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Fire Technology and Arson Investigation

CDI 413B

Chapter 1

Introduction to Fire Technology

This chapter will focus on the discussion of definition of fire, nature and origin
of fire, types of combustion and physical properties of matter related to fire. This
chapter will provide the students of knowledge on how fire starts and the things that
takes place before and after it ignites.

I. Definition of terms

a. Accelerant. A flammable fuel (often liquid) used by some arsonists to increase

size or intensity of fire.

b. Backdraft. A fire phenomenon caused when heat and heavy smoke (unburned
fuel particles) accumulate inside a compartment, depleting the available air,
and then oxygen/air is re-introduced, completing the fire triangle and causing
rapid combustion.

c. Combustion. When materials smolder or burn.

d. Compartment Fire. An "Isolated" fire, or a fire which is "boxed in" or "closed

off" from the rest of the structure. An example of this is a fire in a room where
all the windows and doors are closed preventing the fire from spreading to
other rooms

e. Contained Fire. A fire restricted to boundaries established by fire fighters.

f. Conflagration. A large, typically urban, fire involving numerous structures;

loosely defined as enveloping an area equivalent to one or more square

g. Deflagration. An explosion with a propagation front traveling at subsonic

speeds, as compared to supersonic detonation.

h. Exothermic reaction. Chemical reaction giving off heat in the process, such
as combustion.

i. Fire. Is the manifestation of rapid chemical reaction occurring between fuel

and an oxidizer- typically the oxygen in the air. Such rapid chemical reaction
releases energy in the form of heat and light. Is heat and light resulting from
the rapid combination of oxygen, or in some cases gaseous chlorine, with
other materials. The light is in the form of a flame, which is composed of
glowing particles of the burning material and certain gaseous products that are
luminous at the temperature of the burning material.

j. Fire escape. A building structure arranged outside to assist in safe evacuation

of occupants during an emergency; may connect horizontally beyond a fire
wall or vertically to a roof or (preferably) to the ground, perhaps with a counter-
weighted span to deny access to intruders.

k. Fire hazard. Materials, structures or processes that may result in creating a

fire, permitting a fire to grow undetected, or preventing people from escaping a

l. Fire tetrahedron. The fire tetrahedron is based on the components of igniting

or extinguishing a fire. Each component represents a property necessary to
sustain fire: fuel, oxygen, heat, and chemical chain reaction. Extinguishment is
based upon removing or hindering any one of these properties.

m. Fire triangle. An outdated model for understanding the major components

necessary for fire: heat, fuel and oxygen.

n. Flame over. Also known as rollover. The ignition of heated fire gasses at the
ceiling level only. While dangerous to firefighters, this is not as deadly
as Flashover.

o. Flash point. Lowest temperature at which a material will emit vapor

combustible in air mixture.

p. Flashover. Simultaneous ignition of combustible materials in a closed space,

as when materials simultaneously reach their fire point; may also result
in rollover.

q. HAZMAT. Hazardous materials, including solids, liquids, or gases that may

cause injury, death, or damage if released or triggered.

r. High-rise building. Any building taller than three or four stories, depending
upon local usage, requiring firefighters to climb stairs or aerial ladders for
access to upper floors.

s. Overhauling. Late stage in fire-suppression process during which the burned

area is carefully examined for remaining sources of heat that may re-kindle the
fire. Often coincides with salvage operations to prevent further loss to structure
or its contents, as well as fire-cause determination and preservation of
t. Oxidizer. A hazardous material containing oxygen that can combine with
adjacent fuel to start or feed a fire.

u. Pyrolysis. Process of converting a solid substance to combustible fumes by

raising its temperature.

v. Rollover. The ignition of ceiling-level fire gases.

w. Thermal balance. The hot area over the fire (often termed the fire plume or
thermal column) causes the circulation that feeds air to the fire.

However, when the ceiling and upper parts of the wall linings become
super-heated, circulation slows down until the entire room develops a kind of
thermal balance with temperatures distributed uniformly horizontally throughout
the compartment.

In vertical terms the temperatures continuously increase from bottom to

top with the greatest concentration of heat at the highest level.

x. Thermal Imbalance. a product of combustion rise in the building or flow out of

an opening, an equal volume of air replaces. This is a result of the
extinguishments of fire by water in which turbulent circulation of steam and
smoke may replace the normal flow of the products of combustion.

II. The Start of Fire

All matters exist of one of the three states – solid, liquid and gas (vapor). The
atoms or molecules of a solid are packed closely together, and that of a liquid is
packed loosely, the molecules of a vapor are not packed together at all, they are
free to move about. In order for a substance to oxidize, its molecules must be
pretty well surrounded by oxygen molecules. The molecules of solids or liquids are
too tightly packed to be surrounded. Thus, only vapors can burn.

When a solid or a liquid is heated, its molecules move about rapidly. If enough
heat is applied, some molecules break away from the surface to form a vapor just
above the substance (This vapor can now mixed with oxygen). If there is enough
heat to raise the vapor to its ignition temperature (temperature needed to burn),
and if there is enough oxygen present, the vapor will oxidize rapidly – it will start to

The start of burning is the start of a Chain Reaction (the burning process).
Vapor from heated fuel rises, mixes with air and burns, It produces enough heat to
release more vapor and to draw in air to burn that vapor. As more vapor burns,
flame production increases. More heat is produced, more vapor released, more air
drawn into the flames and more vapor burns, the chain reaction keeps increasing
the size of the fire increases until fuel is consumed.

A. Combustion

Is one of the kinds of oxidation, which is the same as actual burning. It is a

rapid oxidation accompanied by heat and light. When the heat generated by
combustion, becomes sufficient to cause the material being oxidized to take fire,
the material has reached its burning, kindling temperature or ignition point.

B. Types of Combustion

a. Surface/Glowing Type of Combustion – A condensed – phase combustion

b. Flaming Type of Combustion – Gas – phase combustion
c. Explosion – The process is confined so that an appreciable pressure occurs
d. Detonation – Combustion waves propagates at supersonic speed, a shock
develops ahead

C. The Fire Triangle

Oxygen Heat


The figure show that if any side of the fire triangle is missing, a fire cannot
start or if any side of the fire triangle is removed, the fire will go off. With the
presence of the elements of fire, combustion may take place. Before a fuel will
burn, it must be changed to its vapor state. In a fire situation, this change usually
results from the initial application of heat (The process is known as PYROLYSIS).

Pyrolysis (also known as thermal decomposition) is defined as the “chemical

decomposition of matter through the action of heat”. In this case, the
decomposition causes a change from a solid state to vapor state. If the vapor
mixes sufficiently with air and heated to high temperature, combustion results.
D. The Fire Tetrahedron

The combustion process is better represented by the fire tetrahedron. The fire
tetrahedron is useful in illustrating and remembering the combustion process
because it has room for the chain reaction and because each face touches the
other three faces.

The basic difference between the fire triangle and the fire tetrahedron is that:
The tetrahedron illustrates how flaming combustion is supported and sustained
through the chain reaction. In this sense, the chain reaction face keeps the other
three faces from falling apart.

The fire tetrahedron also explains the flaming mode of combustion. The
modes of combustion are either Flaming mode or Surface mode (Glowing–
represented by the fire triangle)

• A condensed phased combustion is called glowing combustion

• A gas-phased combustion is known as flame
• If the process is confined with pressure it is called explosion
• If combustion propagates at supersonic speed, it produced a detonation

III. Physical Properties Related to Fire

a. Specific Gravity – the ratio of the weight of a solid or liquid substance to the
weight of an equal volume of water.

b. Vapor density – the weight of a volume of pure gas composed to the volume
of dry air at the same temperature and pressure.
c. Vapor Pressure – the force exerted by the molecules on the surface of a
liquid at equilibrium.

d. Temperature – the measure of the degree of thermal agitation of molecules.

e. Boiling Point – the constant temperature at which the vapor pressure of the
liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.

f. Ignition/Kindling temperature – the minimum temperature to which the

substance in the air must be heated in order to initiate or cause self –
contained combustion without the addition of heat from outside sources.

g. Fire point – the lowest temperature of a liquid in an open container at which

vapors are evolved fast enough to support combustion.

h. Flash point – the temperature at which a flammable liquid forms a vapor-air

mixture that ignites. The minimum and maximum temperature is referred to as
the lower and upper flash point respectively.

To burn a fuel (combustible material), its temperature must be raised until

ignition point is reached. Thus, before a fuel start to burn or before it can be
ignited, it has to be exposed to a certain degree of temperature. When the
temperature of a certain substance is very high, it releases highly combustible
vapors known as FREE RADICALS (combustible vapors such as hydrogen gas,
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen).

During the process of pyrolysis, the following are involved:

a. The fuel is heated until its temperature reaches its fire point,
b. Decomposition takes place – moisture in the fuel is converted to vapor,
c. Decomposition produces combustible vapors that rise to the surface of the
fuel (free radicals)
d. Free radicals undergo combustion
Chapter II

Pyrolysis and Heat Energy Sources

This chapter will focus on the process of pyrolysis, combustion and oxidation
reaction. Also this chapter will provide knowledge to the students with regard to
different heat energy sources, heat transfer, production of heat and how it is
measured and the chemical properties of fire.

I. Pyrolysis

A. What is Pyrolysis?

Pyrolysis is the process of converting a solid substance to combustible fumes

by raising its temperature. It is defined as the “chemical decomposition of matter
through the action of heat”. Also known as the Thermal Decomposition.

B. The Pyrolysis of Fire

Fire is a result of chemical reaction of a fuel (reducing agent) with certain

elements as oxygen (oxidizing agent). At KINDLING or IGNITION temperature.
This reaction is known as oxidation.

C. Oxidation Reaction

Oxidation reactions involved in fires are Exothermic Reactions that release or

give off energy (heat) thus they produce substances with less energy than the
reactants. The two things that must be present in order for an oxidation reaction to
take place are the Combustible material (fuel) and Oxidizing agent must be

Fuels include an innumerable material, whether or not a particular material can

be oxidized depends on - Their Chemistry.

D. Most Common Oxidizing Agent

Chemicals that release OXYGEN Other substances that act as an

under given condition (temperature) oxidizing agent
Potassium Chlorate (KCIO3) Flourine (F2)
Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) Chlorine (CI2)
Mercuric Oxide (HgO) Hydrogen (H2)
Manganese Dioxide (MnO2)
Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2)
E. Pyroxillin Plastic

A material that contains oxygen combined in their molecules. In this material,

partial combustion may occur without oxygen from any other outside source.

II. Ignition or Combustion Process

A. What is Combustion?

Is one of the kinds of oxidation (the same as the actual burning). The rapid
oxidation accompanied by heat and light.

B. When Combustion happens?

When the materials smolder or burn – when the heat generated by

combustion, becomes sufficient to cause the material being oxidized to take fire,
the material has reached its burning, kindling temperature or ignition point.

C. Two Modes of Combustion

a. Flaming type (Including explosion)

Flaming mode combustion is presented by the fire tetrahedron.

b. Flameless surface type (Glowing combustion)

Glowing/Surface type combustion is best presented b the fire triangle.

D. The Combustion Process or Fire Pyrolysis

Production of
Combustible (Combustible
Materials (fuels) is Vapors are mixed
Vapors (Free
being heated with the oxidizing

Fire ( The Chemical Combustion/Pyrolysis

Chain Reaction must (Heat is Continuosly
Sustained to Genrated) Chemical Chain
Contnue the Fire) Reaction Takes Place)
E. Fire Protection rest upon the following Principles

a. The Combustible Material must be heated to its ignition temperature

before it will burn.

b. Combustion will Continue until:

 The Combustible Material are consumed or removed

 The oxidizing agent concentration is lowered to below the
concentration necessary to support the combustion
 The combustible material is cooled
 Flames are Chemically Inhibited

F. Fire Protection is best illustrated below



Oxidizing Ignition
Agent Source

III. Heat Energy Sources

Since Fire Prevention and Extinguishment are dependent on the control of

Heat Energy. Therefore, It is important to be familiar with common Heat Energy

a. Chemical
b. Electrical
c. Mechanical
d. Nuclear

A. Chemical Heat Energy

Oxidation reaction is Exothermic

Sources of Heat

a. Heat of Combustion

Is the amount of heat released during the complete oxidation where

the organic fuel is converted to water and carbon dioxide.

b. Spontaneous Heating

The process of increase in temperature of a material as result of

slow oxidation. It may, without ignition temperature results into

Conditions that determine whether or not an oxidation reaction will

cause dangerous heating

1. Rate of heat generation

2. Air supply
3. Insulating properties of the intermediate surrounding

c. Heat of Decomposition

The heat released by the decomposition of compounds requiring

the addition of heat for their formulation. Compounds formed from
exothermic reaction are often unstable. When decomposition is started
by heating these compounds above critical temperature decomposition
continues with the liberation of heat.

d. Heat of Solution

Heat released when a substance is dissolved in a liquid. Most

material release heat when dissolved but the amount of heat is usually
not enough to have any significant effect on fire.

B. Electrical Heat Energy

Produced when electric current flows through a conductor or when a spark

jumps on air gap

Sources of Heat

a. Resistant Heating
It is produced when the rate of heat generation is proportional to the
resistance and square of the current.

b. Heat Generated by Lighting

Lighting passing the cloud and the ground can develop very high
temperature in any material of high resistance in its path, such as wood
or masonry.

c. Inductive Heating

Produced when the atoms are subjected to electric potential

gradients from external sources, the arrangement of an atom is
distorted, when a tendency for electrons to move in the direction of
opposite direction. This is observed whether the externally applied
potential is due to a battery or generator is a result of a magnetic field.

d. Static Electricity of Frictional Electricity

An electrical discharge that accumulates on the surface of two

materials that have been brought together and then separated. One
surface becomes positively charged and the other negatively. If the
substances are not bonded or grounded, they will accumulate sufficient
electrical charge so that spark discharge may occur. In some
instances, flammable gases and vapors as well clouds of combustible
dust are capable of being ignited.

e. Heat from Arcing

It is produced when electric circuit, which is carrying currents, is

interrupted, either intentionally or accidentally. The temperature of arc
is very high, and the heat released may be sufficient to ignite
combustible or flammable material within the vicinity.

C. Mechanical Heat Energy

Mechanical heat energy is responsible for a significant number of fires

each year. Most fire by this heat sources are due to frictional heat.

Sources of Heat

a. Frictional Heat
It resulted when mechanical energy is used in overcoming the
resistance to motion when two solids are rubbed together. Any friction
generates heat. The danger depends on:

• The amount of mechanical energy transformed to heat

• The rate at which heat is generated

b. Overheating of Machinery

Resulted from the heat accumulated from the rolling, sliding or

friction in machinery of between two hard surfaces, at least one of
which is usually a mental. Ignition sources in this category are heated
bearings or rotating machinery and belts which become overheated
due to pulley slippage.

c. Heat of Compression

Heat released when gas is compressed. This is also known as

the diesel effect. The fact that the temperature of a gas increases, the
volume of the gas decreases, has found practical use in diesel engines
in which heat of compression eliminates the use for spark ignition

D. Nuclear Heat Energy

The nucleus of an atom is made up of particles bound together by

tremendous forces which can be released when the nucleus is bombarded by
energized particles. Nuclear energy is released in the form of heat, pressure
and nuclear radiation.

Sources of Heat

a. Nuclear Fission

Occurs when a sub – atomic particle called neutron bombards

an appropriate type of nucleus. The nucleus then splits in to two lighter
nuclei (the fission products) and at the same time release tremendous
amount of energy in the form of kinetic energy of the fission fragments.
In each act of fission, neutrons are emitted and if one of these is at
least captured by another fissionable nucleus – a fission chain reaction
with the continuous production of energy becomes possible.
b. Nuclear Fusion

Includes all nuclear reactions in which two light nuclei combine

to form heavier nucleus, with the emission of other particles or gamma

IV. Heat Transfer

The transfer of heat is responsible for the start, as well as the

extinguishment of most fires. Heat is transferred by one or more of the three

a. Conduction
b. Radiation
c. Convection

Methods of Transfer

a. Conduction

It is the transfer of heats by molecular activity within a material or

medium, usually a solid. The heat is transferred by direct contact from one
body to another. Direct contact is the underlying factor in conduction.
Conductance depends on the following factors:

 Thermal Conductivity
 Cross – sectional area

Thermal Conductivity

The measure of the rate of flow of heat through unit area of the
material with unit temperature gradiant. Unit temperature gradiant means
that the direction of heat flow.

Cross – sectional area

Means normal to the flow path and length of the flow path, the solution
to heat conduction problems takes into consideration the. Thickness of the
material subjected to temperature with the time constant.

Heat conduction cannot be completely stopped by any “heat insulating

material”. Heat insulating materials have low heat conductivity. No matter
how thick the insulation. Solidly insulating the space between the source of
heat and combustion materials may not be sufficient to prevent ignition.
If the rate of heat conduction through the insulating material is grater
than the rate of dissipation from the combustible material. Heat may
increase to the point of ignition. For this reason, There should always be
an air space or some way of carrying the heat away by convection, rather
than relying solely on the heat insulating material to protect exposed wood

b. Radiation

A heat transfer when energy travels through space or materials as

waves. Radiant energy waves travels with the speed of light. On its arrival
to the object it may be absorbed, reflected or transmitted. Visible light
consist of wavelength 4x10’5cm to 7x10’5cm(violet to red). Emission from
combustion processes stretches from:

 Ultra violet (shorter wavelength than violet)

 Infra – red region (heat radiation longer than the red wavelength)

Common example of radiation is a candle flame. Air is heated by the

flame rises upwards while cooler air moves in towards the candle to supply
the flame with more oxygen, thus sustaining the burning process. If a hand
held opposite the flame, the hand is not cooled by the air movement,
however, it does experiences a sensation of warmth. This can only be
from the hand’s absorption of energy which is not conducted by air. This
energy is called radiant heat or radiation.

c. Convection

Heat is transformed by a circulating medium, (Liquid or Gas). Heated

air expands and rises. For this reason, heat transfer by convection occurs
in upward direction although heat currents can be made to carry heat by
converting in any direction.

V. Heat Production

Five ways to produce heat:

 Chemical
 Mechanical
 Electrical
 Compressed gas
 Nuclear
No. Source of Heat Production of Heat
1. Chemical Heat is the result of rapid oxidation
2. Mechanical Heat is the product of friction
3. Electrical Heat is the product of arcing, shorting or other
electrical malfunction (Poor wire connections,
too much resistance, a loose ground, and too
much current flowing through an improperly
sized wire are other sources of electrical heat)
4. Compressed gas When a gas is compressed, its molecular
activity is greatly increased producing heat
5. Nuclear The product of the splitting or fusing of atomic
particles (Fission or fusion respectively)

VI. Heat Measurement

Heat of a given material is measured by its temperature. The temperature of

the material is the condition which determines whether it will transfer to or from
other materials.

Temperature Units:

 Degree Celsius
 Degree Fahrenheit
 Kelvin or Absolute

The device that measures the temperature depends on:

 Physical Change (expansion of liquid, solid or gas)

 Change of State (Solid to Liquid)
 Energy Change (Changes in intensity of electrical energy in emission
intensities or spectral distribution)
a. Specific Heat

Also known as heat or thermal capacity of a substance. The specific heat of

various substances varies over a considerable range. All substances, except
water, have “specific heat less than its density”.

b. Latent Heat

The amount of heat to produce a change of phase. The quantity of heat

absorbed by a substance when a substance from:

 Solid to Gas (Sublimation)

 Solid to Liquid (Melting)
 Liquid to Gas (Vaporization)

c. Condensation

The heat that is absorbed without changing the temperature of the water is
the latent heat. It is not lost but expended in changing the water to steam and
is then stored as energy in the steam. It is again released when the steam is
condensed to form water (Condensation).

VII. The Chemical Properties

1. Endothermic Reactions – changes whereby energy (heat) is absorbed or

is added before the reaction takes place.

2. Exothermic Reactions – those that release or give off energy (heat) thus
they produce substances with less energy than the reactants.

3. Oxidation – a chemical change that is exothermic, a change in which

combustible material (fuel) and an oxidizing agent (air), react. Example of
oxidation is combustion which is the same as actual burning (rapid oxidation)

4. Flame - flames are incandescent (very bright/glowing with intense heat)

gases. In order to be sustained, it should maintained a high temperature and
a concentration of short – lived intermediate chemical reactants between fuel
and oxidizer.

Types of Flames:

a. Based on Color and Completeness of Combustibility of Fuel

1. Luminous Flame – is orange-red, deposit soot at the bottom of a

vessel being heated due to incomplete combustion and has a low

2. Non-Luminous Flame – is blue, there is complete combustion of fuel

and has relatively high temperature.

b. Based on Fuel and Air Mixture

1. Premixed Flame – is exemplified by a Bunsen-type laboratory burner
where hydrocarbon (any substance containing primarily carbon and
hydrogen) is thoroughly mixed with air before reaching the flame zone.

2. Diffusion Flame – is observed when gas (fuel) alone is forced

through a nozzle into the atmosphere which diffuse in the surrounding
atmosphere in order to form a flammable mixture. The candle flame is
an example of diffusion flame governed purely by molecular diffusion,
and the flame of the oxyacetylene torch. (diffused – dispersed, widely

c. Based on Smoothness

1. Laminar Flame – when a particle follows a smooth path through a

gaseous flame.

2. Turbulent Flame – are those having unsteady, irregular flows.

As physical size, gas density or velocity is increased, all laminar
gas flows tend to become turbulent
Chapter III

Classification of Fuels

This chapter will focus on the classification of combustible materials, general

categories of fuels (solid, liquid and gas). These also discuss the factors affecting the
combustibility of wood and wood-based products, factors affecting the combustibility
of fibers, and factors affecting the Rate of Flame Propagation and Burning of Liquids.

A. Classification of Combustible Materials

1. Class A Fuels – they are ordinary combustible materials that are usually made of
organic substances such as wood and wood-based products. It includes some
synthetic or inorganic materials like rubber, leather, and plastic products.

2. Class B Fuels – materials that are in the form of flammable liquids such as
alcohol, acidic solutions, oil, liquid petroleum products, etc.

3. Class C Fuels – they are normally fire resistant materials such as materials used
on electrical wiring and other electrical appliances.

4. Class D Fuels – they are combustible metallic substances such as magnesium,

titanium, zirconium, sodium and potassium.

General Categories of Fuel

1. Solid Combustible Materials – includes organic and inorganic, natural or

synthetic, and metallic solid materials.
2. Liquid Combustible Materials – includes all flammable liquid fuels and chemicals.
3. Gaseous Substances – includes those toxic/hazardous gases that are capable of

A. The Solid Fuels

The most obvious solid fuels are wood, paper and cloth. Its burning rate depends
on its configuration. For example, solid fuels in the form of dust will burn faster than
bulky materials.

Types of Flammable solids

a. Pyrolyzable solid fuels – include many of the ordinary accepted combustibles:

wood, paper and so on. The vapors released by their chemical decomposition support
flaming combustion. This exemplifies a gas-to-gas reaction: the vapors released mixed with
oxygen in the air to produce a flame.

b. Non-pyrolyzable solid fuels – solid fuels that are difficult to ignite. A common
example is charcoal. Chemical decomposition does not occur because there are no
pyrolyzable elements present. No vapors are released. The glowing combustion that results
is an example of a gas-to-solid reaction.

The following are group of solid fuels:

1. Biomass – it is the name given to such replaceable organic matters like wood,
garbage and animal manure that can be use to produce energy. For example, heat produced
by burning nutshells, rice and oat hulls, and other by-products of food processing. They are
often used to operate plant equipment.

Factors affecting the combustibility of wood and wood-based products

a. Physical form – the smaller the piece of wood, the easier it is to burn.

b. Moisture content (water content) – the freshly cut wood is more difficult to
ignite and burn than dry wood.

c. Heat conductivity - a poor conductor of heat takes a longer time to ignite than
those materials that are good conductors of heat.

d. Rate and period of heating – less flammable materials don’t easily ignite and
needs direct contact with flame than highly combustible materials.

e. Rate of combustion – with an unlimited supply of oxygen, the rate of burns

increases, more heat is produced and fuel is consumed more completely.

f. Ignition temperature – the higher the temperature, the faster it reaches ignition
point and it varies depending on the other factors above.

2. Fabrics and Textiles – almost all fibers and textiles are combustible. A fiber is a
very fine thin strand or thread like object. Fabrics are twisted or woven fibers. And textiles
are machine woven or knitted fabric.

Classification of Fibers

a. Natural Fibers – they come from plants (Coir – coconut fiber, Cotton – seed
fiber, pulp – wood fiber) , from animals (wool, silk, protein fibers – leather), from
minerals (asbestos)

b. Synthetic/Artificial Fibers – organic fibers, cellulose fibers, cellulose acetate,

non-cellulose, and inorganic fibers like fiber glass, steel

Factors affecting the combustibility of fibers

a. Chemical composition – natural and synthetic organic fibers are generally

highly combustible materials especially if they are dry. Mineral fibers and
synthetic inorganic fibers are normally fire resistant materials.

b. Fiber finish or coating – fiber coating combined with organic fibers are
supportive to continued burning of fabric.

c. Fabric weight – the heavier the fabric, the greater its resistance to ignition, thus
delaying its ignition.

d. Tightness of weave – the closer the fiber are woven, the smaller the space it
contains, thus it takes a longer period to ignite it.

e. Flame retardant treatment – fabric treated with flame retardant have higher
resistance to ignition.
Fabric Ignition

Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) is a numerical basis of measuring the tendency

of a fabric to continuously burn once source of ignition is removed. If the LOI of a
fabric is high, the probability that it will cease to burn once the flame is removed is
also high. Fabrics with high LOI and high ignition temperature are safer for clothing
and furnishing because they do not ignite easily. Also, they do not continue burning
after the source of heat or flame is removed.

3. Plastics – plastics are included as ordinary fuels under class A except those
materials of or containing cellulose nitrate. Cellulose Nitrate is a chemical powder used in
bombs, they are also called pyroxylin.

Plastics comprise a group of materials consisting mainly of organic substances or

high molecular substances. They are solid in the finished state although at some stage of
manufacture plastics can be made to flow into a desired shape, usually through the
application of heat or pressure or both.

4. Coal – a black, combustible, mineral solid resulting from the partial decomposition
of matter under varying degrees of temperature. They are used as fuels in the production of
coal gas, water gas, and many coal compounds. They are also used to heat buildings and to
provide energy for industrial machinery.

The forms of coal are lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal,
anthracite. Bituminous coal is the most plentiful and important coal used by industry. It
contains more carbon and produces more heat than either lignite or sub-bituminous coal. It
is also the coal best suited for making coke. Antracite is the least plentiful and hardest coal.

It contains more carbon and produces more heat than other coals. However,
antracite is difficult to ignite and burns slowly.

5. Peat – It is partially decayed plant matter found in swamps called bags and used
as a fuel chiefly in areas where coal and oil are scarce. In Ireland and Scotland, for example,
peat is cut formed in blocks, and dried; the dried bloks are then burned to heat homes.

B. The Liquid Fuels

Liquid fuels are mainly made from Petroleum, but some synthetic liquids are also
produced. Petroleum is also called crude oil. They may be refined to produce gasoline,
diesel oil, and kerosene.

Other fuel oils obtained by refining petroleum to distillate oil and residual oils.
Distillate oils are light oils, which are used chiefly to heat homes and small buildings.
Residual oils are heavy, and used to provide energy to power utilities, factories and large

Oil-based paint products are also highly flammable liquids.

In the process of vaporization, flammable liquids release vapor in much the same
way as solid fuels. The rate of vapor is greater for liquids than solids, since liquids have less
closely packed molecules. In addition, liquids can release vapor over a wide range, example,
gasoline starts to give vapor at –40C (-45 F).
This makes gasoline a continuous fire hazard; it produces flammable vapor at normal
General Characteristics of Liquids

1. They are matters with definite volume but no definite shape.

2. They assume the shape of their vessel because there is free movement of
3. They are slightly compressible. They are not capable of indefinite expansion,
unlike gas.

Two (2) General Groups of Liquid Fuels

1. Flammable liquids – they are liquids having a flash point of 37.8 C (100F) and a
vapor pressure not exceeding 40 psia (2068.6 um) at 37.8 C.
2. Combustible Liquids – these liquids have flash point at or above 37.8 C (100F).

Burning Characteristics of Liquids

Since it is the vapors from the flammable liquid which burn, the case of ignition as
well as the rate of burning can be related to the physical properties such as vapor pressure,
flash point, boiling point, and evaporation rate.

1. Liquids having vapors in the flammable range above the liquid surface at the
stored temperature have rapid rate of flame propagation.
2. Liquids having flash points above stored temperature have slower rate of flame
propagation. The chemical explanation is, it is necessary for the fire to heat
sufficiently the liquid surface to form flammable vapor-air moisture before the
flame will spread through the vapor.

Factors affecting the Rate of Flame Propagation and Burning of Liquids

 wind velocity - temperature - heat of combustion - latent heat of evaporation -

atmospheric pressure

Latent heat is the quantity of heat absorbed by a substance from a solid to a liquid
and from a liquid to gas. Conversely, heat is released during conversion of a gas to liquid or
liquid to a solid.

C. The Gas Fuels

Gaseous fuels are those in which molecules are in rapid movement and random
motion. They have no definite shape or volume, and assume the shape and volume of their

There are both natural and manufactured flammable gases. Gas fuels flow easily
through pipes and are used to provide energy for homes, businesses, and industries.
Examples of gas fuels are acetylene, propane, and butanes.

Some properties of gas fuels are:

 compressibility – expandability - permeability (open to passage or

penetration) - diffusion (intermingling of molecules)

Compressibility and expandability refer to the potential in changes in volume.

Diffusion is the uniform distribution of molecules of one substance through those of another.
Permeability means that other substances may pass through or permeate a gas.
Characteristics of Gas Fuels

1. They are matters that have no definite shape.

2. They are composed of very tiny particles (molecules) at constant random motion
in a straight line
3. Gas molecules collide against one another and against the wall of the container
and are relatively far from one another.

Classification of Gases:

1. Based on Source

a. Natural Gas – the gas used to heat buildings, cook food, and provides
energy for industries. It consists chiefly of methane, a colorless and odorless
gas. Natural gas is usually mixed with compounds of foul-smelling elements
like sulfur so gas leaks can be detected.

Butane and propane, which make up a small proportion of natural gas,

become liquids when placed under large amount of pressure. When pressure
is released, they change back to gas. Such fuels, often called Liquefied
Petroleum Gas (LPG) or liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), are easily stored and
shipped as liquid.

b. Manufactured Gas – this gas like synthetic liquid fuels is used chiefly where
certain fuels are abundant and others are scarce. Coal, petroleum, and
biomass can all be converted to gas through heating and various chemical

2. According to Physical Properties

a. Compressed Gas – gas in which at all normal temperature inside its

container; exist solely in the gaseous state under pressure. The pressure
depends on the pressure to which the container is originally charged and how
much gas remains in the container. However, temperature affects the volume
and pressure of the gas.

b. Liquefied Gas – gas, which, at normal temperature inside its container, exist
partly in the liquid state and partly in gaseous state and under pressure as
long as any liquid remains in the container. The pressure basically depends
on the temperature of the liquid although the amount of liquid also affects the
pressure under some condition. A liquefied gas exhibits a more complicated
behavior as the result of heating.

c. Cryogenic Gas – a liquefied gas which exist in its container at temperature

far below normal atmospheric temperature, usually slightly above its boiling
point and correspondingly low to moderate pressure. Examples of this gas
are air, carbon monoxide, ethylene, fluorine, helium, hydrogen, methane,
nitrogen, and oxygen.

3. According to Usage
a. Fuel Gases – flammable gases usually used for burning with air to produce
heat, utilize as power, light, comfort, and process. Most commonly used
gases are natural gas and the LPG (butane and propane).

b. Industrial Gases - This group includes a large number of gases used for
industrial processes as those in welding and cutting (oxygen, acetylene);
refrigeration (freon, ammonia, sulfur dioxide); chemical processing (hydrogen,
nitrogen, ammonia, chlorine); water treatment (chlorine, fluorine).

Medical Gases – those used for treatment such as anesthesia (chloroform, nitrous oxide);
respiratory therapy (oxygen).
Chapter IV

The Behavior and Classification of Fire

This chapter will focus on the dangerous behavior of fire, the three stages of
fire, classification of fire, classification of fire according to fuel, combustion products
and their effects and the color of smoke.

I. The behavior of fire maybe understood by considering the principle of thermal

balance and thermal imbalance.

Thermal Balance refers to the rising movement or the pattern of fire, the
normal behavior when the pattern is undisturbed. Thermal imbalance, on the
other hand is the abnormal movement of fire due to the interference of foreign
matter. Thermal imbalance often confuses the fire investigator in determining the
exact point where the fire originated.

Dangerous Behavior of Fire

Fire is so fatal when the following conditions occurred:

1. Backdraft – it is the sudden and rapid (violent) burning of heated gases in

a confined area that occurs in the form of explosion. This may occur
because of improper ventilation. If a room is not properly ventilated, highly
flammable vapors maybe accumulated such that when a door or window is
suddenly opened, the room violently sucks the oxygen from the outside
and simultaneously, a sudden combustion occur, which may happen as an
explosion (combustion explosion).

2. Flashover – it is the sudden ignition of accumulated radical gases

produced when there is incomplete combustion of fuels. It is the sudden
burning of free radicals, which is initiated by a spark or flash produced
when temperature rises until flash point is reached.

When accumulated volume of radical gases suddenly burns, there will

be a very intense fire that is capable of causing flames to jump at a certain
distance in the form of fireball. Fireballs can travel to a hundred yards
within a few seconds.

3. Biteback - a fatal condition that takes place when the fire resists
extinguishment operations and become stronger and bigger instead.

4. Flash Fire – better known as dust explosion. This may happen when the
metal post that is completely covered with dust is going to be hit by
lightning. The dust particles covering the metal burn simultaneously thus
creating a violent chemical reaction that produces a very bright flash
followed by an explosion.

II. The Three Stages of Fire

1. Incipient Phase (Initial Stage) – under this stage, the following

characteristics are observed: normal room temperature, the temperature at
the base of the fire is 400-800 F, ceiling temperature is about 200 F, the
pyrolysis products are mostly water vapor and carbon dioxide, small
quantities of carbon monoxide and sulfides maybe present.

2. Free Burning Phase – it has the following characteristics: accelerated

pyrolysis process take place, development of convection current: formation
of thermal columns as heat rises, temperature is 800-1000 F at the base
of fire, 1200-1600 F at ceiling, pyrolytic decomposition moves upward on
the walls(crawling of the flame) leaving burnt patterns (fire fingerprints),
occurrence of flashover.

3. Smoldering Phase – this stage has the following characteristics: oxygen

content drops to 13% or below causing the flame to vanish and heat to
develop in layers, products of incomplete combustion increase in volume,
particularly carbon monoxide with an ignition temperature of about 1125
F, ceiling temperature is 1000-1300 F, heat and pressure in the room
builds up, building/room contains large quantities of superheated fuel
under pressure but little oxygen, when sufficient supply of oxygen is
introduced, backdraft occurs.

III. Classification of Fires

Based on Cause

1. Natural causes – such as

 Spontaneous heating – the automatic chemical reaction that

results to spontaneous combustion due to auto-ignition of organic
materials, the gradual rising of heat in a confined space until ignition
temperature is reached.

 Lightning – a form of static electricity; a natural current with a great

magnitude, producing tremendous amperage and voltage. Lightning
usually strikes objects that are better electrical conductors than air.
It can cause fire directly or indirectly. Indirectly when it strikes
telephone and other transmission lines, causing an induced line
surge. It can also cause flash fire or dust explosion. When lightning
strikes steel or metal rod covered with dust, the dust will suddenly
burn thus resulting to an explosion.

 Radiation of Sunlight – when sunlight hits a concave mirror,

concentrating the light on a combustible material thereby igniting it.
2. Accidental Causes – such as

 Electrical accidents in the form of:

Short Circuit – unusual or accidental connections between two

points at different potentials (charge) in an electrical circuit of
relatively low resistance.

Arcing – the production of sustained luminous electrical

discharge between separated electrodes; an electric hazard that
results when electrical current crosses the gap between 2 electrical

Sparking – production of incandescent particles when two

different potentials (charged conductors) come in contact; occurs
during short circuits or welding operations.

Induced Current – induced line surge – increased electrical

energy flow or power voltage; induced current; sudden increase of
electrical current resulting to the burning of insulating materials,
explosion of the fuse box, or burning of electrical appliances.

Over heating of electrical appliances – the increase or rising

of amperage while electric current is flowing in a transmission line
resulting to the damage or destruction of insulating materials,
maybe gradual or rapid, internal or external.

 Purely accidental causes

 Negligence and other forms of human error

3. Intentional causes (Incendiary)

If in the burned property, there are preparations or traces of accelerant,

plants and trailers, then the cause of fire is intentional.

Accelerant – highly flammable chemicals that are used to facilitate

flame propagation.

Plant – the preparation and or gathering of combustible materials

needed to start a fire.

Trailer – the preparation of flammable substances in order to spread

the fire.

IV. Based on Burning Fuel (the classes of fire)

1. Class A Fire – Ordinary fires; they are the types of fire resulting from the
burning wood, paper, textiles, rubber and other carbonaceous materials. In
short, this is the type of fire caused by ordinary combustible materials.
2. Class B Fire – Liquid fires; they are caused by flammable and or
combustible liquids such as kerosene, gasoline, benzene, oil products,
alcohol and other hydrocarbon deviations.

3. Class C Fire – Electrical fires; they are fires that starts in live electrical
wires, equipment, motors, electrical appliances and telephone

4. Class D Fire – Metallic fires; fires that result from the combustion of
certain metals in finely divided forms. These combustible metals include
magnesium, potassium, powdered calcium, zinc, sodium, and titanium.

V. Combustion Products and Some of their Effects

A. Products of Combustion

1. Smoke – matter made up of very fine solid particles and condensed vapor
as a consequence of combustion. Frequently, smoke provides warning of
fire and contributes to panic because of its irritating effects. Combustion of
common combustibles (as wood) brings both fire gases that contain water
vapor, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

2. Fire Gases – gases that remain when the products of combustion are
cooled to normal temperature. Gases formed by a fire depends on many
variables among which are:

 The chemical composition of the burning materials

 The amount of oxygen available for combustion
 The temperature

2.1. Carbon Monoxide – the gas is formed by the incomplete

combustion of carbon.

2.2. Carbon Dioxide – this gas is usually produced in large quantities

from fires and high levels of this gas over stimulates the rate of

2.3. Hydrogen Sulfide – when materials like rubber, skin, hides, wool,
hair, silk and meat are burned one of the products formed is
hydrogen sulfide. This colorless highly toxic gas smells like rotten

2.4. Sulfur Dioxide – this colorless gas with irritating, suffocating odor
is formed when sulfur containing organic substances like wood,
rubber, wool and silk are burned. Sulfur dioxide causes the eyes to
be watery and is irritating to the respiratory tract.

2.5. Ammonia – combustible materials containing nitrogen as silk, wool,

feathers, skin, meat, acrylic plastic, phenolio and melamine resins
when burned produce ammonia. It is a colorless gas with strong
pungent odor.

2.6. Hydrogen Chloride – chlorine containing plastic materials will

produce hydrogen chloride when burned. Polyvinylchloride is one
plastic commonly used for electrical conductor installation, conduit
and piping. Hydrogen chloride is a colorless gas with pungent, very
irritating odor.

2.7. Hydrogen Cyanide – relatively large quantities of hydrogen

cyanide maybe produced by the incomplete combustion of nitrogen
containing materials such as wool, silk, urethane, polymide and
acrylics. Hydrogen cyanide is a colorless gas which is highly toxic.

2.8. Nitrogen Dioxide – the reddish – brown nitrogen dioxide is

produced during the decomposition and combustion of cellulose
nitrate, ammonium nitrate and other inorganic nitrates. It is also
formed when nitric acid comes in contact with materials or
combustible materials. This gas is extremely toxic.

VI. Color of Smoke and Fire

Color of Smoke Combustible Materials Burned

1. Black smoke with deep red flames Petroleum products, tar, rubber, plastic
2. Heavy brown smoke with bright red Nitrogen products
3. White smoke with bright white flames Magnesium
4. Black smoke with red and blue green Asphalt shingles
5. Purple, violet or lavender flames Potassium
6. Greenish – yellow flames Chlorine or manganese
7. Bright reddish yellow flame Calcium
8. Smoke of the usual color found in most Usually indicative of a back draft
fires that changes to yellow or grayish condition
Chapter V

Fire Protection, Prevention and Suppression

This chapter will focus on fire protection, prevention and suppression

activities. These also discuss the fire hazards, fire extinguishments and classification
of fire extinguishers.

I. Definition of terms

a. Curtain Board – A vertical panel of non-combustible or fire resistive materials

attached to and extending below the bottom chord of the roof trusses, to divide
the underside of the roof into separate compartments so that heat and smoke
will be directed upwards to a roof vent

b. Damper – A normally open device installed inside an air duct system which
automatically closes to restrict the passage of smoke or fire

c. Duct System – A continuous passageway for the transmission of air

d. Fire Alarm – Any visual or audible signal produced by a device or system to

warm the occupants of the building or fire fighting elements of the presence or
danger of fire to enable them to undertake immediate action to save life and
property and to suppress the fire

e. Fire Lane – The portion of a roadway or public way that should be kept opened
and unobstructed at all times for the expedient operation of fire fighting units.

f. Fire Protective And Fire Safety Device – Any device intended for the
protection of buildings or persons to include but not limited to built-in protection
system such as sprinklers and other automatic extinguishing system, detectors
for heat, smoke and combustion products and other warning system
components, personal protective equipment such as fire blankets, helmets, fire
suits, gloves and other garments that may be put on or worn by persons to
protect themselves during fire.

g. Fire Safety Constructions – Refers to design and installation of walls, barriers,

doors, windows, vents, means of egress, etc. integral to and incorporated into a
building or structure in order to minimize danger to life from fire, smoke, fumes
or panic before the building is evacuated. These features are also designed to
achieve, among others, safe and rapid evacuation of people through means of
egress sealed from smoke or fire, the confinement of fire or smoke in the room
or floor of origin and delay their spread to other parts of the building by means
of smoke sealed and fire resistant doors, walls and floors. It shall also mean to
include the treatment of buildings components or contents with flame retardant

h. Fire Door – A fire resistive door prescribed for openings in fire separation walls
or partitions.

i. Hose Box – A box or cabinet where fire hoses, valves and other equipment are
stored and arranged for fire fighting.

j. Hose Reel – A cylindrical device turning on an axis around which a fire hose is
wound and connected.

k. Self-Closing Doors – Automatic closing doors that are designed to confine

smoke and heat and delay the spread of fire.

l. Sprinkler System – An integrated network of hydraulically designed piping

installed in a building, structure or area with outlets arranged in a systematic
pattern which automatically discharges water when activated by heat or
combustion products from a fire.

m. Standpipe System – A system of vertical pipes in a building to which fire hoses

can be attached on each floor, including a system by which water is made
available to the outlets as needed.

n. Vestibule – A passage hall or antechamber between the outer doors and the
interior parts of a house or building.

II. Fire Prevention and Protection

a. R.A. 9514 (Fire Code of the Philippines of 2008)

SECTION 7. Inspections, Safety Measures, Fire Safety, Constructions,

and Protective and/or Warning Systems

Provision on Fire Safety Construction, Protective and Warning System –

Owners, occupants or administrator or buildings, structures and their
premises or facilities,

b. Fire Protection Features

 Sprinkler systems, hose boxes, hose reels or standpipe systems and other
firefighting equipment.

 Fire Alarm systems

 Fire walls to separate adjoining buildings, or warehouses and storage

areas from other occupancies in the same building.

Provisions for confining the fire at its source such as:

 Fire resistive floors and walls extending up to the next floor slab or roof,
curtain boards and other fire containing or stopping components.

 Termination of all exits in an area affording safe passage to a public way

or safe dispersal area.

 Stairway, vertical shafts, horizontal exits and other means of egress

sealed from smoke and heat.

 A fire exit plan for each floor of the building showing the routes from each
other room to appropriate exits, displayed prominently on the door of such

 Self-closing fire resistive doors leading to corridors.

 Fire dampers in centralized air-conditioning ducts.

 Roof vents for use by fire fighters.

 Properly marked and lighted exits with provision for emergency lights to
adequately illuminate exit ways in case of power failure.

Sign Symbols Forms and Colors Description

Evacuation Background: Green Emergency Exit
Means Symbol: White

Emergency Stairs

Fire Fighting Background: Red Fire hose

Equipment Symbol: White

Sign Symbol Description
Evacuation Means Emergency stairs to the
lower floor

Emergency Exit (Indicates

the location)

Emergency Exit to the left

Emergency Exit and Stairs

on the lower floor

III. Fire Suppression and Extinguishments

a. Means of First Intervention

Portable extinguishers, detection devices and networks are considered

means of first intervention. In the case of portable extinguishers, such as the
case of FDSS’s, verify, before use, if they are adequate for the type of fire
according to the extinguishing agent. In the case of FDSS’s, such as water
and portable extinguishers, the inscription on the device should be consulted
which includes besides the fire classes its capacity, inspection date and users’

Means of 1st Intervention Extinguishing Agent General Use Procedures

 Portable  Dry Chemical  Verify Adequacy to
Extinguishers the type of fire
 Maintain
 CO2 Extinguishers in a
vertical position
 Foam  Short discharge to
verify its in working
 Water condition
 After taking individual
safety measures (Not
 Halons to become encircled
by the fire and
observe the wind
direction), advance in
the fire direction
 Aim at the base of the
fire, not the flames
Means of 1st intervention Extinguishing Agent General Use Procedure
 Fire Detectors and  Water  Verify Adequacy
Sprinklers to the type of Fire
Systems (FDSS)  Open the metal
casing and
release the fire
hose reel
 Open the nozzle
and stretch the
hose in direction
of the fire center
 Open the water
 After taking
individual safety
precautions (not
to become
encircled by the
fire and observe
the wind
advance in the
fire’s direction
 Aim at the base of
the fire’s not the


A special system discharging foam made from concentrates, either

mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected.


A fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an element from

the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bro-mine and iodine.

IV. Extinction Method

a. Cooling

It is the most common method and consists in lowering the temperature

of the combustible element and the environment, below its ignition point.

b. Smothering or Extinguishing
It is the method which consists in isolating the combustible element or
oxygen, or reduces their concentration within the environment.

c. Dilution or Elimination of Combustible Element

It is the method which consists in separating the combustible element

from the source or the environment of the fire.

d. Control of Flames or Interruption of the Chain Reaction

This method modifies the chemical reaction, altering the release of free
radicals produced in the combustion and therefore delaying its development.

V. Overhauling

The Late stage in fire-suppression process during which the burned area is
carefully examined for remaining sources of heat that may re-kindle the fire. Often
coincides with salvage operations to prevent further loss to structure or its contents,
as well as fire-cause determination and preservation of evidence.

VI. Fire Hazard

Materials, structures or processes that may result in creating a fire, permitting

a fire to grow undetected, or preventing people from escaping a fire. Any condition or
act which increases or may cause an increase in the probability of the occurrence of
fire, or which may obstruct, delay, hinder or interfere with fire fighting operations and
the safeguarding of life and property.

VII. Definition of Terms

Abatement – Any act that would remove or neutralize a fire hazard.

Blasting Agent – Any material or mixture consisting of a fuel and oxidizer used to
set off explosives.

Cellulose Nitrate Or Nitro Cellulose – A highly combustible and explosive

compound produced by the reaction of nitric acid with a cellulose material.

Cellulose Nitrate Plastic (Pyroxylin) – Any plastic substance, materials or

compound having cellulose nitrate (nitro cellulose) as base.

Combustible, Flammable or Inflammable – Descriptive of materials that are easily

set on fire.
Combustible Fiber – Any readily ignitable and free burning fiber such as cotton,
oakum, rags, waste cloth, waste paper, kapok, hay, straw, Spanish moss, excelsior
and other similar materials commonly used in commerce.

Combustible Liquid – Any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8_C (100_F).

Corrosive Liquid – Any liquid which causes fire when in contact with organic matter
or with certain chemicals.

Dust – A finely powdered substance which, when mixed with air in the proper
proportion and ignited will cause an explosion.

Ember – A hot piece or lump that remains after a material has partially burned, and
is still oxidizing without the manifestation of flames.

Finishes – Materials used as final coating of a surface for ornamental or protective


Fire Trap – A building unsafe in case of fire because it will burn easily or because it
lacks adequate exits or fire escapes.

Hazardous Operation/Process – Any act of manufacturing, fabrication, conversion,

etc., that uses or produces materials which are likely to cause fires or explosions.

Jumper – A piece of metal or an electrical conductor used to bypass a safety device

in an electrical system.

Organic Peroxide – A strong oxidizing organic compound which releases oxygen

readily. It causes fire when in contact with combustible materials especially under
conditions of high temperature.

Overloading – The use of one or more electrical appliances or devices which draw
or consume electrical current beyond the designed capacity of the existing electrical

Oxidizing Material – A material that readily yields oxygen in quantities sufficient to

stimulate or support combustion.

Pressurized Or Forced Draft Burning Equipment – Type or burner where the fuel
is subjected to pressure prior to discharge into the combustion chamber and/or
which includes fans or other provisions for the introduction of air at above normal
atmosphere pressure into the same combustion chamber.

VIII. Acts and Conditions that increases or may cause an increase in the
probability of the occurrence of fire.
Obstructing or blocking the exit ways or across to buildings clearly marked for
fire safety purposes. Constructing gates, entrances and walkways to buildings
components and yards which obstruct the orderly and easy passage of fire
fighting vehicles and equipment

Prevention, interference or obstruction of any operation of the Fire Service, or

of duly organized and authorized fire brigades. Obstructing designated fire lanes
or access to fire hydrants. Overcrowding or admission of persons beyond the
authorized capacity in movie houses, theaters, coliseums, auditoriums or other
public assembly buildings, except in other assembly areas on the ground floor
with open sides or open doors sufficient to provide safe exits.

Locking fire exits during period when people are inside the building.
Prevention or obstruction of the automatic closure of fire doors or smoke
partitions or dampers. Use of fire protective of firefighting equipment of the fire
service other than for firefighting except in other emergencies where their use are

Giving false or malicious fire alarms. Smoking in prohibited areas as may be

determined by fire service, or throwing of cigars, cigarettes, burning objects in
places which may start or cause fire. Abandoning or leaving a building or
structure by the occupant or owner without appropriate safety measures.

Removing. destroying, tampering or obliterating any authorized mark, seal,

sign or tag posted or required by the fire service for fire safety in any building,
structure or processing equipment. Use of jumpers or tampering with electrical
wiring or overloading the electrical system beyond its designated capacity or such
other practices that would tend to undermine the fire safety features of the
electrical system.