flamingo">American flamingo</a><br />Row 5: <a href="/wiki/Gentoo_penguin"
title="Gentoo penguin">Gentoo penguin</a>, <a href="/wiki/Grey_heron" title="Grey
heron">grey heron</a>, <a href="/wiki/Blue-footed_booby" title="Blue-footed booby">blue-
footed booby</a><br />Row 6: <a href="/wiki/Bar-throated_minla" title="Bar-throated
minla">Bar-throated minla</a>, <a href="/wiki/Eurasian_eagle-owl" title="Eurasian eagle-
owl">Eurasian eagle-owl</a>, <a href="/wiki/Keel-billed_toucan" title="Keel-billed
toucan">keel-billed toucan</a>
</p>
</td></tr>

<tr>
<th colspan="2" style="min-width:15em; text-align: center; background-color:
rgb(235,235,210)"><a href="/wiki/Taxonomy_(biology)" title="Taxonomy
(biology)">Scientific classification</a> <span class="plainlinks" style="font-size:smaller;
float:right; padding-right:0.4em; margin-left:-3em;"><a
href="/wiki/Template:Taxonomy/Aves" title="e"><img alt="e"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/74/Red_Pencil_Icon.png"
decoding="async" width="16" height="16" data-file-width="16" data-file-height="16"
/></a></span>
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td>Kingdom:
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Animal" title="Animal">Animalia</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Phylum:
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Chordate" title="Chordate">Chordata</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><i>Clade</i>:
</td>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ornithurae" title="Ornithurae">Ornithurae</a>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>Class:
</td>
<td><b>Aves</b><br /><small><a href="/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus" title="Carl
Linnaeus">Linnaeus</a>, <a href="/wiki/10th_edition_of_Systema_Naturae" title="10th
edition of Systema Naturae">1758</a><sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup></small>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(235,235,210)">Extant <a
href="/wiki/Order_(biology)" title="Order (biology)">Orders</a> and temporal range
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: left">
<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;font-
size:95%;padding:4px;border:none;padding: 0px;"><div style="font-size:100%;line-
height:1.6;font-weight:bold;background:transparent;text-align:left;;padding: 0px;">See
orders</div><div class="mw-collapsible-content" style="background:transparent;text-
align:left;;padding: 0px;">* Infraclass <a href="/wiki/Palaeognathae"
title="Palaeognathae">Palaeognathae</a>
<ul><li><ul><li>Superorder Struthionimorphae
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Struthioniformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Struthioniformes">Struthioniformes</a> (Ostrichs) – 58?–0 Mya, Late <a
href="/wiki/Paleocene" title="Paleocene">Paleocene</a>?–<a href="/wiki/Holocene"
title="Holocene">Present</a></li></ul></li>
<li>Superorder <a href="/wiki/Notopalaeognathae"
title="Notopalaeognathae">Notopalaeognathae</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Rheiformes" class="mw-redirect" title="Rheiformes">Rheiformes</a>
(Rheas) – 56–0 Mya, Late <a href="/wiki/Paleocene" title="Paleocene">Paleocene</a>–
Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tinamiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Tinamiformes">Tinamiformes</a> (Tinamous) – 10–0 Mya, Middle <a
href="/wiki/Miocene" title="Miocene">Miocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Casuariiformes" title="Casuariiformes">Casuariiformes</a> (Casowaries
and Emus) – 58.7–0 Mya, Late <a href="/wiki/Paleocene" title="Paleocene">Paleocene</a>–
Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apterygiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Apterygiformes">Apterygiformes</a> (Kiwis) – 23.03–0 Mya, Early <a
href="/wiki/Miocene" title="Miocene">Miocene</a>–Present</li></ul></li></ul></li>
<li>Infraclass <a href="/wiki/Neognathae" title="Neognathae">Neognathae</a>
<ul><li>Superorder <a href="/wiki/Galloanserae" class="mw-redirect"
title="Galloanserae">Galloanserae</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Galliformes" title="Galliformes">Galliformes</a> (Gamebirds) – 45–
0 Mya, Middle <a href="/wiki/Eocene" title="Eocene">Eocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Anseriformes" title="Anseriformes">Anseriformes</a> (Waterfowl) – 71–
0 Mya, Late <a href="/wiki/Cretaceous" title="Cretaceous">Cretaceous</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Maastrichtian" title="Maastrichtian">Maastrichtian</a>)–Present</li></ul></li>
<li>Superorder <a href="/wiki/Neoaves" title="Neoaves">Neoaves</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Phoenicopteriformes"
title="Phoenicopteriformes">Phoenicopteriformes</a> (Flamingos) – 50–0 Mya, Early <a
href="/wiki/Eocene" title="Eocene">Eocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Podicipediformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Podicipediformes">Podicipediformes</a> (Grebes) – 25–0 Mya, Late <a
href="/wiki/Oligocene" title="Oligocene">Oligocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Columbiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Columbiformes">Columbiformes</a> (Pigeons and doves) – 23.03–0 Mya, Early <a
href="/wiki/Miocene" title="Miocene">Miocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mesitornithiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Mesitornithiformes">Mesitornithiformes</a> (Mesites) – No fossil records</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pterocliformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Pterocliformes">Pterocliformes</a> (Sandgrouse) – 33.9–0 Mya, Late <a
href="/wiki/Oligocene" title="Oligocene">Oligocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Apodiformes" title="Apodiformes">Apodiformes</a> (swifts, treeswifts
and hummingbirds) – 52–0 Mya, Early <a href="/wiki/Eocene" title="Eocene">Eocene</a>–
Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Caprimulgiformes" title="Caprimulgiformes">Caprimulgiformes</a>
(Nightjars, nighthawks, potoos, oilbirds, frogmouths and owlet-nightjars) – 59.2–0 Mya,
Middle <a href="/wiki/Paleocene" title="Paleocene">Paleocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cuculiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Cuculiformes">Cuculiformes</a> (Cuckoos, anis, etc) – 34–0 Mya, Late <a
href="/wiki/Miocene" title="Miocene">Miocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Otidiformes" class="mw-redirect" title="Otidiformes">Otidiformes</a>
(Bustards, floricans, etc) – 13–0 Mya, Middle <a href="/wiki/Miocene"
title="Miocene">Miocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Musophagiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Musophagiformes">Musophagiformes</a> (Turacos and go-away-birds) – 24–0 Mya,
Late <a href="/wiki/Oligocene" title="Oligocene">Oligocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Opisthocomiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Opisthocomiformes">Opisthocomiformes</a> (Hoatzin) – 33.9–0 Mya, Late <a
href="/wiki/Eocene" title="Eocene">Eocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gruiformes" title="Gruiformes">Gruiformes</a> (Cranes, crakes, rails,
wood-rails, fluftais, gallinules, limpkins, trumpeters, finfoots and sungrebes) – 66–0 Mya, Late
<a href="/wiki/Cretaceous" title="Cretaceous">Cretaceous</a> (<a href="/wiki/Maastrichtian"
title="Maastrichtian">Maastrichtian</a>)–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Charadriiformes" title="Charadriiformes">Charadriiformes</a> (Plovers,
crab plovers, lapwings, seagulls, puffins, auks, sandipipers, buttonquails, stilts, avocets,
ibisbills, woodcocks, skuas, etc) – 75–0 Mya, Late <a href="/wiki/Cretaceous"
title="Cretaceous">Cretaceous</a> (<a href="/wiki/Campanian"
title="Campanian">Campanian</a>)–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Gaviiformes" title="Gaviiformes">Gaviiformes</a> (Loons) – 70–0 Mya,
Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Procellariiformes" title="Procellariiformes">Procellariiformes</a> (petrels,
storm petrels, albatrosses and diving petrels) – 33.9–0 Mya, Early <a href="/wiki/Oligocene"
title="Oligocene">Oligocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sphenisciformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Sphenisciformes">Sphenisciformes</a> (penguins) – 62–0 Mya, Early <a
href="/wiki/Paleocene" title="Paleocene">Paleocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ciconiiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Ciconiiformes">Ciconiiformes</a> (storks, openbills and jabirus) – 30–0 Mya, Early <a
href="/wiki/Oligocene" title="Oligocene">Oligocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Suliformes" title="Suliformes">Suliformes</a> (boobiess, gannets,
fregatbirds, cormorants, shags and anhigas) – 90–0 Mya, Late <a href="/wiki/Cretaceous"
title="Cretaceous">Cretaceous</a> (<a href="/wiki/Turonian"
title="Turonian">Turonian</a>)–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Pelecaniformes" title="Pelecaniformes">Pelecaniformes</a> (pelicans,
ibises, shoebills, egretts, herons, etc) – 66–0 Mya, Late <a href="/wiki/Cretaceous"
title="Cretaceous">Cretaceous</a> (<a href="/wiki/Maastrichtian"
title="Maastrichtian">Maastrichtian</a>)–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eurypygiformes" title="Eurypygiformes">Eurypygiformes</a> (sunbitterns
and kagu) – 56–0 Mya, Late <a href="/wiki/Paleocene" title="Paleocene">Paleocene</a>–
Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Phaethontiformes" title="Phaethontiformes">Phaethontiformes</a>
(tropicbirds) – 58.7–0 Mya, Late Paleocene–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cathartiformes" title="Cathartiformes">Cathartiformes</a> (New World
vultures) – 41–0 Mya, Middle <a href="/wiki/Eocene" title="Eocene">Eocene</a>–
Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Accipitriformes" title="Accipitriformes">Accipitriformes</a> (eagles, Old
World vultures, secretary-birds, hawks, harriers, etc) – 47–0 Mya, Late Eocene–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Strigiformes" class="mw-redirect" title="Strigiformes">Strigiformes</a>
(owls) – 30–0 Mya, Early <a href="/wiki/Oligocene" title="Oligocene">Oligocene</a>–
Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Coliiformes" class="mw-redirect" title="Coliiformes">Coliiformes</a>
(mousebirds) – ~65–0 Mya, Early <a href="/wiki/Paleocene"
title="Paleocene">Paleocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Leptosomiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Leptosomiformes">Leptosomiformes</a> (cuckoorollers) – No fossil record</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trogoniformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Trogoniformes">Trogoniformes</a> (trogons and quetzals) – 49–0 Mya, Early <a
href="/wiki/Eocene" title="Eocene">Eocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bucerotiformes" title="Bucerotiformes">Bucerotiformes</a> (hornbills,
hoopoes and wood-hoopoes) – ~40–0 Mya, Middle Eocene–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Coraciiformes" title="Coraciiformes">Coraciiformes</a> (rollers, bee
eaters, todys, kingfishers, etc) – 41.2–0 Mya, Middle Eocene–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Piciformes" title="Piciformes">Piciformes</a> (woodpeckers, flickers,
toucans, aracaris, motmots, etc) – 56–0 Mya, Early Eocene–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cariamiformes" title="Cariamiformes">Cariamiformes</a> (seriema) –
66–0 Mya, Late <a href="/wiki/Cretaceous" title="Cretaceous">Cretaceous</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Maastrichtian" title="Maastrichtian">Maastrichtian</a>)–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Falconiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Falconiformes">Falconiformes</a> (falcons and caracaras) – 50–0 Mya, Early <a
href="/wiki/Eocene" title="Eocene">Eocene</a>–Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Psittaciformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Psittaciformes">Psittaciformes</a> (parrots and cockatoos) – 50–0 Mya, Early Eocene–
Present</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Passeriformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Passeriformes">Passeriformes</a> (passerines) – 52.5–0 Mya, Early Eocene–
Present</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></div></div>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<th colspan="2" style="text-align: center; background-color: rgb(235,235,210)"><a
href="/wiki/Synonym_(taxonomy)" title="Synonym (taxonomy)">Synonyms</a>
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" style="text-align: left">
<ul><li>Neornithes <small>Gadow, 1883</small></li></ul>
</td></tr>

</tbody></table>
<p><b>Birds</b>, also known as <b>Aves</b> or <b>avian dinosaurs</b>, are a group of <a
href="/wiki/Endotherm" title="Endotherm">endothermic</a> <a href="/wiki/Vertebrate"
title="Vertebrate">vertebrates</a>, characterised by <a href="/wiki/Feather"
title="Feather">feathers</a>, toothless beaked jaws, the <a href="/wiki/Oviparity"
title="Oviparity">laying</a> of <a href="/wiki/Eggshell" title="Eggshell">hard-shelled</a>
eggs, a high <a href="/wiki/Metabolism" title="Metabolism">metabolic</a> rate, a four-
chambered <a href="/wiki/Heart" title="Heart">heart</a>, and a strong yet lightweight <a
href="/wiki/Bird_skeleton" class="mw-redirect" title="Bird skeleton">skeleton</a>. Birds live
worldwide and range in size from the 5&#160;cm (2&#160;in) <a
href="/wiki/Bee_hummingbird" title="Bee hummingbird">bee hummingbird</a> to the
2.75&#160;m (9&#160;ft) <a href="/wiki/Common_ostrich" title="Common
ostrich">ostrich</a>. They rank as the world's most numerically successful <a
href="/wiki/Class_(biology)" title="Class (biology)">class</a> of <a href="/wiki/Tetrapod"
title="Tetrapod">tetrapods</a>, with approximately ten thousand living species,<sup
id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup> more than
half of these being <a href="/wiki/Passerine" title="Passerine">passerine</a>, or "perching"
birds. Birds have <dfn id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#wings" title="Glossary
of bird terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § wings" style="color:inherit;"
class="glossary-link">wings</span></a></dfn> whose development varies according to
species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct <a href="/wiki/Moa"
title="Moa">moa</a> and <a href="/wiki/Elephant_bird" title="Elephant bird">elephant
birds</a>. Wings, which evolved from <a href="/wiki/Forelimb"
title="Forelimb">forelimbs</a>, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led
to the loss of flight in some birds, including <a href="/wiki/Ratite" title="Ratite">ratites</a>,
<a href="/wiki/Penguin" title="Penguin">penguins</a>, and diverse <a
href="/wiki/Endemism_in_birds" class="mw-redirect" title="Endemism in birds">endemic
island species of birds</a>. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely
adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly <a
href="/wiki/Seabird" title="Seabird">seabirds</a> and some <a href="/wiki/Water_bird"
title="Water bird">waterbirds</a>, have further evolved for swimming.
</p><p>The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having
evolved from earlier <a href="/wiki/Feathered_dinosaur" title="Feathered dinosaur">feathered
dinosaurs</a> within the <a href="/wiki/Theropod" class="mw-redirect"
title="Theropod">theropod</a> group, which are traditionally placed within the <a
href="/wiki/Saurischia" title="Saurischia">saurischian</a> dinosaurs. The closest living
relatives of birds are the <a href="/wiki/Crocodilia" title="Crocodilia">crocodilians</a>.
Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group <a
href="/wiki/Avialae" title="Avialae">Avialae</a>, have been found dating back to the mid-<a
href="/wiki/Jurassic" title="Jurassic">Jurassic</a> period, around 170 million years ago. Many
of these early "stem-birds", such as <i><a href="/wiki/Archaeopteryx"
title="Archaeopteryx">Archaeopteryx</a></i>, retained primitive characteristics such as teeth
and long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the
time of the <a href="/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event"
title="Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event">Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event</a>
66 million years ago, which killed off the <a href="/wiki/Pterosaur"
title="Pterosaur">pterosaurs</a> and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages. But birds, especially
those in the southern continents, survived this event and then migrated to other parts of the
world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving
<a href="/wiki/Dinosaur" title="Dinosaur">dinosaurs</a> according to <a
href="/wiki/Cladistics" title="Cladistics">cladistics</a>.
</p><p>Some birds, especially <a href="/wiki/Corvids" class="mw-redirect"
title="Corvids">corvids</a> and <a href="/wiki/Parrot" title="Parrot">parrots</a>, are among
the most intelligent animals; several bird species <a href="/wiki/Tool_use_by_animals"
title="Tool use by animals">make and use tools</a>, and many <a href="/wiki/Social_animal"
class="mw-redirect" title="Social animal">social species</a> pass on knowledge across
generations, which is considered a form of culture. Many species migrate annually over great
distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and <a
href="/wiki/Bird_vocalization" title="Bird vocalization">bird songs</a>, and participating in
such social behaviours as <a href="/wiki/Helpers_at_the_nest" title="Helpers at the
nest">cooperative breeding</a> and hunting, <a href="/wiki/Flocking_(behavior)"
title="Flocking (behavior)">flocking</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Mobbing_(animal_behavior)"
title="Mobbing (animal behavior)">mobbing</a> of predators. The vast majority of bird
species are socially monogamous (referring to social living arrangement, distinct from genetic
monogamy), usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life.
Other species have breeding systems that are <a href="/wiki/Polyandry"
title="Polyandry">polygynous</a> (arrangement of one male with many females) or, rarely, <a
href="/wiki/Polyandry" title="Polyandry">polyandrous</a> (arrangement of one female with
many males). Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through <a
href="/wiki/Sexual_reproduction" title="Sexual reproduction">sexual reproduction</a>. They
are usually laid in a nest and <a href="/wiki/Avian_incubation" class="mw-redirect"
title="Avian incubation">incubated</a> by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of
parental care after hatching. Some birds, such as hens, lay eggs even when not fertilised, which
do not produce offspring.
</p><p>Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and
raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds (poultry and <a
href="/wiki/Game_(hunting)" title="Game (hunting)">game</a>) being important sources of
eggs, meat, and feathers. <a href="/wiki/Songbird" title="Songbird">Songbirds</a>, parrots,
and other species are popular as pets. <a href="/wiki/Guano" title="Guano">Guano</a> (bird
excrement) is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds figure throughout human culture. About
120 to 130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, and
hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction,
though efforts are underway to protect them.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-4">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup> Recreational <a href="/wiki/Birdwatching"
title="Birdwatching">birdwatching</a> is an important part of the <a href="/wiki/Ecotourism"
title="Ecotourism">ecotourism</a> industry.
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox"
class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en"
dir="ltr"><h2>Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel"
for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Evolution_and_classification"><span
class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Evolution and classification</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Definition"><span
class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Definition</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Dinosaurs_and_the_origin_of_birds"><span
class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Dinosaurs and the origin of
birds</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Early_evolution"><span
class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Early evolution</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Early_diversity_of_bird_ancestors"><span
class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Early diversity of bird
ancestors</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Diversification_of_modern_birds"><span
class="tocnumber">1.5</span> <span class="toctext">Diversification of modern
birds</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-7"><a href="#Classification_of_bird_orders"><span
class="tocnumber">1.6</span> <span class="toctext">Classification of bird
orders</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Distribution"><span
class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Distribution</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#Anatomy_and_physiology"><span
class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Anatomy and physiology</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Skeletal_system"><span
class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Skeletal system</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Excretory_system"><span
class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Excretory system</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Respiratory_and_circulatory_systems"><span
class="tocnumber">3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Respiratory and circulatory
systems</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-13"><a href="#Heart_type_and_features"><span
class="tocnumber">3.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Heart type and
features</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-14"><a href="#Organisation"><span
class="tocnumber">3.3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Organisation</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Nervous_system"><span
class="tocnumber">3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Nervous system</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#Defence_and_intraspecific_combat"><span
class="tocnumber">3.5</span> <span class="toctext">Defence and intraspecific
combat</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Chromosomes"><span
class="tocnumber">3.6</span> <span class="toctext">Chromosomes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-18"><a href="#Feathers,_plumage,_and_scales"><span
class="tocnumber">3.7</span> <span class="toctext">Feathers, plumage, and
scales</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Flight"><span class="tocnumber">3.8</span>
<span class="toctext">Flight</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a href="#Behaviour"><span
class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Behaviour</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Diet_and_feeding"><span
class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Diet and feeding</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Water_and_drinking"><span
class="tocnumber">4.2</span> <span class="toctext">Water and drinking</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#Feather_care"><span
class="tocnumber">4.3</span> <span class="toctext">Feather care</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#Migration"><span
class="tocnumber">4.4</span> <span class="toctext">Migration</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-25"><a href="#Communication"><span
class="tocnumber">4.5</span> <span class="toctext">Communication</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-26"><a href="#Flocking_and_other_associations"><span
class="tocnumber">4.6</span> <span class="toctext">Flocking and other
associations</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-27"><a href="#Resting_and_roosting"><span
class="tocnumber">4.7</span> <span class="toctext">Resting and roosting</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#Breeding"><span
class="tocnumber">4.8</span> <span class="toctext">Breeding</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-29"><a href="#Social_systems"><span
class="tocnumber">4.8.1</span> <span class="toctext">Social systems</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-30"><a href="#Territories,_nesting_and_incubation"><span
class="tocnumber">4.8.2</span> <span class="toctext">Territories, nesting and
incubation</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-31"><a href="#Parental_care_and_fledging"><span
class="tocnumber">4.8.3</span> <span class="toctext">Parental care and
fledging</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-32"><a href="#Brood_parasites"><span
class="tocnumber">4.8.4</span> <span class="toctext">Brood parasites</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-33"><a href="#Sexual_selection"><span
class="tocnumber">4.8.5</span> <span class="toctext">Sexual selection</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-34"><a href="#Inbreeding_depression"><span
class="tocnumber">4.8.6</span> <span class="toctext">Inbreeding
depression</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-35"><a href="#Inbreeding_avoidance"><span
class="tocnumber">4.8.7</span> <span class="toctext">Inbreeding
avoidance</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-36"><a href="#Ecology"><span class="tocnumber">5</span>
<span class="toctext">Ecology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-37"><a href="#Relationship_with_humans"><span
class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Relationship with humans</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-38"><a href="#Economic_importance"><span
class="tocnumber">6.1</span> <span class="toctext">Economic importance</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-39"><a href="#In_religion_and_mythology"><span
class="tocnumber">6.2</span> <span class="toctext">In religion and
mythology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-40"><a href="#In_culture_and_folklore"><span
class="tocnumber">6.3</span> <span class="toctext">In culture and folklore</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-41"><a href="#In_music"><span
class="tocnumber">6.4</span> <span class="toctext">In music</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-42"><a href="#Conservation"><span
class="tocnumber">6.5</span> <span class="toctext">Conservation</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-43"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">7</span>
<span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-44"><a href="#Notes"><span class="tocnumber">8</span>
<span class="toctext">Notes</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-45"><a href="#External_links"><span
class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Evolution_and_classification">Evolution and


classification</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Evolution_of_birds" title="Evolution of birds">Evolution of birds</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Naturkundemuseum_Berlin_-_Archaeopteryx_-_Eichst%C3%A4tt.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Slab of stone with fossil bones and feather impressions"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Naturkundemuseum_Berlin_-
_Archaeopteryx_-_Eichst%C3%A4tt.jpg/220px-Naturkundemuseum_Berlin_-
_Archaeopteryx_-_Eichst%C3%A4tt.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="248"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Naturkundemuseum_Berlin_-
_Archaeopteryx_-_Eichst%C3%A4tt.jpg/330px-Naturkundemuseum_Berlin_-
_Archaeopteryx_-_Eichst%C3%A4tt.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Naturkundemuseum_Berlin_-
_Archaeopteryx_-_Eichst%C3%A4tt.jpg/440px-Naturkundemuseum_Berlin_-
_Archaeopteryx_-_Eichst%C3%A4tt.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1800"
/></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Naturkundemuseum_Berlin_-_Archaeopteryx_-_Eichst%C3%A4tt.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><i><a href="/wiki/Archaeopteryx_lithographica"
class="mw-redirect" title="Archaeopteryx lithographica">Archaeopteryx
lithographica</a></i> is often considered the oldest known true bird.</div></div></div>
<p>The first <a href="/wiki/Biological_classification" class="mw-redirect" title="Biological
classification">classification</a> of birds was developed by <a
href="/wiki/Francis_Willughby" title="Francis Willughby">Francis Willughby</a> and <a
href="/wiki/John_Ray" title="John Ray">John Ray</a> in their 1676 volume
<i>Ornithologiae</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
5">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup>
<a href="/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus" title="Carl Linnaeus">Carl Linnaeus</a> modified that work in
1758 to devise the <a href="/wiki/Taxonomic_classification" class="mw-redirect"
title="Taxonomic classification">taxonomic classification</a> system currently in use.<sup
id="cite_ref-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup> Birds are
categorised as the <a href="/wiki/Class_(biology)" title="Class (biology)">biological class</a>
Aves in <a href="/wiki/Linnaean_taxonomy" title="Linnaean taxonomy">Linnaean
taxonomy</a>. <a href="/wiki/Phylogenetic_taxonomy" class="mw-redirect"
title="Phylogenetic taxonomy">Phylogenetic taxonomy</a> places Aves in the dinosaur <a
href="/wiki/Clade" title="Clade">clade</a> <a href="/wiki/Theropoda"
title="Theropoda">Theropoda</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Theropoda_7-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Theropoda-7">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Definition">Definition</span></h3>
<p>Aves and a sister group, the order <a href="/wiki/Crocodilia"
title="Crocodilia">Crocodilia</a>, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade
<a href="/wiki/Archosauria" class="mw-redirect" title="Archosauria">Archosauria</a>.
During the late 1990s, Aves was most commonly defined <a href="/wiki/Phylogenetics"
title="Phylogenetics">phylogenetically</a> as all descendants of the <a
href="/wiki/Most_recent_common_ancestor" title="Most recent common ancestor">most
recent common ancestor</a> of modern birds and <i><a href="/wiki/Archaeopteryx"
title="Archaeopteryx">Archaeopteryx lithographica</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-8"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup> However, an earlier
definition proposed by <a href="/wiki/Jacques_Gauthier" title="Jacques Gauthier">Jacques
Gauthier</a> gained wide currency in the 21st century, and is used by many scientists
including adherents of the <a href="/wiki/Phylocode" class="mw-redirect"
title="Phylocode">Phylocode</a> system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the <a
href="/wiki/Crown_group" title="Crown group">crown group</a> of the set of modern birds.
This was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, and assigning them, instead,
to the Avialae,<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
9">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup> in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of
<i>Archaeopteryx</i> in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
</p><p>Gauthier<sup id="cite_ref-gauthier&amp;dequeiroz2001_10-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-gauthier&amp;dequeiroz2001-10">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup> identified four
different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", which is a problem. Gauthier
proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the <a href="/wiki/Crown_group" title="Crown
group">crown group</a> consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of
its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below. He assigned other names to
the other groups.
</p>
<table style="border: 1px solid #ccc; background-color: white; vertical-align: middle; width:
248px; margin:0.2em 0 0.2em 1em; float:right; clear:right;">

<tbody><tr>
<td style="border: 1px solid #dedede; padding: 3px">
<table class="clade" style="font-size:75%">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r899199365">.mw-parser-output
table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-
collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-
parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.7em;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-
align:bottom;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;border-bottom:1px solid}.mw-parser-
output table.clade td.clade-label.first{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output
table.clade td.clade-label.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output
table.clade td.clade-slabel{padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;border-left:1px
solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.last{border-left:none;border-
right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.reverse{border-left:none;border-
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table.clade td.clade-leaf.reverse{text-align:right}</style>
<table class="clade">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Crocodile" title="Crocodile">Crocodiles</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><b>Birds</b>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Turtle" title="Turtle">Turtles</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Lizard" title="Lizard">Lizards</a> (including <a href="/wiki/Snake"
title="Snake">snakes</a>)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>

<tr>
<td style="text-align: left; font-size: 88%; border: 0; padding: 0;">The birds' phylogenetic
relationships to major living reptile groups.
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<ol><li>Aves can mean all <a href="/wiki/Archosaur" title="Archosaur">archosaurs</a>
closer to birds than to <a href="/wiki/Crocodile" title="Crocodile">crocodiles</a> (alternately
<a href="/wiki/Avemetatarsalia" title="Avemetatarsalia">Avemetatarsalia</a>)</li>
<li>Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers (alternately <a
href="/wiki/Avifilopluma" title="Avifilopluma">Avifilopluma</a>)</li>
<li>Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly (alternately <a href="/wiki/Avialae"
title="Avialae">Avialae</a>)</li>
<li>Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the currently living birds and all of its
descendants (a "crown group", in this sense synonymous with <b>Neornithes</b>)</li></ol>
<p>Under the fourth definition <i>Archaeopteryx</i> is an avialan, and not a member of Aves.
Gauthier's proposals have been adopted by many researchers in the field of palaeontology and
bird evolution, though the exact definitions applied have been inconsistent. Avialae, initially
proposed to replace the traditional fossil content of Aves, is often used synonymously with the
vernacular term "bird" by these researchers.<sup id="cite_ref-Nature_11-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nature-11">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Most researchers define Avialae as branch-based clade, though definitions vary. Many
authors have used a definition similar to "all <a href="/wiki/Theropod" class="mw-redirect"
title="Theropod">theropods</a> closer to birds than to <i><a href="/wiki/Deinonychus"
title="Deinonychus">Deinonychus</a></i>."<sup id="cite_ref-weishampel2004_12-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-weishampel2004-12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-senter2007_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-senter2007-
13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup> Avialae is also occasionally defined as an <a
href="/wiki/Phylogenetic_nomenclature#Phylogenetic_definitions" title="Phylogenetic
nomenclature">apomorphy-based clade</a> (that is, one based on physical characteristics). <a
href="/wiki/Jacques_Gauthier" title="Jacques Gauthier">Jacques Gauthier</a>, who named
Avialae in 1986, re-defined it in 2001 as all dinosaurs that possessed feathered <a
href="/wiki/Wing" title="Wing">wings</a> used in flapping <a href="/wiki/Bird_flight"
title="Bird flight">flight</a>, and the birds that descended from them.<sup id="cite_ref-
gauthier&amp;dequeiroz2001_10-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
gauthier&amp;dequeiroz2001-10">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-
gauthier1986_14-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-gauthier1986-
14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Dinosaurs_and_the_origin_of_birds">Dinosaurs and the
origin of birds</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Origin_of_birds" title="Origin of birds">Origin of birds</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Anchiornis_feathers.jpg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ad/Anchiornis_feathers.jpg/180px-
Anchiornis_feathers.jpg" decoding="async" width="180" height="166" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ad/Anchiornis_feathers.jpg/270p
x-Anchiornis_feathers.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ad/Anchiornis_feathers.jpg/360px-
Anchiornis_feathers.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2967" data-file-height="2736" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Anchiornis_feathers.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><i><a href="/wiki/Anchiornis_huxleyi"
class="mw-redirect" title="Anchiornis huxleyi">Anchiornis huxleyi</a></i> is an important
source of information on the early evolution of birds in the <a href="/wiki/Late_Jurassic"
title="Late Jurassic">Late Jurassic</a> period.<sup id="cite_ref-lietal2010_15-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-lietal2010-
15">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup></div></div></div>
<table style="border: 1px solid #ccc; background-color: white; vertical-align: middle; width:
248px; margin:0.2em 0 0.2em 1em; float:right; clear:right;">

<tbody><tr>
<td style="border: 1px solid #dedede; padding: 3px">
<table class="clade" style="font-size:75%;line-height:80%">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Paraves" title="Paraves">Paraves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><abbr title="Extinct" aria-label="Extinct" style="border: none; text-decoration: none;
cursor: inherit; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal;">†</abbr><a
href="/wiki/Scansoriopterygidae" title="Scansoriopterygidae">Scansoriopterygidae</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><abbr title="Extinct" aria-label="Extinct" style="border: none; text-decoration: none;
cursor: inherit; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal;">†</abbr><i><a
href="/wiki/Eosinopteryx" title="Eosinopteryx">Eosinopteryx</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Eumaniraptora" class="mw-redirect"
title="Eumaniraptora">Eumaniraptora</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Jinfengopteryx" title="Jinfengopteryx">Jinfengopteryx</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Aurornis" title="Aurornis">Aurornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<a href="/wiki/Dromaeosauridae" title="Dromaeosauridae">Dromaeosauridae</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<a href="/wiki/Troodontidae" title="Troodontidae">Troodontidae</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Avialae" title="Avialae">Avialae</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>

<tr>
<td style="text-align: left; font-size: 88%; border: 0; padding: 0;">Cladogram following the
results of a phylogenetic study by Cau <i>et al.</i>, 2015.<sup id="cite_ref-cauetal2015_16-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cauetal2015-16">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised
subgroup of <a href="/wiki/Theropod" class="mw-redirect" title="Theropod">theropod</a> <a
href="/wiki/Dinosaur" title="Dinosaur">dinosaurs</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-17"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup> and more specifically,
they are members of <a href="/wiki/Maniraptora" title="Maniraptora">Maniraptora</a>, a
group of theropods which includes <a href="/wiki/Dromaeosaur" class="mw-redirect"
title="Dromaeosaur">dromaeosaurs</a> and <a href="/wiki/Oviraptorid" class="mw-redirect"
title="Oviraptorid">oviraptorids</a>, among others.<sup id="cite_ref-18"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup> As scientists have
discovered more theropods closely related to birds, the previously clear distinction between
non-birds and birds has become blurred. Recent discoveries in the <a href="/wiki/Liaoning"
title="Liaoning">Liaoning</a> Province of northeast China, which demonstrate many small
theropod <a href="/wiki/Feathered_dinosaurs" class="mw-redirect" title="Feathered
dinosaurs">feathered dinosaurs</a>, contribute to this ambiguity.<sup id="cite_ref-19"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-AP-
20140731_20-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AP-20140731-
20">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-SCI-20140731_21-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-SCI-20140731-21">&#91;21&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The consensus view in contemporary <a href="/wiki/Paleontology"
title="Paleontology">palaeontology</a> is that the flying theropods, or <a
href="/wiki/Avialae" title="Avialae">avialans</a>, are the closest relatives of the <a
href="/wiki/Deinonychosaur" class="mw-redirect"
title="Deinonychosaur">deinonychosaurs</a>, which include dromaeosaurids and <a
href="/wiki/Troodontid" class="mw-redirect" title="Troodontid">troodontids</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-Xiaotingia_22-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Xiaotingia-
22">&#91;22&#93;</a></sup> Together, these form a group called <a href="/wiki/Paraves"
title="Paraves">Paraves</a>. Some <a href="/wiki/Basal_(phylogenetics)" title="Basal
(phylogenetics)">basal</a> members of this group, such as <i><a href="/wiki/Microraptor"
title="Microraptor">Microraptor</a></i>, have features which may have enabled them to glide
or fly. The most basal deinonychosaurs were very small. This evidence raises the possibility
that the ancestor of all paravians may have been <a href="/wiki/Arboreal" class="mw-redirect"
title="Arboreal">arboreal</a>, have been able to glide, or both.<sup id="cite_ref-
AHTetal07_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AHTetal07-
23">&#91;23&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-xuetal2003_24-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-xuetal2003-24">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup> Unlike <i>Archaeopteryx</i>
and the non-avialan feathered dinosaurs, who primarily ate meat, recent studies suggest that the
first avialans were <a href="/wiki/Omnivore" title="Omnivore">omnivores</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">&#91;25&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Late_Jurassic" title="Late Jurassic">Late Jurassic</a>
<i>Archaeopteryx</i> is well known as one of the first <a href="/wiki/Transitional_fossil"
title="Transitional fossil">transitional fossils</a> to be found, and it provided support for the
<a href="/wiki/Theory_of_evolution" class="mw-redirect" title="Theory of evolution">theory
of evolution</a> in the late 19th century. <i>Archaeopteryx</i> was the first fossil to display
both clearly traditional reptilian characteristics: teeth, clawed fingers, and a long, lizard-like
tail, as well as wings with flight feathers similar to those of modern birds. It is not considered a
direct ancestor of birds, though it is possibly closely related to the true ancestor.<sup
id="cite_ref-mayretal2007_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-mayretal2007-
26">&#91;26&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_evolution">Early evolution</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/List_of_fossil_bird_genera" title="List of fossil bird genera">List of fossil bird
genera</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Confuciusornis_male.jpg" class="image"><img alt="White slab of rock left
with cracks and impression of bird feathers and bone, including long paired tail feathers"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Confuciusornis_male.jpg/220px-
Confuciusornis_male.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="121" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Confuciusornis_male.jpg/330
px-Confuciusornis_male.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Confuciusornis_male.jpg/440px-
Confuciusornis_male.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1860" data-file-height="1024" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Confuciusornis_male.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><i><a href="/wiki/Confuciusornis_sanctus"
class="mw-redirect" title="Confuciusornis sanctus">Confuciusornis sanctus</a></i>, a
Cretaceous bird from China that lived 125 million years ago, is the oldest known bird to have a
beak.<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
27">&#91;27&#93;</a></sup></div></div></div>
<table style="border: 1px solid #ccc; background-color: white; vertical-align: middle; width:
248px; margin:0.2em 0 0.2em 1em; float:right; clear:right;">

<tbody><tr>
<td style="border: 1px solid #dedede; padding: 3px">
<table class="clade" style="font-size:75%;line-height:80%">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Avialae" title="Avialae">Avialae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Anchiornis" title="Anchiornis">Anchiornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Archaeopteryx" title="Archaeopteryx">Archaeopteryx</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Xiaotingia" title="Xiaotingia">Xiaotingia</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Rahonavis" title="Rahonavis">Rahonavis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Jeholornis" title="Jeholornis">Jeholornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Jixiangornis" title="Jixiangornis">Jixiangornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Euavialae" title="Euavialae">Euavialae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Balaur_bondoc" title="Balaur bondoc">Balaur</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Avebrevicauda"
title="Avebrevicauda">Avebrevicauda</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Zhongjianornis" title="Zhongjianornis">Zhongjianornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Sapeornis" title="Sapeornis">Sapeornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Pygostylia" title="Pygostylia">Pygostylia</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><abbr title="Extinct" aria-label="Extinct" style="border: none; text-decoration: none;
cursor: inherit; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal;">†</abbr><a
href="/wiki/Confuciusornithiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Confuciusornithiformes">Confuciusornithiformes</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Protopteryx" title="Protopteryx">Protopteryx</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Pengornis" title="Pengornis">Pengornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Ornithothoraces" title="Ornithothoraces">Ornithothoraces</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>

<tr>
<td style="text-align: left; font-size: 88%; border: 0; padding: 0;">Cladogram following the
results of a phylogenetic study by Cau <i>et al.</i>, 2015.<sup id="cite_ref-cauetal2015_16-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cauetal2015-16">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>The earliest known avialan fossils come from the <a href="/wiki/Tiaojishan_Formation"
title="Tiaojishan Formation">Tiaojishan Formation</a> of China, which has been dated to the
late <a href="/wiki/Jurassic" title="Jurassic">Jurassic</a> period (<a
href="/wiki/Oxfordian_(stage)" title="Oxfordian (stage)">Oxfordian</a> stage), about 160
million years ago. The avialan species from this time period include <i><a
href="/wiki/Anchiornis_huxleyi" class="mw-redirect" title="Anchiornis huxleyi">Anchiornis
huxleyi</a></i>, <i><a href="/wiki/Xiaotingia_zhengi" class="mw-redirect" title="Xiaotingia
zhengi">Xiaotingia zhengi</a></i>, and <i><a href="/wiki/Aurornis_xui" class="mw-redirect"
title="Aurornis xui">Aurornis xui</a></i>.<sup id="cite_ref-Nature_11-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nature-11">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The well-known early avialan, <i>Archaeopteryx</i>, dates from slightly later
Jurassic rocks (about 155 million years old) from <a href="/wiki/Germany"
title="Germany">Germany</a>. Many of these early avialans shared unusual anatomical
features that may be ancestral to modern birds, but were later lost during bird evolution. These
features include enlarged claws on the second toe which may have been held clear of the
ground in life, and long feathers or "hind wings" covering the hind limbs and feet, which may
have been used in aerial maneuvering.<sup id="cite_ref-zhengetal2013_28-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-zhengetal2013-28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Avialans diversified into a wide variety of forms during the <a
href="/wiki/Cretaceous_Period" class="mw-redirect" title="Cretaceous Period">Cretaceous
Period</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-chiappe2007_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
chiappe2007-29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup> Many groups retained <a
href="/wiki/Symplesiomorphy" class="mw-redirect" title="Symplesiomorphy">primitive
characteristics</a>, such as clawed wings and teeth, though the latter were lost independently
in a number of avialan groups, including modern birds (Aves). While the earliest forms, such as
<i>Archaeopteryx</i> and <i><a href="/wiki/Jeholornis"
title="Jeholornis">Jeholornis</a></i>, retained the long bony tails of their ancestors,<sup
id="cite_ref-chiappe2007_29-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-chiappe2007-
29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup> the tails of more advanced avialans were shortened with the
advent of the <a href="/wiki/Pygostyle" title="Pygostyle">pygostyle</a> bone in the group <a
href="/wiki/Pygostylia" title="Pygostylia">Pygostylia</a>. In the late Cretaceous, about 100
million years ago, the ancestors of all modern birds evolved a more open pelvis, allowing them
to lay larger eggs compared to body size.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-30">&#91;30&#93;</a></sup>
Around 95 million years ago, they evolved a better sense of smell.<sup id="cite_ref-31"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_diversity_of_bird_ancestors">Early diversity of
bird ancestors</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Ichthyornis_Clean.png" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Ichthyornis_Clean.png/180px-
Ichthyornis_Clean.png" decoding="async" width="180" height="153" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Ichthyornis_Clean.png/270px
-Ichthyornis_Clean.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Ichthyornis_Clean.png/360px-
Ichthyornis_Clean.png 2x" data-file-width="1538" data-file-height="1309" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Ichthyornis_Clean.png"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Ichthyornis"
title="Ichthyornis">Ichthyornis</a>, which lived 93 million years ago, was the first known
prehistoric bird relative preserved with teeth.</div></div></div>
<table style="border: 1px solid #ccc; background-color: white; vertical-align: middle; width:
248px; margin:0.2em 0 0.2em 1em; float:right; clear:right;">

<tbody><tr>
<td style="border: 1px solid #dedede; padding: 3px">
<table class="clade" style="font-size:75%;line-height:80%">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Ornithothoraces"
title="Ornithothoraces">Ornithothoraces</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<a href="/wiki/Enantiornithes" title="Enantiornithes">Enantiornithes</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Euornithes" title="Euornithes">Euornithes</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Archaeorhynchus"
title="Archaeorhynchus">Archaeorhynchus</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Ornithuromorpha" class="mw-redirect"
title="Ornithuromorpha">Ornithuromorpha</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><i>†<a href="/wiki/Patagopteryx" title="Patagopteryx">Patagopteryx</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><i>†<a href="/wiki/Vorona" title="Vorona">Vorona</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><i>†<a href="/wiki/Schizooura" title="Schizooura">Schizooura</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<a href="/wiki/Hongshanornithidae"
title="Hongshanornithidae">Hongshanornithidae</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><i>†<a href="/wiki/Jianchangornis" title="Jianchangornis">Jianchangornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<a href="/wiki/Songlingornithidae" title="Songlingornithidae">Songlingornithidae</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><i>†<a href="/wiki/Gansus" title="Gansus">Gansus</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><i>†<a href="/wiki/Apsaravis" title="Apsaravis">Apsaravis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Ornithurae" title="Ornithurae">Ornithurae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><abbr title="Extinct" aria-label="Extinct" style="border: none; text-decoration: none;
cursor: inherit; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal;">†</abbr><a
href="/wiki/Hesperornithes" title="Hesperornithes">Hesperornithes</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Ichthyornis" title="Ichthyornis">Ichthyornis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<i><a href="/wiki/Vegavis" title="Vegavis">Vegavis</a></i>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><b>Aves</b>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>

<tr>
<td style="text-align: left; font-size: 88%; border: 0; padding: 0;">Mesozoic bird phylogeny
simplified after Wang et al., 2015's phylogenetic analysis.<sup id="cite_ref-Wang2015_32-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wang2015-32">&#91;32&#93;</a></sup>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>The first large, diverse lineage of short-tailed avialans to evolve were the <a
href="/wiki/Enantiornithes" title="Enantiornithes">enantiornithes</a>, or "opposite birds", so
named because the construction of their shoulder bones was in reverse to that of modern birds.
Enantiornithes occupied a wide array of ecological niches, from sand-probing shorebirds and
fish-eaters to tree-dwelling forms and seed-eaters. While they were the dominant group of
avialans during the Cretaceous period, enantiornithes became extinct along with many other
dinosaur groups at the end of the <a href="/wiki/Mesozoic" title="Mesozoic">Mesozoic</a>
era.<sup id="cite_ref-chiappe2007_29-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-chiappe2007-
29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Many species of the second major avialan lineage to diversify, the <a
href="/wiki/Euornithes" title="Euornithes">Euornithes</a> (meaning "true birds", because
they include the ancestors of modern birds), were semi-aquatic and specialised in eating fish
and other small aquatic organisms. Unlike the enantiornithes, which dominated land-based and
arboreal habitats, most early euornithes lacked perching adaptations and seem to have included
shorebird-like species, waders, and swimming and diving species.
</p><p>The latter included the superficially <a href="/wiki/Gull" title="Gull">gull</a>-like
<i><a href="/wiki/Ichthyornis" title="Ichthyornis">Ichthyornis</a></i><sup id="cite_ref-33"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33">&#91;33&#93;</a></sup> and the <a
href="/wiki/Hesperornithiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Hesperornithiformes">Hesperornithiformes</a>, which became so well adapted to
hunting fish in marine environments that they lost the ability to fly and became primarily
aquatic.<sup id="cite_ref-chiappe2007_29-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
chiappe2007-29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup> The early euornithes also saw the development of
many traits associated with modern birds, like strongly keeled breastbones, toothless, beaked
portions of their jaws (though most non-avian euornithes retained teeth in other parts of the
jaws).<sup id="cite_ref-louchart2011_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
louchart2011-34">&#91;34&#93;</a></sup> Euornithes also included the first avialans to
develop true <a href="/wiki/Pygostyle" title="Pygostyle">pygostyle</a> and a fully mobile fan
of tail feathers,<sup id="cite_ref-yixianornis_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
yixianornis-35">&#91;35&#93;</a></sup> which may have replaced the "hind wing" as the
primary mode of aerial maneuverability and braking in flight.<sup id="cite_ref-
zhengetal2013_28-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-zhengetal2013-
28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>A study on <a href="/wiki/Mosaic_evolution" title="Mosaic evolution">mosaic
evolution</a> in the avian skull found that the <a href="/wiki/Most_recent_common_ancestor"
title="Most recent common ancestor">last common ancestor</a> of all neornithines might
have had a beak similar to that of the modern <a href="/wiki/Hook-billed_vanga" title="Hook-
billed vanga">hook-billed vanga</a> and a skull similar to that of the <a
href="/wiki/Eurasian_golden_oriole" title="Eurasian golden oriole">Eurasian golden
oriole</a>. As both species are small aerial and canopy foraging omnivores, a similar
ecological niche was inferred for this hypothetical ancestor.<sup id="cite_ref-36"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36">&#91;36&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Diversification_of_modern_birds">Diversification of
modern birds</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Sibley%E2%80%93Ahlquist_taxonomy_of_birds" title="Sibley–Ahlquist
taxonomy of birds">Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy of birds</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Dinosaur_classification" title="Dinosaur classification">dinosaur
classification</a></div>
<table style="border: 1px solid #ccc; background-color: white; vertical-align: middle; width:
248px; margin:0.2em 0 0.2em 1em; float:right; clear:right;">
<tbody><tr>
<td style="border: 1px solid #dedede; padding: 3px">
<table class="clade" style="font-size:75%;line-height:80%">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><b>Aves</b>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Palaeognathae"
title="Palaeognathae">Palaeognathae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Struthioniformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Struthioniformes">Struthioniformes</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Tinamiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Tinamiformes">Tinamiformes</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Neognathae" title="Neognathae">Neognathae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>Other birds (<a href="/wiki/Neoaves" title="Neoaves">Neoaves</a>)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Galloanserae" class="mw-redirect"
title="Galloanserae">Galloanserae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Anseriformes" title="Anseriformes">Anseriformes</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Galliformes" title="Galliformes">Galliformes</a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>

<tr>
<td style="text-align: left; font-size: 88%; border: 0; padding: 0;">Basal divergences of modern
birds<br />based on <a href="/wiki/Sibley-Ahlquist_taxonomy" class="mw-redirect"
title="Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy">Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy</a>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>All modern birds lie within the <a href="/wiki/Crown_group" title="Crown group">crown
group</a> Aves (alternately Neornithes), which has two subdivisions: the <a
href="/wiki/Palaeognathae" title="Palaeognathae">Palaeognathae</a>, which includes the
flightless <a href="/wiki/Ratite" title="Ratite">ratites</a> (such as the <a href="/wiki/Ostrich"
title="Ostrich">ostriches</a>) and the weak-flying <a href="/wiki/Tinamou"
title="Tinamou">tinamous</a>, and the extremely diverse <a href="/wiki/Neognathae"
title="Neognathae">Neognathae</a>, containing all other birds.<sup id="cite_ref-
Mitchell2014_37-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Mitchell2014-
37">&#91;37&#93;</a></sup> These two subdivisions are often given the <a
href="/wiki/Taxonomic_rank" title="Taxonomic rank">rank</a> of <a
href="/wiki/Superorder" class="mw-redirect" title="Superorder">superorder</a>,<sup
id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38">&#91;38&#93;</a></sup>
although <a href="/wiki/Bradley_C._Livezey" title="Bradley C. Livezey">Livezey</a> and
Zusi assigned them "cohort" rank.<sup id="cite_ref-Theropoda_7-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Theropoda-7">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup> Depending on the <a
href="/wiki/Alpha_taxonomy" class="mw-redirect" title="Alpha taxonomy">taxonomic</a>
viewpoint, the number of known living bird species varies anywhere from 9,800<sup
id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39">&#91;39&#93;</a></sup> to
10,758.<sup id="cite_ref-40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
40">&#91;40&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The discovery of <i><a href="/wiki/Vegavis" title="Vegavis">Vegavis</a></i>, a late
Cretaceous member of the <a href="/wiki/Anatidae" title="Anatidae">Anatidae</a>, proved
that the diversification of modern birds started before the <a href="/wiki/Cenozoic"
title="Cenozoic">Cenozoic</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
41">&#91;41&#93;</a></sup> The affinities of an earlier fossil, the possible galliform
<i>Austinornis lentus</i>, dated to about 85 million years ago,<sup id="cite_ref-42"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42">&#91;42&#93;</a></sup> are still too
controversial to provide a fossil evidence of modern bird diversification.
</p><p>Most studies agree on a <a href="/wiki/Cretaceous"
title="Cretaceous">Cretaceous</a> age for the most recent common ancestor of modern birds
but estimates range from the <a href="/wiki/Middle_Cretaceous" class="mw-redirect"
title="Middle Cretaceous">Middle Cretaceous</a><sup id="cite_ref-divergence_1-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-divergence-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup> to the latest
<a href="/wiki/Late_Cretaceous" title="Late Cretaceous">Late Cretaceous</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-Prum2015_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Prum2015-
43">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup> Similarly, there is no agreement on whether most of the early
diversification of modern birds occurred before or after the <a
href="/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event" title="Cretaceous–
Paleogene extinction event">Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-
Ericson_44-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ericson-44">&#91;44&#93;</a></sup>
This disagreement is in part caused by a divergence in the evidence; most molecular dating
studies suggests a Cretaceous radiation, while <a href="/wiki/Fossil" title="Fossil">fossil</a>
evidence points to a <a href="/wiki/Cenozoic" title="Cenozoic">Cenozoic</a> radiation (the
so-called 'rocks' versus 'clocks' controversy). Previous attempts to reconcile molecular and
fossil evidence have proved controversial,<sup id="cite_ref-Ericson_44-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Ericson-44">&#91;44&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">&#91;45&#93;</a></sup> but
more recent estimates, using a more comprehensive sample of fossils and a new way of
calibrating <a href="/wiki/Molecular_clocks" class="mw-redirect" title="Molecular
clocks">molecular clocks</a>, showed that while modern birds originated early in the <a
href="/wiki/Late_Cretaceous" title="Late Cretaceous">Late Cretaceous</a>, a pulse of
diversification in all major groups occurred around the <a
href="/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event" title="Cretaceous–
Paleogene extinction event">Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-
46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46">&#91;46&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Classification_of_bird_orders">Classification of bird
orders</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/List_of_birds" title="List of birds">List of birds</a></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Cladogram" title="Cladogram">Cladogram</a> of modern bird
relationships based on Prum, R.O. <i>et al</i>. (2015)<sup id="cite_ref-Prum2015_43-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Prum2015-43">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup> with some
<a href="/wiki/Clade" title="Clade">clade</a> names after Yuri, T. et al. (2013).<sup
id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">&#91;47&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><br />
</p>
<table class="clade" style="font-size:80%;line-height:90%">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><b>Aves</b>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Palaeognathae"
title="Palaeognathae">Palaeognathae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Struthioniformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Struthioniformes">Struthioniformes</a><sup id="cite_ref-Boyd_48-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Boyd-48">&#91;48&#93;</a></sup> (ostriches)<a
href="/wiki/File:Struthio_camelus_-_Etosha_2014_(1)_white_background.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Struthio camelus - Etosha 2014 (1) white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Struthio_camelus_-
_Etosha_2014_%281%29_white_background.jpg/50px-Struthio_camelus_-
_Etosha_2014_%281%29_white_background.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="56"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Struthio_camelus_-
_Etosha_2014_%281%29_white_background.jpg/75px-Struthio_camelus_-
_Etosha_2014_%281%29_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Struthio_camelus_-
_Etosha_2014_%281%29_white_background.jpg/100px-Struthio_camelus_-
_Etosha_2014_%281%29_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="411" data-file-
height="462" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Notopalaeognathae"
title="Notopalaeognathae">Notopalaeognathae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Rheiformes" class="mw-redirect" title="Rheiformes">Rheiformes</a>
(rheas)<a href="/wiki/File:Rhea_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Rhea white
background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Rhea_white_background.jpg/50p
x-Rhea_white_background.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="74"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Rhea_white_background.jpg/7
5px-Rhea_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Rhea_white_background.jpg/100px-
Rhea_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="418" data-file-height="616" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Novaeratitae"
title="Novaeratitae">Novaeratitae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Casuariiformes" title="Casuariiformes">Casuariiformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Cassowary" title="Cassowary">cassowaries</a> &amp; <a href="/wiki/Emu"
title="Emu">emus</a>)<a href="/wiki/File:Casuario_australiano_white_background.JPG"
class="image"><img alt="Casuario australiano white background.JPG"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Casuario_australiano_white_bac
kground.JPG/50px-Casuario_australiano_white_background.JPG" decoding="async"
width="50" height="51"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Casuario_australiano_white_b
ackground.JPG/75px-Casuario_australiano_white_background.JPG 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Casuario_australiano_white_backgrou
nd.JPG/100px-Casuario_australiano_white_background.JPG 2x" data-file-width="552" data-
file-height="561" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Apterygiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Apterygiformes">Apterygiformes</a> (kiwi)<a
href="/wiki/File:Little_spotted_kiwi,_Apteryx_owenii,_Auckland_War_Memorial_Museum_w
hite_background.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Little spotted kiwi, Apteryx owenii, Auckland
War Memorial Museum white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Little_spotted_kiwi%2C_Aptery
x_owenii%2C_Auckland_War_Memorial_Museum_white_background.jpg/50px-
Little_spotted_kiwi%2C_Apteryx_owenii%2C_Auckland_War_Memorial_Museum_white_ba
ckground.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="34"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Little_spotted_kiwi%2C_Apt
eryx_owenii%2C_Auckland_War_Memorial_Museum_white_background.jpg/75px-
Little_spotted_kiwi%2C_Apteryx_owenii%2C_Auckland_War_Memorial_Museum_white_ba
ckground.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Little_spotted_kiwi%2C_Apteryx_ow
enii%2C_Auckland_War_Memorial_Museum_white_background.jpg/100px-
Little_spotted_kiwi%2C_Apteryx_owenii%2C_Auckland_War_Memorial_Museum_white_ba
ckground.jpg 2x" data-file-width="430" data-file-height="296" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<a href="/wiki/Aepyornithiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Aepyornithiformes">Aepyornithiformes</a> (elephant birds)<a
href="/wiki/File:Elephant_bird_skeleton.png" class="image"><img alt="Elephant bird
skeleton.png"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Elephant_bird_skeleton.png/50p
x-Elephant_bird_skeleton.png" decoding="async" width="50" height="68"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Elephant_bird_skeleton.png/7
5px-Elephant_bird_skeleton.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Elephant_bird_skeleton.png/100px-
Elephant_bird_skeleton.png 2x" data-file-width="695" data-file-height="949" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Tinamiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Tinamiformes">Tinamiformes</a> (tinamous)<a
href="/wiki/File:NothuraDarwiniiSmit_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="NothuraDarwiniiSmit white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/NothuraDarwiniiSmit_white_bac
kground.jpg/50px-NothuraDarwiniiSmit_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="50" height="57"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/NothuraDarwiniiSmit_white_b
ackground.jpg/75px-NothuraDarwiniiSmit_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/NothuraDarwiniiSmit_white_backgrou
nd.jpg/100px-NothuraDarwiniiSmit_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="374" data-
file-height="428" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p>†<a href="/wiki/Dinornithiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Dinornithiformes">Dinornithiformes</a> (moa)<a
href="/wiki/File:Giant_moa_skeleton.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Giant moa skeleton.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Giant_moa_skeleton.jpg/50px-
Giant_moa_skeleton.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="88"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Giant_moa_skeleton.jpg/75px
-Giant_moa_skeleton.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Giant_moa_skeleton.jpg/100px-
Giant_moa_skeleton.jpg 2x" data-file-width="540" data-file-height="952" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Neognathae" title="Neognathae">Neognathae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Galloanserae" class="mw-redirect"
title="Galloanserae">Galloanserae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Galliformes" title="Galliformes">Galliformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Chicken" title="Chicken">chickens</a> and relatives) <a
href="/wiki/File:Red_Junglefowl_by_George_Edward_Lodge_white_background.png"
class="image"><img alt="Red Junglefowl by George Edward Lodge white background.png"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Red_Junglefowl_by_George_Ed
ward_Lodge_white_background.png/60px-
Red_Junglefowl_by_George_Edward_Lodge_white_background.png" decoding="async"
width="60" height="45"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Red_Junglefowl_by_George_
Edward_Lodge_white_background.png/90px-
Red_Junglefowl_by_George_Edward_Lodge_white_background.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Red_Junglefowl_by_George_Edward
_Lodge_white_background.png/120px-
Red_Junglefowl_by_George_Edward_Lodge_white_background.png 2x" data-file-
width="940" data-file-height="710" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Anseriformes" title="Anseriformes">Anseriformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Duck" title="Duck">ducks</a> and relatives) <a href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-97-
Canard_colvert.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Cuvier-97-Canard colvert.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Cuvier-97-
Canard_colvert.jpg/60px-Cuvier-97-Canard_colvert.jpg" decoding="async" width="60"
height="33" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Cuvier-97-
Canard_colvert.jpg/90px-Cuvier-97-Canard_colvert.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/Cuvier-97-Canard_colvert.jpg/120px-
Cuvier-97-Canard_colvert.jpg 2x" data-file-width="625" data-file-height="346" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Neoaves" title="Neoaves">Neoaves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Strisores" title="Strisores">Strisores</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Caprimulgiformes" title="Caprimulgiformes">Caprimulgiformes</a><sup
id="cite_ref-Boyd_48-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Boyd-
48">&#91;48&#93;</a></sup> (<a href="/wiki/Nightjar" title="Nightjar">nightjars</a>)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Steatornithiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Steatornithiformes">Steatornithiformes</a> (oilbird)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Nyctibiiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Nyctibiiformes">Nyctibiiformes</a> (potoos)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Podargiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Podargiformes">Podargiformes</a> (frogmouths)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Apodiformes" title="Apodiformes">Apodiformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Swift" title="Swift">swifts</a> and <a href="/wiki/Hummingbird"
title="Hummingbird">hummingbirds</a>)<a href="/wiki/File:Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cd/Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg/50px-
Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="41"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cd/Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg/75px-
Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cd/Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg/100px-
Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1287" data-file-height="1059" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Columbaves"
title="Columbaves">Columbaves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Otidimorphae"
title="Otidimorphae">Otidimorphae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Musophagiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Musophagiformes">Musophagiformes</a> (turacos)<a
href="/wiki/File:Planches_enlumin%C3%A9es_d%27histoire_naturelle_(1765)_(Tauraco_pers
a).jpg" class="image"><img alt="Planches enluminées d&#39;histoire naturelle (1765)
(Tauraco persa).jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Planches_enlumin%C3%A9es_d
%27histoire_naturelle_%281765%29_%28Tauraco_persa%29.jpg/50px-
Planches_enlumin%C3%A9es_d%27histoire_naturelle_%281765%29_%28Tauraco_persa%29
.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="63"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Planches_enlumin%C3%A9es
_d%27histoire_naturelle_%281765%29_%28Tauraco_persa%29.jpg/75px-
Planches_enlumin%C3%A9es_d%27histoire_naturelle_%281765%29_%28Tauraco_persa%29
.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/Planches_enlumin%C3%A9es_d%27
histoire_naturelle_%281765%29_%28Tauraco_persa%29.jpg/100px-
Planches_enlumin%C3%A9es_d%27histoire_naturelle_%281765%29_%28Tauraco_persa%29
.jpg 2x" data-file-width="592" data-file-height="744" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Otidiformes" class="mw-redirect" title="Otidiformes">Otidiformes</a>
(bustards)<a href="/wiki/File:Cayley_Ardeotis_australis_flipped.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Cayley Ardeotis australis flipped.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cayley_Ardeotis_australis_flipp
ed.jpg/50px-Cayley_Ardeotis_australis_flipped.jpg" decoding="async" width="50"
height="60"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cayley_Ardeotis_australis_fli
pped.jpg/75px-Cayley_Ardeotis_australis_flipped.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/29/Cayley_Ardeotis_australis_flipped.jpg
/100px-Cayley_Ardeotis_australis_flipped.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1423" data-file-
height="1708" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Cuculiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Cuculiformes">Cuculiformes</a> (cuckoos)<a
href="/wiki/File:British_birds_in_their_haunts_(Cuculus_canorus).jpg" class="image"><img
alt="British birds in their haunts (Cuculus canorus).jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/British_birds_in_their_haunts_%
28Cuculus_canorus%29.jpg/50px-
British_birds_in_their_haunts_%28Cuculus_canorus%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="50"
height="39"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/British_birds_in_their_haunts
_%28Cuculus_canorus%29.jpg/75px-
British_birds_in_their_haunts_%28Cuculus_canorus%29.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/British_birds_in_their_haunts_%28Cu
culus_canorus%29.jpg/100px-British_birds_in_their_haunts_%28Cuculus_canorus%29.jpg
2x" data-file-width="680" data-file-height="528" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Columbimorphae"
title="Columbimorphae">Columbimorphae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Columbiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Columbiformes">Columbiformes</a> (pigeons) <a
href="/wiki/File:Meyers_grosses_Konversations-Lexikon_-
_ein_Nachschlagewerk_des_allgemeinen_Wissens_(1908)_(Antwerpener_Breiftaube).jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Meyers grosses Konversations-Lexikon - ein Nachschlagewerk des
allgemeinen Wissens (1908) (Antwerpener Breiftaube).jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Meyers_grosses_Konversations-
Lexikon_-
_ein_Nachschlagewerk_des_allgemeinen_Wissens_%281908%29_%28Antwerpener_Breiftau
be%29.jpg/50px-Meyers_grosses_Konversations-Lexikon_-
_ein_Nachschlagewerk_des_allgemeinen_Wissens_%281908%29_%28Antwerpener_Breiftau
be%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="55"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Meyers_grosses_Konversatio
ns-Lexikon_-
_ein_Nachschlagewerk_des_allgemeinen_Wissens_%281908%29_%28Antwerpener_Breiftau
be%29.jpg/75px-Meyers_grosses_Konversations-Lexikon_-
_ein_Nachschlagewerk_des_allgemeinen_Wissens_%281908%29_%28Antwerpener_Breiftau
be%29.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/41/Meyers_grosses_Konversations-
Lexikon_-
_ein_Nachschlagewerk_des_allgemeinen_Wissens_%281908%29_%28Antwerpener_Breiftau
be%29.jpg/100px-Meyers_grosses_Konversations-Lexikon_-
_ein_Nachschlagewerk_des_allgemeinen_Wissens_%281908%29_%28Antwerpener_Breiftau
be%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="638" data-file-height="698" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Mesitornithiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Mesitornithiformes">Mesitornithiformes</a> (mesites)<a
href="/wiki/File:Monias_benschi_1912_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Monias benschi 1912 white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Monias_benschi_1912_white_ba
ckground.jpg/50px-Monias_benschi_1912_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="50" height="19"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Monias_benschi_1912_white
_background.jpg/75px-Monias_benschi_1912_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Monias_benschi_1912_white_backgr
ound.jpg/100px-Monias_benschi_1912_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1010"
data-file-height="375" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Pterocliformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Pterocliformes">Pterocliformes</a> (sandgrouse)<a
href="/wiki/File:Pterocles_quadricinctus_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Pterocles quadricinctus white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/Pterocles_quadricinctus_white_b
ackground.jpg/50px-Pterocles_quadricinctus_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="50" height="52"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/Pterocles_quadricinctus_white
_background.jpg/75px-Pterocles_quadricinctus_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/Pterocles_quadricinctus_white_backgr
ound.jpg/100px-Pterocles_quadricinctus_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="482"
data-file-height="500" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Gruiformes" title="Gruiformes">Gruiformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Rail_(bird)" title="Rail (bird)">rails</a> and <a href="/wiki/Crane_(bird)"
title="Crane (bird)">cranes</a>)<a href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-72-Grue_cendr%C3%A9e.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Cuvier-72-Grue cendrée.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Cuvier-72-
Grue_cendr%C3%A9e.jpg/50px-Cuvier-72-Grue_cendr%C3%A9e.jpg" decoding="async"
width="50" height="71"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Cuvier-72-
Grue_cendr%C3%A9e.jpg/75px-Cuvier-72-Grue_cendr%C3%A9e.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Cuvier-72-
Grue_cendr%C3%A9e.jpg/100px-Cuvier-72-Grue_cendr%C3%A9e.jpg 2x" data-file-
width="576" data-file-height="820" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Aequorlitornithes"
title="Aequorlitornithes">Aequorlitornithes</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Mirandornithes"
title="Mirandornithes">Mirandornithes</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Phoenicopteriformes"
title="Phoenicopteriformes">Phoenicopteriformes</a> (flamingos)<a href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-
87-Flamant_rouge.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Cuvier-87-Flamant rouge.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/Cuvier-87-
Flamant_rouge.jpg/50px-Cuvier-87-Flamant_rouge.jpg" decoding="async" width="50"
height="65" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/Cuvier-87-
Flamant_rouge.jpg/75px-Cuvier-87-Flamant_rouge.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/Cuvier-87-Flamant_rouge.jpg/100px-
Cuvier-87-Flamant_rouge.jpg 2x" data-file-width="844" data-file-height="1098" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Podicipediformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Podicipediformes">Podicipediformes</a> (grebes)<a
href="/wiki/File:Podiceps_cristatus_Naumann_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Podiceps cristatus Naumann white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Podiceps_cristatus_Naumann_w
hite_background.jpg/50px-Podiceps_cristatus_Naumann_white_background.jpg"
decoding="async" width="50" height="54"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Podiceps_cristatus_Naumann
_white_background.jpg/75px-Podiceps_cristatus_Naumann_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Podiceps_cristatus_Naumann_white_
background.jpg/100px-Podiceps_cristatus_Naumann_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-
width="710" data-file-height="772" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Charadriiformes" title="Charadriiformes">Charadriiformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Wader" title="Wader">waders</a> and relatives)<a
href="/wiki/File:D%27Orbigny-Mouette_rieuse_et_Bec-en-ciseaux_white_background.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="D&#39;Orbigny-Mouette rieuse et Bec-en-ciseaux white
background.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/D%27Orbigny-
Mouette_rieuse_et_Bec-en-ciseaux_white_background.jpg/50px-D%27Orbigny-
Mouette_rieuse_et_Bec-en-ciseaux_white_background.jpg" decoding="async" width="50"
height="33" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/D%27Orbigny-
Mouette_rieuse_et_Bec-en-ciseaux_white_background.jpg/75px-D%27Orbigny-
Mouette_rieuse_et_Bec-en-ciseaux_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/D%27Orbigny-
Mouette_rieuse_et_Bec-en-ciseaux_white_background.jpg/100px-D%27Orbigny-
Mouette_rieuse_et_Bec-en-ciseaux_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="834" data-file-
height="552" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Ardeae" title="Ardeae">Ardeae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Eurypygimorphae"
title="Eurypygimorphae">Eurypygimorphae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Phaethontiformes" title="Phaethontiformes">Phaethontiformes</a>
(tropicbirds)<a href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-95-Phaeton_%C3%A0_bec_rouge.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Cuvier-95-Phaeton à bec rouge.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/Cuvier-95-
Phaeton_%C3%A0_bec_rouge.jpg/90px-Cuvier-95-Phaeton_%C3%A0_bec_rouge.jpg"
decoding="async" width="90" height="17"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/Cuvier-95-
Phaeton_%C3%A0_bec_rouge.jpg/135px-Cuvier-95-Phaeton_%C3%A0_bec_rouge.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c4/Cuvier-95-
Phaeton_%C3%A0_bec_rouge.jpg/180px-Cuvier-95-Phaeton_%C3%A0_bec_rouge.jpg 2x"
data-file-width="1350" data-file-height="260" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Eurypygiformes" title="Eurypygiformes">Eurypygiformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Sunbittern" title="Sunbittern">sunbittern</a> and <a href="/wiki/Kagu"
title="Kagu">kagu</a>)<a href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-72-Caurale_soleil.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Cuvier-72-Caurale soleil.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cuvier-72-
Caurale_soleil.jpg/50px-Cuvier-72-Caurale_soleil.jpg" decoding="async" width="50"
height="45" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cuvier-72-
Caurale_soleil.jpg/75px-Cuvier-72-Caurale_soleil.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cuvier-72-Caurale_soleil.jpg/100px-
Cuvier-72-Caurale_soleil.jpg 2x" data-file-width="758" data-file-height="677" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Aequornithes" title="Aequornithes">Aequornithes</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Gaviiformes" title="Gaviiformes">Gaviiformes</a><sup id="cite_ref-
Boyd_48-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Boyd-48">&#91;48&#93;</a></sup> (<a
href="/wiki/Loon" title="Loon">loons</a>)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Austrodyptornithes"
title="Austrodyptornithes">Austrodyptornithes</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Procellariiformes" title="Procellariiformes">Procellariiformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Albatross" title="Albatross">albatrosses</a> and <a href="/wiki/Petrel"
title="Petrel">petrels</a>)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Sphenisciformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Sphenisciformes">Sphenisciformes</a> (penguins) <a
href="/wiki/File:Chinstrap_Penguin_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Chinstrap Penguin white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Chinstrap_Penguin_white_backg
round.jpg/40px-Chinstrap_Penguin_white_background.jpg" decoding="async" width="40"
height="62"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Chinstrap_Penguin_white_ba
ckground.jpg/60px-Chinstrap_Penguin_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Chinstrap_Penguin_white_backgroun
d.jpg/80px-Chinstrap_Penguin_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="257" data-file-
height="396" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Ciconiiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Ciconiiformes">Ciconiiformes</a> (storks) <a
href="/wiki/File:Wei%C3%9Fstorch_(Ciconia_ciconia)_white_background.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Weißstorch (Ciconia ciconia) white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Wei%C3%9Fstorch_%28Ciconi
a_ciconia%29_white_background.jpg/50px-
Wei%C3%9Fstorch_%28Ciconia_ciconia%29_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="50" height="71"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Wei%C3%9Fstorch_%28Cico
nia_ciconia%29_white_background.jpg/75px-
Wei%C3%9Fstorch_%28Ciconia_ciconia%29_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Wei%C3%9Fstorch_%28Ciconia_cic
onia%29_white_background.jpg/100px-
Wei%C3%9Fstorch_%28Ciconia_ciconia%29_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-
width="407" data-file-height="574" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Suliformes" title="Suliformes">Suliformes</a> (<a href="/wiki/Booby"
title="Booby">boobies</a>, <a href="/wiki/Cormorant" title="Cormorant">cormorants</a>,
etc.)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Pelecaniformes" title="Pelecaniformes">Pelecaniformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Pelican" title="Pelican">pelicans</a>, <a href="/wiki/Heron"
title="Heron">herons</a> &amp; <a href="/wiki/Ibis" title="Ibis">ibises</a>) <a
href="/wiki/File:Spot-billed_pelican_takeoff_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Spot-billed pelican takeoff white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Spot-
billed_pelican_takeoff_white_background.jpg/70px-Spot-
billed_pelican_takeoff_white_background.jpg" decoding="async" width="70" height="72"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Spot-
billed_pelican_takeoff_white_background.jpg/105px-Spot-
billed_pelican_takeoff_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Spot-
billed_pelican_takeoff_white_background.jpg/140px-Spot-
billed_pelican_takeoff_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="830" data-file-
height="858" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Inopinaves" title="Inopinaves">Inopinaves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Opisthocomiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Opisthocomiformes">Opisthocomiformes</a> (hoatzin)<a href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-59-
Hoazin_hupp%C3%A9.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Cuvier-59-Hoazin huppé.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Cuvier-59-
Hoazin_hupp%C3%A9.jpg/60px-Cuvier-59-Hoazin_hupp%C3%A9.jpg" decoding="async"
width="60" height="43"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Cuvier-59-
Hoazin_hupp%C3%A9.jpg/90px-Cuvier-59-Hoazin_hupp%C3%A9.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Cuvier-59-
Hoazin_hupp%C3%A9.jpg/120px-Cuvier-59-Hoazin_hupp%C3%A9.jpg 2x" data-file-
width="850" data-file-height="603" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Telluraves" title="Telluraves">Telluraves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Accipitrimorphae"
title="Accipitrimorphae">Accipitrimorphae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Cathartiformes" title="Cathartiformes">Cathartiformes</a> (New World
vultures)<a href="/wiki/File:Vintage_Vulture_Drawing_white_background.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Vintage Vulture Drawing white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Vintage_Vulture_Drawing_whit
e_background.jpg/30px-Vintage_Vulture_Drawing_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="30" height="60"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Vintage_Vulture_Drawing_w
hite_background.jpg/45px-Vintage_Vulture_Drawing_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/42/Vintage_Vulture_Drawing_white_bac
kground.jpg/60px-Vintage_Vulture_Drawing_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-
width="205" data-file-height="410" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Accipitriformes" title="Accipitriformes">Accipitriformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Hawk" title="Hawk">hawks</a> and relatives)<a
href="/wiki/File:Golden_Eagle_Illustration_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Golden Eagle Illustration white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/Golden_Eagle_Illustration_white
_background.jpg/40px-Golden_Eagle_Illustration_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="40" height="53"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/Golden_Eagle_Illustration_w
hite_background.jpg/60px-Golden_Eagle_Illustration_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/Golden_Eagle_Illustration_white_bac
kground.jpg/80px-Golden_Eagle_Illustration_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="362"
data-file-height="481" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel last">&#8239;
</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first"><a href="/wiki/Afroaves" title="Afroaves">Afroaves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Strigiformes" class="mw-redirect" title="Strigiformes">Strigiformes</a>
(owls)<a href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-12-Hibou_%C3%A0_huppe_courte.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Cuvier-12-Hibou à huppe courte.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cuvier-12-
Hibou_%C3%A0_huppe_courte.jpg/40px-Cuvier-12-Hibou_%C3%A0_huppe_courte.jpg"
decoding="async" width="40" height="52"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cuvier-12-
Hibou_%C3%A0_huppe_courte.jpg/60px-Cuvier-12-Hibou_%C3%A0_huppe_courte.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Cuvier-12-
Hibou_%C3%A0_huppe_courte.jpg/80px-Cuvier-12-Hibou_%C3%A0_huppe_courte.jpg 2x"
data-file-width="514" data-file-height="670" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Coraciimorphae"
title="Coraciimorphae">Coraciimorphae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Coliiformes" class="mw-redirect" title="Coliiformes">Coliiformes</a>
(mouse birds)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Cavitaves" title="Cavitaves">Cavitaves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Leptosomiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Leptosomiformes">Leptosomiformes</a> (cuckoo roller)
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Eucavitaves" title="Eucavitaves">Eucavitaves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Trogoniformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Trogoniformes">Trogoniformes</a> (trogons and quetzals)<a
href="/wiki/File:Harpactes_fasciatus_1838_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Harpactes fasciatus 1838 white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Harpactes_fasciatus_1838_white
_background.jpg/40px-Harpactes_fasciatus_1838_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="40" height="47"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Harpactes_fasciatus_1838_wh
ite_background.jpg/60px-Harpactes_fasciatus_1838_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Harpactes_fasciatus_1838_white_bac
kground.jpg/80px-Harpactes_fasciatus_1838_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="598"
data-file-height="708" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Picocoraciae" title="Picocoraciae">Picocoraciae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Bucerotiformes" title="Bucerotiformes">Bucerotiformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Hornbill" title="Hornbill">hornbills</a> and relatives)<a
href="/wiki/File:A_monograph_of_the_Bucerotid%C3%A6,_or_family_of_the_hornbills_(Plat
e_II)_(white_background).jpg" class="image"><img alt="A monograph of the Bucerotidæ, or
family of the hornbills (Plate II) (white background).jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cf/A_monograph_of_the_Bucerotid
%C3%A6%2C_or_family_of_the_hornbills_%28Plate_II%29_%28white_background%29.jpg/
50px-
A_monograph_of_the_Bucerotid%C3%A6%2C_or_family_of_the_hornbills_%28Plate_II%29
_%28white_background%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="38"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cf/A_monograph_of_the_Bucerot
id%C3%A6%2C_or_family_of_the_hornbills_%28Plate_II%29_%28white_background%29.jp
g/75px-
A_monograph_of_the_Bucerotid%C3%A6%2C_or_family_of_the_hornbills_%28Plate_II%29
_%28white_background%29.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cf/A_monograph_of_the_Bucerotid%C3
%A6%2C_or_family_of_the_hornbills_%28Plate_II%29_%28white_background%29.jpg/100p
x-
A_monograph_of_the_Bucerotid%C3%A6%2C_or_family_of_the_hornbills_%28Plate_II%29
_%28white_background%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="594" data-file-height="450" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Coraciiformes" title="Coraciiformes">Coraciiformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Kingfisher" title="Kingfisher">kingfishers</a> and relatives)<a
href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-46-Martin-p%C3%AAcheur_d%27Europe.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Cuvier-46-Martin-pêcheur d&#39;Europe.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Cuvier-46-Martin-
p%C3%AAcheur_d%27Europe.jpg/50px-Cuvier-46-Martin-
p%C3%AAcheur_d%27Europe.jpg" decoding="async" width="50" height="43"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Cuvier-46-Martin-
p%C3%AAcheur_d%27Europe.jpg/75px-Cuvier-46-Martin-
p%C3%AAcheur_d%27Europe.jpg 1.5x,
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p%C3%AAcheur_d%27Europe.jpg/100px-Cuvier-46-Martin-
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</p>
</td></tr>
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<p><a href="/wiki/Piciformes" title="Piciformes">Piciformes</a> (<a
href="/wiki/Woodpecker" title="Woodpecker">woodpeckers</a> and relatives)<a
href="/wiki/File:Atlante_ornitologico_(Tav._26)_(picchio_verde).jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Atlante ornitologico (Tav. 26) (picchio verde).jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Atlante_ornitologico_%28Tav._
26%29_%28picchio_verde%29.jpg/30px-
Atlante_ornitologico_%28Tav._26%29_%28picchio_verde%29.jpg" decoding="async"
width="30" height="67"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Atlante_ornitologico_%28Tav
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Atlante_ornitologico_%28Tav._26%29_%28picchio_verde%29.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Atlante_ornitologico_%28Tav._26%2
9_%28picchio_verde%29.jpg/60px-
Atlante_ornitologico_%28Tav._26%29_%28picchio_verde%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="524"
data-file-height="1176" /></a>
</p>
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</td></tr></tbody></table>
</td></tr>
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<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Australaves" title="Australaves">Australaves</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Cariamiformes" title="Cariamiformes">Cariamiformes</a> (seriemas)<a
href="/wiki/File:Cariama_cristata_1838_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Cariama cristata 1838 white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Cariama_cristata_1838_white_b
ackground.jpg/50px-Cariama_cristata_1838_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="50" height="65"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Cariama_cristata_1838_white
_background.jpg/75px-Cariama_cristata_1838_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Cariama_cristata_1838_white_backgr
ound.jpg/100px-Cariama_cristata_1838_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="559" data-
file-height="724" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-slabel">&#8239;
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Eufalconimorphae"
title="Eufalconimorphae">Eufalconimorphae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<table class="clade">

<tbody><tr>
<td class="clade-label first">&#8239;
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<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Falconiformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Falconiformes">Falconiformes</a> (falcons)<a
href="/wiki/File:NewZealandFalconBuller_white_background.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="NewZealandFalconBuller white background.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/NewZealandFalconBuller_white
_background.jpg/35px-NewZealandFalconBuller_white_background.jpg" decoding="async"
width="35" height="71"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/NewZealandFalconBuller_wh
ite_background.jpg/53px-NewZealandFalconBuller_white_background.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/NewZealandFalconBuller_white_back
ground.jpg/70px-NewZealandFalconBuller_white_background.jpg 2x" data-file-width="263"
data-file-height="530" /></a>
</p>
</td></tr>
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<tr>
<td class="clade-label"><a href="/wiki/Psittacopasserae"
title="Psittacopasserae">Psittacopasserae</a>
</td>
<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r899199365"/>
<table class="clade">

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<td rowspan="2" class="clade-leaf">
<p><a href="/wiki/Psittaciformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Psittaciformes">Psittaciformes</a> (parrots)<a href="/wiki/File:Pyrrhura_lucianii_-
_Castelnau_2.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Pyrrhura lucianii - Castelnau 2.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Pyrrhura_lucianii_-
_Castelnau_2.jpg/60px-Pyrrhura_lucianii_-_Castelnau_2.jpg" decoding="async" width="60"
height="58"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Pyrrhura_lucianii_-
_Castelnau_2.jpg/90px-Pyrrhura_lucianii_-_Castelnau_2.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Pyrrhura_lucianii_-
_Castelnau_2.jpg/120px-Pyrrhura_lucianii_-_Castelnau_2.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1680" data-
file-height="1624" /></a>
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<p><a href="/wiki/Passeriformes" class="mw-redirect"
title="Passeriformes">Passeriformes</a> (passerines)<a href="/wiki/File:Cuvier-33-
Moineau_domestique.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Cuvier-33-Moineau domestique.jpg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Cuvier-33-
Moineau_domestique.jpg/50px-Cuvier-33-Moineau_domestique.jpg" decoding="async"
width="50" height="30"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Cuvier-33-
Moineau_domestique.jpg/75px-Cuvier-33-Moineau_domestique.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Cuvier-33-
Moineau_domestique.jpg/100px-Cuvier-33-Moineau_domestique.jpg 2x" data-file-
width="614" data-file-height="371" /></a>
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<p>The classification of birds is a contentious issue. <a href="/wiki/Charles_Sibley"
title="Charles Sibley">Sibley</a> and <a href="/wiki/Jon_Ahlquist" class="mw-redirect"
title="Jon Ahlquist">Ahlquist</a>'s <i>Phylogeny and Classification of Birds</i> (1990) is a
landmark work on the classification of birds,<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-49">&#91;49&#93;</a></sup> although it is frequently debated and
constantly revised. Most evidence seems to suggest the assignment of orders is accurate,<sup
id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">&#91;50&#93;</a></sup> but
scientists disagree about the relationships between the orders themselves; evidence from
modern bird anatomy, fossils and DNA have all been brought to bear on the problem, but no
strong consensus has emerged. More recently, new fossil and molecular evidence is providing
an increasingly clear picture of the evolution of modern bird orders.<sup id="cite_ref-
Jarvis2014_51-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Jarvis2014-
51">&#91;51&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Prum2015_43-2" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Prum2015-43">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Distribution">Distribution</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Lists_of_birds_by_region" title="Lists of birds by region">Lists of birds by
region</a> and <a href="/wiki/List_of_birds_by_population" title="List of birds by
population">List of birds by population</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:House_sparrow04.jpg" class="image"><img alt="small bird withpale belly
and breast and patterned wing and head stands on concrete"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/House_sparrow04.jpg/220px-
House_sparrow04.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/House_sparrow04.jpg/330px-
House_sparrow04.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/House_sparrow04.jpg/440px-
House_sparrow04.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1067" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:House_sparrow04.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The range of the <a href="/wiki/House_sparrow"
title="House sparrow">house sparrow</a> has expanded dramatically due to human
activities.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
52">&#91;52&#93;</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>Birds live and breed in most terrestrial habitats and on all seven continents, reaching their
southern extreme in the <a href="/wiki/Snow_petrel" title="Snow petrel">snow petrel's</a>
breeding colonies up to 440 kilometres (270&#160;mi) inland in <a href="/wiki/Antarctica"
title="Antarctica">Antarctica</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-53">&#91;53&#93;</a></sup> The highest bird <a
href="/wiki/Biodiversity" title="Biodiversity">diversity</a> occurs in tropical regions. It was
earlier thought that this high diversity was the result of higher <a href="/wiki/Speciation"
title="Speciation">speciation</a> rates in the tropics; however recent studies found higher
speciation rates in the high latitudes that were offset by greater <a href="/wiki/Extinction"
title="Extinction">extinction</a> rates than in the tropics.<sup id="cite_ref-54"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">&#91;54&#93;</a></sup> Several families of
birds have adapted to life both on the world's oceans and in them, with some <a
href="/wiki/Seabird" title="Seabird">seabird</a> species coming ashore only to breed<sup
id="cite_ref-Burger_55-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Burger-
55">&#91;55&#93;</a></sup> and some <a href="/wiki/Penguin"
title="Penguin">penguins</a> have been recorded diving up to 300 metres (980&#160;ft)
deep.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
56">&#91;56&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Many bird species have established breeding populations in areas to which they have
been <a href="/wiki/Introduced_species" title="Introduced species">introduced</a> by
humans. Some of these introductions have been deliberate; the <a href="/wiki/Ring-
necked_pheasant" class="mw-redirect" title="Ring-necked pheasant">ring-necked
pheasant</a>, for example, has been introduced around the world as a <a
href="/wiki/Game_bird" class="mw-redirect" title="Game bird">game bird</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">&#91;57&#93;</a></sup>
Others have been accidental, such as the establishment of wild <a href="/wiki/Monk_parakeet"
title="Monk parakeet">monk parakeets</a> in several North American cities after their escape
from captivity.<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
58">&#91;58&#93;</a></sup> Some species, including <a href="/wiki/Cattle_egret"
title="Cattle egret">cattle egret</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-59">&#91;59&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Yellow-headed_caracara"
title="Yellow-headed caracara">yellow-headed caracara</a><sup id="cite_ref-60"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60">&#91;60&#93;</a></sup> and <a
href="/wiki/Galah" title="Galah">galah</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-61">&#91;61&#93;</a></sup> have <a
href="/wiki/Avian_range_expansion" title="Avian range expansion">spread naturally</a> far
beyond their original ranges as <a href="/wiki/Agriculture" title="Agriculture">agricultural
practices</a> created suitable new habitat.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Anatomy_and_physiology">Anatomy and
physiology</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a
href="/wiki/Bird_anatomy" title="Bird anatomy">Bird anatomy</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Bird_vision" title="Bird vision">Bird vision</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Egg_tooth" title="Egg tooth">Egg tooth</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Birdmorphology.svg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/Birdmorphology.svg/300px-
Birdmorphology.svg.png" decoding="async" width="300" height="215" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/Birdmorphology.svg/450px-
Birdmorphology.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/Birdmorphology.svg/600px-
Birdmorphology.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="600" data-file-height="430" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Birdmorphology.svg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>External anatomy of a bird (example: <a
href="/wiki/Yellow-wattled_lapwing" title="Yellow-wattled lapwing">yellow-wattled
lapwing</a>): 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser <a
href="/wiki/Covert_(feather)" class="mw-redirect" title="Covert (feather)">coverts</a>, 7
Scapulars, 8 Median coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-
tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Foot, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21 Throat, 22
Wattle, 23 Eyestripe</div></div></div>
<p>Compared with other vertebrates, birds have a <a href="/wiki/Body_plan" title="Body
plan">body plan</a> that shows many unusual adaptations, mostly to facilitate <a
href="/wiki/Bird_flight" title="Bird flight">flight</a>.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Skeletal_system">Skeletal system</span></h3>
<p>The skeleton consists of very lightweight bones. They have large air-filled cavities (called
pneumatic cavities) which connect with the <a href="/wiki/Respiratory_system"
title="Respiratory system">respiratory system</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-62">&#91;62&#93;</a></sup> The skull bones in adults are fused and do
not show <a href="/wiki/Cranial_sutures" class="mw-redirect" title="Cranial sutures">cranial
sutures</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-
63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> The <a href="/wiki/Orbit_(anatomy)" title="Orbit
(anatomy)">orbits</a> are large and separated by a bony <a href="/wiki/Septum"
title="Septum">septum</a>. The <a href="/wiki/Vertebral_column" title="Vertebral
column">spine</a> has cervical, thoracic, lumbar and caudal regions with the number of
cervical (neck) vertebrae highly variable and especially flexible, but movement is reduced in
the anterior <a href="/wiki/Thoracic_vertebrae" title="Thoracic vertebrae">thoracic
vertebrae</a> and absent in the later vertebrae.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-64">&#91;64&#93;</a></sup> The last few are fused with the <a
href="/wiki/Pelvis" title="Pelvis">pelvis</a> to form the <a href="/wiki/Synsacrum"
title="Synsacrum">synsacrum</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> The ribs are flattened and the <a
href="/wiki/Sternum" title="Sternum">sternum</a> is keeled for the attachment of flight
muscles except in the flightless bird orders. The forelimbs are modified into wings.<sup
id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65">&#91;65&#93;</a></sup> The
wings are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups that lost
their wings are the <a href="/wiki/Extinct" class="mw-redirect" title="Extinct">extinct</a> <a
href="/wiki/Moa" title="Moa">moa</a> and <a href="/wiki/Elephant_bird" title="Elephant
bird">elephant birds</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Excretory_system">Excretory system</span></h3>
<p>Like the <a href="/wiki/Reptile" title="Reptile">reptiles</a>, birds are primarily uricotelic,
that is, their <a href="/wiki/Kidney" title="Kidney">kidneys</a> extract nitrogenous waste
from their bloodstream and excrete it as <a href="/wiki/Uric_acid" title="Uric acid">uric
acid</a> instead of <a href="/wiki/Urea" title="Urea">urea</a> or <a href="/wiki/Ammonia"
title="Ammonia">ammonia</a> through the ureters into the intestine. Birds do not have a <a
href="/wiki/Urinary_bladder" title="Urinary bladder">urinary bladder</a> or external urethral
opening and (with exception of the <a href="/wiki/Ostrich#Description"
title="Ostrich">ostrich</a>) uric acid is excreted along with faeces as a semisolid waste.<sup
id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">&#91;67&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68">&#91;68&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-coprodeum_69-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-coprodeum-
69">&#91;69&#93;</a></sup> However, birds such as hummingbirds can be facultatively
ammonotelic, excreting most of the nitrogenous wastes as ammonia.<sup id="cite_ref-70"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70">&#91;70&#93;</a></sup> They also excrete <a
href="/wiki/Creatine" title="Creatine">creatine</a>, rather than <a href="/wiki/Creatinine"
title="Creatinine">creatinine</a> like mammals.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-2"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> This material, as
well as the output of the intestines, emerges from the bird's <a href="/wiki/Cloaca"
title="Cloaca">cloaca</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
71">&#91;71&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
72">&#91;72&#93;</a></sup> The cloaca is a multi-purpose opening: waste is expelled
through it, most birds mate by <a href="/wiki/Bird_anatomy#Reproduction" title="Bird
anatomy">joining cloaca</a>, and females lay eggs from it. In addition, many species of birds
regurgitate <a href="/wiki/Pellet_(ornithology)" title="Pellet (ornithology)">pellets</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73">&#91;73&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Males within <a href="/wiki/Palaeognathae"
title="Palaeognathae">Palaeognathae</a> (with the exception of the <a href="/wiki/Kiwi"
title="Kiwi">kiwis</a>), the <a href="/wiki/Anseriformes"
title="Anseriformes">Anseriformes</a> (with the exception of <a href="/wiki/Screamer"
title="Screamer">screamers</a>), and in rudimentary forms in <a href="/wiki/Galliformes"
title="Galliformes">Galliformes</a> (but fully developed in <a href="/wiki/Cracidae"
title="Cracidae">Cracidae</a>) possess a <a href="/wiki/Bird_penis" class="mw-redirect"
title="Bird penis">penis</a>, which is never present in <a href="/wiki/Neoaves"
title="Neoaves">Neoaves</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
74">&#91;74&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
75">&#91;75&#93;</a></sup> The length is thought to be related to <a
href="/wiki/Sperm_competition" title="Sperm competition">sperm competition</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">&#91;76&#93;</a></sup> When
not copulating, it is hidden within the <a href="/wiki/Proctodeum"
title="Proctodeum">proctodeum</a> compartment within the cloaca, just inside the vent. The
<a href="/wiki/Digestive_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Digestive system">digestive
system</a> of birds is unique, with a <a href="/wiki/Crop_(anatomy)" title="Crop
(anatomy)">crop</a> for storage and a <a href="/wiki/Gizzard" title="Gizzard">gizzard</a>
that contains swallowed stones for grinding food to compensate for the lack of teeth.<sup
id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77">&#91;77&#93;</a></sup> Most
birds are highly adapted for rapid digestion to aid with flight.<sup id="cite_ref-
Attenborough_78-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Attenborough-
78">&#91;78&#93;</a></sup> Some migratory birds have adapted to use protein from many
parts of their bodies, including protein from the intestines, as additional energy during
migration.<sup id="cite_ref-Battley_79-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Battley-
79">&#91;79&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Respiratory_and_circulatory_systems">Respiratory and
circulatory systems</span></h3>
<p>Birds have one of the most complex <a href="/wiki/Respiratory_system" title="Respiratory
system">respiratory systems</a> of all animal groups.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-3"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Upon inhalation,
75% of the fresh air bypasses the lungs and flows directly into a posterior <a
href="/wiki/Parabronchi" class="mw-redirect" title="Parabronchi">air sac</a> which extends
from the lungs and connects with air spaces in the bones and fills them with air. The other 25%
of the air goes directly into the lungs. When the bird exhales, the used air flows out of the lungs
and the stored fresh air from the posterior air sac is simultaneously forced into the lungs. Thus,
a bird's lungs receive a constant supply of fresh air during both inhalation and exhalation.<sup
id="cite_ref-80" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-80">&#91;80&#93;</a></sup> Sound
production is achieved using the <a href="/wiki/Syrinx_(biology)" class="mw-redirect"
title="Syrinx (biology)">syrinx</a>, a muscular chamber incorporating multiple tympanic
membranes which diverges from the lower end of the trachea;<sup id="cite_ref-Suthers_81-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Suthers-81">&#91;81&#93;</a></sup> the trachea
being elongated in some species, increasing the volume of vocalisations and the perception of
the bird's size.<sup id="cite_ref-Fitch_82-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Fitch-
82">&#91;82&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In birds, the main arteries taking blood away from the heart originate from the right <a
href="/wiki/Aortic_arches" title="Aortic arches">aortic arch</a> (or pharyngeal arch), unlike
in the mammals where the left aortic arch forms this part of the <a href="/wiki/Aorta"
title="Aorta">aorta</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> The postcava receives blood from the limbs via the renal
portal system. Unlike in mammals, the circulating <a href="/wiki/Red_blood_cells"
class="mw-redirect" title="Red blood cells">red blood cells</a> in birds retain their <a
href="/wiki/Cell_nucleus" title="Cell nucleus">nucleus</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-83"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Heart_type_and_features">Heart type and
features</span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:142px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Didactic_model_of_a_avian_heart-FMVZ_USP-13.jpeg"
class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bb/Didactic_model_of_a_avian_hea
rt-FMVZ_USP-13.jpeg/140px-Didactic_model_of_a_avian_heart-FMVZ_USP-13.jpeg"
decoding="async" width="140" height="209" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bb/Didactic_model_of_a_avian_
heart-FMVZ_USP-13.jpeg/210px-Didactic_model_of_a_avian_heart-FMVZ_USP-13.jpeg
1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bb/Didactic_model_of_a_avian_heart-
FMVZ_USP-13.jpeg/280px-Didactic_model_of_a_avian_heart-FMVZ_USP-13.jpeg 2x" data-
file-width="2592" data-file-height="3872" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div
class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Didactic_model_of_a_avian_heart-FMVZ_USP-13.jpeg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Educational_toy"
title="Educational toy">Didactic model</a> of an avian heart.</div></div></div>
<p>The avian circulatory system is driven by a four-chambered, myogenic heart contained in a
fibrous pericardial sac. This pericardial sac is filled with a <a href="/wiki/Serous_fluid"
title="Serous fluid">serous fluid</a> for lubrication.<sup id="cite_ref-Whittow_84-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Whittow-84">&#91;84&#93;</a></sup> The heart
itself is divided into a right and left half, each with an <a href="/wiki/Atrium_(heart)"
title="Atrium (heart)">atrium</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ventricle_(heart)" title="Ventricle
(heart)">ventricle</a>. The atrium and ventricles of each side are separated by <a
href="/wiki/Atrioventricular_valves" class="mw-redirect" title="Atrioventricular
valves">atrioventricular valves</a> which prevent back flow from one chamber to the next
during contraction. Being myogenic, the heart's pace is maintained by pacemaker cells found in
the sinoatrial node, located on the right atrium.
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Sinoatrial_node" title="Sinoatrial node">sinoatrial node</a> uses
calcium to cause a depolarising signal transduction pathway from the atrium through right and
left atrioventricular bundle which communicates contraction to the ventricles. The avian heart
also consists of muscular arches that are made up of thick bundles of muscular layers. Much
like a mammalian heart, the avian heart is composed of <a href="/wiki/Endocardial"
class="mw-redirect" title="Endocardial">endocardial</a>, <a href="/wiki/Myocardial"
class="mw-redirect" title="Myocardial">myocardial</a> and <a href="/wiki/Epicardial"
class="mw-redirect" title="Epicardial">epicardial</a> layers.<sup id="cite_ref-Whittow_84-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Whittow-84">&#91;84&#93;</a></sup> The atrium
walls tend to be thinner than the ventricle walls, due to the intense ventricular contraction used
to pump oxygenated blood throughout the body. Avian hearts are generally larger than
mammalian hearts when compared to body mass. This adaptation allows more blood to be
pumped to meet the high metabolic need associated with flight.<sup id="cite_ref-
Hoagstrom_85-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hoagstrom-
85">&#91;85&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Organisation">Organisation</span></h4>
<p>Birds have a very efficient system for diffusing oxygen into the blood; birds have a ten
times greater surface area to gas exchange volume than mammals. As a result, birds have more
blood in their capillaries per unit of volume of lung than a mammal.<sup id="cite_ref-
Hoagstrom_85-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hoagstrom-
85">&#91;85&#93;</a></sup> The arteries are composed of thick elastic muscles to withstand
the pressure of the ventricular constriction, and become more rigid as they move away from the
heart. Blood moves through the arteries, which undergo <a href="/wiki/Vasoconstriction"
title="Vasoconstriction">vasoconstriction</a>, and into arterioles which act as a transportation
system to distribute primarily oxygen as well as nutrients to all tissues of the body.<sup
id="cite_ref-Hill_86-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hill-
86">&#91;86&#93;</a></sup> As the arterioles move away from the heart and into individual
organs and tissues they are further divided to increase surface area and slow blood flow. Blood
travels through the arterioles and moves into the capillaries where gas exchange can occur.
</p><p>Capillaries are organized into capillary beds in tissues; it is here that blood exchanges
oxygen for carbon dioxide waste. In the capillary beds blood flow is slowed to allow maximum
diffusion of oxygen into the tissues. Once the blood has become deoxygenated it travels
through venules then veins and back to the heart. Veins, unlike arteries, are thin and rigid as
they do not need to withstand extreme pressure. As blood travels through the venules to the
veins a funneling occurs called <a href="/wiki/Vasodilation"
title="Vasodilation">vasodilation</a> bringing blood back to the heart.<sup id="cite_ref-
Hill_86-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hill-86">&#91;86&#93;</a></sup> Once
the blood reaches the heart it moves first into the right atrium, then the right ventricle to be
pumped through the lungs for further gas exchange of carbon dioxide waste for oxygen.
Oxygenated blood then flows from the lungs through the left atrium to the left ventricle where
it is pumped out to the body.
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Bird_blink-edit.jpg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d0/Bird_blink-edit.jpg/300px-
Bird_blink-edit.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="100" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d0/Bird_blink-edit.jpg/450px-
Bird_blink-edit.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d0/Bird_blink-
edit.jpg/600px-Bird_blink-edit.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1380" data-file-height="460" /></a>
<div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bird_blink-edit.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <a href="/wiki/Nictitating_membrane"
title="Nictitating membrane">nictitating membrane</a> as it covers the eye of a <a
href="/wiki/Masked_lapwing" title="Masked lapwing">masked
lapwing</a></div></div></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Nervous_system">Nervous system</span></h3>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Nervous_system" title="Nervous system">nervous system</a> is large
relative to the bird's size.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> The most developed part of the brain is the one that
controls the flight-related functions, while the <a href="/wiki/Cerebellum"
title="Cerebellum">cerebellum</a> coordinates movement and the <a href="/wiki/Cerebrum"
title="Cerebrum">cerebrum</a> controls behaviour patterns, navigation, mating and <a
href="/wiki/Bird_nest" title="Bird nest">nest</a> building. Most birds have a poor <a
href="/wiki/Olfaction" title="Olfaction">sense of smell</a><sup id="cite_ref-87"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87">&#91;87&#93;</a></sup> with notable
exceptions including <a href="/wiki/Kiwi" title="Kiwi">kiwis</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-88"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88">&#91;88&#93;</a></sup> <a
href="/wiki/New_World_vulture" title="New World vulture">New World vultures</a><sup
id="cite_ref-Avian_Sense_of_Smell_89-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
Avian_Sense_of_Smell-89">&#91;89&#93;</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Tubenoses"
class="mw-redirect" title="Tubenoses">tubenoses</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-90"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90">&#91;90&#93;</a></sup> The avian <a
href="/wiki/Visual_system" title="Visual system">visual system</a> is usually highly
developed. Water birds have special flexible lenses, allowing accommodation for vision in air
and water.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-
63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Some species also have dual <a href="/wiki/Fovea_centralis"
title="Fovea centralis">fovea</a>. Birds are <a href="/wiki/Tetrachromacy"
title="Tetrachromacy">tetrachromatic</a>, possessing <a href="/wiki/Ultraviolet"
title="Ultraviolet">ultraviolet</a> (UV) sensitive <a href="/wiki/Cone_cell" title="Cone
cell">cone cells</a> in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones.<sup id="cite_ref-91"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91">&#91;91&#93;</a></sup> They also have <a
href="/wiki/Double_cone_(biology)" title="Double cone (biology)">double cones</a>, likely
to mediate <a href="/wiki/Monochromacy" title="Monochromacy">achromatic
vision</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-OlssonLind2018_92-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
OlssonLind2018-92">&#91;92&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Many birds show plumage patterns in <a href="/wiki/Ultraviolet"
title="Ultraviolet">ultraviolet</a> that are invisible to the human eye; some birds whose sexes
appear similar to the naked eye are distinguished by the presence of ultraviolet reflective
patches on their feathers. Male <a href="/wiki/Blue_tit" class="mw-redirect" title="Blue
tit">blue tits</a> have an ultraviolet reflective crown patch which is displayed in courtship by
posturing and raising of their nape feathers.<sup id="cite_ref-93" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-93">&#91;93&#93;</a></sup> Ultraviolet light is also used in foraging—<a
href="/wiki/Kestrel" title="Kestrel">kestrels</a> have been shown to search for prey by
detecting the UV reflective urine trail marks left on the ground by rodents.<sup id="cite_ref-
94" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-94">&#91;94&#93;</a></sup> With the exception
of pigeons and a few other species,<sup id="cite_ref-95" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-95">&#91;95&#93;</a></sup> the eyelids of birds are not used in blinking.
Instead the eye is lubricated by the <a href="/wiki/Nictitating_membrane" title="Nictitating
membrane">nictitating membrane</a>, a third eyelid that moves horizontally.<sup
id="cite_ref-96" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-96">&#91;96&#93;</a></sup> The
nictitating membrane also covers the eye and acts as a <a href="/wiki/Contact_lens"
title="Contact lens">contact lens</a> in many aquatic birds.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-7"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> The bird <a
href="/wiki/Retina" title="Retina">retina</a> has a fan shaped blood supply system called the
<a href="/wiki/Pecten_oculi" title="Pecten oculi">pecten</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-8"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Most birds cannot move their eyes, although there are exceptions, such as the <a
href="/wiki/Great_cormorant" title="Great cormorant">great cormorant</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-
97" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-97">&#91;97&#93;</a></sup> Birds with eyes on
the sides of their heads have a wide <a href="/wiki/Visual_field" title="Visual field">visual
field</a>, while birds with eyes on the front of their heads, such as owls, have <a
href="/wiki/Binocular_vision" title="Binocular vision">binocular vision</a> and can estimate
the <a href="/wiki/Depth_of_field" title="Depth of field">depth of field</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-
98" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-98">&#91;98&#93;</a></sup> The avian <a
href="/wiki/Ear" title="Ear">ear</a> lacks external <a href="/wiki/Pinna_(anatomy)"
class="mw-redirect" title="Pinna (anatomy)">pinnae</a> but is covered by feathers, although
in some birds, such as the <i><a href="/wiki/Asio" title="Asio">Asio</a></i>, <i><a
href="/wiki/Horned_owl" title="Horned owl">Bubo</a></i> and <i><a
href="/wiki/Scops_owl" title="Scops owl">Otus</a></i> <a href="/wiki/Owl"
title="Owl">owls</a>, these feathers form tufts which resemble ears. The <a
href="/wiki/Inner_ear" title="Inner ear">inner ear</a> has a <a href="/wiki/Cochlea"
title="Cochlea">cochlea</a>, but it is not spiral as in mammals.<sup id="cite_ref-99"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-99">&#91;99&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Defence_and_intraspecific_combat">Defence and
intraspecific combat</span></h3>
<p>A few species are able to use chemical defences against predators; some <a
href="/wiki/Procellariiformes" title="Procellariiformes">Procellariiformes</a> can eject an
unpleasant <a href="/wiki/Stomach_oil" title="Stomach oil">stomach oil</a> against an
aggressor,<sup id="cite_ref-100" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
100">&#91;100&#93;</a></sup> and some species of <a href="/wiki/Pitohui"
title="Pitohui">pitohuis</a> from <a href="/wiki/New_Guinea" title="New Guinea">New
Guinea</a> have a powerful <a href="/wiki/Neurotoxin" title="Neurotoxin">neurotoxin</a> in
their skin and feathers.<sup id="cite_ref-101" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
101">&#91;101&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>A lack of field observations limit our knowledge, but intraspecific conflicts are known
to sometimes result in injury or death.<sup id="cite_ref-long_102-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-long-102">&#91;102&#93;</a></sup> The screamers (<a
href="/wiki/Anhimidae" class="mw-redirect" title="Anhimidae">Anhimidae</a>), some
jacanas (<i><a href="/wiki/Jacana_(genus)" title="Jacana (genus)">Jacana</a></i>, <i><a
href="/wiki/Hydrophasianus" class="mw-redirect"
title="Hydrophasianus">Hydrophasianus</a></i>), the spur-winged goose (<i><a
href="/wiki/Plectropterus" class="mw-redirect" title="Plectropterus">Plectropterus</a></i>),
the torrent duck (<i><a href="/wiki/Merganetta" class="mw-redirect"
title="Merganetta">Merganetta</a></i>) and nine species of lapwing (<i><a
href="/wiki/Vanellus" title="Vanellus">Vanellus</a></i>) use a sharp spur on the wing as a
weapon. The steamer ducks (<i><a href="/wiki/Tachyeres" class="mw-redirect"
title="Tachyeres">Tachyeres</a></i>), geese and swans (<i><a href="/wiki/Anserinae"
title="Anserinae">Anserinae</a></i>), the solitaire (<i><a href="/wiki/Pezophaps"
class="mw-redirect" title="Pezophaps">Pezophaps</a></i>), sheathbills (<i><a
href="/wiki/Chionis" class="mw-redirect" title="Chionis">Chionis</a></i>), some guans
(<i><a href="/wiki/Crax" title="Crax">Crax</a></i>) and stone curlews (<i><a
href="/wiki/Burhinus" title="Burhinus">Burhinus</a></i>) use a bony knob on the <a
href="/wiki/Alula" title="Alula">alular</a> metacarpal to punch and hammer opponents.<sup
id="cite_ref-long_102-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-long-
102">&#91;102&#93;</a></sup> The jacanas <i><a href="/wiki/Actophilornis"
title="Actophilornis">Actophilornis</a></i> and <i><a href="/wiki/Irediparra" class="mw-
redirect" title="Irediparra">Irediparra</a></i> have an expanded, blade-like radius. The extinct
<i><a href="/wiki/Xenicibis" class="mw-redirect" title="Xenicibis">Xenicibis</a></i> was
unique in having an elongate forelimb and massive hand which likely functioned in combat or
defence as a jointed club or flail. <a href="/wiki/Cygnus_olor" class="mw-redirect"
title="Cygnus olor">Swans</a>, for instance, may strike with the bony spurs and bite when
defending eggs or young.<sup id="cite_ref-long_102-2" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-long-102">&#91;102&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Chromosomes">Chromosomes</span></h3>
<p>Birds have two sexes: either <a href="/wiki/Female" title="Female">female</a> or <a
href="/wiki/Male" title="Male">male</a>. The sex of birds is determined by the <a
href="/wiki/ZW_sex-determination_system" title="ZW sex-determination system">Z and W
sex chromosomes</a>, rather than by the <a href="/wiki/XY_sex-determination_system"
title="XY sex-determination system">X and Y chromosomes</a> present in <a
href="/wiki/Mammal" title="Mammal">mammals</a>. Male birds have two Z chromosomes
(ZZ), and female birds have a W chromosome and a Z chromosome (WZ).<sup id="cite_ref-
Gill_63-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In nearly all species of birds, an individual's sex is determined at fertilisation.
However, one recent study claimed to demonstrate <a href="/wiki/Temperature-
dependent_sex_determination" title="Temperature-dependent sex determination">temperature-
dependent sex determination</a> among the <a href="/wiki/Australian_brushturkey"
title="Australian brushturkey">Australian brushturkey</a>, for which higher temperatures
during incubation resulted in a higher female-to-male <a href="/wiki/Sex_ratio" title="Sex
ratio">sex ratio</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-103" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
103">&#91;103&#93;</a></sup> This, however, was later proven to not be the case. These
birds do not exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination, but temperature-dependent sex
mortality.<sup id="cite_ref-104" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
104">&#91;104&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span id="Feathers.2C_plumage.2C_and_scales"></span><span class="mw-headline"
id="Feathers,_plumage,_and_scales">Feathers, plumage, and scales</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a
href="/wiki/Feather" title="Feather">Feather</a> and <a href="/wiki/Flight_feather"
title="Flight feather">Flight feather</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:African_Scops_owl.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Owl with eyes closed in
front of similarly coloured tree trunk partly obscured by green leaves"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/African_Scops_owl.jpg/220px-
African_Scops_owl.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/African_Scops_owl.jpg/330px
-African_Scops_owl.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/African_Scops_owl.jpg/440px-
African_Scops_owl.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1200" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:African_Scops_owl.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <a href="/wiki/Disruptively_patterned"
class="mw-redirect" title="Disruptively patterned">disruptively patterned</a> plumage of the
<a href="/wiki/African_scops_owl" title="African scops owl">African scops owl</a> allows it
to blend in with its surroundings.</div></div></div>
<p>Feathers are a feature characteristic of birds (though also present in <a
href="/wiki/Feathered_dinosaurs" class="mw-redirect" title="Feathered dinosaurs">some
dinosaurs</a> not currently considered to be true birds). They facilitate <a
href="/wiki/Bird_flight" title="Bird flight">flight</a>, provide insulation that aids in <a
href="/wiki/Thermoregulation" title="Thermoregulation">thermoregulation</a>, and are used
in display, camouflage, and signalling.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-10" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> There are several types of feathers, each
serving its own set of purposes. Feathers are epidermal growths attached to the skin and arise
only in specific tracts of skin called <a href="/wiki/Pterylography" class="mw-redirect"
title="Pterylography">pterylae</a>. The distribution pattern of these feather tracts (pterylosis)
is used in taxonomy and systematics. The arrangement and appearance of feathers on the body,
called <a href="/wiki/Plumage" title="Plumage">plumage</a>, may vary within species by
age, <a href="/wiki/Social_status" title="Social status">social status</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-
105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105">&#91;105&#93;</a></sup> and <a
href="/wiki/Sexual_dimorphism" title="Sexual dimorphism">sex</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-106"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-106">&#91;106&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Plumage is regularly <a href="/wiki/Moult" class="mw-redirect"
title="Moult">moulted</a>; the standard plumage of a bird that has moulted after breeding is
known as the "<dfn id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#basic_plumage"
title="Glossary of bird terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § basic
plumage" style="color:inherit;" class="glossary-link">non-breeding</span></a></dfn>"
plumage, or—in the <a href="/wiki/Humphrey%E2%80%93Parkes_terminology"
title="Humphrey–Parkes terminology">Humphrey–Parkes terminology</a>—"basic" plumage;
breeding plumages or variations of the basic plumage are known under the Humphrey–Parkes
system as "<dfn id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#alternate_plumage"
title="Glossary of bird terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § alternate
plumage" style="color:inherit;" class="glossary-link">alternate</span></a></dfn>"
plumages.<sup id="cite_ref-107" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
107">&#91;107&#93;</a></sup> Moulting is annual in most species, although <a
href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#cite_note-32" title="Glossary of bird terms">some</a>
may have two moults a year, and large birds of prey may moult only once every few years.
Moulting patterns vary across species. In passerines, <a href="/wiki/Flight_feather"
title="Flight feather">flight feathers</a> are replaced one at a time with the innermost <dfn
id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#primary" title="Glossary of bird terms"><span
title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § primary" style="color:inherit;" class="glossary-
link">primary</span></a></dfn> being the first. When the fifth of sixth primary is replaced,
the outermost <dfn id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#tertiaries" title="Glossary of
bird terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § tertiaries" style="color:inherit;"
class="glossary-link">tertiaries</span></a></dfn> begin to drop. After the innermost tertiaries
are moulted, the <dfn id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#secondaries"
title="Glossary of bird terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § secondaries"
style="color:inherit;" class="glossary-link">secondaries</span></a></dfn> starting from the
innermost begin to drop and this proceeds to the outer feathers (centrifugal moult). The greater
primary <dfn id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#coverts" title="Glossary of bird
terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § coverts" style="color:inherit;"
class="glossary-link">coverts</span></a></dfn> are moulted in synchrony with the primary
that they overlap.<sup id="cite_ref-pettingill_108-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
pettingill-108">&#91;108&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>A small number of species, such as ducks and geese, lose all of their flight feathers at
once, temporarily becoming flightless.<sup id="cite_ref-debeeretal_109-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-debeeretal-109">&#91;109&#93;</a></sup> As a
general rule, the tail feathers are moulted and replaced starting with the innermost pair.<sup
id="cite_ref-pettingill_108-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pettingill-
108">&#91;108&#93;</a></sup> Centripetal moults of tail feathers are however seen in the <a
href="/wiki/Phasianidae" title="Phasianidae">Phasianidae</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-110"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-110">&#91;110&#93;</a></sup> The centrifugal
moult is modified in the tail feathers of <a href="/wiki/Woodpecker"
title="Woodpecker">woodpeckers</a> and <a href="/wiki/Treecreeper"
title="Treecreeper">treecreepers</a>, in that it begins with the second innermost pair of
feathers and finishes with the central pair of feathers so that the bird maintains a functional
climbing tail.<sup id="cite_ref-pettingill_108-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
pettingill-108">&#91;108&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-111" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-111">&#91;111&#93;</a></sup> The general pattern seen in <a
href="/wiki/Passerine" title="Passerine">passerines</a> is that the primaries are replaced
outward, secondaries inward, and the tail from centre outward.<sup id="cite_ref-112"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112">&#91;112&#93;</a></sup> Before nesting, the
females of most bird species gain a bare <a href="/wiki/Brood_patch" title="Brood
patch">brood patch</a> by losing feathers close to the belly. The skin there is well supplied
with blood vessels and helps the bird in incubation.<sup id="cite_ref-113"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-113">&#91;113&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Red_Lory_(Eos_bornea)-6.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Red parrot with
yellow bill and wing feathers in bill"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Red_Lory_%28Eos_bornea%29-
6.jpg/170px-Red_Lory_%28Eos_bornea%29-6.jpg" decoding="async" width="170"
height="212" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Red_Lory_%28Eos_bornea%
29-6.jpg/255px-Red_Lory_%28Eos_bornea%29-6.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Red_Lory_%28Eos_bornea%29-
6.jpg/340px-Red_Lory_%28Eos_bornea%29-6.jpg 2x" data-file-width="683" data-file-
height="850" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Red_Lory_(Eos_bornea)-6.jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Red_lory" title="Red lory">Red lory</a>
preening</div></div></div>
<p>Feathers require maintenance and birds preen or groom them daily, spending an average of
around 9% of their daily time on this.<sup id="cite_ref-114" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-114">&#91;114&#93;</a></sup> The bill is used to brush away foreign
particles and to apply <a href="/wiki/Wax" title="Wax">waxy</a> secretions from the <a
href="/wiki/Uropygial_gland" title="Uropygial gland">uropygial gland</a>; these secretions
protect the feathers' flexibility and act as an <a href="/wiki/Antimicrobial"
title="Antimicrobial">antimicrobial agent</a>, inhibiting the growth of feather-degrading <a
href="/wiki/Bacteria" title="Bacteria">bacteria</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-115"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-115">&#91;115&#93;</a></sup> This may be
supplemented with the secretions of <a href="/wiki/Formic_acid" title="Formic acid">formic
acid</a> from ants, which birds receive through a behaviour known as <a
href="/wiki/Anting_(bird_activity)" title="Anting (bird activity)">anting</a>, to remove
feather parasites.<sup id="cite_ref-116" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
116">&#91;116&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The <a href="/wiki/Bird_anatomy#Scales" title="Bird anatomy">scales</a> of birds
are composed of the same keratin as beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes
and <a href="/wiki/Metatarsus" class="mw-redirect" title="Metatarsus">metatarsus</a>, but
may be found further up on the ankle in some birds. Most bird scales do not overlap
significantly, except in the cases of <a href="/wiki/Kingfisher"
title="Kingfisher">kingfishers</a> and <a href="/wiki/Woodpecker"
title="Woodpecker">woodpeckers</a>.
The scales of birds are thought to be <a href="/wiki/Homology_(biology)" title="Homology
(biology)">homologous</a> to those of reptiles and mammals.<sup id="cite_ref-117"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-117">&#91;117&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Flight">Flight</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Bird_flight" title="Bird flight">Bird flight</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Restless_flycatcher04.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Black bird with white
chest in flight with wings facing down and tail fanned and down pointing"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5d/Restless_flycatcher04.jpg/220px
-Restless_flycatcher04.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5d/Restless_flycatcher04.jpg/330
px-Restless_flycatcher04.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5d/Restless_flycatcher04.jpg/440px-
Restless_flycatcher04.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1067" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Restless_flycatcher04.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Restless_flycatcher" title="Restless
flycatcher">Restless flycatcher</a> in the downstroke of flapping flight</div></div></div>
<p>Most birds can <a href="/wiki/Flying_and_gliding_animals" title="Flying and gliding
animals">fly</a>, which distinguishes them from almost all other vertebrate classes. Flight is
the primary means of locomotion for most bird species and is used for searching for food and
for escaping from predators. Birds have various adaptations for flight, including a lightweight
skeleton, two large flight muscles, the pectoralis (which accounts for 15% of the total mass of
the bird) and the supracoracoideus, as well as a modified forelimb (<a href="/wiki/Wing"
title="Wing">wing</a>) that serves as an <a href="/wiki/Airfoil"
title="Airfoil">aerofoil</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-11" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Wing shape and size generally determine a bird's flight style and performance; many
birds combine powered, flapping flight with less energy-intensive soaring flight. About 60
extant bird species are <a href="/wiki/Flightless_bird" title="Flightless bird">flightless</a>, as
were many extinct birds.<sup id="cite_ref-118" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
118">&#91;118&#93;</a></sup> Flightlessness often arises in birds on isolated islands,
probably due to limited resources and the absence of land predators.<sup id="cite_ref-119"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-119">&#91;119&#93;</a></sup> Although flightless,
penguins use similar musculature and movements to "fly" through the water, as do <a
href="/wiki/Auk" title="Auk">auks</a>, <a href="/wiki/Shearwater"
title="Shearwater">shearwaters</a> and <a href="/wiki/Dipper"
title="Dipper">dippers</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-120" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
120">&#91;120&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div style="clear:both;"></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Behaviour">Behaviour</span></h2>
<p>Most birds are <a href="/wiki/Diurnal_animal" class="mw-redirect" title="Diurnal
animal">diurnal</a>, but some birds, such as many species of <a href="/wiki/Owl"
title="Owl">owls</a> and <a href="/wiki/Nightjar" title="Nightjar">nightjars</a>, are <a
href="/wiki/Nocturnal" class="mw-redirect" title="Nocturnal">nocturnal</a> or <a
href="/wiki/Crepuscular" class="mw-redirect" title="Crepuscular">crepuscular</a> (active
during twilight hours), and many coastal <a href="/wiki/Wader" title="Wader">waders</a>
feed when the tides are appropriate, by day or night.<sup id="cite_ref-121"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-121">&#91;121&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Diet_and_feeding">Diet and feeding</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:BirdBeaksA.svg" class="image"><img alt="Illustration of the heads of 16
types of birds with different shapes and sizes of beak"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/BirdBeaksA.svg/170px-
BirdBeaksA.svg.png" decoding="async" width="170" height="512" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/BirdBeaksA.svg/255px-
BirdBeaksA.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/BirdBeaksA.svg/340px-
BirdBeaksA.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="465" data-file-height="1400" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:BirdBeaksA.svg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Feeding adaptations in beaks</div></div></div>
<p><dfn id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#dietary_classification_terms_(-vores)"
title="Glossary of bird terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § dietary
classification terms (-vores)" style="color:inherit;" class="glossary-link">Birds'
diets</span></a></dfn> are varied and often include <a href="/wiki/Nectar_(plant)"
class="mw-redirect" title="Nectar (plant)">nectar</a>, fruit, plants, seeds, <a
href="/wiki/Carrion" title="Carrion">carrion</a>, and various small animals, including other
birds.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-
63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Because birds have no teeth, their <a
href="/wiki/Digestive_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Digestive system">digestive
system</a> is adapted to process <a href="/wiki/Mastication" class="mw-redirect"
title="Mastication">unmasticated</a> food items that are swallowed whole.<sup id="cite_ref-
122" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-122">&#91;122&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Birds that employ many strategies to obtain food or feed on a variety of food items are
called generalists, while others that concentrate time and effort on specific food items or have a
single strategy to obtain food are considered specialists.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-13"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Birds' feeding
strategies vary by species. Many birds <a href="/wiki/Gleaning_(birds)" title="Gleaning
(birds)">glean</a> for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. Some hunt insects by suddenly
attacking from a branch. Those species that seek <a href="/wiki/Pest_(organism)" title="Pest
(organism)">pest</a> <a href="/wiki/Insect" title="Insect">insects</a> are considered
beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in <a
href="/wiki/Biological_pest_control" title="Biological pest control">biological pest
control</a> programmes.<sup id="cite_ref-lwa001_123-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-lwa001-123">&#91;123&#93;</a></sup> Combined, insectivorous birds eat
400–500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.<sup id="cite_ref-124"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-124">&#91;124&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Nectar feeders such as <a href="/wiki/Hummingbird"
title="Hummingbird">hummingbirds</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sunbird"
title="Sunbird">sunbirds</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lories_and_lorikeets" class="mw-redirect"
title="Lories and lorikeets">lories, and lorikeets</a> amongst others have specially adapted
brushy tongues and in many cases bills designed to fit <a href="/wiki/Coevolution"
title="Coevolution">co-adapted</a> flowers.<sup id="cite_ref-125" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-125">&#91;125&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Kiwi"
title="Kiwi">Kiwis</a> and <a href="/wiki/Shorebird" class="mw-redirect"
title="Shorebird">shorebirds</a> with long bills probe for invertebrates; shorebirds' varied bill
lengths and feeding methods result in the separation of <a href="/wiki/Ecological_niche"
title="Ecological niche">ecological niches</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-14"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-
126" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-126">&#91;126&#93;</a></sup> <a
href="/wiki/Loon" title="Loon">Loons</a>, <a href="/wiki/Diving_duck" title="Diving
duck">diving ducks</a>, <a href="/wiki/Penguin" title="Penguin">penguins</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Auks" class="mw-redirect" title="Auks">auks</a> pursue their prey underwater,
using their wings or feet for propulsion,<sup id="cite_ref-Burger_55-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Burger-55">&#91;55&#93;</a></sup> while aerial predators such as <a
href="/wiki/Sulidae" title="Sulidae">sulids</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kingfisher"
title="Kingfisher">kingfishers</a> and <a href="/wiki/Tern" title="Tern">terns</a> plunge
dive after their prey. <a href="/wiki/Flamingo" title="Flamingo">Flamingos</a>, three species
of <a href="/wiki/Prion_(bird)" title="Prion (bird)">prion</a>, and some ducks are <a
href="/wiki/Filter_feeder" title="Filter feeder">filter feeders</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-127"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-127">&#91;127&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-
128" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-128">&#91;128&#93;</a></sup> <a
href="/wiki/Geese" class="mw-redirect" title="Geese">Geese</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Dabbling_duck" class="mw-redirect" title="Dabbling duck">dabbling ducks</a>
are primarily grazers.
</p><p>Some species, including <a href="/wiki/Frigatebird"
title="Frigatebird">frigatebirds</a>, <a href="/wiki/Gull" title="Gull">gulls</a>,<sup
id="cite_ref-129" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-129">&#91;129&#93;</a></sup>
and <a href="/wiki/Skua" title="Skua">skuas</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-130"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-130">&#91;130&#93;</a></sup> engage in <a
href="/wiki/Kleptoparasitism" title="Kleptoparasitism">kleptoparasitism</a>, stealing food
items from other birds. Kleptoparasitism is thought to be a supplement to food obtained by
hunting, rather than a significant part of any species' diet; a study of <a
href="/wiki/Great_frigatebird" title="Great frigatebird">great frigatebirds</a> stealing from <a
href="/wiki/Masked_booby" title="Masked booby">masked boobies</a> estimated that the
frigatebirds stole at most 40% of their food and on average stole only 5%.<sup id="cite_ref-
131" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-131">&#91;131&#93;</a></sup> Other birds are
<a href="/wiki/Scavenger" title="Scavenger">scavengers</a>; some of these, like <a
href="/wiki/Vulture" title="Vulture">vultures</a>, are specialised carrion eaters, while others,
like gulls, <a href="/wiki/Corvid" class="mw-redirect" title="Corvid">corvids</a>, or other
birds of prey, are opportunists.<sup id="cite_ref-132" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
132">&#91;132&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Water_and_drinking">Water and drinking</span></h3>
<p>Water is needed by many birds although their mode of excretion and lack of <a
href="/wiki/Sweat_gland" title="Sweat gland">sweat glands</a> reduces the physiological
demands.<sup id="cite_ref-133" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
133">&#91;133&#93;</a></sup> Some desert birds can obtain their water needs entirely from
moisture in their food. They may also have other adaptations such as allowing their body
temperature to rise, saving on moisture loss from evaporative cooling or panting.<sup
id="cite_ref-134" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-134">&#91;134&#93;</a></sup>
Seabirds can drink seawater and have <a href="/wiki/Salt_gland" title="Salt gland">salt
glands</a> inside the head that eliminate excess salt out of the nostrils.<sup id="cite_ref-135"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-135">&#91;135&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Most birds scoop water in their beaks and raise their head to let water run down the
throat. Some species, especially of arid zones, belonging to the <a href="/wiki/Columbidae"
title="Columbidae">pigeon</a>, <a href="/wiki/Estrildidae" title="Estrildidae">finch</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Coliidae" class="mw-redirect" title="Coliidae">mousebird</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Turnicidae" class="mw-redirect" title="Turnicidae">button-quail</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Otididae" class="mw-redirect" title="Otididae">bustard</a> families are capable
of sucking up water without the need to tilt back their heads.<sup id="cite_ref-136"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-136">&#91;136&#93;</a></sup> Some desert birds
depend on water sources and <a href="/wiki/Sandgrouse" title="Sandgrouse">sandgrouse</a>
are particularly well known for their daily congregations at waterholes. Nesting sandgrouse and
many plovers carry water to their young by wetting their belly feathers.<sup id="cite_ref-137"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-137">&#91;137&#93;</a></sup> Some birds carry
water for chicks at the nest in their crop or regurgitate it along with food. The pigeon family,
flamingos and penguins have adaptations to produce a nutritive fluid called <a
href="/wiki/Crop_milk" title="Crop milk">crop milk</a> that they provide to their chicks.<sup
id="cite_ref-138" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-138">&#91;138&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Feather_care">Feather care</span></h3>
<p>Feathers being critical to the survival of a bird, require maintenance. Apart from physical
wear and tear, feathers face the onslaught of fungi, <a href="/wiki/Ectoparasitic" class="mw-
redirect" title="Ectoparasitic">ectoparasitic</a> feather mites and <a href="/wiki/Bird_louse"
title="Bird louse">birdlice</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-139" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
139">&#91;139&#93;</a></sup> The physical condition of feathers are maintained by <dfn
id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#preening" title="Glossary of bird terms"><span
title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § preening" style="color:inherit;" class="glossary-
link">preening</span></a></dfn> often with the application of secretions from the <dfn
id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#preen_gland" title="Glossary of bird
terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § preen gland" style="color:inherit;"
class="glossary-link">preen gland</span></a></dfn>. Birds also bathe in water or dust
themselves. While some birds dip into shallow water, more aerial species may make aerial dips
into water and arboreal species often make use of dew or rain that collect on leaves. Birds of
arid regions make use of loose soil to dust-bathe. A behaviour termed as <a
href="/wiki/Anting_(bird_activity)" title="Anting (bird activity)">anting</a> in which the bird
encourages ants to run through their plumage is also thought to help them reduce the
ectoparasite load in feathers. Many species will spread out their wings and expose them to
direct sunlight and this too is thought to help in reducing fungal and ectoparasitic activity that
may lead to feather damage.<sup id="cite_ref-140" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
140">&#91;140&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-141" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-141">&#91;141&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Migration">Migration</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Bird_migration" title="Bird migration">Bird migration</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:CanadianGeeseFlyingInVFormation.jpg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/CanadianGeeseFlyingInVFormat
ion.jpg/220px-CanadianGeeseFlyingInVFormation.jpg" decoding="async" width="220"
height="147" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/CanadianGeeseFlyingInVFor
mation.jpg/330px-CanadianGeeseFlyingInVFormation.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/CanadianGeeseFlyingInVFormation.j
pg/440px-CanadianGeeseFlyingInVFormation.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2894" data-file-
height="1930" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:CanadianGeeseFlyingInVFormation.jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>A flock of <a href="/wiki/Canada_geese" class="mw-redirect"
title="Canada geese">Canada geese</a> in <a href="/wiki/V_formation" title="V
formation">V formation</a></div></div></div>
<p>Many bird species migrate to take advantage of global differences of <a
href="/wiki/Season" title="Season">seasonal</a> temperatures, therefore optimising
availability of food sources and breeding habitat. These migrations vary among the different
groups. Many landbirds, <a href="/wiki/Shorebird" class="mw-redirect"
title="Shorebird">shorebirds</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Waterbird" class="mw-redirect"
title="Waterbird">waterbirds</a> undertake annual long distance migrations, usually triggered
by the length of daylight as well as weather conditions. These birds are characterised by a
breeding season spent in the <a href="/wiki/Temperate" class="mw-redirect"
title="Temperate">temperate</a> or <a href="/wiki/Polar_region" class="mw-redirect"
title="Polar region">polar regions</a> and a non-breeding season in the <a
href="/wiki/Tropical" class="mw-redirect" title="Tropical">tropical</a> regions or opposite
hemisphere. Before migration, birds substantially increase body fats and reserves and reduce
the size of some of their organs.<sup id="cite_ref-Battley_79-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Battley-79">&#91;79&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Klaassen_142-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Klaassen-142">&#91;142&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Migration is highly demanding energetically, particularly as birds need to cross deserts
and oceans without refuelling. Landbirds have a flight range of around 2,500&#160;km
(1,600&#160;mi) and shorebirds can fly up to 4,000&#160;km (2,500&#160;mi),<sup
id="cite_ref-autogenerated1_143-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-autogenerated1-
143">&#91;143&#93;</a></sup> although the <a href="/wiki/Bar-tailed_godwit" title="Bar-
tailed godwit">bar-tailed godwit</a> is capable of non-stop flights of up to 10,200&#160;km
(6,300&#160;mi).<sup id="cite_ref-144" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
144">&#91;144&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Seabird" title="Seabird">Seabirds</a> also
undertake long migrations, the longest annual migration being those of <a
href="/wiki/Sooty_shearwater" title="Sooty shearwater">sooty shearwaters</a>, which nest in
<a href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Chile" title="Chile">Chile</a> and spend the northern summer feeding in the
North Pacific off Japan, <a href="/wiki/Alaska" title="Alaska">Alaska</a> and <a
href="/wiki/California" title="California">California</a>, an annual round trip of
64,000&#160;km (39,800&#160;mi).<sup id="cite_ref-145" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-145">&#91;145&#93;</a></sup> Other seabirds disperse after breeding,
travelling widely but having no set migration route. <a href="/wiki/Albatross"
title="Albatross">Albatrosses</a> nesting in the <a href="/wiki/Southern_Ocean"
title="Southern Ocean">Southern Ocean</a> often undertake circumpolar trips between
breeding seasons.<sup id="cite_ref-146" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
146">&#91;146&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Bar-tailed_Godwit_migration.jpg" class="image"><img alt="A map of the
Pacific Ocean with several coloured lines representing bird routes running from New Zealand
to Korea" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Bar-
tailed_Godwit_migration.jpg/220px-Bar-tailed_Godwit_migration.jpg" decoding="async"
width="220" height="216" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Bar-
tailed_Godwit_migration.jpg/330px-Bar-tailed_Godwit_migration.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Bar-tailed_Godwit_migration.jpg 2x" data-
file-width="416" data-file-height="408" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div
class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Bar-tailed_Godwit_migration.jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>The routes of satellite-tagged <a href="/wiki/Bar-tailed_godwit"
title="Bar-tailed godwit">bar-tailed godwits</a> migrating north from <a
href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a>. This species has the
longest known non-stop migration of any species, up to 10,200&#160;km
(6,300&#160;mi).</div></div></div>
<p>Some bird species undertake shorter migrations, travelling only as far as is required to
avoid bad weather or obtain food. <a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/irruptive"
class="extiw" title="wikt:irruptive">Irruptive</a> species such as the boreal <a
href="/wiki/Finch" title="Finch">finches</a> are one such group and can commonly be found
at a location in one year and absent the next. This type of migration is normally associated with
food availability.<sup id="cite_ref-147" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
147">&#91;147&#93;</a></sup> Species may also travel shorter distances over part of their
range, with individuals from higher latitudes travelling into the existing range of conspecifics;
others undertake partial migrations, where only a fraction of the population, usually females
and subdominant males, migrates.<sup id="cite_ref-148" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-148">&#91;148&#93;</a></sup> Partial migration can form a large
percentage of the migration behaviour of birds in some regions; in Australia, surveys found that
44% of non-passerine birds and 32% of passerines were partially migratory.<sup id="cite_ref-
149" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-149">&#91;149&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Altitudinal_migration" title="Altitudinal migration">Altitudinal
migration</a> is a form of short distance migration in which birds spend the breeding season at
higher altitudes and move to lower ones during suboptimal conditions. It is most often triggered
by temperature changes and usually occurs when <a href="/wiki/Territory_(animal)"
title="Territory (animal)">the normal territories</a> also become inhospitable due to lack of
food.<sup id="cite_ref-150" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
150">&#91;150&#93;</a></sup> Some species may also be nomadic, holding no fixed
territory and moving according to weather and food availability. <a href="/wiki/True_parrots"
class="mw-redirect" title="True parrots">Parrots</a> as a <a href="/wiki/Family_(biology)"
title="Family (biology)">family</a> are overwhelmingly neither migratory nor sedentary but
considered to either be dispersive, irruptive, nomadic or undertake small and irregular
migrations.<sup id="cite_ref-151" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
151">&#91;151&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The ability of birds to return to precise locations across vast distances has been known
for some time; in an experiment conducted in the 1950s, a <a href="/wiki/Manx_shearwater"
title="Manx shearwater">Manx shearwater</a> released in <a href="/wiki/Boston"
title="Boston">Boston</a> in the United States returned to its colony in <a
href="/wiki/Skomer" title="Skomer">Skomer</a>, in Wales within 13 days, a distance of
5,150&#160;km (3,200&#160;mi).<sup id="cite_ref-152" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-152">&#91;152&#93;</a></sup> Birds navigate during migration using a
variety of methods. For <a href="/wiki/Diurnal_animal" class="mw-redirect" title="Diurnal
animal">diurnal</a> migrants, the <a href="/wiki/Sun" title="Sun">sun</a> is used to
navigate by day, and a stellar compass is used at night. Birds that use the sun compensate for
the changing position of the sun during the day by the use of an <a href="/wiki/Chronobiology"
title="Chronobiology">internal clock</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-15" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Orientation with the stellar compass
depends on the position of the <a href="/wiki/Constellation"
title="Constellation">constellations</a> surrounding <a href="/wiki/Polaris"
title="Polaris">Polaris</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-153" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
153">&#91;153&#93;</a></sup> These are backed up in some species by their ability to sense
the Earth's <a href="/wiki/Geomagnetism" class="mw-redirect"
title="Geomagnetism">geomagnetism</a> through specialised <a
href="/wiki/Photoreceptor_cell" title="Photoreceptor cell">photoreceptors</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-154" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-154">&#91;154&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Communication">Communication</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Bird_vocalisation" class="mw-redirect" title="Bird vocalisation">Bird
vocalisation</a></div>
<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small noprint" style="background-
color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000;">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="mbox-image"><div class="center"><div class="floatnone"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-sound-
openclipart.svg/50px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png" decoding="async" width="50"
height="50" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-
sound-openclipart.svg/75px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-sound-
openclipart.svg/100px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="160"
data-file-height="160" /></div></div></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist" style="line-height:1.1em"><div class="haudio">
<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/File:Troglodytes_aedon_-_House_Wren_-
_XC79974.ogg" title="File:Troglodytes aedon - House Wren - XC79974.ogg">Bird
song</a></div>
<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_0"
controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-
durationhint="38.914897959184" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="Troglodytes_aedon_-
_House_Wren_-_XC79974.ogg" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons"><source
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Troglodytes_aedon_-_House_Wren_-
_XC79974.ogg" type="audio/ogg; codecs=&quot;vorbis&quot;" data-title="Original Ogg file
(119 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-
bandwidth="119057" /><source
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/e/ea/Troglodytes_aedon_-
_House_Wren_-_XC79974.ogg/Troglodytes_aedon_-_House_Wren_-_XC79974.ogg.mp3"
type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-
width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="169080" /></audio></div></div>
<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0">Song of the <a href="/wiki/House_wren"
title="House wren">house wren</a>, a common North American songbird.</div></div><hr
/><div class="haudio">
<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/File:Tooth-billed_Catbird_audio09.ogg"
title="File:Tooth-billed Catbird audio09.ogg">Mimicry</a></div>
<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_1"
controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-
durationhint="22.491895833333" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="Tooth-
billed_Catbird_audio09.ogg" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons"><source
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Tooth-billed_Catbird_audio09.ogg"
type="audio/ogg; codecs=&quot;vorbis&quot;" data-title="Original Ogg file (135 kbps)" data-
shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="134571" /><source
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/e/ea/Tooth-
billed_Catbird_audio09.ogg/Tooth-billed_Catbird_audio09.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-
title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0"
data-bandwidth="226488" /></audio></div></div>
<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0">A <a href="/wiki/Tooth-billed_bowerbird"
title="Tooth-billed bowerbird">tooth-billed bowerbird</a> mimicking a <a
href="/wiki/Spangled_drongo" title="Spangled drongo">spangled
drongo</a>.</div></div><hr /><div class="haudio">
<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/File:Picidae_pecking_on_wood.ogg"
title="File:Picidae pecking on wood.ogg">Drumming</a></div>
<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_2"
controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-
durationhint="2.4761224489796" data-startoffset="0" data-
mwtitle="Picidae_pecking_on_wood.ogg" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons"><source
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/a/a2/Picidae_pecking_on_wood.o
gg/Picidae_pecking_on_wood.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-
shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-
bandwidth="137272" /><source
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a2/Picidae_pecking_on_wood.ogg"
type="audio/ogg; codecs=&quot;vorbis&quot;" data-title="Original Ogg file (257 kbps)" data-
shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="257180"
/></audio></div></div>
<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0">A <a href="/wiki/Woodpecker"
title="Woodpecker">woodpecker</a> drumming on wood.</div></div></td></tr>
<tr><td colspan="2" class="mbox-text" style="line-height:1.1em"><hr /><i
class="selfreference">Problems playing these files? See <a href="/wiki/Help:Media"
title="Help:Media">media help</a>.</i></td></tr>
</tbody></table>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Stavenn_Eurypiga_helias_00.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Large brown
patterned ground bird with outstretched wings each with a large spot in the centre"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Stavenn_Eurypiga_helias_00.jpg
/220px-Stavenn_Eurypiga_helias_00.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Stavenn_Eurypiga_helias_00.
jpg/330px-Stavenn_Eurypiga_helias_00.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Stavenn_Eurypiga_helias_00.jpg/440
px-Stavenn_Eurypiga_helias_00.jpg 2x" data-file-width="480" data-file-height="360" /></a>
<div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Stavenn_Eurypiga_helias_00.jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>The startling display of the <a href="/wiki/Sunbittern"
title="Sunbittern">sunbittern</a> mimics a large predator.</div></div></div>
<p>Birds <a href="/wiki/Animal_communication" title="Animal
communication">communicate</a> using primarily visual and auditory signals. Signals can be
interspecific (between species) and intraspecific (within species).
</p><p>Birds sometimes use plumage to assess and assert social dominance,<sup id="cite_ref-
155" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-155">&#91;155&#93;</a></sup> to display
breeding condition in sexually selected species, or to make threatening displays, as in the <a
href="/wiki/Sunbittern" title="Sunbittern">sunbittern</a>'s mimicry of a large predator to ward
off <a href="/wiki/Hawk" title="Hawk">hawks</a> and protect young chicks.<sup
id="cite_ref-156" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-156">&#91;156&#93;</a></sup>
Variation in plumage also allows for the identification of birds, particularly between species.
</p><p>Visual communication among birds may also involve ritualised displays, which have
developed from non-signalling actions such as preening, the adjustments of feather position,
pecking, or other behaviour. These displays may signal aggression or submission or may
contribute to the formation of pair-bonds.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-16" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> The most elaborate displays occur
during courtship, where "dances" are often formed from complex combinations of many
possible component movements;<sup id="cite_ref-157" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-157">&#91;157&#93;</a></sup> males' breeding success may depend on
the quality of such displays.<sup id="cite_ref-158" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
158">&#91;158&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Bird_vocalization" title="Bird vocalization">Bird calls and songs</a>,
which are produced in the <a href="/wiki/Syrinx_(biology)" class="mw-redirect" title="Syrinx
(biology)">syrinx</a>, are the major means by which birds communicate with <a
href="/wiki/Sound" title="Sound">sound</a>. This communication can be very complex; some
species can operate the two sides of the syrinx independently, allowing the simultaneous
production of two different songs.<sup id="cite_ref-Suthers_81-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Suthers-81">&#91;81&#93;</a></sup>
Calls are used for a variety of purposes, including mate attraction,<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-
17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> evaluation of
potential mates,<sup id="cite_ref-159" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
159">&#91;159&#93;</a></sup> bond formation, the claiming and maintenance of
territories,<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-
63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> the identification of other individuals (such as when parents
look for chicks in colonies or when mates reunite at the start of breeding season),<sup
id="cite_ref-160" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-160">&#91;160&#93;</a></sup>
and the warning of other birds of potential predators, sometimes with specific information
about the nature of the threat.<sup id="cite_ref-161" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
161">&#91;161&#93;</a></sup> Some birds also use mechanical sounds for auditory
communication. The <i><a href="/wiki/Coenocorypha" class="mw-redirect"
title="Coenocorypha">Coenocorypha</a></i> <a href="/wiki/Snipe" title="Snipe">snipes</a>
of <a href="/wiki/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a> drive air through
their feathers,<sup id="cite_ref-Miskelly_162-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
Miskelly-162">&#91;162&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Woodpecker"
title="Woodpecker">woodpeckers</a> drum for long distance communication,<sup
id="cite_ref-DodenhoffStark2001_163-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
DodenhoffStark2001-163">&#91;163&#93;</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Palm_cockatoo"
title="Palm cockatoo">palm cockatoos</a> use tools to drum.<sup id="cite_ref-164"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-164">&#91;164&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Flocking_and_other_associations">Flocking and other
associations</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Red-billed_quelea_flocking_at_waterhole.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="massive flock of tiny birds seen from distance so that birds appear as specks"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/Red-
billed_quelea_flocking_at_waterhole.jpg/220px-Red-billed_quelea_flocking_at_waterhole.jpg"
decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/Red-
billed_quelea_flocking_at_waterhole.jpg/330px-Red-billed_quelea_flocking_at_waterhole.jpg
1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/Red-
billed_quelea_flocking_at_waterhole.jpg/440px-Red-billed_quelea_flocking_at_waterhole.jpg
2x" data-file-width="1600" data-file-height="1200" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div
class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Red-billed_quelea_flocking_at_waterhole.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Red-billed_quelea" title="Red-
billed quelea">Red-billed queleas</a>, the most numerous species of bird,<sup id="cite_ref-
flycatcher_165-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-flycatcher-
165">&#91;165&#93;</a></sup> form enormous flocks—sometimes tens of thousands
strong.</div></div></div>
<p>While some birds are essentially territorial or live in small family groups, other birds may
form large <a href="/wiki/Flock_(birds)" title="Flock (birds)">flocks</a>. The principal
benefits of flocking are <a href="/wiki/Safety_in_numbers" title="Safety in numbers">safety in
numbers</a> and increased foraging efficiency.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-19"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Defence against
predators is particularly important in closed habitats like forests, where <a
href="/wiki/Ambush_predation" class="mw-redirect" title="Ambush predation">ambush
predation</a> is common and multiple eyes can provide a valuable early warning system. This
has led to the development of many <a href="/wiki/Mixed-species_feeding_flock" class="mw-
redirect" title="Mixed-species feeding flock">mixed-species feeding flocks</a>, which are
usually composed of small numbers of many species; these flocks provide safety in numbers
but increase potential competition for resources.<sup id="cite_ref-166" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-166">&#91;166&#93;</a></sup> Costs of flocking include bullying of
socially subordinate birds by more dominant birds and the reduction of feeding efficiency in
certain cases.<sup id="cite_ref-167" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
167">&#91;167&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Birds sometimes also form associations with non-avian species. Plunge-diving <a
href="/wiki/Seabird" title="Seabird">seabirds</a> associate with <a href="/wiki/Dolphin"
title="Dolphin">dolphins</a> and <a href="/wiki/Tuna" title="Tuna">tuna</a>, which push
shoaling fish towards the surface.<sup id="cite_ref-AU_168-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-AU-168">&#91;168&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Hornbill"
title="Hornbill">Hornbills</a> have a <a href="/wiki/Mutualism_(biology)" title="Mutualism
(biology)">mutualistic relationship</a> with <a href="/wiki/Dwarf_mongoose" class="mw-
redirect" title="Dwarf mongoose">dwarf mongooses</a>, in which they forage together and
warn each other of nearby <a href="/wiki/Birds_of_prey" class="mw-redirect" title="Birds of
prey">birds of prey</a> and other predators.<sup id="cite_ref-169" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-169">&#91;169&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div style="clear:both;"></div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Resting_and_roosting">Resting and
roosting</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Caribbean_Flamingo2_(Phoenicopterus_ruber)_(0424)_-_Relic38.jpg"
class="image"><img alt="Pink flamingo with grey legs and long neck pressed against body
and head tucked under wings"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/Caribbean_Flamingo2_%28Phoe
nicopterus_ruber%29_%280424%29_-_Relic38.jpg/220px-
Caribbean_Flamingo2_%28Phoenicopterus_ruber%29_%280424%29_-_Relic38.jpg"
decoding="async" width="220" height="173" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/Caribbean_Flamingo2_%28P
hoenicopterus_ruber%29_%280424%29_-_Relic38.jpg/330px-
Caribbean_Flamingo2_%28Phoenicopterus_ruber%29_%280424%29_-_Relic38.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/77/Caribbean_Flamingo2_%28Phoenico
pterus_ruber%29_%280424%29_-_Relic38.jpg/440px-
Caribbean_Flamingo2_%28Phoenicopterus_ruber%29_%280424%29_-_Relic38.jpg 2x" data-
file-width="3120" data-file-height="2460" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div
class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Caribbean_Flamingo2_(Phoenicopterus_ruber)_(0424)_-
_Relic38.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Many birds, like this <a
href="/wiki/American_flamingo" title="American flamingo">American flamingo</a>, tuck
their head into their back when sleeping</div></div></div>
<p>The high metabolic rates of birds during the active part of the day is supplemented by rest
at other times. Sleeping birds often use a type of sleep known as vigilant sleep, where periods
of rest are interspersed with quick eye-opening "peeks", allowing them to be sensitive to
disturbances and enable rapid escape from threats.<sup id="cite_ref-170" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-170">&#91;170&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Swift"
title="Swift">Swifts</a> are believed to be able to sleep in flight and radar observations
suggest that they orient themselves to face the wind in their roosting flight.<sup id="cite_ref-
171" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-171">&#91;171&#93;</a></sup> It has been
suggested that there may be certain kinds of sleep which are possible even when in flight.<sup
id="cite_ref-172" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-172">&#91;172&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Some birds have also demonstrated the capacity to fall into <a href="/wiki/Slow-
wave_sleep" title="Slow-wave sleep">slow-wave sleep</a> one <a
href="/wiki/Cerebral_hemisphere" title="Cerebral hemisphere">hemisphere</a> of the brain at
a time. The birds tend to exercise this ability depending upon its position relative to the outside
of the flock. This may allow the eye opposite the sleeping hemisphere to remain vigilant for <a
href="/wiki/Predator" class="mw-redirect" title="Predator">predators</a> by viewing the
outer margins of the flock. This adaptation is also known from <a
href="/wiki/Marine_mammal" title="Marine mammal">marine mammals</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-173" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-173">&#91;173&#93;</a></sup> <a
href="/wiki/Communal_roosting" title="Communal roosting">Communal roosting</a> is
common because it lowers the <a href="/wiki/Thermoregulation"
title="Thermoregulation">loss of body heat</a> and decreases the risks associated with
predators.<sup id="cite_ref-174" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
174">&#91;174&#93;</a></sup> Roosting sites are often chosen with regard to
thermoregulation and safety.<sup id="cite_ref-175" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
175">&#91;175&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Many sleeping birds bend their heads over their backs and tuck their <a
href="/wiki/Beak" title="Beak">bills</a> in their back feathers, although others place their
beaks among their breast feathers. Many birds rest on one leg, while some may pull up their
legs into their feathers, especially in cold weather. <a href="/wiki/Passerine"
title="Passerine">Perching birds</a> have a tendon locking mechanism that helps them hold
on to the perch when they are asleep. Many ground birds, such as quails and pheasants, roost in
trees. A few parrots of the genus <i><a href="/wiki/Loriculus" class="mw-redirect"
title="Loriculus">Loriculus</a></i> roost hanging upside down.<sup id="cite_ref-176"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-176">&#91;176&#93;</a></sup> Some <a
href="/wiki/Hummingbird" title="Hummingbird">hummingbirds</a> go into a nightly state of
<a href="/wiki/Torpor" title="Torpor">torpor</a> accompanied with a reduction of their
metabolic rates.<sup id="cite_ref-177" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
177">&#91;177&#93;</a></sup> This <a href="/wiki/Adaptation"
title="Adaptation">physiological adaptation</a> shows in nearly a hundred other species,
including <a href="/wiki/Owlet-nightjar" title="Owlet-nightjar">owlet-nightjars</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Nightjar" title="Nightjar">nightjars</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Woodswallow"
title="Woodswallow">woodswallows</a>. One species, the <a
href="/wiki/Common_poorwill" title="Common poorwill">common poorwill</a>, even enters
a state of <a href="/wiki/Hibernation" title="Hibernation">hibernation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-
178" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-178">&#91;178&#93;</a></sup> Birds do not
have sweat glands, but they may cool themselves by moving to shade, standing in water,
panting, increasing their surface area, fluttering their throat or by using special behaviours like
<a href="/wiki/Urohidrosis" title="Urohidrosis">urohidrosis</a> to cool themselves.
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Breeding">Breeding</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Category:Avian_sexuality" title="Category:Avian sexuality">Category:Avian
sexuality</a>, <a href="/wiki/Animal_sexual_behaviour#Birds" title="Animal sexual
behaviour">Animal sexual behaviour §&#160;Birds</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Seabird_breeding_behaviour" class="mw-redirect" title="Seabird breeding
behaviour">Seabird breeding behaviour</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Sexual_selection_in_birds"
title="Sexual selection in birds">Sexual selection in birds</a></div>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Social_systems">Social systems</span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Raggiana_Bird-of-Paradise_wild_5.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Bird faces
up with green face, black breast and pink lower body. Elaborate long feathers on the wings and
tail." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Raggiana_Bird-of-
Paradise_wild_5.jpg/220px-Raggiana_Bird-of-Paradise_wild_5.jpg" decoding="async"
width="220" height="293" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Raggiana_Bird-of-
Paradise_wild_5.jpg/330px-Raggiana_Bird-of-Paradise_wild_5.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Raggiana_Bird-of-
Paradise_wild_5.jpg/440px-Raggiana_Bird-of-Paradise_wild_5.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2736"
data-file-height="3648" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Raggiana_Bird-of-Paradise_wild_5.jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>Like others of its family the male <a href="/wiki/Raggiana_bird-of-
paradise" title="Raggiana bird-of-paradise">Raggiana bird-of-paradise</a> has elaborate
breeding plumage used to impress females.<sup id="cite_ref-179" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-179">&#91;179&#93;</a></sup></div></div></div>
<p>Ninety-five per cent of bird species are socially monogamous. These species pair for at
least the length of the breeding season or—in some cases—for several years or until the death
of one mate.<sup id="cite_ref-180" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
180">&#91;180&#93;</a></sup> Monogamy allows for both <a href="/wiki/Paternal_care"
title="Paternal care">paternal care</a> and <a href="/wiki/Parental_investment"
title="Parental investment">biparental care</a>, which is especially important for species in
which females require males' assistance for successful brood-rearing.<sup id="cite_ref-181"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-181">&#91;181&#93;</a></sup> Among many
socially monogamous species, <a href="/wiki/Extra-pair_copulation" title="Extra-pair
copulation">extra-pair copulation</a> (infidelity) is common.<sup id="cite_ref-182"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-182">&#91;182&#93;</a></sup> Such behaviour
typically occurs between dominant males and females paired with subordinate males, but may
also be the result of <a href="/wiki/Forced_copulation" class="mw-redirect" title="Forced
copulation">forced copulation</a> in ducks and other <a href="/wiki/Anatidae"
title="Anatidae">anatids</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-183" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
183">&#91;183&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Female birds have <a href="/wiki/Female_sperm_storage" title="Female sperm
storage">sperm storage</a> mechanisms that allow sperm from males to remain viable long
after copulation, a hundred days in some species.<sup id="cite_ref-184" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-184">&#91;184&#93;</a></sup> Sperm from multiple males may <a
href="/wiki/Sperm_competition" title="Sperm competition">compete</a> through this
mechanism. For females, possible benefits of extra-pair copulation include getting better genes
for her offspring and insuring against the possibility of infertility in her mate.<sup id="cite_ref-
185" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-185">&#91;185&#93;</a></sup> Males of
species that engage in extra-pair copulations will closely guard their mates to ensure the
parentage of the offspring that they raise.<sup id="cite_ref-186" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-186">&#91;186&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Other mating systems, including <a href="/wiki/Polygyny"
title="Polygyny">polygyny</a>, <a href="/wiki/Polyandry" title="Polyandry">polyandry</a>,
<a href="/wiki/Polygamy" title="Polygamy">polygamy</a>, <a href="/wiki/Polygynandry"
title="Polygynandry">polygynandry</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Promiscuity"
title="Promiscuity">promiscuity</a>, also occur.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-20"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Polygamous
breeding systems arise when females are able to raise broods without the help of males.<sup
id="cite_ref-Gill_63-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-
63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Some species may use more than one system depending on the
circumstances.
</p><p>Breeding usually involves some form of courtship display, typically performed by the
male.<sup id="cite_ref-187" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
187">&#91;187&#93;</a></sup> Most displays are rather simple and involve some type of <a
href="/wiki/Bird_vocalization" title="Bird vocalization">song</a>. Some displays, however,
are quite elaborate. Depending on the species, these may include wing or tail drumming,
dancing, aerial flights, or communal <a href="/wiki/Lek_(mating_arena)" class="mw-redirect"
title="Lek (mating arena)">lekking</a>. Females are generally the ones that drive partner
selection,<sup id="cite_ref-188" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
188">&#91;188&#93;</a></sup> although in the polyandrous <a href="/wiki/Phalaropes"
class="mw-redirect" title="Phalaropes">phalaropes</a>, this is reversed: plainer males choose
brightly coloured females.<sup id="cite_ref-189" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
189">&#91;189&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Courtship_feeding" class="mw-redirect"
title="Courtship feeding">Courtship feeding</a>, <a href="/wiki/Billing_(birds)" class="mw-
redirect" title="Billing (birds)">billing</a> and <dfn id=""><a
href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#allopreening" title="Glossary of bird terms"><span
title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § allopreening" style="color:inherit;"
class="glossary-link">allopreening</span></a></dfn> are commonly performed between
partners, generally after the birds have paired and mated.<sup id="cite_ref-Attenborough_78-
1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Attenborough-78">&#91;78&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Homosexuality_in_animals#Birds" class="mw-redirect"
title="Homosexuality in animals">Homosexual behaviour has been observed</a> in males or
females in numerous species of birds, including copulation, pair-bonding, and joint parenting of
chicks.<sup id="cite_ref-190" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
190">&#91;190&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span id="Territories.2C_nesting_and_incubation"></span><span class="mw-headline"
id="Territories,_nesting_and_incubation">Territories, nesting and incubation</span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Bird_nest" title="Bird nest">Bird nest</a></div>
<p>Many birds actively defend a territory from others of the same species during the breeding
season; maintenance of territories protects the food source for their chicks. Species that are
unable to defend feeding territories, such as <a href="/wiki/Seabird"
title="Seabird">seabirds</a> and <a href="/wiki/Swift" title="Swift">swifts</a>, often breed
in <a href="/wiki/Bird_colony" title="Bird colony">colonies</a> instead; this is thought to
offer protection from predators. Colonial breeders defend small nesting sites, and competition
between and within species for nesting sites can be intense.<sup id="cite_ref-191"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-191">&#91;191&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>All birds lay <a href="/wiki/Amniotic_egg" class="mw-redirect" title="Amniotic
egg">amniotic eggs</a> with hard shells made mostly of <a href="/wiki/Calcium_carbonate"
title="Calcium carbonate">calcium carbonate</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-22"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Hole and burrow
nesting species tend to lay white or pale eggs, while open nesters lay <a
href="/wiki/Camouflage" title="Camouflage">camouflaged</a> eggs. There are many
exceptions to this pattern, however; the ground-nesting <a href="/wiki/Nightjar"
title="Nightjar">nightjars</a> have pale eggs, and camouflage is instead provided by their
plumage. Species that are victims of <a href="/wiki/Brood_parasites" class="mw-redirect"
title="Brood parasites">brood parasites</a> have varying egg colours to improve the chances
of spotting a parasite's egg, which forces female parasites to match their eggs to those of their
hosts.<sup id="cite_ref-192" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
192">&#91;192&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Golden-backed_Weaver.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Yellow weaver (bird)
with black head hangs an upside-down nest woven out of grass fronds."
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/02/Golden-
backed_Weaver.jpg/220px-Golden-backed_Weaver.jpg" decoding="async" width="220"
height="146" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/02/Golden-
backed_Weaver.jpg/330px-Golden-backed_Weaver.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/02/Golden-backed_Weaver.jpg/440px-
Golden-backed_Weaver.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1024" data-file-height="681" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Golden-backed_Weaver.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Male <a href="/wiki/Golden-backed_weaver"
title="Golden-backed weaver">golden-backed weavers</a> construct elaborate suspended
nests out of grass.</div></div></div>
<p>Bird eggs are usually laid in a <a href="/wiki/Bird_nest" title="Bird nest">nest</a>. Most
species create somewhat elaborate nests, which can be cups, domes, plates, beds scrapes,
mounds, or burrows.<sup id="cite_ref-Hansell_193-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
Hansell-193">&#91;193&#93;</a></sup> Some bird nests, however, are extremely primitive;
<a href="/wiki/Albatross" title="Albatross">albatross</a> nests are no more than a scrape on
the ground. Most birds build nests in sheltered, hidden areas to avoid predation, but large or
colonial birds—which are more capable of defence—may build more open nests. During nest
construction, some species seek out plant matter from plants with parasite-reducing toxins to
improve chick survival,<sup id="cite_ref-194" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
194">&#91;194&#93;</a></sup> and feathers are often used for nest insulation.<sup
id="cite_ref-Hansell_193-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hansell-
193">&#91;193&#93;</a></sup> Some bird species have no nests; the cliff-nesting <a
href="/wiki/Common_guillemot" class="mw-redirect" title="Common guillemot">common
guillemot</a> lays its eggs on bare rock, and male <a href="/wiki/Emperor_penguin"
title="Emperor penguin">emperor penguins</a> keep eggs between their body and feet. The
absence of nests is especially prevalent in ground-nesting species where the newly hatched
young are <a href="/wiki/Precocial" class="mw-redirect" title="Precocial">precocial</a>.
</p>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Eastern_Phoebe-nest-Brown-headed-Cowbird-egg.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Nest made of straw with five white eggs and one grey speckled egg"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Eastern_Phoebe-nest-Brown-
headed-Cowbird-egg.jpg/220px-Eastern_Phoebe-nest-Brown-headed-Cowbird-egg.jpg"
decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Eastern_Phoebe-nest-Brown-
headed-Cowbird-egg.jpg/330px-Eastern_Phoebe-nest-Brown-headed-Cowbird-egg.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Eastern_Phoebe-nest-Brown-headed-
Cowbird-egg.jpg/440px-Eastern_Phoebe-nest-Brown-headed-Cowbird-egg.jpg 2x" data-file-
width="1024" data-file-height="768" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div
class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Eastern_Phoebe-nest-Brown-headed-Cowbird-egg.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Nest of an <a href="/wiki/Eastern_phoebe"
title="Eastern phoebe">eastern phoebe</a> that has been parasitised by a <a
href="/wiki/Brown-headed_cowbird" title="Brown-headed cowbird">brown-headed
cowbird</a>.</div></div></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Egg_incubation" title="Egg incubation">Incubation</a>, which optimises
temperature for chick development, usually begins after the last egg has been laid.<sup
id="cite_ref-Gill_63-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Gill-
63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> In monogamous species incubation duties are often shared,
whereas in polygamous species one parent is wholly responsible for incubation. Warmth from
parents passes to the eggs through <a href="/wiki/Brood_patch" title="Brood patch">brood
patches</a>, areas of bare skin on the abdomen or breast of the incubating birds. Incubation
can be an energetically demanding process; adult albatrosses, for instance, lose as much as 83
grams (2.9&#160;oz) of body weight per day of incubation.<sup id="cite_ref-195"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-195">&#91;195&#93;</a></sup> The warmth for the
incubation of the eggs of <a href="/wiki/Megapode" title="Megapode">megapodes</a> comes
from the sun, decaying vegetation or volcanic sources.<sup id="cite_ref-196"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-196">&#91;196&#93;</a></sup> Incubation periods
range from 10 days (in <a href="/wiki/Woodpecker" title="Woodpecker">woodpeckers</a>,
<a href="/wiki/Cuckoo" title="Cuckoo">cuckoos</a> and <a href="/wiki/Passerine"
title="Passerine">passerine</a> birds) to over 80 days (in albatrosses and <a href="/wiki/Kiwi"
title="Kiwi">kiwis</a>).<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-24" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The diversity of characteristics of birds is great, sometimes even in closely related
species. Several avian characteristics are compared in the table below.<sup id="cite_ref-
AnAge_197-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AnAge-
197">&#91;197&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ADW_198-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-ADW-198">&#91;198&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<table class="wikitable sortable">

<tbody><tr>
<th>Species
</th>
<th>Adult weight<br />(grams)
</th>
<th>Incubation<br />(days)
</th>
<th>Clutches<br />(per year)
</th>
<th>Clutch size
</th></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Ruby-throated_hummingbird" title="Ruby-throated hummingbird">Ruby-
throated hummingbird</a> (<i>Archilochus colubris</i>)
</td>
<td>3
</td>
<td>13
</td>
<td>2.0
</td>
<td>2
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/House_sparrow" title="House sparrow">House sparrow</a> (<i>Passer
domesticus</i>)
</td>
<td>25
</td>
<td>11
</td>
<td>4.5
</td>
<td>5
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Greater_roadrunner" title="Greater roadrunner">Greater roadrunner</a>
(<i>Geococcyx californianus</i>)
</td>
<td>376
</td>
<td>20
</td>
<td>1.5
</td>
<td>4
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Turkey_vulture" title="Turkey vulture">Turkey vulture</a> (<i>Cathartes
aura</i>)
</td>
<td>2,200
</td>
<td>39
</td>
<td>1.0
</td>
<td>2
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Laysan_albatross" title="Laysan albatross">Laysan albatross</a>
(<i>Diomedea immutabilis</i>)
</td>
<td>3,150
</td>
<td>64
</td>
<td>1.0
</td>
<td>1
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Magellanic_penguin" title="Magellanic penguin">Magellanic penguin</a>
(<i>Spheniscus magellanicus</i>)
</td>
<td>4,000
</td>
<td>40
</td>
<td>1.0
</td>
<td>1
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Golden_eagle" title="Golden eagle">Golden eagle</a> (<i>Aquila
chrysaetos</i>)
</td>
<td>4,800
</td>
<td>40
</td>
<td>1.0
</td>
<td>2
</td></tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Wild_turkey" title="Wild turkey">Wild turkey</a> (<i>Meleagris
gallopavo</i>)
</td>
<td>6,050
</td>
<td>28
</td>
<td>1.0
</td>
<td>11
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Parental_care_and_fledging">Parental care and
fledging</span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Parental_care_in_birds" title="Parental care in birds">Parental care in
birds</a></div>
<p>At the time of their hatching, chicks range in development from helpless to independent,
depending on their species. Helpless chicks are termed <i><a href="/wiki/Altricial"
class="mw-redirect" title="Altricial">altricial</a></i>, and tend to be born small, <a
href="/wiki/Blindness" class="mw-redirect" title="Blindness">blind</a>, immobile and naked;
chicks that are mobile and feathered upon hatching are termed <i><a href="/wiki/Precocial"
class="mw-redirect" title="Precocial">precocial</a></i>. Altricial chicks need help <a
href="/wiki/Thermoregulation" title="Thermoregulation">thermoregulating</a> and must be
brooded for longer than precocial chicks. The young of many bird species do not precisely fit
into either the precocial or altricial category, having some aspects of each and thus fall
somewhere on an "altricial-precocial spectrum".<sup id="cite_ref-Urfi2011_199-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Urfi2011-199">&#91;199&#93;</a></sup> Chicks at
neither extreme but favoring one or the other may be termed <dfn id=""><a
href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#semi-precocial" title="Glossary of bird terms"><span
title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § semi-precocial" style="color:inherit;"
class="glossary-link">semi-precocial</span></a></dfn><sup id="cite_ref-Khanna2005_200-
0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Khanna2005-200">&#91;200&#93;</a></sup> or
<dfn id=""><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms#semi-altricial" title="Glossary of bird
terms"><span title="See entry at: Glossary of bird terms § semi-altricial" style="color:inherit;"
class="glossary-link">semi-altricial</span></a></dfn>.<sup id="cite_ref-Scott2008_201-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Scott2008-201">&#91;201&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-Pettingill371_202-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Pettingill371-
202">&#91;202&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Calliope-nest_edit.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Hummingbird perched on
edge of tiny nest places food into mouth of one of two chicks"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Calliope-nest_edit.jpg/220px-
Calliope-nest_edit.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Calliope-nest_edit.jpg/330px-
Calliope-nest_edit.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/bd/Calliope-
nest_edit.jpg/440px-Calliope-nest_edit.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="1365"
/></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Calliope-
nest_edit.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>A female <a
href="/wiki/Calliope_hummingbird" title="Calliope hummingbird">Calliope
hummingbird</a> feeding fully grown chicks.</div></div></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:White-breasted_Woodswallow_chicks_in_nest.jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Looking down on three helpless blind chicks in a nest within the hollow of a dead tree
trunk" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/White-
breasted_Woodswallow_chicks_in_nest.jpg/220px-White-
breasted_Woodswallow_chicks_in_nest.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="147"
class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/White-
breasted_Woodswallow_chicks_in_nest.jpg/330px-White-
breasted_Woodswallow_chicks_in_nest.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/White-
breasted_Woodswallow_chicks_in_nest.jpg/440px-White-
breasted_Woodswallow_chicks_in_nest.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3888" data-file-
height="2592" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:White-breasted_Woodswallow_chicks_in_nest.jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Altricial" class="mw-redirect"
title="Altricial">Altricial</a> chicks of a <a href="/wiki/White-breasted_woodswallow"
title="White-breasted woodswallow">white-breasted woodswallow</a>.</div></div></div>
<p>The length and nature of parental care varies widely amongst different orders and species.
At one extreme, parental care in <a href="/wiki/Megapode" title="Megapode">megapodes</a>
ends at hatching; the newly hatched chick digs itself out of the nest mound without parental
assistance and can fend for itself immediately.<sup id="cite_ref-203" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-203">&#91;203&#93;</a></sup> At the other extreme, many seabirds have
extended periods of parental care, the longest being that of the <a
href="/wiki/Great_frigatebird" title="Great frigatebird">great frigatebird</a>, whose chicks
take up to six months to <a href="/wiki/Fledge" title="Fledge">fledge</a> and are fed by the
parents for up to an additional 14 months.<sup id="cite_ref-204" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-204">&#91;204&#93;</a></sup> The <i>chick guard stage</i> describes
the period of breeding during which one of the adult birds is permanently present at the nest
after chicks have hatched. The main purpose of the guard stage is to aid offspring to
thermoregulate and protect them from predation.<sup id="cite_ref-205" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-205">&#91;205&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In some species, both parents care for nestlings and fledglings; in others, such care is
the responsibility of only one sex. In some species, <a href="/wiki/Helpers_at_the_nest"
title="Helpers at the nest">other members</a> of the same species—usually close relatives of
the <a href="/wiki/Breeding_pair" title="Breeding pair">breeding pair</a>, such as offspring
from previous broods—will help with the raising of the young.<sup id="cite_ref-206"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-206">&#91;206&#93;</a></sup> Such alloparenting is
particularly common among the <a href="/wiki/Corvida" title="Corvida">Corvida</a>, which
includes such birds as the true <a href="/wiki/Corvidae" title="Corvidae">crows</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Australian_magpie" title="Australian magpie">Australian magpie</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Fairy-wren" class="mw-redirect" title="Fairy-wren">fairy-wrens</a>,<sup
id="cite_ref-207" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-207">&#91;207&#93;</a></sup>
but has been observed in species as different as the <a href="/wiki/Rifleman_(bird)"
title="Rifleman (bird)">rifleman</a> and <a href="/wiki/Red_kite" title="Red kite">red
kite</a>. Among most groups of animals, <a href="/wiki/Paternal_care" title="Paternal
care">male parental care</a> is rare. In birds, however, it is quite common—more so than in
any other vertebrate class.<sup id="cite_ref-Gill_63-25" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Gill-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> Although territory and nest site defence,
incubation, and chick feeding are often shared tasks, there is sometimes a <a
href="/wiki/Division_of_labour" title="Division of labour">division of labour</a> in which
one mate undertakes all or most of a particular duty.<sup id="cite_ref-208"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-208">&#91;208&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The point at which chicks <a href="/wiki/Fledge" title="Fledge">fledge</a> varies
dramatically. The chicks of the <i><a href="/wiki/Synthliboramphus"
title="Synthliboramphus">Synthliboramphus</a></i> murrelets, like the <a
href="/wiki/Ancient_murrelet" title="Ancient murrelet">ancient murrelet</a>, leave the nest
the night after they hatch, following their parents out to sea, where they are raised away from
terrestrial predators.<sup id="cite_ref-209" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
209">&#91;209&#93;</a></sup> Some other species, such as ducks, move their chicks away
from the nest at an early age. In most species, chicks leave the nest just before, or soon after,
they are able to fly. The amount of parental care after fledging varies; albatross chicks leave the
nest on their own and receive no further help, while other species continue some supplementary
feeding after fledging.<sup id="cite_ref-210" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
210">&#91;210&#93;</a></sup> Chicks may also follow their parents during their first <a
href="/wiki/Bird_migration" title="Bird migration">migration</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-211"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-211">&#91;211&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Brood_parasites">Brood parasites</span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Brood_parasite" title="Brood parasite">Brood parasite</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Reed_warbler_cuckoo.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Small brown bird places
an insect in the bill of much larger grey bird in nest"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Reed_warbler_cuckoo.jpg/170px
-Reed_warbler_cuckoo.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="239"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Reed_warbler_cuckoo.jpg/25
5px-Reed_warbler_cuckoo.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5c/Reed_warbler_cuckoo.jpg/340px-
Reed_warbler_cuckoo.jpg 2x" data-file-width="446" data-file-height="628" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Reed_warbler_cuckoo.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Reed_warbler" class="mw-
redirect" title="Reed warbler">Reed warbler</a> raising a <a href="/wiki/Common_cuckoo"
title="Common cuckoo">common cuckoo</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Brood_parasite" title="Brood
parasite">brood parasite</a>.</div></div></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Brood_parasitism" class="mw-redirect" title="Brood parasitism">Brood
parasitism</a>, in which an egg-layer leaves her eggs with another individual's brood, is more
common among birds than any other type of organism.<sup id="cite_ref-brood_212-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-brood-212">&#91;212&#93;</a></sup> After a
parasitic bird lays her eggs in another bird's nest, they are often accepted and raised by the host
at the expense of the host's own brood. Brood parasites may be either <i>obligate brood
parasites</i>, which must lay their eggs in the nests of other species because they are incapable
of raising their own young, or <i>non-obligate brood parasites</i>, which sometimes lay eggs
in the nests of <a href="/wiki/Conspecific" class="mw-redirect"
title="Conspecific">conspecifics</a> to increase their reproductive output even though they
could have raised their own young.<sup id="cite_ref-213" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-213">&#91;213&#93;</a></sup> One hundred bird species, including <a
href="/wiki/Honeyguide" title="Honeyguide">honeyguides</a>, <a href="/wiki/Icterid"
title="Icterid">icterids</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Black-headed_duck" title="Black-headed
duck">ducks</a>, are obligate parasites, though the most famous are the <a
href="/wiki/Cuckoo" title="Cuckoo">cuckoos</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-brood_212-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-brood-212">&#91;212&#93;</a></sup> Some brood
parasites are adapted to hatch before their host's young, which allows them to destroy the host's
eggs by pushing them out of the nest or to kill the host's chicks; this ensures that all food
brought to the nest will be fed to the parasitic chicks.<sup id="cite_ref-214"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-214">&#91;214&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Sexual_selection">Sexual selection</span></h4>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Peacock_Flying.jpg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Peacock_Flying.jpg/300px-
Peacock_Flying.jpg" decoding="async" width="300" height="168" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Peacock_Flying.jpg/450px-
Peacock_Flying.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0e/Peacock_Flying.jpg/600px-
Peacock_Flying.jpg 2x" data-file-width="2048" data-file-height="1147" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Peacock_Flying.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The peacock tail in flight, the classic example of a
<a href="/wiki/Fisherian_runaway" title="Fisherian runaway">Fisherian
runaway</a></div></div></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Sexual_selection_in_birds" title="Sexual selection in birds">Sexual selection in
birds</a></div>
<p>Birds have <a href="/wiki/Evolution" title="Evolution">evolved</a> a variety of <a
href="/wiki/Mating" title="Mating">mating</a> behaviours, with the <a href="/wiki/Peafowl"
title="Peafowl">peacock</a> tail being perhaps the most famous example of <a
href="/wiki/Sexual_selection" title="Sexual selection">sexual selection</a> and the <a
href="/wiki/Fisherian_runaway" title="Fisherian runaway">Fisherian runaway</a>.
Commonly occurring <a href="/wiki/Sexual_dimorphism" title="Sexual dimorphism">sexual
dimorphisms</a> such as size and colour differences are energetically costly attributes that
signal competitive breeding situations.<sup id="cite_ref-edwards2012_215-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-edwards2012-215">&#91;215&#93;</a></sup> Many
types of avian <a href="/wiki/Sexual_selection" title="Sexual selection">sexual selection</a>
have been identified; intersexual selection, also known as female choice; and intrasexual
competition, where individuals of the more abundant sex compete with each other for the
privilege to mate. Sexually selected traits often evolve to become more pronounced in
competitive breeding situations until the trait begins to limit the individual's fitness. Conflicts
between an individual fitness and signalling adaptations ensure that sexually selected
ornaments such as plumage coloration and <a href="/wiki/Courtship_behavior" class="mw-
redirect" title="Courtship behavior">courtship behaviour</a> are "honest" traits. Signals must
be costly to ensure that only good-quality individuals can present these exaggerated sexual
ornaments and behaviours.<sup id="cite_ref-doutrelant2012_216-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-doutrelant2012-216">&#91;216&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Inbreeding_depression">Inbreeding
depression</span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Inbreeding_depression" title="Inbreeding depression">Inbreeding
depression</a></div>
<p>Inbreeding causes early death (<a href="/wiki/Inbreeding_depression" title="Inbreeding
depression">inbreeding depression</a>) in the <a href="/wiki/Zebra_finch" title="Zebra
finch">zebra finch</a> <i>Taeniopygia guttata</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid22643890_217-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid22643890-217">&#91;217&#93;</a></sup>
Embryo survival (that is, hatching success of fertile eggs) was significantly lower for <a
href="/wiki/Sibling" title="Sibling">sib-sib</a> mating pairs than for unrelated pairs.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Darwin%27s_finches" title="Darwin&#39;s finches">Darwin's
finch</a> <i>Geospiza scandens</i> experiences <a href="/wiki/Inbreeding_depression"
title="Inbreeding depression">inbreeding depression</a> (reduced survival of offspring) and
the magnitude of this effect is influenced by environmental conditions such as low food
availability.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid12144022_218-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
pmid12144022-218">&#91;218&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h4><span class="mw-headline" id="Inbreeding_avoidance">Inbreeding
avoidance</span></h4>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Inbreeding_avoidance" title="Inbreeding avoidance">Inbreeding
avoidance</a></div>
<p>Incestuous matings by the <a href="/wiki/Purple-crowned_fairywren" title="Purple-
crowned fairywren">purple-crowned fairy wren</a> <i>Malurus coronatus</i> result in severe
fitness costs due to <a href="/wiki/Inbreeding_depression" title="Inbreeding
depression">inbreeding depression</a> (greater than 30% reduction in hatchability of
eggs).<sup id="cite_ref-Kingma_219-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kingma-
219">&#91;219&#93;</a></sup> Females paired with related males may undertake extra pair
matings (see <a href="/wiki/Promiscuity#Other_animals"
title="Promiscuity">Promiscuity#Other animals</a> for 90% frequency in avian species) that
can reduce the negative effects of inbreeding. However, there are ecological and demographic
constraints on extra pair matings. Nevertheless, 43% of broods produced by incestuously paired
females contained extra pair young.<sup id="cite_ref-Kingma_219-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Kingma-219">&#91;219&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Inbreeding depression occurs in the <a href="/wiki/Great_tit" title="Great tit">great
tit</a> (<i>Parus major</i>) when the offspring produced as a result of a mating between close
relatives show reduced fitness. In natural populations of <i>Parus major</i>, inbreeding is
avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating
with a close relative.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid18211876_220-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-pmid18211876-220">&#91;220&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Southern_pied_babbler" title="Southern pied babbler">Southern pied
babblers</a> <i>Turdoides bicolor</i> appear to avoid inbreeding in two ways. The first is
through dispersal, and the second is by avoiding familiar group members as mates.<sup
id="cite_ref-pmid22471769_221-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid22471769-
221">&#91;221&#93;</a></sup> Although both males and females disperse locally, they
move outside the range where genetically related individuals are likely to be encountered.
Within their group, individuals only acquire breeding positions when the opposite-sex breeder
is unrelated.
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Cooperative_breeding" title="Cooperative breeding">Cooperative
breeding</a> in birds typically occurs when offspring, usually males, delay dispersal from their
natal group in order to remain with the family to help rear younger kin.<sup id="cite_ref-
pmid26577076_222-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid26577076-
222">&#91;222&#93;</a></sup> Female offspring rarely stay at home, dispersing over
distances that allow them to breed independently, or to join unrelated groups. In general,
inbreeding is avoided because it leads to a reduction in progeny fitness (<a
href="/wiki/Inbreeding_depression" title="Inbreeding depression">inbreeding depression</a>)
due largely to the homozygous expression of deleterious recessive alleles.<sup id="cite_ref-
pmid19834483_223-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid19834483-
223">&#91;223&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Outcrossing" title="Outcrossing">Cross-
fertilisation</a> between unrelated individuals ordinarily leads to the masking of deleterious
recessive alleles in progeny.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid3324702_224-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-pmid3324702-224">&#91;224&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-225"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-225">&#91;225&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Ecology">Ecology</span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Pinz%C3%B3n_azul_de_Gran_Canaria_(macho),_M._A._Pe%C3%B1a.jpg"
class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Pinz%C3%B3n_azul_de_Gran_
Canaria_%28macho%29%2C_M._A._Pe%C3%B1a.jpg/220px-
Pinz%C3%B3n_azul_de_Gran_Canaria_%28macho%29%2C_M._A._Pe%C3%B1a.jpg"
decoding="async" width="220" height="146" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Pinz%C3%B3n_azul_de_Gra
n_Canaria_%28macho%29%2C_M._A._Pe%C3%B1a.jpg/330px-
Pinz%C3%B3n_azul_de_Gran_Canaria_%28macho%29%2C_M._A._Pe%C3%B1a.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Pinz%C3%B3n_azul_de_Gran_Canar
ia_%28macho%29%2C_M._A._Pe%C3%B1a.jpg/440px-
Pinz%C3%B3n_azul_de_Gran_Canaria_%28macho%29%2C_M._A._Pe%C3%B1a.jpg 2x"
data-file-width="1200" data-file-height="798" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div
class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Pinz%C3%B3n_azul_de_Gran_Canaria_(macho),_M._A._Pe%C3%B1a.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Gran_Canaria_blue_chaffinch"
title="Gran Canaria blue chaffinch">Gran Canaria blue chaffinch</a>, an example of a bird
highly specialised in its habitat, in this case in the <a href="/wiki/Pinus_canariensis"
title="Pinus canariensis">Canarian pine</a> forests.</div></div></div>
<p>Birds occupy a wide range of ecological positions.<sup id="cite_ref-flycatcher_165-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-flycatcher-165">&#91;165&#93;</a></sup> While
some birds are generalists, others are highly specialised in their habitat or food requirements.
Even within a single habitat, such as a forest, the <a href="/wiki/Ecological_niche"
title="Ecological niche">niches</a> occupied by different species of birds vary, with some
species feeding in the <a href="/wiki/Forest_canopy" class="mw-redirect" title="Forest
canopy">forest canopy</a>, others beneath the canopy, and still others on the forest floor.
Forest birds may be <a href="/wiki/Insectivore" title="Insectivore">insectivores</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Frugivore" title="Frugivore">frugivores</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Nectarivore"
title="Nectarivore">nectarivores</a>. Aquatic birds generally feed by fishing, plant eating, and
piracy or <a href="/wiki/Kleptoparasitism" title="Kleptoparasitism">kleptoparasitism</a>.
Birds of prey specialise in hunting mammals or other birds, while vultures are specialised <a
href="/wiki/Scavenger" title="Scavenger">scavengers</a>. <a href="/wiki/Avivore"
title="Avivore">Avivores</a> are animals that are specialised at preying on birds.
</p><p>Some nectar-feeding birds are important pollinators, and many frugivores play a key
role in seed dispersal.<sup id="cite_ref-Clout_226-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
Clout-226">&#91;226&#93;</a></sup> Plants and pollinating birds often <a
href="/wiki/Coevolution" title="Coevolution">coevolve</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-227"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-227">&#91;227&#93;</a></sup> and in some cases a
flower's primary pollinator is the only species capable of reaching its nectar.<sup id="cite_ref-
228" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-228">&#91;228&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Birds are often important to island ecology. Birds have frequently reached islands that
mammals have not; on those islands, birds may fulfil ecological roles typically played by larger
animals. For example, in New Zealand the <a href="/wiki/Moa" title="Moa">moas</a> were
important browsers, as are the <a href="/wiki/New_Zealand_pigeon" title="New Zealand
pigeon">kereru</a> and <a href="/wiki/Kokako" class="mw-redirect"
title="Kokako">kokako</a> today.<sup id="cite_ref-Clout_226-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Clout-226">&#91;226&#93;</a></sup> Today the plants of New Zealand
retain the defensive adaptations evolved to protect them from the extinct moa.<sup
id="cite_ref-229" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-229">&#91;229&#93;</a></sup>
Nesting <a href="/wiki/Seabird" title="Seabird">seabirds</a> may also affect the ecology of
islands and surrounding seas, principally through the concentration of large quantities of <a
href="/wiki/Guano" title="Guano">guano</a>, which may enrich the local soil<sup
id="cite_ref-230" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-230">&#91;230&#93;</a></sup>
and the surrounding seas.<sup id="cite_ref-231" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
231">&#91;231&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>A wide variety of <a href="/wiki/Avian_ecology_field_methods" title="Avian ecology
field methods">avian ecology field methods</a>, including counts, nest monitoring, and
capturing and marking, are used for researching avian ecology.
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Relationship_with_humans">Relationship with
humans</span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Birds_in_culture" class="mw-redirect" title="Birds in culture">Birds in
culture</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Industrial-Chicken-Coop.JPG" class="image"><img alt="Two rows of cages
in a dark barn with many white chickens in each cage"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Industrial-Chicken-
Coop.JPG/220px-Industrial-Chicken-Coop.JPG" decoding="async" width="220" height="165"
class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Industrial-Chicken-
Coop.JPG/330px-Industrial-Chicken-Coop.JPG 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Industrial-Chicken-Coop.JPG/440px-
Industrial-Chicken-Coop.JPG 2x" data-file-width="2304" data-file-height="1728" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Industrial-Chicken-
Coop.JPG" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Industrial_farming"
class="mw-redirect" title="Industrial farming">Industrial farming</a> of <a
href="/wiki/Chicken" title="Chicken">chickens</a></div></div></div>
<p>Since birds are highly visible and common animals, humans have had a relationship with
them since the dawn of man.<sup id="cite_ref-232" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
232">&#91;232&#93;</a></sup> Sometimes, these relationships are <a
href="/wiki/Mutualism_(biology)" title="Mutualism (biology)">mutualistic</a>, like the
cooperative honey-gathering among <a href="/wiki/Honeyguide"
title="Honeyguide">honeyguides</a> and African peoples such as the <a
href="/wiki/Borana_people" class="mw-redirect" title="Borana people">Borana</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-233" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-233">&#91;233&#93;</a></sup>
Other times, they may be <a href="/wiki/Commensalism"
title="Commensalism">commensal</a>, as when species such as the <a
href="/wiki/House_sparrow" title="House sparrow">house sparrow</a><sup id="cite_ref-234"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-234">&#91;234&#93;</a></sup> have benefited from
human activities. Several bird species have become commercially significant agricultural
pests,<sup id="cite_ref-235" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
235">&#91;235&#93;</a></sup> and some pose an <a href="/wiki/Bird_strike" title="Bird
strike">aviation hazard</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-236" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
236">&#91;236&#93;</a></sup> Human activities can also be detrimental, and have
threatened numerous bird species with extinction (<a href="/wiki/Hunting"
title="Hunting">hunting</a>, <a href="/wiki/Avian_lead_poisoning" class="mw-redirect"
title="Avian lead poisoning">avian lead poisoning</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pesticide"
title="Pesticide">pesticides</a>, <a href="/wiki/Roadkill" title="Roadkill">roadkill</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Wind_turbine" title="Wind turbine">wind turbine</a> kills<sup id="cite_ref-237"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-237">&#91;237&#93;</a></sup> and predation by pet
<a href="/wiki/Cat" title="Cat">cats</a> and <a href="/wiki/Dog" title="Dog">dogs</a> are
common causes of death for birds).<sup id="cite_ref-238" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-238">&#91;238&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Birds can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as <a href="/wiki/Psittacosis"
title="Psittacosis">psittacosis</a>, <a href="/wiki/Salmonellosis"
title="Salmonellosis">salmonellosis</a>, <a href="/wiki/Campylobacteriosis"
title="Campylobacteriosis">campylobacteriosis</a>, mycobacteriosis (avian <a
href="/wiki/Tuberculosis" title="Tuberculosis">tuberculosis</a>), <a
href="/wiki/Avian_influenza" title="Avian influenza">avian influenza</a> (bird flu), <a
href="/wiki/Giardiasis" title="Giardiasis">giardiasis</a>, and <a
href="/wiki/Cryptosporidiosis" title="Cryptosporidiosis">cryptosporidiosis</a> over long
distances. Some of these are <a href="/wiki/Zoonosis" title="Zoonosis">zoonotic diseases</a>
that can also be transmitted to humans.<sup id="cite_ref-239" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-239">&#91;239&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Economic_importance">Economic
importance</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Pet#Birds" title="Pet">Pet §&#160;Birds</a></div>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:FishingCormorants.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Illustration of fisherman on
raft with pole for punting and numerous black birds on raft"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/FishingCormorants.jpg/170px-
FishingCormorants.jpg" decoding="async" width="170" height="249" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/FishingCormorants.jpg/255px
-FishingCormorants.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/FishingCormorants.jpg/340px-
FishingCormorants.jpg 2x" data-file-width="522" data-file-height="764" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:FishingCormorants.jpg"
class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>The use of cormorants by Asian fishermen is in
steep decline but survives in some areas as a tourist attraction.</div></div></div>
<p>Domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs, called <a href="/wiki/Poultry"
title="Poultry">poultry</a>, are the largest source of animal protein eaten by humans; in 2003,
<span class="nowrap">76 million</span> tons of poultry and <span class="nowrap">61
million</span> tons of eggs were produced worldwide.<sup id="cite_ref-240"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-240">&#91;240&#93;</a></sup> <a
href="/wiki/Chicken" title="Chicken">Chickens</a> account for much of human poultry
consumption, though domesticated <a href="/wiki/Domesticated_turkey" class="mw-redirect"
title="Domesticated turkey">turkeys</a>, <a href="/wiki/Domestic_duck" title="Domestic
duck">ducks</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Domestic_goose" title="Domestic goose">geese</a> are
also relatively common. Many species of birds are also hunted for meat. Bird hunting is
primarily a recreational activity except in extremely undeveloped areas. The most important
birds hunted in North and South America are waterfowl; other widely hunted birds include <a
href="/wiki/Pheasant" title="Pheasant">pheasants</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wild_turkey"
title="Wild turkey">wild turkeys</a>, quail, <a href="/wiki/Dove" class="mw-redirect"
title="Dove">doves</a>, <a href="/wiki/Partridge" title="Partridge">partridge</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Grouse" title="Grouse">grouse</a>, <a href="/wiki/Snipe"
title="Snipe">snipe</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Woodcock"
title="Woodcock">woodcock</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-241" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-241">&#91;241&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Muttonbirding"
title="Muttonbirding">Muttonbirding</a> is also popular in Australia and New Zealand.<sup
id="cite_ref-242" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-242">&#91;242&#93;</a></sup>
Although some hunting, such as that of muttonbirds, may be sustainable, hunting has led to the
extinction or endangerment of dozens of species.<sup id="cite_ref-243" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-243">&#91;243&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Other commercially valuable products from birds include feathers (especially the <a
href="/wiki/Down_feather" title="Down feather">down</a> of geese and ducks), which are
used as insulation in clothing and bedding, and seabird faeces (<a href="/wiki/Guano"
title="Guano">guano</a>), which is a valuable source of phosphorus and nitrogen. The <a
href="/wiki/War_of_the_Pacific" title="War of the Pacific">War of the Pacific</a>, sometimes
called the Guano War, was fought in part over the control of guano deposits.<sup id="cite_ref-
244" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-244">&#91;244&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Birds have been domesticated by humans both as pets and for practical purposes.
Colourful birds, such as <a href="/wiki/Parrot_(family)" class="mw-redirect" title="Parrot
(family)">parrots</a> and <a href="/wiki/Myna" title="Myna">mynas</a>, are bred in <a
href="/wiki/Aviculture" title="Aviculture">captivity</a> or kept as pets, a practice that has led
to the illegal trafficking of some <a href="/wiki/Endangered_species" title="Endangered
species">endangered species</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-245" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-245">&#91;245&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Falcon"
title="Falcon">Falcons</a> and <a href="/wiki/Cormorant"
title="Cormorant">cormorants</a> have long been used for <a href="/wiki/Falconry"
title="Falconry">hunting</a> and <a href="/wiki/Cormorant_fishing" title="Cormorant
fishing">fishing</a>, respectively. <a href="/wiki/Messenger_pigeon" class="mw-redirect"
title="Messenger pigeon">Messenger pigeons</a>, used since at least 1 AD, remained
important as recently as <a href="/wiki/World_War_II" title="World War II">World War
II</a>. Today, such activities are more common either as hobbies, for entertainment and
tourism,<sup id="cite_ref-246" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
246">&#91;246&#93;</a></sup> or for sports such as <a href="/wiki/Pigeon_racing"
title="Pigeon racing">pigeon racing</a>.
</p><p>Amateur bird enthusiasts (called birdwatchers, twitchers or, more commonly, <a
href="/wiki/Birding" class="mw-redirect" title="Birding">birders</a>) number in the
millions.<sup id="cite_ref-247" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
247">&#91;247&#93;</a></sup> Many homeowners erect <a href="/wiki/Bird_feeder"
title="Bird feeder">bird feeders</a> near their homes to attract various species. <a
href="/wiki/Bird_feeding" title="Bird feeding">Bird feeding</a> has grown into a
multimillion-dollar industry; for example, an estimated 75% of households in Britain provide
food for birds at some point during the winter.<sup id="cite_ref-248" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-248">&#91;248&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="In_religion_and_mythology">In religion and
mythology</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:Vogel_Drei_(Meister_der_Spielkarten).jpg" class="image"><img
alt="Woodcut of three long-legged and long-necked birds"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Vogel_Drei_%28Meister_der_Sp
ielkarten%29.jpg/170px-Vogel_Drei_%28Meister_der_Spielkarten%29.jpg" decoding="async"
width="170" height="259" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/Vogel_Drei_%28Meister_der
_Spielkarten%29.jpg/255px-Vogel_Drei_%28Meister_der_Spielkarten%29.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/eb/Vogel_Drei_%28Meister_der_Spielkarten%2
9.jpg 2x" data-file-width="323" data-file-height="493" /></a> <div
class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:Vogel_Drei_(Meister_der_Spielkarten).jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>"The 3 of Birds" by the <a
href="/wiki/Master_of_the_Playing_Cards" title="Master of the Playing Cards">Master of the
Playing Cards</a>, 15th-century Germany</div></div></div>
<p>Birds play prominent and diverse roles in religion and mythology.
In religion, birds may serve as either messengers or priests and leaders for a <a
href="/wiki/Deity" title="Deity">deity</a>, such as in the Cult of <a
href="/wiki/Makemake_(mythology)" class="mw-redirect" title="Makemake
(mythology)">Makemake</a>, in which the <a href="/wiki/Tangata_manu" title="Tangata
manu">Tangata manu</a> of <a href="/wiki/Easter_Island" title="Easter Island">Easter
Island</a> served as chiefs<sup id="cite_ref-249" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
249">&#91;249&#93;</a></sup> or as attendants, as in the case of <a
href="/wiki/Hugin_and_Munin" class="mw-redirect" title="Hugin and Munin">Hugin and
Munin</a>, the two <a href="/wiki/Common_raven" title="Common raven">common
ravens</a> who whispered news into the ears of the <a href="/wiki/Norse_god" class="mw-
redirect" title="Norse god">Norse god</a> <a href="/wiki/Odin" title="Odin">Odin</a>. In
several civilisations of <a href="/wiki/History_of_Italy" title="History of Italy">ancient
Italy</a>, particularly <a href="/wiki/Etruscan_mythology" class="mw-redirect"
title="Etruscan mythology">Etruscan</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ancient_Rome" title="Ancient
Rome">Roman</a> <a href="/wiki/Religion_in_Ancient_Rome" class="mw-redirect"
title="Religion in Ancient Rome">religion</a>, priests were involved in <a
href="/wiki/Augur" title="Augur">augury</a>, or interpreting the words of birds while the
"auspex" (from which the word "auspicious" is derived) watched their activities to foretell
events.<sup id="cite_ref-250" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
250">&#91;250&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>They may also serve as <a href="/wiki/Religious_symbolism" class="mw-redirect"
title="Religious symbolism">religious symbols</a>, as when <a href="/wiki/Jonah"
title="Jonah">Jonah</a> (Hebrew: <b>‫<יֹונָה‬/b>, <a href="/wiki/Dove" class="mw-redirect"
title="Dove">dove</a>) embodied the fright, passivity, mourning, and beauty traditionally
associated with doves.<sup id="cite_ref-251" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
251">&#91;251&#93;</a></sup> Birds have themselves been deified, as in the case of the <a
href="/wiki/Common_peacock" class="mw-redirect" title="Common peacock">common
peacock</a>, which is perceived as Mother Earth by the <a href="/wiki/Dravidian_people"
class="mw-redirect" title="Dravidian people">Dravidians</a> of India.<sup id="cite_ref-252"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-252">&#91;252&#93;</a></sup> In the ancient world,
doves were used as symbols of the <a href="/wiki/Mesopotamian_goddess" class="mw-
redirect" title="Mesopotamian goddess">Mesopotamian goddess</a> <a href="/wiki/Inanna"
title="Inanna">Inanna</a> (later known as Ishtar),<sup id="cite_ref-Botterweck_253-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Botterweck-253">&#91;253&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-Lewis_254-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Lewis-
254">&#91;254&#93;</a></sup> the <a href="/wiki/Ancient_Canaanite_religion"
title="Ancient Canaanite religion">Canaanite</a> mother goddess <a href="/wiki/Asherah"
title="Asherah">Asherah</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Botterweck_253-1" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Botterweck-253">&#91;253&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Lewis_254-
1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Lewis-254">&#91;254&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-BAR_255-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BAR-
255">&#91;255&#93;</a></sup> and the Greek goddess <a href="/wiki/Aphrodite"
title="Aphrodite">Aphrodite</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Cyrino2010_256-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Cyrino2010-256">&#91;256&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-257"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-257">&#91;257&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-
Botterweck_253-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Botterweck-
253">&#91;253&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Lewis_254-2" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Lewis-254">&#91;254&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-258"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-258">&#91;258&#93;</a></sup> In <a
href="/wiki/Ancient_Greece" title="Ancient Greece">ancient Greece</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Athena" title="Athena">Athena</a>, the goddess of wisdom and patron deity of
the city of <a href="/wiki/Athens" title="Athens">Athens</a>, had a <a
href="/wiki/Little_owl" title="Little owl">little owl</a> as <a href="/wiki/Owl_of_Athena"
title="Owl of Athena">her symbol</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Deacy,_Susan_2001_259-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Deacy,_Susan_2001-
259">&#91;259&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Deacy2008_260-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-Deacy2008-260">&#91;260&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-
Nilsson1950_261-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Nilsson1950-
261">&#91;261&#93;</a></sup> In religious images preserved from the Inca and Tiwanaku
empires, birds are depicted in the process of transgressing boundaries between earthly and
underground spiritual realms.<sup id="cite_ref-Smith2011Tiwanaku_262-0"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Smith2011Tiwanaku-
262">&#91;262&#93;</a></sup> Indigenous peoples of the central Andes maintain legends of
birds passing to and from metaphysical worlds.<sup id="cite_ref-Smith2011Tiwanaku_262-1"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Smith2011Tiwanaku-
262">&#91;262&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="In_culture_and_folklore">In culture and
folklore</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:17.6-24-1974-Cuerda-seca-flisepanel.jpg" class="image"><img alt=""
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/17.6-24-1974-Cuerda-seca-
flisepanel.jpg/220px-17.6-24-1974-Cuerda-seca-flisepanel.jpg" decoding="async" width="220"
height="120" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/17.6-24-1974-Cuerda-seca-
flisepanel.jpg/330px-17.6-24-1974-Cuerda-seca-flisepanel.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/17.6-24-1974-Cuerda-seca-
flisepanel.jpg/440px-17.6-24-1974-Cuerda-seca-flisepanel.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3489"
data-file-height="1911" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:17.6-24-1974-Cuerda-seca-flisepanel.jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>Painted <a href="/wiki/Tiles" class="mw-redirect"
title="Tiles">tiles</a> with design of birds from <a href="/wiki/Qajar_dynasty" title="Qajar
dynasty">Qajar dynasty</a></div></div></div>
<p>Birds have featured in culture and art since prehistoric times, when they were represented
in early <a href="/wiki/Cave_painting" title="Cave painting">cave paintings</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-263" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-263">&#91;263&#93;</a></sup>
Some birds have been perceived as monsters, including the mythological <a
href="/wiki/Roc_(mythology)" title="Roc (mythology)">Roc</a> and the <a
href="/wiki/M%C4%81ori_people" title="Māori people">Māori</a>'s legendary <i><a
href="/wiki/Poukai" title="Poukai">Pouākai</a></i>, a giant bird capable of snatching
humans.<sup id="cite_ref-264" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
264">&#91;264&#93;</a></sup> Birds were later used as symbols of power, as in the
magnificent <a href="/wiki/Peacock_Throne" title="Peacock Throne">Peacock Throne</a> of
the <a href="/wiki/Mughal_era" class="mw-redirect" title="Mughal era">Mughal</a> and <a
href="/wiki/History_of_Iran" title="History of Iran">Persian</a> emperors.<sup id="cite_ref-
265" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-265">&#91;265&#93;</a></sup> With the
advent of scientific interest in birds, many paintings of birds were commissioned for books.
</p><p>Among the most famous of these bird artists was <a
href="/wiki/John_James_Audubon" title="John James Audubon">John James Audubon</a>,
whose paintings of <a href="/wiki/List_of_North_American_birds" class="mw-redirect"
title="List of North American birds">North American birds</a> were a great commercial
success in Europe and who later lent his name to the <a
href="/wiki/National_Audubon_Society" title="National Audubon Society">National Audubon
Society</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-266" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
266">&#91;266&#93;</a></sup> Birds are also important figures in poetry; for example, <a
href="/wiki/Homer" title="Homer">Homer</a> incorporated <a href="/wiki/Nightingale"
class="mw-redirect" title="Nightingale">nightingales</a> into his <i><a href="/wiki/Odyssey"
title="Odyssey">Odyssey</a></i>, and <a href="/wiki/Catullus" title="Catullus">Catullus</a>
used a <a href="/wiki/Old_World_sparrow" title="Old World sparrow">sparrow</a> as an
erotic symbol in his <a href="/wiki/Catullus_2" title="Catullus 2">Catullus 2</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-267" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-267">&#91;267&#93;</a></sup>
The relationship between an <a href="/wiki/Albatross" title="Albatross">albatross</a> and a
sailor is the central theme of <a href="/wiki/Samuel_Taylor_Coleridge" title="Samuel Taylor
Coleridge">Samuel Taylor Coleridge</a>'s <i><a
href="/wiki/The_Rime_of_the_Ancient_Mariner" title="The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner">The Rime of the Ancient Mariner</a></i>, which led to the use of the <a
href="/wiki/Albatross_(metaphor)" title="Albatross (metaphor)">term as a metaphor for a
'burden'</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-268" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
268">&#91;268&#93;</a></sup> Other <a href="/wiki/English_language" title="English
language">English</a> metaphors derive from birds; <a href="/wiki/Vulture_fund"
title="Vulture fund">vulture funds</a> and vulture investors, for instance, take their name
from the scavenging vulture.<sup id="cite_ref-269" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
269">&#91;269&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Perceptions of bird species vary across cultures. <a href="/wiki/Owl"
title="Owl">Owls</a> are associated with bad luck, <a href="/wiki/Witchcraft"
title="Witchcraft">witchcraft</a>, and death in parts of Africa,<sup id="cite_ref-270"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-270">&#91;270&#93;</a></sup> but are regarded as
wise across much of Europe.<sup id="cite_ref-271" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
271">&#91;271&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Hoopoe" title="Hoopoe">Hoopoes</a> were
considered sacred in <a href="/wiki/Ancient_Egypt" title="Ancient Egypt">Ancient Egypt</a>
and symbols of virtue in <a href="/wiki/Persia" class="mw-redirect" title="Persia">Persia</a>,
but were thought of as thieves across much of Europe and harbingers of war in <a
href="/wiki/Scandinavia" title="Scandinavia">Scandinavia</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-272"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-272">&#91;272&#93;</a></sup> In <a
href="/wiki/Heraldry" title="Heraldry">heraldry</a>, birds, especially <a
href="/wiki/Eagle_(heraldry)" title="Eagle (heraldry)">eagles</a>, often appear in <a
href="/wiki/Coats_of_arms" class="mw-redirect" title="Coats of arms">coats of
arms</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-273" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
273">&#91;273&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="In_music">In music</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Birds_in_music" title="Birds in music">Birds in music</a></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Birds_in_music" title="Birds in music">In music</a>, birdsong has
influenced composers and musicians in several ways: they can be inspired by birdsong; they
can intentionally imitate bird song in a composition, as <a href="/wiki/Antonio_Vivaldi"
title="Antonio Vivaldi">Vivaldi</a>, <a href="/wiki/Olivier_Messiaen" title="Olivier
Messiaen">Messiaen</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Beethoven" class="mw-redirect"
title="Beethoven">Beethoven</a> did, along with many later composers; they can incorporate
recordings of birds into their works, as <a href="/wiki/Ottorino_Respighi" title="Ottorino
Respighi">Ottorino Respighi</a> first did; or like <a href="/wiki/Beatrice_Harrison"
title="Beatrice Harrison">Beatrice Harrison</a> and <a href="/wiki/David_Rothenberg"
title="David Rothenberg">David Rothenberg</a>, they can duet with birds.<sup id="cite_ref-
274" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-274">&#91;274&#93;</a></sup><sup
id="cite_ref-275" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
275">&#91;275&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ledger_276-0" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-ledger-276">&#91;276&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-277"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-277">&#91;277&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Conservation">Conservation</span></h3>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:172px;"><a
href="/wiki/File:California-Condor3-Szmurlo_edit.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Large black
bird with featherless head and hooked bill"
src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/California-Condor3-
Szmurlo_edit.jpg/170px-California-Condor3-Szmurlo_edit.jpg" decoding="async"
width="170" height="216" class="thumbimage"
srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/California-Condor3-
Szmurlo_edit.jpg/255px-California-Condor3-Szmurlo_edit.jpg 1.5x,
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/California-Condor3-
Szmurlo_edit.jpg/340px-California-Condor3-Szmurlo_edit.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1752"
data-file-height="2222" /></a> <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a
href="/wiki/File:California-Condor3-Szmurlo_edit.jpg" class="internal"
title="Enlarge"></a></div>The <a href="/wiki/California_condor" title="California
condor">California condor</a> once numbered only 22 birds, but conservation measures have
raised that to over 400 today.</div></div></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a
href="/wiki/Bird_conservation" title="Bird conservation">Bird conservation</a></div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a
href="/wiki/Late_Quaternary_prehistoric_birds" class="mw-redirect" title="Late Quaternary
prehistoric birds">Late Quaternary prehistoric birds</a>, <a href="/wiki/List_of_extinct_birds"
class="mw-redirect" title="List of extinct birds">List of extinct birds</a>, and <a
href="/wiki/Raptor_conservation" title="Raptor conservation">Raptor conservation</a></div>
<p>Although human activities have allowed the expansion of a few species, such as the <a
href="/wiki/Barn_swallow" title="Barn swallow">barn swallow</a> and <a
href="/wiki/European_starling" class="mw-redirect" title="European starling">European
starling</a>, they have caused population decreases or <a href="/wiki/Extinction"
title="Extinction">extinction</a> in many other species. Over a hundred bird species have
gone extinct in historical times,<sup id="cite_ref-278" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
278">&#91;278&#93;</a></sup> although the most dramatic human-caused avian extinctions,
eradicating an estimated 750–1800 species, occurred during the human colonisation of <a
href="/wiki/Melanesia" title="Melanesia">Melanesian</a>, <a href="/wiki/Polynesia"
title="Polynesia">Polynesian</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Micronesia"
title="Micronesia">Micronesian</a> islands.<sup id="cite_ref-279" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-279">&#91;279&#93;</a></sup> Many bird populations are declining
worldwide, with 1,227 species listed as <a href="/wiki/Threatened_species" title="Threatened
species">threatened</a> by <a href="/wiki/BirdLife_International" title="BirdLife
International">BirdLife International</a> and the <a href="/wiki/IUCN" class="mw-redirect"
title="IUCN">IUCN</a> in 2009.<sup id="cite_ref-280" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-280">&#91;280&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-281"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-281">&#91;281&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The most commonly cited human threat to birds is <a
href="/wiki/Habitat_destruction" title="Habitat destruction">habitat loss</a>.<sup
id="cite_ref-282" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-282">&#91;282&#93;</a></sup>
Other threats include overhunting, accidental mortality due to collisions with <a
href="/wiki/Bird-skyscraper_collisions" class="mw-redirect" title="Bird-skyscraper
collisions">buildings</a> or <a href="/wiki/Bird_strike" title="Bird strike">vehicles</a>, <a
href="/wiki/Long-line_fishing" class="mw-redirect" title="Long-line fishing">long-line
fishing</a> <a href="/wiki/Bycatch" title="Bycatch">bycatch</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-283"
class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-283">&#91;283&#93;</a></sup> pollution (including
<a href="/wiki/Oil_spill" title="Oil spill">oil spills</a> and pesticide use),<sup id="cite_ref-
284" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-284">&#91;284&#93;</a></sup> competition
and predation from nonnative <a href="/wiki/Invasive_species" title="Invasive
species">invasive species</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-285" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-
285">&#91;285&#93;</a></sup> and climate change.
</p><p>Governments and <a href="/wiki/Conservation_biology" title="Conservation
biology">conservation</a> groups work to protect birds, either by passing laws that <a
href="/wiki/In-situ_conservation" class="mw-redirect" title="In-situ
conservation">preserve</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ecological_restoration" class="mw-redirect"
title="Ecological restoration">restore</a> bird habitat or by establishing <a href="/wiki/Ex-
situ_conservation" class="mw-redirect" title="Ex-situ conservation">captive populations</a>
for reintroductions. Such projects have produced some successes; one study estimated that
conservation efforts saved 16 species of bird that would otherwise have gone extinct between
1994 and 2004, including the <a href="/wiki/California_condor" title="California
condor">California condor</a> and <a href="/wiki/Norfolk_parakeet" title="Norfolk
parakeet">Norfolk parakeet</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-286" class="reference"><a
href="#cite_note-286">&#91;286&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div style="clear:both;"></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Paleocene_dinosaurs" title="Paleocene dinosaurs">Paleocene
dinosaurs</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Animal_track" title="Animal track">Animal track</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Bat" title="Bat">Bat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Glossary_of_bird_terms" title="Glossary of bird terms">Glossary of bird
terms</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ornithology" title="Ornithology">Ornithology</a></li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Notes">Notes</span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns"><ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-divergence-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-
divergence_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-divergence_1-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
class="citation journal">Lee, Michael SY; Cau, Andrea; Naish, Darren; Dyke, Gareth J. (May
2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://academic.oup.com/sysbio/article-
pdf/63/3/442/9164850/syt110.pdf">"Morphological Clocks in Paleontology, and a Mid-
Cretaceous Origin of Crown Aves"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>.
<i>Systematic Biology</i>. Oxford Journals. <b>63</b> (1): 442–449. <a
href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//doi.org/10.1093%2Fsysbio%2Fsyt110">10.1093/sysbio/syt110</a>. <a
href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed
Identifier">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24449041">24449041</a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Systematic+Biology&amp;rft.atitle=Morphological+Clocks+in+Paleontolog
y%2C+and+a+Mid-
Cretaceous+Origin+of+Crown+Aves&amp;rft.volume=63&amp;rft.issue=1&amp;rft.pages=44
2-449&amp;rft.date=2014-
05&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1093%2Fsysbio%2Fsyt110&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2
F24449041&amp;rft.aulast=Lee&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael+SY&amp;rft.au=Cau%2C+Andrea
&amp;rft.au=Naish%2C+Darren&amp;rft.au=Dyke%2C+Gareth+J.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2
F%2Facademic.oup.com%2Fsysbio%2Farticle-
pdf%2F63%2F3%2F442%2F9164850%2Fsyt110.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikiped
ia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><style data-mw-
deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r886058088">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-
style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation
.cs1-lock-free
a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-
green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-
parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration
a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-
2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-
parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription
a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-
2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-
parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-
output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px
dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon
a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-
logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em
center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-
code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-
hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-
size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-
parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-
format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-
left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-
right{padding-right:0.2em}</style></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Brands, Sheila
(14 August 2008). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="http://taxonomicon.taxonomy.nl/TaxonTree.aspx?id=80129&amp;tree=0.1">"Systema
Naturae 2000 / Classification, Class Aves"</a>. <i>Project: The Taxonomicon</i><span
class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 June</span>
2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unk
nown&amp;rft.jtitle=Project%3A+The+Taxonomicon&amp;rft.atitle=Systema+Naturae+2000
+%2F+Classification%2C+Class+Aves&amp;rft.date=2008-08-
14&amp;rft.aulast=Brands&amp;rft.aufirst=Sheila&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ftaxonomico
n.taxonomy.nl%2FTaxonTree.aspx%3Fid%3D80129%26tree%3D0.1&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asi
d%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
3">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Attenborough, D.1998 <i>The Life of
Birds</i>.BBC books. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/><a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number"
title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a
href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0563%2B38792%2B0"
title="Special:BookSources/0563+38792+0">0563 38792 0</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a
rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://blogs.zeiss.com/sports-
optics/birding/en/endangered-birds/">"The Fight to Save Endangered Birds"</a>. <i>Nature
Blog – Stories about nature and birding</i>. 16 August 2016<span class="reference-
accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">6 March</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unk
nown&amp;rft.jtitle=Nature+Blog+%E2%80%93+Stories+about+nature+and+birding&amp;rft
.atitle=The+Fight+to+Save+Endangered+Birds.&amp;rft.date=2016-08-
16&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fblogs.zeiss.com%2Fsports-
optics%2Fbirding%2Fen%2Fendangered-
birds%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">del Hoyo,
Josep; Andy Elliott; Jordi Sargatal (1992). <i>Handbook of Birds of the World, Volume 1:
Ostrich to Ducks</i>. Barcelona: <a href="/wiki/Lynx_Edicions" title="Lynx Edicions">Lynx
Edicions</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International
Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/84-87334-10-
5" title="Special:BookSources/84-87334-10-5"><bdi>84-87334-10-5</bdi></a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
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&amp;rft.place=Barcelona&amp;rft.pub=Lynx+Edicions&amp;rft.date=1992&amp;rft.isbn=84
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class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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<cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Carl_Linnaeus" title="Carl Linnaeus">Linnaeus,
Carolus</a> (1758). <a href="/wiki/Systema_Naturae" title="Systema Naturae"><i>Systema
naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus,
differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata</i></a> (in Latin). Holmiae.
(Laurentii Salvii). p.&#160;824.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
&amp;rft.btitle=Systema+naturae+per+regna+tria+naturae%2C+secundum+classes%2C+ordin
es%2C+genera%2C+species%2C+cum+characteribus%2C+differentiis%2C+synonymis%2C+
locis.+Tomus+I.+Editio+decima%2C+reformata&amp;rft.pages=824&amp;rft.pub=Holmiae.+
%28Laurentii+Salvii%29&amp;rft.date=1758&amp;rft.aulast=Linnaeus&amp;rft.aufirst=Carol
us&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link
rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Theropoda-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-
Theropoda_7-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Theropoda_7-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
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order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative
anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion"</a>. <i><a
href="/wiki/Zoological_Journal_of_the_Linnean_Society" title="Zoological Journal of the
Linnean Society">Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society</a></i>. <b>149</b> (1): 1–95.
<a href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a
rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1096-
3642.2006.00293.x">10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x</a>. <a
href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a>&#160;<span class="cs1-
lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2517308">2517308</a></span>. <a
href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed
Identifier">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18784798">18784798</a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Zoological+Journal+of+the+Linnean+Society&amp;rft.atitle=Higher-
order+phylogeny+of+modern+birds+%28Theropoda%2C+Aves%3A+Neornithes%29+based+
on+comparative+anatomy.+II.+Analysis+and+discussion&amp;rft.volume=149&amp;rft.issue
=1&amp;rft.pages=1-95&amp;rft.date=2007-
01&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2517308&amp;
rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F18784798&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1111%2Fj.1096-
3642.2006.00293.x&amp;rft.aulast=Livezey&amp;rft.aufirst=Bradley+C.&amp;rft.au=Zusi%2
C+RL&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC2517308&a
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<li id="cite_note-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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<a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book
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2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=booki
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San+Diego&amp;rft.pages=41-
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5&amp;rft.aulast=Padian&amp;rft.aufirst=Kevin&amp;rft.au=L.M.+Chiappe&amp;rft.au=Chia
ppe+LM&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
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ft.isbn=0-940228-14-
9&amp;rft.aulast=Gauthier&amp;rft.aufirst=Jacques&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedi
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<li id="cite_note-gauthier&amp;dequeiroz2001-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a
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2F10.1038%2Fnature12168&amp;rft_id=info%3Abibcode%2F2013Natur.498..359G&amp;rft.
au=Pascal+Godefroit&amp;rft.au=Andrea+Cau&amp;rft.au=Hu+Dong-
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2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Systematic+Palaeontology&amp;rft.atitle=A+new+look+at+the
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463&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1017%2FS1477201907002143&amp
;rft.aulast=Senter&amp;rft.aufirst=P&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird"
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data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-gauthier1986-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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90%2Fbiology2010419&amp;rft.aulast=Yuri&amp;rft.aufirst=T.&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.n
cbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4009869&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikip
edia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style"
href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Boyd-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Boyd_48-
0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Boyd_48-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Boyd_48-
2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
class="citation web">Boyd, John (2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="http://jboyd.net/Taxo/Orders.pdf">"<i>NEORNITHES: 46 Orders</i>"</a> <span
class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i><a
href="/w/index.php?title=John_Boyd%27s_website&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1"
class="new" title="John Boyd&#39;s website (page does not exist)">John Boyd's
website</a></i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">30
December</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unk
nown&amp;rft.jtitle=John+Boyd%27s+website&amp;rft.atitle=NEORNITHES%3A+46+Orde
rs&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.aulast=Boyd&amp;rft.aufirst=John&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F
%2Fjboyd.net%2FTaxo%2FOrders.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABir
d" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
49">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a
href="/wiki/Charles_Sibley" title="Charles Sibley">Sibley, Charles</a>; <a
href="/wiki/Jon_Edward_Ahlquist" class="mw-redirect" title="Jon Edward Ahlquist">Jon
Edward Ahlquist</a> (1990). <i>Phylogeny and classification of birds</i>. New Haven: Yale
University Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International
Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-300-04085-
7" title="Special:BookSources/0-300-04085-7"><bdi>0-300-04085-7</bdi></a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
&amp;rft.btitle=Phylogeny+and+classification+of+birds&amp;rft.place=New+Haven&amp;rft.
pub=Yale+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1990&amp;rft.isbn=0-300-04085-
7&amp;rft.aulast=Sibley&amp;rft.aufirst=Charles&amp;rft.au=Jon+Edward+Ahlquist&amp;rf
r_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-
deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
50">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book"><a
href="/wiki/Ernst_W._Mayr" class="mw-redirect" title="Ernst W. Mayr">Mayr, Ernst</a>;
Short, Lester L. (1970). <i>Species Taxa of North American Birds: A Contribution to
Comparative Systematics</i>. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, no. 9.
Cambridge, MA: Nuttall Ornithological Club. <a href="/wiki/OCLC"
title="OCLC">OCLC</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/517185">517185</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
&amp;rft.btitle=Species+Taxa+of+North+American+Birds%3A+A+Contribution+to+Compara
tive+Systematics&amp;rft.place=Cambridge%2C+MA&amp;rft.series=Publications+of+the+N
uttall+Ornithological+Club%2C+no.+9&amp;rft.pub=Nuttall+Ornithological+Club&amp;rft.d
ate=1970&amp;rft_id=info%3Aoclcnum%2F517185&amp;rft.aulast=Mayr&amp;rft.aufirst=Er
nst&amp;rft.au=Short%2C+Lester+L.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird
" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Jarvis2014-51"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
Jarvis2014_51-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation
journal">Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405904">"Whole-genome analyses resolve
early branches in the tree of life of modern birds"</a>. <i>Science</i>. <b>346</b> (6215):
1320–1331. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode" title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:<a rel="nofollow"
class="external text"
href="https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Sci...346.1320J">2014Sci...346.1320J</a>. <a
href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.1253451">10.1126/science.1253451</a>. <a
href="/wiki/PubMed_Central" title="PubMed Central">PMC</a>&#160;<span class="cs1-
lock-free" title="Freely accessible"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405904">4405904</a></span>. <a
href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed
Identifier">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504713">25504713</a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Science&amp;rft.atitle=Whole-
genome+analyses+resolve+early+branches+in+the+tree+of+life+of+modern+birds&amp;rft.vo
lume=346&amp;rft.issue=6215&amp;rft.pages=1320-
1331&amp;rft.date=2014&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%
2FPMC4405904&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F25504713&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1
126%2Fscience.1253451&amp;rft_id=info%3Abibcode%2F2014Sci...346.1320J&amp;rft.aula
st=Jarvis&amp;rft.aufirst=E.D.&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Fartic
les%2FPMC4405904&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
52">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Newton, Ian
(2003). <i>The Speciation and Biogeography of Birds</i>. Amsterdam: Academic Press.
p.&#160;463. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International
Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-12-517375-
X" title="Special:BookSources/0-12-517375-X"><bdi>0-12-517375-
X</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
&amp;rft.btitle=The+Speciation+and+Biogeography+of+Birds&amp;rft.place=Amsterdam&a
mp;rft.pages=463&amp;rft.pub=Academic+Press&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.isbn=0-12-
517375-
X&amp;rft.aulast=Newton&amp;rft.aufirst=Ian&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org
%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
53">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Brooke,
Michael (2004). <i>Albatrosses And Petrels Across The World</i>. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard
Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-19-850125-0"
title="Special:BookSources/0-19-850125-0"><bdi>0-19-850125-0</bdi></a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
&amp;rft.btitle=Albatrosses+And+Petrels+Across+The+World&amp;rft.place=Oxford&amp;r
ft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.isbn=0-19-850125-
0&amp;rft.aulast=Brooke&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia
.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
54">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Weir,
Jason T.; Schluter, D (2007). "The Latitudinal Gradient in Recent Speciation and Extinction
Rates of Birds and Mammals". <i><a href="/wiki/Science_(journal)" title="Science
(journal)">Science</a></i>. <b>315</b> (5818): 1574–1576. <a href="/wiki/Bibcode"
title="Bibcode">Bibcode</a>:<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Sci...315.1574W">2007Sci...315.1574W</a>. <a
href="/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a
rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.1135590">10.1126/science.1135590</a>. <a
href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-redirect" title="PubMed
Identifier">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17363673">17363673</a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Science&amp;rft.atitle=The+Latitudinal+Gradient+in+Recent+Speciation+a
nd+Extinction+Rates+of+Birds+and+Mammals&amp;rft.volume=315&amp;rft.issue=5818&a
mp;rft.pages=1574-
1576&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F17363673&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi
%2F10.1126%2Fscience.1135590&amp;rft_id=info%3Abibcode%2F2007Sci...315.1574W&a
mp;rft.aulast=Weir&amp;rft.aufirst=Jason+T.&amp;rft.au=Schluter%2C+D&amp;rfr_id=info
%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-
inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Burger-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-
Burger_55-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Burger_55-
1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite
class="citation book">Schreiber, Elizabeth Anne; Joanna Burger (2001). <i>Biology of Marine
Birds</i>. Boca Raton: CRC Press. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number"
title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a
href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8493-9882-7" title="Special:BookSources/0-8493-9882-
7"><bdi>0-8493-9882-7</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
&amp;rft.btitle=Biology+of+Marine+Birds&amp;rft.place=Boca+Raton&amp;rft.pub=CRC+P
ress&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=0-8493-9882-
7&amp;rft.aulast=Schreiber&amp;rft.aufirst=Elizabeth+Anne&amp;rft.au=Joanna+Burger&a
mp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-
deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
56">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Sato,
Katsufumi; Naito, Y; Kato, A; Niizuma, Y; Watanuki, Y; Charrassin, JB; Bost, CA; Handrich,
Y; Le Maho, Y (1 May 2002). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/205/9/1189">"Buoyancy and maximal diving
depth in penguins: do they control inhaling air volume?"</a>. <i>Journal of Experimental
Biology</i>. <b>205</b> (9): 1189–1197. <a href="/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" class="mw-
redirect" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11948196">11948196</a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Experimental+Biology&amp;rft.atitle=Buoyancy+and+maximal
+diving+depth+in+penguins%3A+do+they+control+inhaling+air+volume%3F&amp;rft.volum
e=205&amp;rft.issue=9&amp;rft.pages=1189-1197&amp;rft.date=2002-05-
01&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F11948196&amp;rft.aulast=Sato&amp;rft.aufirst=Katsufumi
&amp;rft.au=Naito%2C+Y&amp;rft.au=Kato%2C+A&amp;rft.au=Niizuma%2C+Y&amp;rft.a
u=Watanuki%2C+Y&amp;rft.au=Charrassin%2C+JB&amp;rft.au=Bost%2C+CA&amp;rft.au=
Handrich%2C+Y&amp;rft.au=Le+Maho%2C+Y&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fjeb.biologists.
org%2Fcgi%2Fcontent%2Ffull%2F205%2F9%2F1189&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikip
edia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style"
href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-57"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
57">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Hill, David;
Peter Robertson (1988). <i>The Pheasant: Ecology, Management, and Conservation</i>.
Oxford: BSP Professional. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number"
title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a
href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-632-02011-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-632-02011-
3"><bdi>0-632-02011-3</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
&amp;rft.btitle=The+Pheasant%3A+Ecology%2C+Management%2C+and+Conservation&am
p;rft.place=Oxford&amp;rft.pub=BSP+Professional&amp;rft.date=1988&amp;rft.isbn=0-632-
02011-
3&amp;rft.aulast=Hill&amp;rft.aufirst=David&amp;rft.au=Peter+Robertson&amp;rfr_id=info
%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-
inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-58"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
58">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Spreyer,
Mark F.; Enrique H. Bucher (1998). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/322">"Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta
monachus)"</a>. <i>The Birds of North America</i>. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. <a
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accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">13 December</span>
2015</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Birds+of+North+America&amp;rft.atitle=Monk+Parakeet+%28Myiop
sitta+monachus%29&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2173%2Fbna.322&a
mp;rft.aulast=Spreyer&amp;rft.aufirst=Mark+F.&amp;rft.au=Enrique+H.+Bucher&amp;rft_id
=http%3A%2F%2Fbna.birds.cornell.edu%2Fbna%2Fspecies%2F322&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid
%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-
style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-59"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
59">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation journal">Arendt,
Wayne J. (1 January 1988). "Range Expansion of the Cattle Egret, (<i>Bubulcus ibis</i>) in
the Greater Caribbean Basin". <i>Colonial Waterbirds</i>. <b>11</b> (2): 252–262. <a
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title="JSTOR">JSTOR</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="//www.jstor.org/stable/1521007">1521007</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Colonial+Waterbirds&amp;rft.atitle=Range+Expansion+of+the+Cattle+Egr
et%2C+%28Bubulcus+ibis%29+in+the+Greater+Caribbean+Basin&amp;rft.volume=11&amp;
rft.issue=2&amp;rft.pages=252-262&amp;rft.date=1988-01-
01&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.2307%2F1521007&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%
2Fstable%2F1521007&amp;rft.aulast=Arendt&amp;rft.aufirst=Wayne+J.&amp;rfr_id=info%3
Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-
inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-60"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
60">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Bierregaard,
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Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/84-87334-15-6"
title="Special:BookSources/84-87334-15-6"><bdi>84-87334-15-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-
2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=booki
tem&amp;rft.atitle=Yellow-
headed+Caracara&amp;rft.btitle=Handbook+of+the+Birds+of+the+World.+Volume+2%3B+N
ew+World+Vultures+to+Guineafowl&amp;rft.place=Barcelona&amp;rft.pub=Lynx+Edicions
&amp;rft.date=1994&amp;rft.isbn=84-87334-15-
6&amp;rft.aulast=Bierregaard&amp;rft.aufirst=R.O.&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedi
a.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-61"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
61">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Juniper,
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2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book
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0&amp;rft.aulast=Juniper&amp;rft.aufirst=Tony&amp;rft.au=Mike+Parr&amp;rfr_id=info%3
Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-
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tem&amp;rft.atitle=Foreword&amp;rft.btitle=Handbook+of+the+Birds+of+the+World&amp;rf
t.place=Barcelona&amp;rft.pages=48&amp;rft.pub=Lynx+Edicions&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;
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.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style"
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cle&amp;rft.jtitle=American+Journal+of+Primatology&amp;rft.atitle=Mixed+flocks+and+pol
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amp;rft.volume=21&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.pages=87-
100&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1002%2Fajp.1350210203&amp;rft.a
ulast=Terborgh&amp;rft.aufirst=John&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird
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2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
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5422%282000%29102%5B0307%3ASVTOIG%5D2.0.CO%3B2&amp;rft_id=%2F%2Fwww.
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title="Special:BookSources/0-521-46038-7">0-521-46038-7</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-194"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=arti
cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Behavioural+Processes&amp;rft.atitle=Aromatic+plants+in+bird+nests+as+
a+protection+against+blood-
sucking+flying+insects%3F&amp;rft.volume=56&amp;rft.issue=2&amp;rft.pages=113-
120&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft_id=info%3Adoi%2F10.1016%2FS0376-
6357%2801%2900191-
7&amp;rft_id=info%3Apmid%2F11672937&amp;rft.aulast=Lafuma&amp;rft.aufirst=L&amp;
rft.au=Lambrechts%2C+M&amp;rft.au=Raymond%2C+M&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wi
kipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style"
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href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-19-854651-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-19-854651-
3">0-19-854651-3</a></span>
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<li id="cite_note-AnAge-197"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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own&amp;rft.btitle=AnAge%3A+The+animal+ageing+and+longevity+database&amp;rft.pub=
Human+Ageing+and+Genomics+Resources&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fgenomics.senescen
ce.info%2Fspecies%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird"
class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-ADW-198"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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own&amp;rft.btitle=Animal+diversity+web&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Michigan%2C+Mus
eum+of+Zoology&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fanimaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu%2F&amp;
rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-
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<li id="cite_note-Urfi2011-199"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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4419-8468-
5&amp;rft.aulast=Urfi&amp;rft.aufirst=A.J.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.co
m%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D_9tczTapYXMC%26pg%3DPA88&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wi
kipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style"
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&amp;rft.btitle=Biology+of+Birds&amp;rft.pages=109&amp;rft.pub=Discovery+Publishing+
House&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.isbn=978-81-7141-933-
3&amp;rft.aulast=Khanna&amp;rft.aufirst=D.R.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google
.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DfDblIChi7KwC%26pg%3DPA109&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen
.wikipedia.org%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style"
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<li id="cite_note-Scott2008-201"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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&amp;rft.btitle=Wildlife+Rehabilitation&amp;rft.pages=50&amp;rft.pub=National+Wildlife+
Rehabilitators+Association&amp;rft.date=2008&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-931439-23-
7&amp;rft.aulast=Scott&amp;rft.aufirst=Lynnette&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.googl
e.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DFpAOAQAAMAAJ&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.or
g%3ABird" class="Z3988"></span><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-
data:TemplateStyles:r886058088"/></span>
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<li id="cite_note-206"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-
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cle&amp;rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Avian+Biology&amp;rft.atitle=Family+living+amongst+birds&
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